Advisory Document 342 complementing regulations and standards respecting Airport Wildlife Management and Planning

Canadian Aviation Regulations(CARs) 2014-1

(effective 2006/05/05)

342.305 Airport Wildlife Management Plan

(1) Wildlife Hazards

(a) Airport Habitat and Food Sources Related to Wildlife Hazards

The following features and activities should be monitored by the operator of the airport to identify conditions that may be attractive to wildlife:

  1. (i) agricultural crops (e.g., grains, forage, legumes, etc.);
  2. (ii) animal remains;
  3. (iii) apiaries;
  4. (iv) aquatic vegetation;
  5. (v) canals, creeks;
  6. (vi) compost facilities;
  7. (vii) culverts (open);
  8. (viii) drainage ditches;
  9. (ix) earthworms;
  10. (x) feeding of birds and mammals (by people);
  11. (xi) flat roofs (gull nesting or resting sites);
  12. (xii) fishing from shore (e.g., bait, fish);
  13. (xiii) garbage dumps, garbage containers;
  14. (xiv) golf courses;
  15. (xv) insects;
  16. (xvi) landfills containing organic matter;
  17. (xvii) landscaping;
  18. (xviii) litter;
  19. (xix) low areas (e.g., puddles);
  20. (xx) marshes, swamps;
  21. (xxi) mud flats;
  22. (xxii) nesting sites (e.g., gulls, raptors, etc.);
  23. (xxiii) oxidation ponds (e.g., sewage, de‑icing fluid);
  24. (xxiv) pastures, grassland (e.g., livestock, ungulates, rodents, raptors, etc.);
  25. (xxv) ploughing, cultivation, haying, harvesting, etc. (e.g., rodents, insects, worms);
  26. (xxvi) reptiles, amphibians, fish;
  27. (xxvii) reservoirs, lakes, natural and man‑made ponds;
  28. (xxviii) restaurants and aircraft waste;
  29. (xxix) retention ponds (e.g., water, de‑icing fluid);
  30. (xxx) rodents, beavers, muskrats, rabbits, hares, raccoons, skunks, badgers, etc.;
  31. (xxxi) roosting vegetation (e.g., starlings, crows, etc.);
  32. (xxxii) runways and taxiways;
  33. (xxxiii) sand and gravel quarries, borrow pits;
  34. (xxxiv) seed producing vegetation;
  35. (xxxv) sewage lagoons;
  36. (xxxvi) sewage outfalls;
  37. (xxxvii) sewage sludge;
  38. (xxxviii) shorelines;
  39. (xxxix) structures (e.g., buildings, hangars, lights, towers, signs, poles, etc.);
  40. (xl) trees, brush, shrubs, woodlots (e.g., cover, browse, etc.);
  41. (xli) water fountains;
  42. (xlii) waterways; and
  43. (xliii) weeds.

(b) Off‑Airport Land Uses and Food Sources Related to Wildlife Hazards

The following features and activities should be monitored by the operator of the airport to determine whether they attract wildlife whose behaviour patterns may pose a threat to airport operations:

  1. (i) abattoirs;
  2. (ii) agricultural crops (e.g., grains, forage, legumes, etc.);
  3. (iii) apiaries;
  4. (iv) bird feeding stations;
  5. (v) canals, creeks;
  6. (vi) coastal commercial fish processing plants;
  7. (vii) compost facilities;
  8. (viii) drive‑in theatres;
  9. (ix) fish waste outfall;
  10. (x) fishing from shore (e.g., bait, fish);
  11. (xi) flat roofs (gull nesting or resting sites);
  12. (xii) garbage barges;
  13. (xiii) garbage dumps;
  14. (xiv) golf courses;
  15. (xv) landfills containing organic waste;
  16. (xvi) livestock feedlots, piggeries;
  17. (xvii) lure/decoy sites (e.g., roosting, nesting, etc.);
  18. (xviii) marinas,
  19. (xix) marshes swamps;
  20. (xx) mud flats;
  21. (xxi) nesting sites (e.g., gulls, raptors, etc.);
  22. (xxii) orchards, berry farms;
  23. (xxiii) oxidation ponds (e.g., sewage, feedlots, etc.);
  24. (xxiv) pastures, grassland (e.g., livestock, ungulates, rodents, raptors, etc.);
  25. (xxv) picnic areas;
  26. (xxvi) plowing, cultivation, haying, harvesting (e.g., rodents, insects, worms);
  27. (xxvii) reservoirs, lakes, natural and man‑made ponds;
  28. (xxviii) restaurants/cafes (outdoors);
  29. (xxix) retention ponds (e.g., water, feedlots, etc.);
  30. (xxx) roosting vegetation (e.g., starlings, crows, etc.);
  31. (xxxi) sand and gravel quarries, borrow pits;
  32. (xxxii) seed producing vegetation;
  33. (xxxiii) sewage lagoons;
  34. (xxxiv) sewage outfalls;
  35. (xxxv) sewage sludge;
  36. (xxxvi) shorelines;
  37. (xxxvii) trees, brush, shrubs, woodlots (e.g., cover, browse, etc.);
  38. (xxxviii) vineyards;
  39. (xxxix) waste transfer stations; and
  40. (xl) waterfowl refuges, wintering areas.

(c) Other Issues Related to the Management of Wildlife Hazards On or In the Vicinity of Airports

The following may aid the operator of the airport in efforts to minimize the potential for aircraft and wildlife interactions:

  1. (i) address wildlife hazards within 15 minutes prior to the arrival or departure of aircraft;
  2. (ii) interact with local jurisdictions and land owners about zoning, land use, and the resolution of wildlife hazard problems in the vicinity of aerodromes;
  3. (iii) monitor bird concentrations (e.g., local movements);
  4. (iv) operation of a wildlife patrol system with trained Wildlife Management Officers, conducting surveillance/inspections of critical aerodrome areas (e.g., runways, etc.), and effecting wildlife management actions when needed or requested; and
  5. (v) provision of wildlife hazard awareness material to staff, tenants, stakeholders, and adjacent land owners.

(2) Bird Control

The following actions include a range of options that may minimize the potential for bird and aircraft interaction:

(a) To Disperse, Deter, Exclude, Repel

    1. (i) avitrol or similar chemicals;
    2. (ii) balloons suspended above or flagging tape stretched across ponds;
    3. (iii) bioacoustics;
    4. (iv) chemical repellents;
    5. (v) draining impoundments, ponds, low areas;
    6. (vi) electronically generated noise;
    7. (vii) falconry;
    8. (viii) border collies;
    9. (ix) grass management;
    10. (x) lure/decoy sites;
    11. (xi) netting;
    12. (xii) plastic or steel wires;
    13. (xiii) porcupine wire or hot foot;
    14. (xiv) propane cannons;
    15. (xv) pruning vegetation;
    16. (xvi) pyrotechnics;
    17. (xvii) shooting to scare;
    18. (xviii) spray for insect infestation;
    19. (xix) spray for worms and/or sweep runways and other movement areas;
    20. (xx) stuffed birds, gull models, raptor decoys, agony postures; and
    21. (xxi) vehicle patrols.

(b) To Remove

    1. (i) drugging;
    2. (ii) nest and egg destruction, oiling eggs;
    3. (iii) poisoning;
    4. (iv) shooting; and
    5. (v) trapping and relocation (e.g., raptors, geese).

(3) Mammal Control

The following actions include a range of options available that may minimize the potential for aircraft and mammal interactions:

(a) To Disperse, Deter, Exclude, Repel

    1. (i) cattle gate;
    2. (ii) chemical repellents;
    3. (iii) fencing;
    4. (iv) herding;
    5. (v) pyrotechnics;
    6. (vi) rodent resistant sheathing on electrical and communication cables; and
    7. (vii) vehicle patrols.

(b) To Remove

    1. (i) controlled hunting (e.g., deer, canines);
    2. (ii) den destruction (e.g., foxes, coyotes);
    3. (iii) fumigants/gas cartridges (e.g., woodchucks, coyotes);
    4. (iv) kill trapping (e.g., beavers, muskrats);
    5. (v) live trapping and relocation or euthanasia (e.g., dogs, etc.);
    6. (vi) rodenticides (e.g., mice, ground squirrels, etc.);
    7. (vii) shooting (e.g., woodchucks, badgers, rabbits, hares, etc.); and
    8. (viii) tranquilizing and relocation (e.g., deer, bear).
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