Part III - Aerodromes, Airports and Heliports

Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) 2017-2

(amended 2007/06/30; previous version)

Standard 323 - Aircraft Fire Fighting at Airports and Aerodromes

Content last revised: 2001/06/01

(amended 1997/12/01; no previous version)

Foreword

These Aerodrome and Airport Standards respecting Aircraft Fire Fighting at Airports and Aerodromes outline the requirements for complying with Subpart 3 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations.

For ease of cross-reference, the divisions and numbers of the standards are assigned to correspond to the regulations, therefore, Standard 323.03 would reflect a standard required by Section 303.03 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations.

An asterisk (*) indicates where there will be Advisory Documents complementing the Aerodrome and Airport Standards.

323.03 General Requirements

The principal objective in providing an aircraft fire-fighting service is to save lives in the event of an aircraft emergency on the airport or aerodrome. In this context, an aircraft fire-fighting service is a contingent resource tasked with the primary responsibility of providing a fire free egress route for the evacuation of passengers and crew following an aircraft accident. This standard is not intended to limit the fire-fighting service from providing services in addition to that of aircraft fire-fighting at the airport or aerodrome, nor to prevent it from dealing with other occurrences.

323.08 Extinguishing Agents and Equipment*

(1) The principal extinguishing agent shall be a foam suitable for the type of equipment to be used, and

(a) the foams provided as principal extinguishing agents, on the date acquired, shall meet the latest relevant performance specifications of CAN/ULC-S560 or of CAN/ULC-S563;
(amended 2000/09/01; previous version)

(b) the foam concentrates of different types or from a different manufacturer shall not be mixed except where it has been established that they are completely interchangeable and compatible; and

(c) the quantity of foam concentrates provided on vehicles for foam production shall be in proportion to the quantity of water provided and the foam concentrate selected.

(2) The complementary extinguishing agent shall be a dry chemical powder suitable for the type of equipment to be used, and compatible with the foam or foams selected for use as the principal extinguishing agent at the airport or aerodrome.

(3) The complementary extinguishing agents shall comply with the appropriate specifications of CAN/ULC-S514-M88.

(4) The amount of foam concentrate on board vehicles shall be sufficient for at least two full loads of the required quantity of water.

(5) Sufficient quantity of foam concentrate shall be held in reserve to allow for four complete discharges, at the correct percentage, of the water requirement identified in section 303.09 for the critical category published. Part of this reserve may be carried on the fire-fighting vehicles.
(amended 2000/09/01; no previous version)

(6) A reserve supply of complementary extinguishing agent equivalent to 200 per cent of the quantity of complementary agent requirement identified in section 303.09 for the category published shall be maintained at the airport or aerodrome. The reserve shall include sufficient propellant gas to utilize this reserve complementary agent.
(amended 2000/09/01; previous version)

(7) The turrets and reel mounted hand lines designed for aircraft fire-fighting on vehicle(s) equipped with foam fire-fighting equipment shall be tested at least annually, at all pre-set discharge flow rates, in accordance with standard 412 of the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) to ensure that the correct discharge rate is being delivered, and the required foam physical characteristics are being met.
(amended 2000/09/01; previous version)

(8) The equipment delivering the complementary extinguishing agent shall be tested at least annually to ensure that the correct discharge rate and reach is being delivered.

323.14 Training of Personnel*

(1) Knowledge and Skill Training

Training shall be provided in the following areas:

(a) Generic Training

(i) AFF Vehicles and Equipment,

(ii) Emergency Communications Systems Including Fire Alarms,

(iii) Fire-Fighting Personnel Safety,

(iv) Fire Behaviour,

(v) Extinguishing Agents,

(vi) Portable Fire Extinguishers,

(vii) Fire Hoses, Nozzles, Turrets, and Other Appliances Available for Fire Fighting,

(viii) Fire-fighting Operations,

(ix) Emergency Aircraft Evacuation Assistance,

(x) Aircraft Cargo Hazards,

(xi) Live-Fire Training, and

(xii) First Aid.

(b) Site-Specific Training

(i) Familiarization with the airport or aerodrome where the firefighter will be carrying out fire-fighting duties,

(ii) Familiarization with the types of aircraft regularly operating at the airport or aerodrome where the firefighter will be carrying out fire-fighting duties, and

(iii) Familiarization with fire-fighting duties under the Aerodrome Emergency Response Plan for the airport or aerodrome where the firefighter will be carrying out fire-fighting duties.

(2) Level of Achievement to be Attained

(a) Generic Training*

(i) With respect to AFF vehicles and equipment, the candidate shall be able to:

(A) Describe each tool and item of equipment on each aircraft fire-fighting vehicle at the airport or aerodrome, including a description of its designated use, required maintenance, proper storage; and demonstrate its use,

(B) Demonstrate knowledge and skills relative to routine inspection and maintenance of AFF vehicles as required by the manufacturer's specifications and maintenance manuals, and

(C) Demonstrate the knowledge and skill required to operate AFF vehicles, including manual back-up systems.

(ii) With respect to emergency communications systems, including fire alarms, the candidate shall be able to:

(A) Identify the methods and procedures to be followed when an emergency alarm is received,

(B) Identify radio frequencies and channels assigned for use by the airport or aerodrome to control vehicular traffic,

(C) Identify radio frequencies and channels assigned for use by the airport or aerodrome Emergency Operations Centre,

(D) Identify radio frequencies and channels assigned for use by mutual aid organizations,

(E) Identify radio frequencies and channels assigned for use by responding units and organizations,

(F) Identify procedures concerning multiple alarms and mutual aid,

(G) Demonstrate knowledge of the phonetic alphabet,

(H) Demonstrate the use of all communication equipment utilized by the fire-fighting service,

(I) Provide an initial status report on a simulated aircraft accident, and

(J) Demonstrate standard hand signals used to communicate with aircrew personnel as it relates to aircraft fire fighting.

(iii) With respect to fire-fighting personnel safety, the candidate shall be able to:

(A) Identify the hazards associated with aircraft fire fighting,

(B) Identify the hazards associated with aircraft and aircraft systems on personnel,

(C) Identify potential stress effects on personnel involved in a mass-casualty response,

(D) Identify the purpose and limitations of protective clothing,

(E) Demonstrate donning protective clothing,

(F) Demonstrate techniques for action in a fire situation where trapped or disoriented, or when in an hostile environment,

(G) Identify the hazards associated with cut-in entries,

(H) Describe the hazardous respiratory environments encountered in aircraft fire fighting,

(I) Identify techniques for protection from communicable-disease hazards,

(J) Describe the proper techniques for approaching aircraft while engines are running,

(K) Identify the purpose of self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA),

(L) Identify the components and operation of the SCBA provided,

(M) Identify the limitations of the SCBA provided,

(N) Demonstrate that the SCBA is in a safe operating condition for immediate use,

(O) Don SCBA equipment while wearing protective clothing,

(P) Use SCBA equipment in dense smoke, or a blacked out environment,

(Q) Change a team member's air supply cylinder with an exhausted air supply cylinder, and

(R) While wearing SCBA equipment, demonstrate those actions necessary in the event of one of the following emergency situations:

- activation of low-air alarm,

- exhausted air supply,

- regulator malfunction,

- damage to face piece,

- damage to low pressure hose,

- damage to high pressure hose.

(iv) With respect to fire behaviour, the candidate shall be able to:

(A) Explain the fire tetrahedron,

(B) Describe the phases of a fire,

(C) Describe the main products of combustion,

(D) Describe the three methods of heat transfer,

(E) Describe the classes of fire and extinguishment methods,

(F) Define flash point, ignition temperature, flashover, rollover, backdraft and explosion, and

(G) Describe the various aviation fuels' characteristics with respect to fire behaviour and explosion hazard.

(v) With respect to extinguishing agents, the candidate shall be able to:

(A) Identify the extinguishing properties of each agent, including advantages and disadvantages,

(B) Identify those agents used at the airport or aerodrome,

(C) Identify the locations of agents kept in inventory for vehicle re-supply,

(D) State the quantity of each type of agent carried on each vehicle at the airport or aerodrome, and

(E) Identify the preferred agent to use to suppress and extinguish fire in various case scenarios.

(vi) With respect to portable fire extinguishers, the candidate shall be able to:

(A) Identify the classification of fires as they relate to the use of fire extinguishers,

(B) Identify each type of portable fire extinguisher by classification and rating,

(C) Describe the agents' characteristics in the extinguishers used at the airport or aerodrome,

(D) Identify the limitations and operating characteristics of each type of portable fire extinguisher,

(E) Identify the location of each portable fire extinguisher carried on each AFF vehicle used at the airport or aerodrome,

(F) Identify the appropriate extinguisher for a given class of fire from a group of different fire extinguishers, and

(G) Operate the appropriate extinguisher on each class of fire.

(vii) With respect to fire hoses, nozzles, turrets and other appliances available for fire-fighting, the candidate shall be able to:

(A) Identify the location of each tool and item of equipment used at the airport or aerodrome,

(B) Identify the hazards associated with the use of each tool and item of equipment used at the airport or aerodrome,

(C) Demonstrate the proper procedures for use of each tool and item of equipment used at the airport or aerodrome,

(D) Describe the purpose of each hose, nozzle and adapter,

(E) Describe the location of each hose, nozzle and adapter used by the fire-fighting unit at the airport or aerodrome,

(F) Describe the size and length of each hose carried on each AFF vehicle used at the airport or aerodrome,

(G) Demonstrate the proper procedures for use of each hose, nozzle and adapter used at the airport or aerodrome,

(H) Demonstrate the proper procedure to be used when advancing hose for fire attack,

(I) Demonstrate the proper procedure to be used when laying hose to establish a re-supply of water,

(J) Identify the primary purpose, agent capacity, water capacity, type of agent carried, agent discharge rate/range, personnel requirements, and response limitations for each AFF vehicle used at the airport or aerodrome,

(K) Demonstrate the operation of handlines and vehicle-mounted discharge devices, and

(L) Demonstrate the procedures for re-supply using a hydrant, structural vehicles, tank trucks and other vehicles for each AFF vehicle used at the airport or aerodrome.

(viii) With respect to fire-fighting operations, the candidate shall be able to:

(A) State the objective of aircraft fire fighting and the role of the firefighter in response to an aircraft emergency,

(B) Describe fire-fighting tactics and evacuation of occupied aircraft,

(C) describe fire-fighting tactics of unoccupied aircraft,

(D) Select a strategy and tactics for incident control and termination,

(E) Perform fire-fighting tactics,

(F) Explain the correct procedures for fighting three-dimensional fires,

(G) Explain the correct procedures for fighting engine fires,

(H) Describe the correct procedures for securing and maintaining a fire free egress route,

(I) Describe the proper procedure to use when protecting an aircraft fuselage from fire exposure,

(J) Describe the correct procedures to be used when providing protective streams for personnel,

(K) Describe the hazards of a brake and wheel fire,

(L) Describe the correct procedures to be used when fighting a brake and wheel fire,

(M) Describe the correct procedures for controlling runoff from fire control operations and fuel spills,

(N) Describe the correct procedures to be used to stabilize aircraft wreckage,

(O) Describe the safety precautions for controlling fuel spills,

(P) Describe grounding, bonding and hazards associated with static electricity related to aircraft,

(Q) Describe the hazards of a hydraulic fire, and

(R) Describe the correct procedures to use in the event of fighting a hydraulic fire.

(ix) With respect to emergency aircraft evacuation assistance, the candidate shall be able to:

(A) Describe the correct procedures to use to protect evacuation points,

(B) Identify those openings to use to gain entry for a given aircraft and situation,

(C) Select the tools and equipment to use to gain entry for a given aircraft and situation,

(D) While wearing full protective clothing, demonstrate the ability to open:

(aa) aircraft doors and exits, or

(bb) equivalent training doors and exits.

(E) Identify potential locations for break-in entry using reference materials, aircraft markings, or general guidelines for a given aircraft, and

(F) Demonstrate the correct procedures to use for a victim search inside and outside the aircraft.

(x) With respect to aircraft cargo hazards, the candidate shall be able to:

(A) Identify the dangerous goods' classifications,

(B) Identify the hazards indicated by each label, and

(C) Identify the emergency procedures to be followed using the reference material in the event of a problem transporting hazardous materials at the airport or aerodrome.

(xi) With respect to live-fire training, in order that the agent is applied with proper technique and the fire extinguished, the candidate shall be able to:

(A) Extinguish a minimum of 100 ft2 (9.3 m2) fuel fire with a minimum of a 100 lb (45 kg) dry chemical extinguisher,

(B) Extinguish a minimum of 400 ft2 (37.2 m2) fuel fire with an AFF vehicle hand line and appropriate agent,

(C) Extinguish a minimum of 5000 ft2 (464.5 m2) fuel fire with AFF vehicle turrets and appropriate agent,

(D) Extinguish a three-dimensional aircraft fuel fire with AFF vehicle hand lines and appropriate agent,

(E) Control simulated engine and auxiliary power unit (APU) fires on aircraft with an AFF vehicle hand line or turrets and appropriate agent, and

(F) Extinguish a simulated tire assembly fire with an AFF vehicle hand line and appropriate agent.

(xii) With respect to first aid, the candidate shall be able to:

(A) Identify primary and secondary life-threatening injuries,

(B) Determine whether or not a victim has an open airway,

(C) Locate an open airway in a person who is not breathing,

(D) Recognize types and characteristics of external and internal bleeding,

(E) Demonstrate techniques to control bleeding,

(F) Perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation,

(G) Recognize shock,

(H) Recognize injuries to the skull, spine, chest, and extremities,

(I) Recognize internal injuries,

(J) Demonstrate procedures for moving patients,

(K) Treat burns, and

(L) Demonstrate knowledge concerning triage methodology.

(b) Site-Specific Training *

(i) With respect to familiarization with the airport or aerodrome where the firefighter will be carrying out fire-fighting duties, the candidate shall be able to:

(A) Describe the runway and taxiway identification system,

(B) Describe the movement area pavement markings, signs, and lighting,

(C) Identify the various on-field aircraft navigation aids,

(D) Cite airport or aerodrome rules and regulations concerning vehicle movement and access,

(E) Cite rules and regulations governing airport or aerodrome security,

(F) Locate a given point at the airport or aerodrome on a grid map, or other standard map,

(G) Identify terrain features using map symbols,

(H) Identify and locate all emergency access roads and standard routes across the movement area,

(I) Identify and locate all points giving access to the airside from non-operational areas,

(J) Identify and locate all points giving access to portions of the critical fire-fighting access area, located outside the airport or aerodrome perimeter,

(K) Identify installations and features in the critical fire-fighting access area that present a hazard to vehicle response,

(L) Identify installations and terrain features in the critical fire-fighting access area that limit vehicle response capability,

(M) Identify the direction of travel of fuel in a simulated leak in the fuel distribution system applicable to the airport or aerodrome

(N) Demonstrate the operation of fuel system valves and pumps to control the flow of fuel within the system applicable to the airport or aerodrome,

(O) Identify hazardous materials that are frequently stored or used on the airport or aerodrome property, and

(P) Identify elements of the airport or aerodrome and surrounding water distribution system.

(ii) With respect to familiarization with the types of aircraft regularly operating at the airport or aerodrome where the firefighter will be carrying out fire-fighting duties, the candidate shall be able to:

(A) Identify the types of aircraft regularly operating at their airport or aerodrome,

(B) Identify the categories of aircraft propulsion systems,

(C) Use the correct terms to describe major aircraft structural components,

(D) Describe the types of batteries found on aircraft and their associated hazards,

(E) Identify the general location of portable fire extinguishers,

(F) Describe the materials used in aircraft construction,

(G) Explain the differences in aircraft construction as it relates to fire fighting,

(H) Use an aircraft crash chart to identify and describe the location of normal and emergency exits, fuel tanks, passenger and crew compartments, oil tanks, hydraulic reservoirs, oxygen tanks, batteries, and break-in points for given aircraft,

(I) Use an aircraft crash chart to describe passenger, crew and fuel capacities for a given aircraft,

(J) Identify a flight data recorder and cockpit voice recorder,

(K) Locate normal entry doors, emergency exit openings and evacuation slides for a given aircraft,

(L) Describe the opening of all doors and compartments for a given aircraft,

(M) Describe the operation of evacuation slides and/or other emergency egress systems for a given aircraft,

(N) Identify aircrew and passenger locations for a given aircraft,

(O) Indicate the type of fuel used and location of fuel tanks for a given aircraft,

(P) Locate break-in points for a given aircraft,

(Q) Locate the batteries for a given aircraft,

(R) Locate key components of the fuel, oxygen, hydraulic, electrical, fire protection, anti-icing, APU, brake, wheel systems, and pressurization systems for a given aircraft, and

(S) Describe aircraft hazards that may be unique or unusual for a given aircraft.

Information Note :

Examples of unusual hazards include military aircraft equipped with ejection seats, tanks containing pesticides on crop-spraying aircraft, and aircraft equipped with additional fuel tanks for ferry purposes.

(iii) With respect to familiarization with firefighter duties under the Airport or Aerodrome Emergency Response Plan for the Airport or Aerodrome where the fire-fighter will be carrying out fire-fighting duties, the candidate shall be able to:

(A) Describe each emergency listed in the plan,

(B) Describe the chain of command and authority, and identify the individuals associated with each position requiring a response from the aircraft fire-fighting service for each emergency listed in the plan,

(C) If applicable, describe the procedure for the change of command during any phase of the emergency requiring a response from the aircraft fire-fighting service for each emergency listed in the plan,

(D) With reference to the emergency response plan, identify other agencies involved in the plan requiring a response from the aircraft fire-fighting service, and describe their respective roles and responsibilities for each emergency listed in the plan, and

(E) Demonstrate a knowledge of their individual role and duties during regular exercises under the plan.

(3) Additional Training

(a) Low-Visibility Training

At an airport or aerodrome certified for low-visibility operations for Category III approaches, firefighters shall practise the use of low-visibility equipment provided at that airport or aerodrome in simulated Category III low-visibility conditions, and demonstrate the ability to:

(i) Locate a simulated accident site,

(ii) Navigate the aircraft fire-fighting vehicle to the simulated accident site, and

(iii) Negotiate terrain and obstacles with the AFF vehicle.

(b) Command and Control Training

Where a firefighter is assigned operational command and control responsibilities for the aircraft fire-fighting service, training in command and control functions shall be provided to enable that fire-fighter to:

(i) Assess tactical priorities;

(ii) Control and manage a fire stream;

(iii) Control and manage resources;

(iv) Select, employ and direct a defensive strategy;

(v) Assess fireground factors;

(vi) Direct apparatus placement; and

(vii) Explain command procedures.

(4) Recurrent Training

(a) General

Recurrent training shall be provided to enable each firefighter to maintain the level of proficiency established in this standard.

Except for subparagraph 323.14(2)(a)(xi) respecting live-fire training, every firefighter must complete training in each element of the standards listed in section 323.14 at least once every three years.

(b) Live-Fire Training

Live-fire drill training shall be provided to all fire-fighting personnel every 12 months as follows:

(i) A live-fire drill shall simulate a realistic fire-fighting situation, and be of sufficient size and intensity to provide a challenge to the firefighter in relation to the equipment used,

(ii) The conditions simulated in a live-fire drill shall emulate the type of fire which could be encountered on a typical aircraft at the airport or aerodrome.

(iii) During the drill, each firefighter shall demonstrate the control and extinguishment of a simulated aircraft fire using:

(A) Handlines and/or turrets using an AFF vehicle of a type used at the airport or aerodrome, and

(B) Fire-fighting streams to protect firefighters and aircraft occupants using either handlines or turrets.

Information Note :

It is intended that the live-fire drill will provide an opportunity for the fire-fighting team to become familiar with the use of all fire extinguishment equipment that will be used in the event of an accident. If possible, a simulated evacuation of aircraft occupants will help in creating a realistic situation.

323.16 Firefighter Qualifications*

(1) Training Records

Individual training records shall be maintained on each firefighter and shall include as a minimum:

(a) the name of the individual being trained,

(b) the date of training,

(c) the place where training is received,

(d) the subjects covered and course methodology,

(e) the climatic conditions, in the case of practical training,

(f) the duration of training,

(g) any instructor comments,

(h) the performance evaluation,

(i) the name of the instructor, and

(j) the signature of the student.

323.19 Communication and Alerting System

(1) The alerting system shall allow the activating agency to alert the personnel and dispatch the aircraft fire-fighting vehicles. A secondary power supply or alternate system shall be provided as a contingency in the event of a primary system failure.

(2) Each aircraft fire-fighting vehicle shall be provided with communication equipment capable of communicating with at least:

(a) every other aircraft fire-fighting vehicle,

(b) the fire station exercising operational control as specified in the Aerodrome Emergency Response Plan,

(c) the air traffic services unit, community aerodrome radio station (CARS), authorized approach unicom, or where no ground radio station is provided on the airport or aerodrome, the aerodrome traffic frequency (ATF), and

(d) an aircraft in a situation of emergency using an established discreet frequency.
(amended 2001/06/01; no previous version)

(3) A communication system shall be provided to ensure the prompt and dependable transmission of alarms and other essential emergency information. Direct communication shall be provided between the activating agency or authority, the fire station, and responding vehicles and between the responding vehicles and an aircraft in a situation of emergency using an established discreet frequency.
(amended 2001/06/01; previous version)

(4) An alerting system for fire-fighting personnel, and/or other designated airport or aerodrome personnel shall be provided at a fire station and capable of activation from that station, or other designated agency.

(5) The requirements and responsibilities for the utilization of a discreet frequency between the aircraft fire-fighting service and the flight crew of an aircraft in a situation of emergency shall be detailed in an agreement on procedural operational arrangements between the air traffic services and the airport operator.
(amended 2001/06/01; no previous version)

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