Part III - Aerodromes, Airports and Heliports

Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) 2017-2

(amended 2007/06/30; previous version)

Standard 325 - Heliports

(amended 2007/06/30; no previous version)

Foreword

Standard 325 - Heliports outlines the minimum technical specifications for the physical characteristics, obstacle limitation surfaces, and technical services at a heliport necessary for the purposes of complying with Part III of the Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs).

In addition to providing a means to assess the operational use of a facility, this Standard, which reflects recognized international safety parameters, provides the technical specifications to be used when building a new heliport or modifying an existing heliport where the objective is for the heliport to be certified by the Minister of Transport.

The specifications in this Standard complement those contained in the applicable Aerodrome Standards and Recommended Practices (TP 312) document. Where a particular part of an airport is used exclusively for helicopters, the specifications in this Standard shall also be used.

In the development of this Standard the following minimum helicopter dimensions were assumed:

  • overall length, 11 m;
  • rotor diameter, 9 m;
  • skid length or wheelbase, 2 m; and
  • gross weight, 1200 kg.

Since this Standard is meant to accommodate the operational use of a heliport, operators are cautioned to adequately define the intended operational use prior to any new construction or modification.

Finally, italicized text that follows or precedes a numbered provision in this Standard is not a compulsory part of this Standard and is to be understood as explanatory text only.

Division I - General

325.01 Interpretation

(1) The words and expressions used in this Standard have the same meaning as in the Aeronautics Act and the Canadian Aviation Regulations, with the following additions:

“aeronautical ground light” means any light specially provided as an aid to air navigation, other than a light displayed on an aircraft. (feu aéronautique à la surface)

“air taxiway” means a defined obstruction-free corridor in which helicopters hover-taxi above the surface of the ground. (voie de circulation en vol rasant)

“approach” means a manoeuvre commencing with the final descent with the intention to land resulting in the arrival of a helicopter at a heliport or an aerodrome but not including the completion of the flight by the contact with the surface. (approche)

“approach/departure path” means an area consisting of a quadrilateral area on the surface of the earth lying directly below the approach/take-off surface. (trajectoire d’approche ou de départ)

“certifying authority” means the Regional Director of Civil Aviation, Transport Canada. (détenteur des pouvoirs de certification)

“decision point” means the point used in determining take-off performance from which, a power unit failure occurring at this point, either a rejected take-off may be made or a take-off safely continued. (point de décision)

“elevated/rooftop heliport” means a heliport elevated more than 75 cm above the normal elevation of the ground. (héliport surélevé ou sur toit)

“emergency landing area” means an area where an unavoidable landing or ditching may take place with a reasonable expectancy of no injuries to persons or damage to property on the surface. (aire d’atterrissage d’urgence)

“ground effect” means the flying or hovering of a helicopter near the ground or other solid surface that improves the helicopter’s flight capability as a result of the cushion of denser air built up between the surface and the helicopter by the air displaced downwards by the lifting rotor(s). (effet de sol)

“helicopter clearway” means a defined rectangular area on the ground, water, building or other supporting structure selected, or prepared as an area over which a helicopter may accelerate and achieve a specific height. (prolongement dégagé pour hélicoptères)

“helicopter ground taxiway” means a ground taxiway for use by helicopters only. (voie de circulation au sol pour hélicoptères)

“overall length” means the maximum length of a helicopter, including rotor(s), measured through the fore and aft centre line of the helicopter. (longueur hors tout)

“helicopter parking position” means a part of the apron designated for the touchdown and parking of helicopters that have taxied from a FATO, runway or another part of the aerodrome. (poste de stationnement d’hélicoptère)

“heliport elevation” means the elevation of the highest point of each FATO. (altitude d’un héliport)

“heliport geometric centre” means the mean of the latitudes of the northernmost FATO edge and southernmost FATO edge and the mean of the longitudes of the easternmost FATO edge and westernmost FATO edge. (centre géometrique d’un héliport)

“heliport reference point” means the designated point or points on a heliport located at or near the geometric centre of the FATO or the centroid of multiple FATOs that establishes the locus of the radius or radii of the outer surface that is established by a zoning regulation. (point de référence d’un héliport)

“hover-taxi” means the movement of a helicopter above the surface of an aerodrome in ground effect and at an airspeed less than 37 km (20 kt). (circulation près du sol)

“instrument FATO” means a FATO intended for the operation of helicopters using instrument approach procedures. (aire d’approche finale et de décollage avec approche aux instruments ou FATO avec approche aux instruments)

“non-instrument FATO” means a FATO intended for the operation of helicopters under visual meteorological conditions (VMC). (aire d’approche finale et de décollage avec approche à vue ou FATO avec approche à vue)

“non-precision FATO” means an instrument FATO served by visual aids and a non-visual navigation aid that provides at least directional guidance adequate for a straight-in approach to a minimum descent height less than 500 ft (152 m) but not less than 250 ft (76 m) above the FATO elevation. (aire d’approche finale et de décollage avec approche de non-précision (FATO avec approche de non-précision))

“obstacle” means an object that could have an adverse effect on the safe operation of aircraft in flight or on the ground. (obstacle)

“precision FATO” means an instrument FATO served by visual and non-visual navigation aids that provide lateral and vertical guidance adequate for approach down to a decision height less than 250 ft (76 m) but not less than 200 ft (61 m) above the FATO elevation and an operating visibility not less than 1/4 statute mile or runway visual range (RVR) 1200. (aire d’approche finale et de décollage avec approche de précision (FATO avec approche de précision))

“rejected take-off area” means a defined rectangular area on the ground abutting the FATO area prepared as an area in which an aircraft can be stopped in the case of a rejected take-off. (aire de décollage interrompu)

“rotor downwash” means the volume of air displaced downwards by the lifting rotors which, when it strikes the ground or other solid surface, causes a turbulent outflow from beneath the helicopter. (souffle rotor)

“safety area” means a defined area surrounding the FATO which is kept free of obstacles other than objects required for navigation purposes. (aire de sécurité)

“surface level heliport” means a heliport located on the ground or a floating heliport located on the water. (héliport en surface)

Division II - Certification

Reserved

Division III - Operator of a Certified Heliport

Reserved

Division IV - General Certification Requirements

325.19 Heliport Classification

Information Note 1:

Heliports are classified in accordance with the performance requirements of the helicopters using the facility. Because of the variety of sites where a heliport may be located, it is not always possible to safely conduct unrestricted operations at every heliport. A major safety consideration to be taken into account when siting a heliport is the availability of suitable approach-departure paths leading to and from the heliport.

Information Note 2:

The classification of a heliport serves to identify helicopter performance requirements for specific heliports. It is also useful as a planning tool to relate operational factors with land use and zoning and to establish supporting facilities.

Classification of Non-Instrument Heliports

(1) For the purposes of paragraph 305.19(a) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the heliports classifications, in respect of non-instrument heliports, are the following:

Information Note 1:

Heliports are classified by the obstacle environment within which the heliport is located and the availability of emergency landing areas. The obstacle environment and the availability of emergency landing areas will dictate the performance capabilities required by the helicopters using the heliport.

Information Note 2:

Heliports are divided into two categories: instrument and non-instrument. Non-instrument heliports have three classifications: H1, H2 and H3.

(a) a non-instrument heliport is classified as H1 if the heliport is located within an obstacle environment where

(i) there is no emergency landing area within 625 m from the FATO, and

(ii) the helicopters using the heliport can be operated at a weight, and in such a manner that, in case of an engine failure at any time during approach or take-off, the helicopters can either

(A) land and safely stop on the FATO or TLOF area, or

(B) safely continue the flight to an appropriate landing area;

(b) a non-instrument heliport is classified as H2 if the heliport is located within an obstacle environment where

(i) the height of the obstacles are infringing the first section slope of the approach and take-off surface set out in Table 4-1, and

(ii) there are reachable emergency landing or rejected take-off areas within 625 m of the FATO in relation to the altitude of the helicopter and its performance with one engine inoperative;

(c) a non-instrument heliport is classified as H3 if the heliport is located within an obstacle environment where

(i) the height of obstacles do not penetrate any of the obstacle limitation surface (OLS) requirements set out in Table 4-1, and

(ii) there are reachable emergency landing areas or rejected take-off areas within 625 m of the FATO in relation to the altitude of the helicopter and its performance during autorotation.

Information Note:

The main factor in determining the suitability of emergency landing areas will be the helicopter type with the most critical performance characteristics the heliport is intended to serve.

Helicopter Performance Requirements

(2) For the purposes of paragraph 305.19(b) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the heliport classifications in respect of performance requirements of helicopters that are expected to use the heliport are the following:

(a) helicopters permitted to use an H1 heliport shall be multi-engined and capable of remaining at least 4.5 m (15 feet) above all obstacles within the approach/departure area in accordance with subsection 325.29(3) when operating in accordance with their aircraft flight manual with one engine inoperative; and

(b) helicopters permitted to use an H2 heliport shall be multi-engined.

325.20 Operational Limitations

Load Bearing Strength

(1) For the purposes of paragraph 305.20(a) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the operational limitations in respect of load bearing strength of a TLOF located on an elevated/rooftop heliport or a floating supporting structure, are the following:

(a) the TLOF shall be capable of supporting static and dynamic loads imposed by the largest helicopter for which the heliport is certified;

(b) the design static load shall be equal to the helicopter’s maximum certificated take-off weight applied through the total contact area of the wheels or skids; and

(c) the dynamic loads shall be at least 150 per cent of the maximum certificated take-off weight transmitted through the main wheels or through the contact areas of a skid equipped helicopter.

Maximum Helicopter Overall Length

(2) For the purposes of paragraph 305.20(b) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the operational limitations in respect of the maximum helicopter overall length, are the following:

(a) the width or diameter of the FATO divided by 1.5;

(b) if the FATO is on an elevated/rooftop, the width or diameter of the TLOF contained within the FATO, or

(c) if the FATO is non-supporting or otherwise not intended for touchdown, the smaller of

(i) the width of the largest helicopter parking position divided by 1.2, or

(ii) the width of an air taxiway leading to a FATO divided by 2.

Information Note:

The determination of a maximum helicopter overall length is to convey to pilots the operational limitations of the heliport relative to helicopter size.

Heliport Category and Classification

(3) For the purposes of paragraph 305.20(c) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the operational limitations in respect of the heliport category and classification, as specified in the HOM, are the following:

(a) the heliport category shall be determined as instrument or non-instrument as specified in the HOM; and

(b) the heliport classification shall be determined as H1, H2 or H3 in accordance with subsection 325.19(1).

Division V — Physical Characteristics

325.25 Physical Characteristics

Information Note:

When establishing a heliport in accordance with the physical dimensions and characteristics of this Standard, other factors, such as wind, temperature, and the performance capability of the helicopter should be considered in determining whether or not a particular helicopter can operate safely into and out of the heliport.

Requirements for all Heliports

(1) For the purposes of subsection 305.25(2) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the following constitutes the requirements for all heliports:

Final Approach and Take-off Areas (FATO)

(a) the requirements for the FATO are the following:

Information Note:

The size of the FATO will have a direct impact on the operational use of the heliport. The specifications in this Standard are based on a FATO size that is 1.5 times larger than the longest helicopter for which the heliport is certified.

(i) as specified in paragraph 305.25(1)(a) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, a heliport shall be provided with at least one FATO,

(ii) as specified in paragraph 305.25(1)(b) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, a FATO shall only be used to accommodate the operation of one helicopter at a time and, as a result:

(A) a helicopter parked in a FATO renders the FATO unavailable for take-off or landing by another helicopter, and

(B) if more than one helicopter at a time lands, takes-off or parks, additional FATOs, aprons or helicopter parking positions shall be provided;

(iii) the elevation of the terrain between a FATO and a helicopter parking position shall allow for the transition to and from a FATO to a helicopter parking position to be made in ground effect,

(iv) adjacent FATOs shall be separated by at least 0.166 times the width or diameter of the largest FATO,

(v) a precision FATO shall be at least 19.7 m wide and 45 m long. The size of all other FATOs shall accommodate a circle that has a diameter of at least 16.5 m,

(vi) the surface of a FATO shall be free of irregularities that would adversely affect safety for the take-off and landing of helicopters and be treated to prevent flying debris caused by rotor downwash,

Information Note:

Rotor downwash can cause a safety hazard to people and equipment on the ground in the immediate vicinity of a helicopter. The size and weight of the helicopter, as well as the ambient wind direction and speed, have a significant effect on the extent of this hazard. A protection area around the helicopter rotor(s), measured from the tip of the rotor blade, that is approximately 3 times the overall length of the largest helicopter using the heliport, is considered suitable in most weather conditions.

(vii) a FATO shall be kept clear of all obstacles except for those required for air navigation purposes and those shall be flush mounted in the surface, and

(viii) the over-all slope in any direction on a FATO shall not exceed 3 per cent;

Safety Areas

Information Note:

The purpose of the safety area is to provide

- an obstacle free area for helicopters accidentally diverging from a FATO

- an area for the installation of visual and non-visual aids

- an area for the drainage and run-off from a FATO.

(b) the requirements for the safety areas are the following:

(i) a FATO and any associated rejected take-off area shall be surrounded by a safety area,

(ii) the boundary of a safety area for a non-instrument and a non-precision FATO shall extend outward from the periphery of the FATO and any associated rejected take-off area for the greater of 3 m or 0.166 times the width of the FATO,

(iii) the safety area for a non-instrument and a non-precision FATO shall be extended to join the inner edge of the approach/take-off surface to a point 90° in the direction of the approach/departure path from the centre of the safety area, at a distance equal to the width of the safety area corresponding to the shaded area as indicated in Figure 4.1,

(iv) a safety area for a precision FATO shall

(A) extend to a distance of at least 60 m beyond the ends of the FATO and rejected take-off area, and

(B) extend on each side of the centre line of the FATO and any associated rejected take-off area at least the greater of 45 m or 0.666 times the width of the FATO,

(v) the surface of a safety area around a FATO shall abut the FATO,

(vi) the surface of a safety area shall not exceed an upward slope of 4 per cent outward from the edge of the FATO,

(vii) a safety area with an upward slope shall be provided with drainage,

(viii) a fixed object, other than a visual aid required for air navigation purposes or a safety net, shall not be located on a safety area,

(ix) no mobile object is to be permitted on a safety area during helicopter operations,

(x) an object located on a safety area shall not exceed a height of 25 cm when located along the edge of the FATO, nor project through a plane originating at a height of 25 cm above the edge of a FATO and sloping upwards and outward at a gradient of 4 per cent,

(xi) an object located on a safety area shall be frangible, and

(xii) the surface of a safety area shall be treated to prevent flying debris caused by rotor downwash;

Rejected Take-off Areas

(c) where, as specified in the HOM, rejected take-off areas are provided, the requirements are the following:

(i) it shall be located immediately adjacent to a FATO in the direction of departure,

(ii) it shall not be less than the width of the adjacent FATO,

(iii) the over-all slope in the terrain, in any direction from the edge of the FATO to the end of the rejected take-off area, shall not exceed 3 per cent,

(iv) no portion of any slope in the terrain within the rejected take-off area shall exceed 5 per cent,

(v) the surface of the rejected take-off area shall

(A) be treated to prevent flying debris caused by rotor downwash,

(B) as specified in the HOM, be free of irregularities that would adversely affect the safety for the take-off or landing of helicopters, and

(C) as specified in the HOM, be capable of supporting the helicopters that the heliport is intended to serve without structural damage to the helicopters;

Helicopter Clearways

(d) where, as specified in the HOM, helicopter clearways are provided, the requirements are the following:

(i) it shall be located immediately adjacent to the FATO or the rejected take-off area and oriented in the direction of departure,

(ii) it shall not be less than the width of the associated safety area,

(iii) it may extend outside the heliport boundary only if the heliport operator has established control over the additional area and the area is kept clear of obstacles during helicopter operations,

(iv) an object situated on a helicopter clearway, which may endanger a helicopter in the air, shall be removed,

(v) the length of a helicopter clearway is the shortest of the following distances:

(A) 400 m,

(B) the distance to the first object that projects above the slope of a plane commencing at the edge of the FATO having an upward slope of 3 per cent, except for heliport visual aids or other light weight frangible mounted objects required for air navigation purposes, or

(C) the distance to the point where the ground projects above the slope of a plane commencing at the edge of the FATO having an upward slope of 3 per cent, and

(vi) the take-off distance available for heliports (TODAH) shall be recalculated when an established heliport clearway is infringed by a new object, except for heliport visual aids or other light weight frangible objects required for air navigation purposes;

Touchdown and Lift-off Area (TLOF)

(e) where, as specified in the HOM, a TLOF is provided, the requirements are the following:

(i) if a TLOF is provided, it shall be located in a FATO,

(ii) slopes on a TLOF shall not exceed 2 per cent in any direction, and

(iii) the bearing strength of the surface of the TLOF shall be sufficient to support the weight of the largest helicopter for which the heliport is certified;

Taxiways

(f) where, as specified in the HOM, taxiways are provided, the requirements are the following:

(i) in the case of air taxiways:

(A) if a helicopter parking position is provided, an air taxiway shall be established between a FATO and the helicopter parking position,

(B) the width of an air taxiway shall be at least 2 times the overall length of the longest helicopter for which the air taxiway is certified in accordance with Figure 3-3,

(C) the surface of an air taxiway shall offer enough resistance to prevent flying debris caused by rotor downwash and be capable of supporting the helicopters that the heliport is intended to serve, as specified in the HOM, during an emergency landing without structural damage to the helicopters, and

(D) the transverse slope of the surface of an air taxiway shall not exceed 5 per cent calculated from the centre line of the air taxiway,

(ii) in the case of helicopter ground taxiways:

Information Note:

Refer to Figure 3-4.

(A) where a ground taxiway is used for the purpose of aeroplanes and helicopters, it shall comply with TP 312 or any more recent applicable standard pertaining to the same subject,

(B) where a helicopter ground taxiway is established between a FATO and a helicopter parking position

(I) the width of the helicopter ground taxiway shall not be less than the width set out in Table 3-1 that corresponds to the dimensions of the helicopter for which the helicopter ground taxiway is certified,

(II) the helicopter ground taxiway shall be capable of withstanding the weight of helicopters for which the helicopter ground taxiway is certified,

(III) the transverse slope of a helicopter ground taxiway shall not exceed 2 per cent,

(IV) the longitudinal slope of the helicopter ground taxiway shall not exceed 3 per cent,

(V) the helicopter ground taxiway shall provide sufficient drainage to prevent accumulation of standing water, and

(VI) the surface of the helicopter ground taxiway shall be treated to prevent flying debris caused by rotor downwash,

(C) a helicopter ground taxiway shall be provided with taxiway shoulders,

(D) a helicopter ground taxiway shall be included in a strip,

(iii) in the case of helicopter ground taxiway shoulders:

(A) ground taxiway shoulders shall extend symmetrically on each side of a helicopter ground taxiway centre line for at least the distance set out in Table 3-1 that corresponds to the dimensions of the helicopter for which the ground taxiway is certified,

(B) ground taxiway shoulders shall be capable of withstanding the weight of helicopters for which the helicopter ground taxiway is certified,

(C) the transverse slope of the helicopter ground taxiway shoulder shall not exceed 2 per cent calculated from the helicopter ground taxiway centre line, and

(D) the surface of the ground taxiway shoulder shall be resistant to the effect of rotor downwash,

(iv) in the case of helicopter ground taxiway strips:

(A) a helicopter ground taxiway strip shall extend symmetrically on each side of the taxiway centre line throughout the length of the taxiway to the distance set out in Table 3-1 that corresponds to the dimensions of the helicopter for which the ground taxiway is certified, and

(B) no object shall be located on a helicopter ground taxiway strip if its presence or movement caused by rotor downwash will endanger taxiing helicopters,

Table 3-1
Requirements for Ground Taxiways
Helicopter Dimensions Minimum Ground Taxiway Width Taxiway Shoulder: Minimum Distance from centre line Taxiway Strip: Minimum Distance from Centre Line
Gear span Rotor span      
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
Less than 2.5 m Less than 14 m 5.0 m 7 m 12.5 m
2.5 m to but not including 3.5 m 14 m to but not including 16 m 6.5 m 8 m 13.75 m
3.5 m to but not including 4.5 m 16 m to but not including 20 m 8.0 m 10 m 16.0 m
4.5 m to but not including 5.5 m 20 m to but not including 26 m 9.5 m 13 m 19.25 m
5.5 m to but not including 6.5 m 26 m to but not including 34 m 11.0 m 17 m 25.25 m

Aprons

(g) where, as specified in the HOM, aprons are provided, the requirements are the following:

(i) it shall be located so that parked helicopters will not project through the obstacle limitation surface (OLS) prescribed in section 325.29, and

(ii) the slope on the apron in any direction shall not exceed 2 per cent;

Helicopter Parking Positions

(h) where, as specified in the HOM, helicopter parking positions are provided, the requirements are the following:

(i) it shall be located on an apron,

(ii) adjacent helicopter parking positions shall be separated by at least 4.5 m,

(iii) it shall be separated from any adjacent building or object by at least 4.5 m,

(iv) it shall provide a circular area with a diameter not less than the 1.2 times the overall length of the longest helicopter for which the helicopter parking position is certified,

(v) it shall be capable of withstanding the weight of helicopters for which the helicopter parking position is certified, and

(vi) its slope shall be sufficient to prevent accumulation of water on the surface of the area but shall not exceed 2 per cent in any direction.

Special Requirements for Surface-Level Heliports

(2) The following constitutes the special requirements for surface-level heliports, for the purposes of subsection 305.25(3) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations:

Touchdown and Lift-off Areas (TLOF)

(a) in addition to the technical specifications already set out in paragraph 325.25(1)(e), the requirements for the TLOF, in respect of surface-level heliports are the following:

(i) the TLOF shall be large enough to contain a circle of diameter of at least 2 times the longer of the length or width of the undercarriage of the largest helicopter for which the heliport is certified,

(ii) if the TLOF is not located in the centre of a FATO, it shall not be located closer to the FATO boundary than 0.75 times the overall length of the longest helicopter for which the heliport is certified, and

(iii) a TLOF shall be at the same elevation as, and be an integral part of, a FATO;

Information Note:

The marking requirements pertaining to heliport identification marking, aiming point marking, or hospital heliport marking set out in Division V are not related to TLOF size. Therefore, the method of marking will depend on type of surface being marked between a TLOF and its surroundings such as grass, gravel or hard surface.

Taxiways

(b) in addition to the technical specifications already set out in subparagraphs 325.25(1)(f)(ii) to (iv), the requirements for taxiways, in respect of surface-level heliports are the following:

(i) the separation distance between two adjacent helicopter ground taxiways shall not be less than the distance required to permit a maximum of 3 m overlap of the helicopter ground taxiway strips in accordance with Figure 3-3,

(ii) if, as specified in the HOM, two adjacent helicopter ground taxiways cannot meet the separation distance, procedures shall be in place to control the traffic on both taxiways,

(iii) where, as specified in the HOM, a helicopter ground taxiway or air taxiway is provided, a taxi-holding position or positions shall be established at an intersection of a taxiway and a FATO, and

(iv) a taxi-holding position shall not be located closer than the outer edge of the safety area, and in the case of a precision FATO, located so that a holding aircraft or vehicle will not interfere with the operation of radio navigation aids;

Aprons

(c) the requirement for aprons, in respect of surface-level heliports is the following:

(i) if, as specified in the HOM, a TLOF is not provided within a FATO, an apron shall be provided and at least one helicopter parking position shall be provided on the apron.

Special Requirements for Elevated/Rooftop Heliports

(3) For the purposes of subsection 305.25(4) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the following constitutes the special requirements for Elevated/Rooftop heliports:

Information Note 1:

Elevated/rooftop heliports offer a viable alternative when a suitable ground level site is not attainable. Elevated/rooftop heliports normally have the advantage of being above the level of most obstacles that may obstruct the approach and take-off surfaces. In an obstacle-rich environment, consideration should be given for the availability of emergency landing areas within or along the approach and take-off surfaces.

Information Note 2:

Elevated/rooftop heliports that are classified as H1 or H2 under section 325.19 may be restricted to helicopters having specific performance capability based on available emergency landing areas.

Touchdown and Lift-off Areas (TLOF)

(a) in addition to the technical specifications already set out in paragraph 325.25(1)(e), the requirements for TLOF are the following:

(i) the FATO at an elevated/rooftop heliport shall contain a TLOF,

(ii) subject to subsection (4), where the size of the TLOF for a helicopter using the heliport is specified in the aircraft flight manual for the helicopter, the TLOF shall satisfy that requirement,

(iii) the dimensions of a TLOF shall not be less than those required to accommodate a circle having a diameter equal to at least the overall length of the longest helicopter for which the heliport is certified,

(iv) the TLOF shall be capable of supporting static and dynamic loads imposed by the largest helicopter for which the heliport is certified. The design static load is equal to the helicopter’s maximum certificated take-off weight applied through the total contact area of the wheels or skids. The dynamic load is at least 150 per cent of the maximum certificated take-off weight transmitted through the main wheels or through the contact areas of a skid equipped helicopter,

(v) drainage from the TLOF shall not allow flammable liquid to enter passenger-holding areas, access points, stairways, elevator shafts, ramps, hatches, or other openings,

(vi) where, as specified in the HOM, no other measures have been taken to reduce fire hazards caused by fuel spillage, TLOF shall be surrounded by a peripheral berm designed to contain 100 per cent of the fuel capacity of the largest helicopter for which the heliport is certified, and

(vii) where, as specified in the HOM, a raised edge surrounding a TLOF is provided to control fuel, the height of the raised edge shall not be higher than 7.5 cm;

Safety Nets

(b) the requirements for safety nets are the following:

(i) if the TLOF of an elevated/rooftop heliport is on a platform elevated more than 75 cm (30 inches) above its surroundings or coincides with a building edge or a raised structure, the heliport operator shall provide a safety net,

(ii) the safety net shall be at least 1.5 m in width and strong enough to support a weight of at least 122 kg per square metre, and

(iii) the safety net shall not project above the level of the TLOF;

Helicopter Parking Positions

(c) in addition to the technical specifications already set out in paragraphs 325.25(1)(g) and (h), the requirements for helicopter parking positions are the following:

(i) the helicopter parking position shall be located on the same structure as the associated FATO, and

(ii) the location of the helicopter parking position in relation to a TLOF shall permit the transition between the helicopter parking position and the TLOF to be made in ground effect.

Special Requirements for Heliports Located on Aerodromes

(4) For the purposes of subsection 305.25(5) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the following constitutes the special requirements for heliports located on aerodromes,

Application of these Standards

(a) where a heliport is established as a separate facility on an aerodrome primarily designed to serve aeroplanes, the technical specifications set out in paragraphs 325.25(4)(b) to (e) apply in addition to those set out in subsections 325.25(1) and (2);

Final Approach and Take-off Areas (FATO)

(b) the requirements for a FATO, in respect of heliports located on aerodromes, are the following:

(i) where a FATO is located near a runway and simultaneous same direction visual meteorological conditions (VMC) operations exist, the separation distance between the FATO centre and the runway centre line shall not be less than the distance specified in Table 3-2, and

Table 3-2
Minimum separation distance between a FATO centre and
the centreline of a non-instrument runway
Runway
code number
FATO width
Less than 20 m 20 m up to but not including 27 m over 27 m
(1) (2) (3) (4)
Code 1 90 m 150 m 210 m
Code 2 150 m 150 m 210 m
Code 3 and 4 210 m 210 m 210 m

(ii) where simultaneous same direction instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) operations exist at a heliport located on an aerodrome, the separation distance between a FATO and an instrument runway shall not be less than the distance set out in TP 312 or any more recent applicable standard pertaining to the same subject;

Taxiways

(c) the requirements for taxiways, in respect of heliports located on aerodromes, are the following:

(i) in the case of ground taxiway separation distances:

(A) subject to subsection (3), the separation distance between a helicopter ground taxiway centre line and the centre line of a runway shall not be less than the distance specified in the applicable TP 312,

(B) subject to subsection (3), the separation distance between a helicopter ground taxiway and a taxiway used by aeroplanes shall be at least the distance required to ensure no overlap of the respective taxiway strips, and

(C) where, as specified in the HOM, the separation distance specified in subsection (1) or (2) cannot be met, procedures shall be in place to control the traffic for prevention of accidents, incidents and any other adverse effect on safety,

(ii) in the case of taxi-holding positions:

(A) where, as specified in the HOM, a helicopter ground taxiway or air taxiway is provided, a taxi-holding position or positions shall be established at the intersection of a taxiway with a FATO and the intersection of a taxiway with a runway,

(B) where a taxi-holding position is established at the intersection with a runway, the taxi-holding position shall not be located closer than the distance specified in TP 312 or any more recent applicable standard pertaining to the same subject;

Aprons

(d) where, as specified in the HOM, a separate apron is provided for helicopter use, it shall permit the on and off loading of passengers and cargo and the servicing of helicopters without interfering with the aerodrome traffic;

Helicopter Parking Positions

(e) where a helicopter parking position is located on an apron that is also used by aeroplanes, the requirements are the following:

(i) it shall be located so as to minimize the danger to parked aeroplanes posed by rotor downwash, and

(ii) the separation distance between the edge of a helicopter parking position and an aeroplane stand shall not be less than the greater of either 1.5 times the overall length of the largest helicopter for which the parking position is certified or 18 m.

Special Requirements for H1 Heliports

(5) For the purposes of subsection 305.25(6) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the following constitute the special requirements for H1 heliports:

Final Approach and Take-off Areas (FATO)

(a) the requirements for a FATO, in respect of H1 heliports, are the following:

(i) the dimension of the FATO shall not be less than the dimensions specified in paragraph 325.25(1)(a),

(ii) the dimensions of the FATO of an H1 heliport shall not be less than the dimensions of the landing and take-off surface where specified in the aircraft flight manual for Category A operation for the helicopter type with the most critical performance characteristics the heliport is intended to serve, and

(iii) if the aircraft flight manual does not specify dimensions for the landing and take-off surface, the dimensions shall comply with the technical specifications set out in paragraph 325.25(1)(a);

Touchdown and Lift-off Areas (TLOF)

(b) the requirements for a TLOF, in respect of H1 heliports, are the following:

(i) the dimension of the TLOF shall not be less than the dimensions specified in paragraph 325.25(3)(a),

(ii) the dimensions of the TLOF of an H1 heliport shall not be less than the dimensions of the landing and take-off surface where specified in the aircraft flight manual for Category A operation for the helicopter type with the most critical performance characteristics the heliport is intended to serve, and

(iii) if the aircraft flight manual does not specify dimensions for the landing and take-off surface, the dimensions shall comply with the specifications set out in paragraphs 325.25(2)(a) or 325.25(3)(a), which ever are applicable to the heliport.

Division VI - Heliport Requirements - Obstacle Limitation Surfaces (OLS)

325.29 Restrictions and Removal of Obstacles

Information Note 1:

This Division establishes a series of obstacle limitation surfaces that define the limits to which objects may project into the airspace in order to:

- minimize the dangers presented by obstacles, either during an entirely visual approach or during the visual segment of an instrument approach; and
- identify, by those limits, the point at which a heliport, due to safety concerns, is declared unusable.

Information Note 2:

The requirements for obstacle limitation surfaces are based on the use for which a FATO is certified.

Information Note 3:

Where take-off and landings are conducted to or from a FATO in the same direction, the function of the obstacle limitation surface adjacent to that FATO may require more stringent requirements than those of a FATO served by more than one take-off and landing surface. If so, such stringent requirements would be described in the HOM.

Information Note 4:

In considering proposed construction, account should be taken of the possible future development of an instrument FATO and consequent requirements for more stringent obstacle limitation surfaces.

Information Note 5:

Obstacles penetrating the surface for instrument departure set out in the manual Criteria for the Development of Instrument Procedure, TP 308 may impose limitations on helicopter operations (for example, departure may be authorized under visual meteorological conditions (VMC) only).

Requirements for the Establishment of Obstacle Limitation Surfaces

(1) When the operator of a certified heliport establishes the obstacle limitation surfaces for a non-instrument, non-precision or precision FATO, for the purposes of subsection 305.29(1) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the following requirements apply:

(a) in the case of approach surfaces:

(i) the limits of an approach surface shall comprise

(A) an inner edge horizontal and equal in length to the safety area, perpendicular to the centre line of the approach surface and located at the outer edge of the safety area, (see Figure 4-1),

(B) two side edges originating at the ends of the inner edge diverging uniformly at a rate from the inner edge set out in Table 4-1 or Table 4-2 that is applicable to the category of FATO for which it is certified, and

(C) an outer edge horizontal and perpendicular to the centre line of the approach surface and at a length from the inner edge set out in Table 4-1 or Table 4-2 that is applicable to the category of FATO for which it is certified,

(ii) the length of any portion of the approach surface shall be measured in the horizontal plane along the centre line of the approach path,

(iii) the width of the approach surface shall be measured in the horizontal plane,

Information Note:

The width of the approach surface at any point can be found by adding the products of the length (i.e. distance from the inner edge) and the divergence (either side) to the length of the inner edge.

(iv) the elevation of the inner edge shall be the elevation of the FATO boundary at the point on the inner edge that is intersected by the centre line of the approach surface,

(v) subject to the technical specifications set out in paragraphs 325.29(2)(b) and (c) the slope of the approach surface shall be in accordance with the first section and the second section set out in Table 4-1 or Table 4-2 and shall be measured in the vertical plane containing the centre line of the surface,

Information Note:

The height of the surface is the product of the length of the portion from the point of intersection to the inner edge and the slope.

(vi) the centre line of the approach surface shall define the approach path and shall be a straight line or an arc of constant radius or a combination of a straight line or an arc of constant radius, and

Information Note:

Technical specifications applicable to a curved approach surface for a non-instrument FATO are found in paragraph 325.29(3)(a).

(vii) a mobile object shall not be permitted above an approach surface unless procedures are specified in the HOM to ensure the object is removed during approach and departure operations;

(b) in the case of take-off surfaces:

(i) the limits of the take-off surface shall comprise

(A) an inner edge horizontal and equal in length to the width of the safety area, perpendicular to the centre line of the take-off surface and located at the outer edge of the safety area or clearway,

(B) two sides originating at the ends of the inner edge diverging uniformly at a rate from the inner edge set out in Table 4-1, and

(C) an outer edge horizontal and perpendicular to the centre line of the take-off surface and at a length from the inner edge set out in Table 4-1 for visual meteorological conditions (VMC),

(ii) the width of the take-off surface shall be measured in the horizontal plane,

Information Note:

The width of the take-off surface at any point can be found by adding the products of the length (i.e. distance from the inner edge) and the divergence (either side) to the length of the inner edge.

(iii) the elevation of the inner edge shall be the higher of

(A) the elevation of the FATO boundary nearest the midpoint of the inner edge, or

(B) the highest elevation of terrain or objects located within the clearway,

(iv) subject to the technical specifications set out in paragraphs 325.29(2)(b) and (c), the slope of the take-off surface shall be in accordance with the first section and the second section set out in Table 4-1 and shall be measured on the centre line of the departure path,

(v) the surface of the slope of the take-off surface shall remain horizontally normal to the centre line of the departure path,

Information Note:

The height of the take-off surface at any point can be found by establishing a horizontal line through the point and normal to the nominal approach path. The height of the surface is the product of the length of the portion from the point of intersection to the inner edge and the slope.

(vi) the centre line of the approach surface shall define the approach path and shall be a straight line or an arc of constant radius or a combination of a straight line or an arc of constant radius, and

Information Note:

Technical specifications applicable to a curved take-off surface for a non-instrument FATO are found in paragraph 325.29(2)(a).

(vii) a mobile object shall not be permitted above a take-off surface unless procedures are specified in the HOM to ensure the object is removed during approach and departure operations;

(c) in the case of transitional surfaces:

Information Note:

A transitional surface is a complex surface along the side of the safety area and part of the side of the approach/take-off surface that slopes upwards and outwards to a height specified in Table 4-1 or Table 4-2 that is applicable to the category of FATO for which it is certified.

(i) the limits of the transitional surface shall comprise

(A) a lower edge beginning at a point on the side of the approach surface where the approach/take-off surface is at a height above its inner edge, set out in Table 4-1 or Table 4-2, and extending down the side of the approach/take-off surface to the inner edge of the approach/take-off surface and from there along the edge of the safety area, and

(B) an upper edge located at a height, set out in Table 4-1 or Table 4-2, above the heliport assigned elevation,

(ii) the elevation of a point on the lower edge shall be

(A) along the side of the approach surface, equal to the elevation of the approach surface at that point, and

(B) along the safety area, equal to the elevation of the centre line of the FATO opposite that point,

Information Note:

As a result of the above requirement, the transitional surface along a curved approach surface is also curved.

(iii) the slope of a transitional surface shall be measured in a vertical plane perpendicular to the extended centre line of the FATO in accordance with Table 4-1 or Table 4-2, and

(iv) a mobile object shall not be permitted above a transitional surface unless procedures are in place, as specified in the HOM, to ensure the object is removed during approach and departure operations;

(d) in the case of other obstacles:

(i) where an aeronautical evaluation is performed as part of the continued certification process and is afterwards included in the HOM, and it indicates that an obstacle may endanger aircraft located on the movement area or in the air in the immediate vicinity of the heliport, it shall be removed in so far as is practicable or be marked and/or lighted in accordance with Standard 621.19, and

Information Note:

In certain circumstances, obstacles that do not project above any of the surfaces set out in subsection 325.29(2) may constitute a hazard to aircraft as, for example, where there are one or more isolated obstacles in the vicinity of a heliport such as a high chimney or a high tension tower.

(ii) the following clearance is required above a transportation corridor that is underneath an obstacle limitation surface:

(A) above the top of the rails of a railway, at least 6 m,

(B) above the crown of a road, 4.3 m, and

(C) above a waterway, river, or canal, the clearance established by an aeronautical evaluation is performed as part of the continued certification process and is afterwards included in the HOM.

Special Requirements for Non-instrument FATOs

(2) For the purposes of subsection 305.29(1) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the special requirements in respect of obstacle limitation surfaces for non-instrument FATOs are the following:

(a) in the case of approach or take-off surfaces:

(i) a fixed object shall not be permitted above an approach or take-off surface of a non-instrument FATO except for a fence or barrier that complies with the applicable technical specifications provided in subsection 325.43(2),

(ii) where established, as specified in the HOM, a curved approach or take-off surface shall not contain more than one curved portion,

Information Note:

Curved approach is normally established at a non-instrument FATO where it is necessary to avoid obstacles, terrain, noise sensitive areas, or to utilise the airspace above public lands (e.g. freeways, rivers, golf courses).

(iii) a curved portion of an approach or take-off surface shall not allow a change of direction greater than 90 degrees,

(iv) where, as specified in the HOM, a curved portion of approach or take-off is provided

(A) the sum of the radius of arc defining the centre line of the approach or take-off surface and the length of the straight portion originating at the inner edge shall not be less than 575 m, and

(B) the radius of arc defining the centre line of the approach or take-off surface shall not in any portion of the approach be less than 270 m in accordance with Figure 4-3, and

(v) an approach or take-off surface incorporating a curved portion shall be established where landmarks such as geographical points or other visual references are available;

(b) in the case of transitional surfaces:

(i) no object, other than a fence that complies with the technical specifications set out in subsection 325.43(2), shall project into a transitional surface established in accordance with Figure 4-4A and B,

(ii) where a facility is served by at least two approach and departure paths separated by no less than 135 degrees from their centre lines, a transitional surface is not required as demonstrated in Figure 4-4C, and

(iii) an object located outside the transitional surface shall not be located closer than 3 m from the safety area;

Special Requirements for Non-instrument FATOs in respect of H1 Heliports

(3) For the purposes of subsection 305.29(2) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the requirements in respect of approach or take-off surfaces for non-instrument FATOs, are the following:

(a) in the case of approach or take-off surfaces, an H1 heliport shall comply with the following requirements respecting its OLS instead of the technical specifications provided in subparagraphs 325.29(1)(a)(v) and (1)(b)(iv):

(i) the take-off and approach OLS shall commence at the edge of the safety area and shall continue in a line that links the maximum elevation points of all critical obstacles within the approach/departure path,

(ii) a survey of the approach/departure path area that determines obstacle information shall be carried out by the heliport operator at least once every five years unless no new obstacles have been established in the approach/departure path area during the five-year period and a report to that effect is made to the certifying authority,

(iii) the obstacle survey shall be updated each time new construction is carried out that will penetrate the slope of the OLS established under subparagraph 325.29(3)(c)(i),

(iv) the approach/departure path area shall consist of a quadrilateral area on the surface of the earth lying directly below the approach/take-off surface, with the point of origin at the end of the area declared suitable for take-off as specified in the HOM, and extend at the lessor of the point beyond where no obstacle that would adversely affect safety exists or 625 m, and

(v) the width of the approach/departure path area at its point of origin shall be the same as the width of the safety area and increase at the rate of 0.15D where ‘D’ is the distance from the point of origin;

Special Requirements for Non-instrument FATOs in respect of H2 Heliports

(4) For the purposes of subsection 305.29(4) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the special requirements for obstacle limitation surfaces, in respect of approach or take-off surfaces for non-instrument FATOs, are the following:

(a) in the case of approach or take-off surfaces, notwithstanding the technical specifications provided in paragraphs 325.29(1)(a) and (b), the slope of the first section in Table 4-1 of the approach and take-off OLS for an H2 heliport shall not be higher than twice the requirements set out in Table 4-1 but, in any case, not more than 16% (1:6.25).

Special Requirements for Instrument FATOs

(5) For the purposes of subsection 305.29(5) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the special requirements in respect of obstacle limitation surfaces for an instrument FATO, are the following:

(a) a fixed obstacle shall not be permitted above the approach, take-off or transitional surfaces of a non-precision or precision FATO except for a frangibly mounted object on the safety area that is required as specified in the HOM for air navigation purposes. See Figure 4-5 and Figure 4-6.




Table 4-1 Dimensions and slopes of obstacle limitation surfaces - non-instrument FATOs
  NUMBER OF APPROACH/DEPARTURE PATHS AVAILABLE
SURFACE and DIMENSIONS Single 2 or more
  FATO only FATO + 65m obstacle free zone FATO only FATO + 85m obstacle free zone
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
APPROACH SURFACE and TAKE-OFF SURFACE:        
Length of inner edge Width of safety area Width of safety area Width of safety area Width of safety area
         
Location of inner edge Safety area boundary Safety area boundary Safety area boundary Safety area boundary
         
Divergence:        
Day use only 10 % 10 % 10 % 10 %
Night use 15 % 15 % 15 % 15 %
         
First Section :        
Length 245 m 245 m 245 m 245 m
Slope 6 %
(1:16.6)
8 %
(1:12.5)
8 %
(1:12.5)
10 %
(1:10)
         
Second Section:        
Length 830 m 830 m 830 m 830 m
Slope 16 %
(1:6.25)
16 %
(1:6.25)
16 %
(1:6.25)
16 %
(1:6.25)
         
Total Length from inner edge 1075 m 1075 m 1075 m 1075 m
         
TRANSITIONAL SURFACE:        
Slope 50 %
(1:2)
50 %
(1:2)
50 %
(1:2)
50 %
(1:2)
Height 45 m 45 m 45 m 45 m

Table 4-2 Dimensions and slopes of obstacle limitation surfaces - Instrument FATOs
  Approach Type
  Non- Precision Precision 3º approach Precision 6º approach
(1) (3) (4) (5)
       
APPROACH SURFACE      
Width of inner edge Width of safety area Width of safety area Width of safety area
Location of inner edge safety area boundary safety area boundary safety area boundary
Divergence 15 % 15 % 15 %
Length (minimum) 2500 m 10000 m 8500 m
Slope (maximum) 5 %
(1:20)
3 %
(1:34)
5.9 %
(1:17)
       
TRANSITIONAL SURFACE:      
Slope (maximum) 20 %
(1:5)
14.3 %
(1:7)
14.3 %
(1:7)
Height 45 m 45 m 45 m
Division VII - Heliport Requirements - Visual Aids for Air Navigation

325.31 Visual Aids for Air Navigation

Wind Direction Indicators

(1) For the purposes of subsection 305.31(1) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, in respect of wind direction indicators, the technical requirements are the following:

(a) as specified in section 305.31 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, a heliport shall be equipped with at least one wind direction indicator;

(b) where a heliport is located among buildings or other large structures and as specified in the HOM if the wind direction differs sufficiently to adversely affect aviation safety, from one part of the heliport to another, multiple wind direction indicators shall be provided;

(c) a wind direction indicator shall be located so that it

(i) indicates the wind conditions over the FATO area,

(ii) is free from the effects of airflow disturbances caused by nearby objects or rotor downwash,

(iii) is visible from a helicopter in flight, in a hover or on the movement area, and

(iv) is clear of the safety area, the approach/take-off surfaces, and any transitional surface provided;

(d) wind direction indicators shall be truncated cones made of light-weight fabric with the following minimum dimensions:

  Surface Level Heliports Elevated/Rooftop Heliports
Length 2.4 m 1.2 m
Diameter
(larger end)
0.6 m 0.3 m
Diameter
(smaller end)
0.3 m 0.15 m

(e) the colour of the wind direction indicator shall be selected and specified in the HOM, so as to make it clearly visible and understandable from a height of at least 200 m (650 ft) above the heliport having regard to background; and

Information Note:

It is recommended that a single colour, preferably orange, be used. Where a combination of two colours is required to make the wind direction indicator conspicuous against changing backgrounds, they should preferably be orange and white or red and white and should be arranged in five alternate bands with the first and last band being the darker colour.

(f) a wind direction indicator at a heliport that is certified for use at night shall be illuminated.

Information Note:

Markings are described in this Division as solid areas.

(2) For the purposes of subsection 305.31(2) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the requirements in respect of heliport markings, are the following:

(a) in the case of heliport identification markings:

(i) a heliport identification marking shown in Figure 5-1 and Figure 5-2 shall be provided on a TLOF located within a FATO,

(ii) a heliport identification marking shall be provided where a helicopter parking position marking is provided,

(iii) where used in conjunction with an aiming point marking, a heliport identification marking shown in Figure 5-1 shall be centred within the aiming point marking,

(iv) where used in conjunction with an elongated FATO designation marking, the heliport identification marking shall be located as shown in Figure 5-5,

(v) where used in conjunction with a hospital identification marking, the heliport identification marking shall be located as shown in Figure 5-3,

(vi) where used in conjunction with a helicopter parking position marking, a heliport identification marking shall be centred within the inner ring of the helicopter parking position marking as shown in Figure 5-8 and Figure 5-9,

Information Note:

Where used in conjunction with a helicopter parking position marking, the heliport identification marking should be oriented with the cross arm of the H at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the preferred parked position.

(vii) subject to subparagraph (viii) below, subparagraphs 325.31(2)(o)(iii) and (iv), a heliport identification marking shall consist of a capital letter H,

(viii) where the heliport identification marking is to be applied at a private heliport other than a hospital heliport, it shall consist of either a capital letter H or the company logo,

(ix) the capital letter H shall be in the form and proportion shown in Figure 5-1,

(x) the minimum dimensions of the capital letter H shall be as shown in Figure 5-1 except that

(A) where used in conjunction with a FATO designation marking, the minimum dimensions shall be increased by a factor of three, or

(B) where used in conjunction with a helicopter parking position marking, the minimum dimensions shall be one half the dimensions shown in Figure 5-1;

(xi) the colour used to mark the capital letter H shall

(A) be white when located within a FATO,

(B) be red when used in conjunction with a hospital identification marking, and

(C) be yellow when used on a helicopter parking position, and

(xii) the dimensions of a company logo or any other private identification marking shall be contained within a circle not larger than the inside dimensions of the aiming point marking;

(b) in the case of hospital heliport identification markings:

(i) a hospital heliport identification marking as shown in Figure 5-3 shall be provided where a heliport serves a hospital,

(ii) the hospital heliport identification marking shall be centred on the FATO,

(iii) the hospital heliport identification marking shall consist of a cross marking as illustrated in Figure 5-3,

(iv) the cross shall contain a red capital letter H having the form and the proportion shown in Figure 5-1,

(v) the cross shall be either a solid white area as depicted in Figure 5-3A, or an area marked as depicted in Figure 5-3B,

Information Note:

It has been found that, on surfaces of light colour, the conspicuity of the white cross can be improved by outlining it with a 15 cm (6 inches) red border.

(vi) the dimensions of the cross shall not be less than those shown in Figure 5-3,

(vii) when the marking is increased in size, the cross and the H markings shall be increased proportionally, and

(viii) the capital letter H and the white cross shall be oriented with the magnetic north, except in areas of compass unreliability where it shall be oriented with the true north;

(c) in the case of aiming point markings:

(i) a FATO shall be provided with an aiming point marking as shown in Figure 5-4 unless

(A) a FATO designation or hospital identification marking is provided,

(B) the surface of the FATO makes it physically impossible to mark the aiming point (e.g. a FATO located on water), or

(C) the FATO is primarily used for pilot training and is large enough so that pilots are not required to land at a specific location on the FATO,

(ii) where, as specified in the HOM, an aiming point is not provided, information regarding the location of the FATO shall be published in the Canada Flight Supplement (CFS),

(iii) the aiming point marking shall be centred within a FATO,

(iv) where provided on a FATO containing a TLOF, the aiming point marking shall consist of dashed white lines forming an equilateral triangle,

(v) where provided on a FATO that, as specified in the HOM, does not contain a TLOF, the aiming point marking shall consist of solid yellow lines forming an equilateral triangle,

(vi) the form, proportion, and minimum dimensions for an aiming point marking shall be as shown in Figure 5-4, and

(vii) the aiming point marking shall be aligned with the magnetic north except in areas of compass unreliability where it shall be oriented with the true north. The method of indicating magnetic or true north alignment shall be by filling in one interior angle as depicted in Figure 5-4;

(d) in the case of FATO area edge marking:

(i) FATO area edge marking shall be provided at a heliport unless

(A) the FATO boundaries are easily identifiable,

(B) FATO area markers are provided in accordance with the technical specifications set out in subsection 325.35(2), or

(C) the FATO is

(I) located on an airport, or is primarily used for pilot training, and

(II) the information regarding the location of the FATO is published in the Canada Flight Supplement (CFS),

(ii) FATO area edge marking shall be located on the boundaries of the FATO, and

Information Note:

The overall FATO dimensions are measured from the outside edge of the FATO marking.

(iii) FATO area edge marking shall be a solid white line not less than 0.60 m in width;

Information Note:

On surfaces of light colour, the conspicuity of the white markings can be improved by outlining them with a 15 cm (6 inches) black or red border.

(e) in the case of FATO designation markings:

(i) a FATO designation marking shall be provided on a paved elongated FATO of 100 m in length or more,

(ii) a FATO designation marking shall be located at the beginning of the FATO as shown in Figure 5-5,

(iii) a FATO designation marking shall consist of a two-digit number,

(iv) the two-digit number shall be the whole number nearest the 10 degrees of the magnetic north when viewed from the direction of approach,

(v) when the above rule results in a single digit number, it shall be preceded by a zero,

(vi) if a heliport is located within an area of compass unreliability, true azimuth and not magnetic azimuth shall be used to determine the designation marking, and

(vii) in the case of parallel FATOs, each number shall be supplemented by the letters “L” or “R” in the order shown from left to right when viewed from the direction of approach;

(f) in the case of FATO centre line markings:

(i) a FATO centre line marking shall be provided on a paved elongated FATO of 100 m in length or more,

(ii) a FATO centre line marking shall be located along the centre line of the FATO between the FATO designation marking as shown in Figure 5-5,

(iii) a FATO centre line marking shall consist of a line of uniformly spaced stripes and gaps. The length of a stripe plus a gap shall not be less than 6 m or more than 60 m, and

(iv) the width of the stripes shall be at least 0.6 m;

(g) in the case of approach/take-off direction indicator markings

(i) subject to subparagraph (ii) below, an approach /take-off direction indicator marking shall be provided where

(A) specific approach and departure paths are required to be indicated to pilots (i.e. single approach and departure path), or

(B) obstacle clearance, noise abatement procedure or traffic control procedure requires that a specific direction be flown,

(ii) where, as specified in the HOM, a FATO is located on the water or its edges are close enough to a body of water to create a hazard or to generate a risk to safety, or where the edges of a FATO are nearly coincidental with the edge of an elevated/rooftop heliport and it is impracticable to establish the approach/take-off direction indicator marking, guidance such as landmarks or other visual references shall be provided to designate a specific approach and departure path. These visual references shall be identified in the Canada Flight Supplement (CFS),

(iii) an approach/take-off direction indicator marking shall be located outside the FATO edge on the approach/take-off path centre line,

(iv) an approach/take-off direction indicator marking shall consist of a line with an arrowhead at each end in the form and proportion shown in Figure 5-6,

(v) the length of the approach/take-off direction indicator marking shall not be less than one-half the width or the diameter of the associated FATO, and

(vi) an approach/take-off direction indicator marking shall be of an easily identifiable colour that contrasts with the surrounding surface;

Information Note:

On surfaces of light colour, the conspicuity of the white marking can be improved by outlining it with a 15 cm (6 inches) black or red border.

(h) in the case of a TLOF area edge marking:

(i) a TLOF area edge marking shall be provided on an elevated/rooftop heliport,

(ii) a TLOF area edge marking shall be provided on a TLOF other than one located on an elevated/rooftop heliport if the perimeter of the TLOF area is not easily identifiable,

(iii) where the size of the FATO and the TLOF is the same, only the FATO area edge marking is required,

(iv) the TLOF area edge marking shall be located along the perimeter of the TLOF area, and

Information Note:

The overall TLOF dimensions are measured from the outside edge of the TLOF marking.

(v) a TLOF area edge marking shall consist of a continuous white line with a width of 30 cm;

Information Note:

On surfaces of light colour, the conspicuity of the white marking can be improved by outlining it with a 15 cm (6 inches) black or red border.

(i) in the case of maximum allowable helicopter weight markings:

(i) a maximum allowable helicopter weight marking that indicates the maximum allowable helicopter weight in thousands of pounds shall be displayed on an elevated/rooftop heliport,

(ii) the marking shall be located so as to be visible from the preferred approach direction, as specified in the HOM, taking into account the prevailing wind at the heliport and positioned from the FATO edge as shown in Figure 5-1,

(iii) the marking shall consist of one or two digits having the form and proportions shown in Figure 5-7,

Information Note 1:

Figure 5-1 refers to maximum allowable “mass” marking.

Information Note 2:

A line may be placed under the numerals to preclude the marking from being misread.

(iv) the height of an individual numeral shall not be less than 1.8 m, and

(v) the maximum allowable weight number shall be a colour that contrasts with the surrounding surface,

(j) in the case of taxiway markings:

(i) where, as specified in the HOM, taxiway centre line markings are applicable:

(A) a taxiway centre line marking shall be provided on a paved taxiway of an instrument heliport in such a way as to provide guidance from the FATO to the apron,

(B) on a straight section of taxiway, the taxiway centre line marking shall be located along the taxiway centre line. On a taxiway curve the marking shall continue from the straight portion of the taxiway at a constant distance from the outside edge of the curve, and

(C) a taxiway centre line marking shall be yellow in colour, at least 15 cm in width and continuous in length except where it intersects a taxi-holding position marking as shown in Figure 5-8 or when interrupted by a helicopter parking position information marking as shown in Figure 5-9,

(ii) where, as specified in the HOM, taxiway holding position markings are applicable:

(A) a taxiway holding position marking shall be displayed along a taxi-holding position,

(B) a taxiway holding position marking at a taxiway and FATO intersection shall be located so that the main rotor blades of a helicopter will not penetrate the safety area when the front part of the longest helicopter for which the taxiway is certified is positioned to the edge of the taxiway holding position marking,

(C) the taxi-holding position marking shall consist of yellow bars placed across the taxiway at right angles to the taxiway centre line,

(D) the bar shall consist of 4 lines, two adjacent continuous and two adjacent broken lines. Each line shall be 15 cm wide and spaced 15 cm apart. The broken lines shall consist of stripes 90 cm long with a gap of 90 cm between stripes as shown in Figure 5-8, and

(E) the continuous lines shall be on the taxiway side of the marking point and the broken lines shall be on the FATO side of the marking point,

(iii) where, as specified in the HOM, taxiway edge markings are applicable:

(A) a taxiway edge marking shall be provided on a paved taxiway where the edges of the taxiway are not readily apparent,

(B) a taxiway edge marking shall be located along the edge of the paved portion of the taxiway, and

(C) a taxiway edge marking shall consist of two continuous 15 cm wide yellow lines spaced 15 cm apart;

(k) in the case of apron edge markings:

(i) apron edge markings shall be provided where the edges of the apron are not easily identifiable,

(ii) apron edge markings shall be located, as specified in the HOM, along the edge of the area usable for aircraft operation of the apron, and

(iii) apron edge markings shall consist of two continuous 15 cm wide yellow lines spaced 15 cm apart as shown in Figure 5-8,

(l) in the case of a helicopter parking position marking:

(i) where, as specified in the HOM, it is intended for a helicopter to park at a specific location on an apron, a helicopter parking position marking shall be provided, where the edges of the apron are not readily apparent,

(ii) a helicopter parking position marking shall consist of two concentric circles as shown in Figure 5-9 consisting of 30 cm wide yellow lines,

(iii) the diameter of the outer circle shall not be less than 1.2 times the overall length of the longest helicopter for which the helicopter parking position is certified, and

(iv) the diameter of the inner circle shall be 1/3 the size of the outer circle,

(m) in the case of alignment markings:

(i) where, as specified in the HOM, helicopters are required to have a specific alignment on the helicopter parking position, a helicopter parking position alignment marking shall be provided,

(ii) the helicopter parking position alignment marking shall be located between the outer circle and the inner circle of the helicopter parking position marking,

(iii) the helicopter parking position alignment marking shall consist of two 30 cm wide aligned yellow lines, which join the two concentric circles of the helicopter parking position marking, as shown in Figure 5-9, and

(iv) the helicopter parking position alignment marking shall be oriented at right angles with the cross arm of the capital letter H as shown in Figure 5-9,

(n) in the case of helicopter parking position information markings:

(i) a helicopter parking position information marking shall be provided where, as specified in the HOM, a helicopter parking position is not able to accommodate the largest aircraft the heliport is intended to serve or where the size of the parking position is restricted by the minimum separation requirement to an obstacle or an adjacent parking position,

(ii) the helicopter parking position information marking shall be located on or adjacent to the helicopter parking position,

(iii) where a parking position information marking is located in the inner circle of the helicopter parking position, it shall replace the capital letter H described in subparagraph 325.31(2)(a)(vii), and

(iv) the parking position information marking shall consist of the parking position designation located above a number indicating the overall length (in feet) of the longest helicopter for which the parking position is certified. Where, as specified in the HOM, the marking is not applied within the inner circle of the helicopter parking position marking, the information marking shall be contained within a circle of approximately 3 m in diameter.

Information Note:

The helicopter size for a specific helicopter parking position is obtained by dividing the diameter of the outer circle of the parking position marking by 1.2.

(o) in the case of apron passenger path markings:

(i) where, as specified in the HOM, passengers are required to walk on a specific routing on an apron between a helicopter parking position and the passenger terminal, an apron passenger path marking shall be provided,

(ii) apron passenger path markings shall be located in such a manner that it

(A) provides continuous guidance from the passenger terminal to the helicopter parking position, and

(B) defines a path that is clear of apron areas where aircraft is expected to operate,

(iii) apron passenger path markings shall not cross taxiway markings or the access to another helicopter parking position,

(iv) apron passenger path markings shall be of a form that is easily identifiable to aircraft passengers, and

Information Note:

A suitable form of marking is illustrated in Figure 5-9.

(v) apron passenger path markings shall be of a colour that distinguishes it from the background and other apron markings;

Information Note:

The paint used on apron passenger path markings should be of a type that provides a good coefficient of friction.

Division VIII - Heliport Requirements - Lights

325.33 Lights

Information Note 1:

Lights which may cause confusion could consist of a ground light, other than an aeronautical ground light, and particularly lights visible from the air within the approach area, which, by reason of its intensity, configuration or colour, might prevent, or cause confusion in, the clear interpretation of aeronautical ground lights.

Information Note 2:

For aeronautical ground lights near navigable waters consideration needs to be given to ensuring that the lights do not cause confusion to mariners.

Information Note 3:

See subsection 325.43(4) for information regarding sitting and construction of equipment and installations on operational areas.

Installation of Lights

(1) For the purposes of subsection 305.33(2) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the requirements in respect of the installation of lights are the following:

(a) in the case of elevated approach lights as illustrated in figure 5-10:

(i) supporting structures for elevated approach lights within 300 m from a FATO shall be frangible, and

(ii) an elevated approach light fixture shall not penetrate an obstacle limitation surface;

Information Note:

Consideration may be given to mounting the approach lights on supports that will keep the fixtures above the snow level and, for fixtures outside the heliport boundary, at a height that will preclude interference from or hazard to livestock or other animals.

(b) in the case of elevated lights for operational areas as illustrated in figure 5-10:

(i) supporting structures for FATO, TLOF, taxiway and apron lights shall be frangible;

(c) in the case of inset lights:

(i) FATO, TLOF, taxiway and apron inset lights shall be designed and fitted so as to withstand being run over by the wheels or skids of an aircraft without damage to the aircraft or to the lights, and

(ii) the surface temperature of an inset light shall not exceed 100°C;

(d) in the case of light intensity and control:

(i) where a medium or high-intensity lighting system is provided, as defined in TP 312 or any more recent applicable standard pertaining to the same subject a means of intensity control shall be provided to allow for adjustment of the light intensity to meet the prevailing conditions,

(ii) separate on/off and intensity controls shall be provided for the following systems when installed:

(A) approach lighting system,

(B) FATO edge lights,

(C) TLOF edge lights,

(D) FATO or TLOF inset lights, and

(E) taxiway centre line lights;

Information Note:

While the lights of an approach lighting system may be of higher intensity than the FATO lighting, it is good practice to avoid abrupt changes in intensity as these may give a pilot a false impression that the visibility is changing during approach.

(e) in the case of heliport beacons:

(i) where, as specified in the HOM, a heliport beacon is provided,

(A) it shall be located on or adjacent to the heliport and, if physically possible, at an elevated position, and

(B) it shall be located so that the beacon is not shielded by objects in any direction and shall not dazzle a pilot approaching to land, and

(ii) where a heliport beacon is likely to create a safety risk by dazzling the pilots at short range, it shall be switched off or the intensity adjusted during the final stages of approach and landing,

Information Note:

Where brilliancy control is provided, settings of 10 per cent and 3 per cent have been found to be satisfactory.

(iii) the heliport beacon shall show a sequence of four white flashes indicating the letter “H” of the International Morse Code,

(iv) each flash shall have a duration of 0.5 to 2.0 milliseconds,

(v) the four flashes shall be equally spaced over a time period of 0.8 +/- 10 %, and be repeated over an off period between 1.2 and 2.2 seconds rendering a rate of 20 to 30 cycles per minute,

(vi) the light from the beacon shall show in all directions when viewed from above,

(vii) the vertical light distribution of the beacon shall extend upwards from an elevation of not more than 5 degrees, and

(viii) the beacon shall be provided with means of intensity adjustment at the time of installation of from 2000 to 20,000 candela to accommodate for ambient background lighting conditions.

Approach/Take-off Direction Lighting System

(2) For the purposes of subsection 305.33(3) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the requirements for a heliport equipped with a non-instrument FATO that is certified to be available for use at night, in respect of a direction lighting system, are the following:

(a) an approach and take-off direction light system shall be provided to serve a non-instrument FATO where

(i) specific approach and departure paths are required to be indicated to pilots (i.e. single approach and departure path), and

(ii) an obstacle clearance, noise abatement procedure or traffic control procedure requires that a specific direction be flown;

(b) an approach/take-off direction light system shall consist of a minimum of five lights installed outside and adjacent to the FATO, on the centre line of the approach/departure path, and extending over a distance of at least 1/2 the FATO length, as shown in Figure 5-10;

(c) the lights shall be placed on the centre line of the approach/departure path at intervals at least 1.5 m apart, with the first light located outside the FATO edge;

(d) where an approach/take-off direction lighting system is used on a curved approach/departure path, the lights shall be spaced at intervals of not more than 15 m and shall be located in a manner that defines the curved portion of the approach/departure path;

Information Note:

Additional lights may be required, in accordance with the HOM, to define a curved approach/departure path.

(e) no light shall project into a plane originating at a height of 25 cm above the edge of the FATO and sloping upwards and outward at a gradient of 4 per cent up to the edge of the safety area; and

(f) approach/take-off direction lights shall be fixed omnidirectional yellow lights.

Visual Approach Slope Indicator System

Information Note:

This Division covers standards for visual approach slope indicators, including:

- PAPI - Precision Approach Path Indicator (four light unit system);

- APAPI - Abbreviated PAPI (two light unit system);

- HAPI - Heliport Approach Path Indicator (single light unit, five sector);

- AHAPI - Abbreviated HAPI (single light unit, three sector).

(3) The requirements for the purposes of subsection 305.33(4) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, in respect of a visual approach slope indicator system, are the following:

(a) a visual approach slope indicator system shall be provided to serve the approach to a FATO where an aeronautical evaluation performed as part of the continued certification process and is afterwards included in the HOM, and it has determined that it is difficult to judge the approach because

(i) visual references have been identified to be inadequate,

(ii) obstacle clearance, noise abatement or traffic control procedures require a particular slope to be flown, or

(iii) deceptive surrounding terrain has been identified as producing misleading information; and

(b) a visual approach slope indicator shall be located, as specified in the HOM, outside the FATO in a way that guides a helicopter to the desired position within the FATO.

Information Note:

The specific standards for PAPI and APAPI are found in the applicable Aerodrome Standards and Recommended Practices (TP 312).

General Design Requirements for HAPI and AHAPI

(4) For the purposes of subsection 305.33(5) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, where a HAPI or an AHAPI is provided at a certified heliport, the general design requirements in respect of a visual approach slope indicator system, are the following:

(a) the light unit shall be mounted so as to be frangible and as low as possible when located within the safety area;

(b) the light unit shall be provided with an intensity control so as to allow adjustment to meet prevailing ambient lighting conditions and to avoid dazzling the pilot during approach and landing;

Information Note:

The light unit should be designed to minimize deposit of condensation (e.g. dew, frost, ice, dirt) on the optically transmitting or reflecting surfaces that may otherwise cause spurious or false signals to be generated.

(c) HAPI and AHAPI systems intended for installation on a floating helideck shall have means for stabilisation of the beam within an accuracy of ± 1/4 degree for a ± 3 degree pitch and movement of the helideck;

(d) the light unit shall be capable of adjustment in elevation at any desired angle between 1 degree and 12 degrees above the horizontal with an accuracy of ± 5 minutes of arc;

(e) the angle of elevation setting shall be the lower boundary of the “on-slope” sector minus 2 minutes of arc to account for the transition sector between the green and red signals;

(f) the colour transition sectors of HAPI and AHAPI, in the vertical plane, shall appear to an observer at a distance of not less than 300 m to occur within a vertical angle of not more than 3 minutes of arc at the beam centre and not more than 5 minutes of arc at the azimuth coverage limits;

(g) the transmission factor for red or green filters shall not be less than 15 per cent at the maximum intensity setting;

(h) at full intensity, the red light of the beam of a HAPI shall have a “y” co-ordinate not exceeding 0.320 and the green light shall be within the restricted area of Figure 5-11 for certainty of recognition and for which the following equations apply for the applicable boundaries:

(i) Red Area

(A) purple boundary y = 0.980-x, and

(B) yellow boundary y = 0.320;

(ii) Green Area

(A) yellow boundary y = 0.726 - 0.726x,

(B) white boundary y = 0.625y - 0.041, and

(C) blue boundary y = 0.390 - 0.171x; and

(i) at full intensity, the red and green light of an AHAPI shall be that specified for HAPI in subsection (3) and the yellow light shall lie within the indicated area of Figure 5-11 for which the following equation applies for the applicable boundaries:

(i) Yellow Area

(A) red boundary y = 0.382,

(B) white boundary y = 0.790 - 0667x, and

(C) green boundary y = x - 0.120.

Specific Requirements for HAPI and AHAPI

(5) For the purposes of subsection 305.33(5) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, where a HAPI or an AHAPI is provided at a certified heliport, the specific requirements in respect of a visual approach slope indicator system, are the following:

(a) the HAPI shall be designed to provide

(i) a signal format which includes four discrete signal sectors, providing an “above slope”, “on slope”, “slightly below slope”, and a “below slope” signal, as shown in Figure 5-12,

(ii) a flash rate of 120 flashes per minute for the flashing sectors,

(iii) an “on-to-off” ratio of pulsating signals of 1 to 1, with a modulation depth of at least 80 per cent,

(iv) an angular size of “on-slope” sector of 45 minutes of arc, and

(v) an angular size of “slightly below” sector of 15 minutes of arc;

(b) the AHAPI shall be designed to provide:

(i) a signal format which includes three signal sectors, providing an “above slope”, “on slope”, and “below slope” signal, as shown in Figure 5-13, and

(ii) an angular size of “on-slope” sector of 60 minutes of arc.


Monitoring

(6) For the purposes of subsection 305.33(6) and in accordance with subsection 305.43(1) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the visual approach slope indicator system shall be monitored as follows:

(a) on a daily basis when there is aircraft operation to detect an out of level condition; or

(b) with an automatic shut-off switch, which will extinguish the unit if misalignment exceeds 0.5 degrees.

Obstacle Protection Surface (OPS)

(7) For the purposes of subsection 305.33(7) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, where a visual approach slope indicator system is provided, the following specifications apply to PAPI, APAPI, HAPI and AHAPI for heliports:

(a) an OPS shall be established, in accordance with that subsection, when a visual approach slope indicator system is provided as specified in the HOM;

(b) the characteristics of the OPS shall correspond to those specified in Table 5-1;

(c) the slope of the OPS shall be a minimum of one degree below the angle “M” = “A” or “B” (as applicable) minus 2 minutes of arc;

(d) the installation, after the most recent certification for that heliport, of objects or extensions of existing objects shall not be permitted above the obstacle protection surface (OPS); and

(e) where the installation of the AHAPI will result in an existing object extending above the OPS, at least one of the following measures shall be taken

(i) raise the approach slope of the system,

(ii) reduce the azimuth spread of the system with the object left outside the beam,

(iii) displace the axis of the system and its associated OPS, or

(iv) displace the final approach and take-off area.

Table 5-1
Dimensions and slopes of the obstacle protection surface (OPS)
Surface and dimensions Non-instrument FATO Non-precision FATO
(1) (2) (3)
Length of inner edge Width of safety area Width of safety area
Distance from end of FATO 3 m minimum 30 m
Divergence 10 % 15 %
Total Length 2500 m 2500 m
Slope:    
PAPI * B’ - 1.0 degrees * B’ - 1.0 degrees
APAPI * A’ - 1.0 degrees * A’ - 1.0 degrees
HAPI ** B’ - 1.0 degrees ** B’ - 1.0 degrees
AHAPI *** A’ - 1.0 degrees *** A’ - 1.0 degrees
* as indicated in TP 312, Aerodrome Standards and Recommended Practices
** the angle of the lower boundary of the “on-slope” signal, where B’ = B minus 2 minutes of arc
*** the angle of the lower boundary of the “on-slope” signal, where A’ = A minus 2 minutes of arc

FATO Area Lights

(8) The requirements, for the purposes of subsection 305.33(8) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, in respect of FATO area lights, are the following:

Information Note:

Under certain environmental conditions (e.g. fog, drifting snow), it may be necessary, in order to meet the applicable requirements, to consider the use of a combination of floodlighting and perimeter lights or luminescent panels to provide surface texture cues of the limit of the FATO area.

(a) FATO area lights shall be placed along the edges of the FATO in accordance with the requirements specified in Figure 5.14 as applicable. The lights shall be uniformly spaced as follows:

(i) for an area in the form of a square or rectangle, at intervals of not more than 7.5 m with a minimum of four lights on each side including a light at each corner, and

(ii) for any other shaped area, including a circular area, at intervals of not more than 7.5 m with a minimum of eight lights;

(b) for an instrument heliport, an additional light shall be inserted between the lights specified in paragraph (1)(c)(i) below in the front and rear row of the perimeter lights, perpendicular to the approach and departure paths;

(c) FATO area lights shall be

(i) of fixed or variable intensity, omnidirectional, and amber or white in colour,

(ii) mounted so that the overall height is not more than 25 cm above the adjacent FATO edge,

(iii) provided with frangible mountings where elevated lights are used,

(iv) where elevated lights are used, as illustrated in Figure 5-10, they shall be located on or outside the edge of the FATO to a maximum distance of 1.5 m, and

(v) where flush lights are used, they shall be located on or within 30 cm from the inside edge of the FATO or the FATO edge markings.

Figure 5.4 Examples of FATO lighting

Aiming Point Lights

(9) For the purposes of subsection 305.33(9) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the requirements where a TLOF is not located within a FATO that is certified to be available for use at night, in respect of aiming point lights, are the following:

(a) where a TLOF is not located within a FATO intended for use at night, the aiming point shall be illuminated;

(b) the method to illuminate the aiming point shall consist of a pattern of seven omnidirectional lights, luminescent panel lighting or floodlights;

(c) aiming point lights shall be located on the aiming point marking with a configuration as shown in Figure 5-15;

(d) where, as specified in the HOM, aiming point lights are provided on a TLOF, they shall be inset omnidirectional white lights or luminescent panels;

(e) where, as specified in the HOM, a luminescent panel is provided, it shall be at least 6 cm wide and its housing shall be the same colour as the aiming point marking; and

(f) where, as specified in the HOM, aiming point lights are provided on a FATO without a TLOF, the lights shall not exceed a height of 25 cm above the surface of the FATO and shall be red in colour.

Figure 5-15. Aiming point lighting

Touchdown and Lift-off Area Lights

(10) For the purposes of subsection 305.33(10) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the requirements in respect of TLOF are the following:

(a) in the case of all touchdown and lift-off area lights:

(i) where, as specified in the HOM, the size of the TLOF is the same as the FATO, the standards set out in subsection 325.33(8) for FATO lights apply, and

(ii) the TLOF lighting system shall consist of perimeter lights, luminescent panel lighting, or floodlighting;

Information Note:

A combination of floodlighting and perimeter lights or floodlighting and luminescent panel lighting can be provided to enhanced surface texture cues within the FATO and TLOF.

(b) in the case of touchdown and lift-off area perimeter lights:

(i) where, as specified in the HOM, TLOF area perimeter lights are provided, they shall be placed along the edge of the TLOF or within a distance of 1.5 m from the edge,

(ii) where, as specified in the HOM, TLOF area perimeter lights are provided at a surface level heliport, they shall be uniformly spaced as follows:

(A) for an area in the form of a square or rectangle, at intervals of not more than 5 m with a minimum of four lights on each side including a light at each corner as shown in Figure 5-16, and

(B) for an area of any other shape, including a circular area, at intervals of not more than 5 m with a minimum of eight lights as shown in Figure 5-16,

(iii) the TLOF area perimeter lights shall be fixed omnidirectional lights showing yellow,

(iv) where, as specified in the HOM, TLOF area perimeter lights are provided at an elevated/rooftop heliport,

(A) the lights shall be uniformly spaced at intervals of not more than 3 m with a minimum of four lights on each side including a light at each corner for an area in the form of a square or rectangle, and, for an area of any other shape, including a circular area, at intervals of not more than 3 m with a minimum of eight lights, and

(B) the lights shall not penetrate into a plane beginning 5 cm above the edge of the TLOF area, sloping upward to 25 cm, and ending where the plane coincides with the FATO edge in accordance with Figure 5-17,

(v) at an elevated/rooftop heliport the TLOF area perimeter lights shall be shielded or installed so that the pattern cannot be seen by the pilot from below the elevation of the TLOF area, and

(vi) except for inset lights, TLOF area perimeter light mountings shall be frangible;

Figure 5-16. Examples of TLOF lighting
Figure 5-17. Elevated TLOF light installation and mounting height

(c) in the case of touchdown and lift-off area floodlights:

(i) except for an elevated/rooftop heliport, where a TLOF is located within a FATO, floodlights used to illuminate the TLOF area shall be located outside the perimeter of the FATO area,

(ii) where, as specified in the HOM, TLOF area floodlights are provided, they shall be located so as to avoid glare to pilots in flight or to personnel working on the area. The floodlight shall be arranged and aimed so that shadows are kept to a minimum,

Information Note:

Where the possibility of glare exists on a specific approach path, procedures may be required to notify the pilot of the potential hazard.

(iii) where, as specified in the HOM, TLOF area floodlights have been provided on a TLOF located on an elevated/rooftop heliport, the TLOF area floodlights shall not penetrate a plane beginning 5 cm above the TLOF edge sloping upward to 25 cm and ending where the plane coincides with the FATO edge in accordance with Figure 5-17,

(iv) as specified in the HOM, the spectral distribution of the TLOF area floodlighting shall be installed so that the limits and the surface of the TLOF can be correctly identified,

(v) the average horizontal illuminance of the floodlight shall be at least 10 lux with a uniformity ratio (average to minimum) of not more than 8:1, and

(vi) where floodlights are provided within a safety area, the floodlight mountings shall be frangible;

(d) in the case of luminescent panels:

(i) where, as specified in the HOM, luminescent panels are provided, they shall be placed along the marking designating the edge of the TLOF area. Where the TLOF area is a circle, the luminescent panels shall be located on straight lines circumscribing the area as shown in Figure 5-16,

(ii) luminescent panels shall be uniformly spaced with a distance between adjacent panel ends of not more than 5 m,

(iii) the total length of luminescent panels in a pattern shall not be less than 50 per cent of the length of the pattern,

(iv) where provided on a square or rectangular TLOF, there shall be a minimum of three panels on each side of the TLOF area including a panel at each corner,

(v) luminescent panels shall emit yellow light, and

(vi) the luminescent panels shall not extend above the surface by more than 2.5 cm.

Rejected Take-off Area Lights

(11) For the purposes of subsection 305.33(11) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the requirements in respect of rejected take-off area lights when the heliport is intended for use at night are the following:

(a) rejected take-off area lights shall be placed

(i) along the full length of the rejected take-off area separated by a distance of not more than 7.5 m and shall be in two parallel rows that are equidistant from the centre line and coincident with the rows of the FATO area edge lights, and

(ii) across the end of a rejected take-off area on a line at right angles to the rejected take-off axis as near to the end of the rejected take-off area as possible and, in any case, not more than 3 m outside the rejected take-off area;

(b) rejected take-off area lights shall be fixed unidirectional lights showing red to pilots in the process of take-off; and

(c) rejected take-off area light mountings shall be frangible.

Taxiway Centre Line Lights

(12) For the purposes of subsection 305.33(12) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the requirements in respect of taxiway centre line lights on a taxiway intended for use in runway visual range (RVR) conditions less than 1200 feet or in conditions of ground visibility less than 1/4 statute mile, are the following:

Information Note:

Where there may be a need to delineate the edges of a taxiway due to limited width, (e.g. narrow taxiway or in snow conditions) this may be done with taxiway edge lights or markers.

(a) taxiway centre line lights on a straight section of a taxiway shall be spaced at longitudinal intervals of not more than 15 m;

(b) taxiway centre line lights on a taxiway curve shall continue from the straight portion of the taxiway at a constant distance from the outside edge of the taxiway curve. The lights shall be spaced at intervals that provide a clear indication of the curve but, in any case, not more than 7.5 m apart;

(c) taxiway centre line lights on a taxiway shall be fixed lights showing green with beam dimensions that makes the light visible only from aircraft on or in the immediate vicinity of the taxiway; and

(d) where aircraft follow the same centre line in both directions the centre line lights shall be bi-directional.

Taxiway Edge Lights

(13) For the purposes of subsection 305.33(12) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations the requirements for taxiway edge lights when, as specified in the HOM, the taxiway is intended to be used at night, are the following:

(a) taxiway edge lights shall be provided on a taxiway which, as specified in the HOM, is not provided with taxiway centre line lights;

(b) taxiway edge lights shall be fixed lights showing blue. The lights shall show up to at least 30° above the horizontal and at all angles in azimuth necessary to provide guidance to a pilot taxiing in either direction;

(c) at an intersection, exit or curve, the lights shall be shielded so that they cannot be seen in angles of azimuth in which they may be confused with other lights;

Information Note:

Where it would increase safety at an intersection of two taxiways, additional blue lights (e.g. double) may be installed to improve the identification of the intersection.

(d) the lights shall be located not more than 1.5 m from the edges of the taxiway;

(e) the intersection of a taxiway with a FATO area shall be indicated by placing two blue edge lights on each side of and adjacent to the taxiway/FATO intersection

(i) one light shall be positioned in line with the edge lights,

(ii) the second shall be positioned not more than 0.6 m from the first and equidistant from the edges of the FATO and the taxiway in accordance with Figure 5-18,

(f) taxiway edge lights on a straight section of a taxiway and on a recognized taxi route shall be spaced, as specified in the HOM, at uniform longitudinal intervals of not more than 15 m;

(g) taxiway edge lights on a taxiway curve shall continue from the straight portion of the taxiway at a constant distance from the outside edge of the taxiway curve;

(h) the lights shall be spaced at intervals that provide a clear indication of the curve but, in any case, not more than 7.5 m apart; and

(i) taxiway edge light mountings shall be frangible.

Figure 5-18. Taxiway corner lights

Apron Lighting

(14) For the purposes of subsection 305.33(14) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, where an apron is available at a heliport that is certified for use at night, the requirements, in respect of apron lighting, are the following:

(a) apron edge lights shall be provided on an apron except where, as specified in the HOM, retro-reflective edge markers or apron floodlighting is provided;

(b) apron edge lights shall be located not more than 1.5 m from the edges of the apron;

(c) apron edge lights shall be fixed lights showing blue;

(d) apron edge lights shall be mounted so that the overall height of the light is not more than 25 cm above the adjacent apron edge elevation;

(e) apron edge lights shall be spaced at uniform intervals of not more than 15 m;

(f) apron edge mounting shall be frangible;

(g) the intersection of a taxiway with an apron area shall be indicated by placing two amber edge lights on each side of and adjacent to the taxiway/apron intersection

(i) one light shall be positioned in line with the edge lights, and

(ii) the second shall be positioned not more than 0.6 m from the first and equidistant from the edges of the apron and the taxiway in accordance with Figure 5-18,

(h) where, as specified in the HOM, retro-reflective edge markers are used, the standards set out in subsection 325.35(3) for taxiway edge markers apply; and

(i) where, as specified in the HOM, apron floodlighting is provided, the average horizontal illuminance shall be at least 20 lux with a uniformity ratio (average to minimum) of not more than 4:1.

325.34 Reserved

Division IX - Heliport Requirements - Markers

325.35 Markers

General Characteristics

(1) For the purposes of subsection 305.35(1) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations the requirements in respect of markers installed at the heliport are the following:

(a) except for flush mounted markers, markers shall be lightweight and frangibly mounted so as not to constitute a safety hazard; and

(b) those located near a FATO area or taxiway shall be sufficiently low, so as not to constitute a safety hazard, to preserve clearance for tail rotor and/or the under side of aircraft.

Information Note:

Anchors or chains may be used to prevent markers that have broken from their mounting from blowing away.

FATO Area Markers

(2) For the purposes of subsection 305.35(2) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the requirements in respect of the FATO markers are the following:

(a) FATO area markers shall be provided where, as specified in the HOM, a FATO edge marking is not provided and there is a lack of contrast between the boundary of the FATO area and the surrounding ground;

(b) FATO area markers shall be located on the boundary of the FATO area;

(c) FATO area markers shall not have a height exceeding 25 cm above ground or snow level;

(d) FATO area markers shall be spaced at equal intervals

(i) for a square or rectangular area, with at least three markers on each side including a marker at each corner, and

(ii) for any other shaped area including a circular area, with a minimum number of eight (8) markers; and

(e) FATO area markers shall be coloured to contrast with the background against which they will be seen.

Information Note:

A single colour, orange or red, or two contrasting colours, orange and white or red and white, can be used, except where these colours would not be easily identifiable against the background.

Taxiway Edge Markers

(3) For the purposes of subsection 305.35(3) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations the requirements in respect of taxiway edge markers are the following:

(a) where, as specified in the HOM, taxiway edge markers are provided:

(i) taxiway edge markers shall be installed at the same locations as would the taxiway edge lights have otherwise been installed, and at a height not greater than 25 cm above the taxiway surface,

(ii) a taxiway edge marker shall be blue,

(iii) the marked surface as viewed by the pilot shall be a rectangle and shall have a minimum viewing area of 150 cm2, and

(iv) taxiway edge markers shall be lightweight and frangible so as not to constitute a safety hazard;

(b) where, as specified in the HOM, taxiway centre line markers are provided to improve the guidance of the taxiway centre line marking, the markers shall be installed at least at the same location as would taxiway centre line lights had they been installed,

(i) the markers shall normally be located on the taxiway centre line marking but where it is not physically practicable to locate them on the marking, they may be offset by not more than 30 cm,

Information Note:

See subsection 325.35(3) for the spacing of taxiway centre line lights.

(ii) the markers shall be retro-reflective green,

(iii) the marked surface as viewed by the pilot shall be a rectangle and have a minimum viewing area of 20 cm2, and

(iv) the markers shall be designed and fitted so as to withstand the downwash of a helicopter or being run over by the wheels of an aircraft without damage either to the aircraft or to the markers themselves.

Air Taxiway Markers

(4) For the purposes of subsection 305.35(4) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations the requirements in respect of air taxiway markers are the following:

Information Note:

These markers are not meant to be used on a helicopter ground taxiway.

(a) air taxiway markers shall be located along the edge of the air taxiway and shall be spaced at intervals of not more than 30 m on straight sections and 15 m on curves;

(b) an air taxiway marker shall be frangible and, when installed, shall not exceed 35 cm above ground or snow level. The surface of the marker as viewed by the pilot shall be a rectangle with a height to width ratio of approximately 3 to 1 as shown in Figure 5-19 and shall have a minimum area of 150 cm2; and

(c) an air taxiway marker shall be divided into three equal, horizontal bands coloured yellow, green and yellow respectively. If the air taxiway is to be used at night as specified in the HOM, the markers shall be internally illuminated, retro-reflective, or have sufficient external illumination to make them easily identifiable.

Figure 5-19. Air taxiway edge marker

325.36 Reserved

Division X — Heliport Requirements - Visual Aids for Denoting Obstacles

325.37 Requirements for Marking or Lighting

Information Note:

The marking and lighting of obstacles is intended to reduce hazards to aircraft by indicating their presence. This Division outlines the circumstances in which obstacles located within the perimeter of the heliport and immediate vicinity are required to be marked or lighted. Standard 621.19 sets out the methods that may be used to mark or light these obstacles.

Fixed Obstacles

(1) For the purposes of subsections 305.37(1) and (3) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the requirements in respect of marking or lighting obstacles are the following:

(a) a fixed obstacle that is located within the shaded area shown in Figure 6-1 shall be marked and, if the heliport is certified for use at night, lighted;

(b) a heliport operator need not mark an obstacle if the obstacle is not more than 150 m above the surrounding ground and is lighted by a medium intensity obstacle light, as defined in TP 312 or any more recent applicable standard pertaining to the same subject, by day;

(c) marking of a fixed obstacle above 150 m can be omitted if the obstacle is lighted by high-intensity obstacle lights, as defined in TP 312 or any more recent applicable standard pertaining to the same subject, by day; and

(d) a heliport operator does not need to mark or light an obstacle if

(i) the obstacle is shielded by another fixed object, or

(ii) the obstacle is, by its nature, easily identifiable or an aeronautical evaluation is performed as part of the continued certification process and is afterwards included in the HOM, and it indicates that ambient light is sufficient at night.

Figure 6-1. Obstacle marking/lighting area

(2) Elevated Obstacles on Taxiway Strips

An elevated obstacle on a helicopter ground taxiway strip shall be marked and, if the taxiway is used at night, lighted.

325.38 Marking Obstacles

(1) For the purposes of subsection 305.38(1) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the requirements in respect of marking a fixed obstacle or a mobile obstacle on the heliport are the following:

(a) in the case of a fixed obstacle:

(i) it shall be coloured,

(ii) where it is not physically possible to colour a fixed obstacle such as a large building, group of trees or pile of dirt, markers or flags shall be displayed on or above the obstacle,

(iii) where the use of colours are required:

(A) the colour and form of marking displayed on an obstacle shall be in accordance with Standard 621.19;

(iv) where the use of markers are required:

(A) a marker displayed on or adjacent to an obstacle shall be located so as to retain the physical outline of the obstacle,

(B) the shape of a marker shall be physically different to ensure that it is not mistaken for a marker employed to convey other information,

(C) a marker displayed on overhead wires or catenaries shall comply with the requirements of Standard 621.19, and

(D) when installed, the colour of a marker shall contrast with the background against which it will be seen, and

(v) where the use of flags are permitted by Standard 621.19:

(A) flags used to mark a fixed obstacle shall be displayed around, on top of, or around the highest edge of the obstacle,

(B) when flags are used to mark a large obstacle or a group of closely spaced obstacles, they shall be displayed at least every 15 m,

(C) flags used to mark fixed obstacles shall be orange in colour or a combination of orange and white. If orange or a combination of orange and white merge with the background, other easily identifiable colours shall be used;

(b) in the case of mobile obstacles:

(i) a mobile obstacle that requires marking to be easily identifiable, other than an emergency vehicle, shall be coloured or marked by flags,

(ii) an emergency vehicle shall be coloured red or lime green,

(iii) flags used to mark a mobile obstacle shall

(A) be rectangular and not less than 0.9 m on each side, and

(B) consist of a checkered pattern, with each square having sides of not less than 0.3 m, and

(iv) the colours of the chequered pattern on the flag shall

(A) contrast with each other and with the background against which they will be seen, and

(B) be orange and white or red and white unless those colours do not contrast with the background.

325.39 Lighting Obstacles

(1) For the purposes of subsection 305.39(2) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the requirements in respect of displaying lights on maintenance and service vehicles in use, are the following:

(a) maintenance and service vehicles shall display strobe (capacitor discharge) type warning lights as follows:

(i) 360 degree azimuth coverage,

(ii) emission in yellow colour chromatically within the boundaries defined by the International Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Standard J578,

(iii) a signature characteristic composed of repeated cycles each containing at least three flashes, with the last two flashes having a separation of not more than 280 ms,

(iv) a repetition rate of 75 ± 15 cycles per minute,

(v) effective intensity not less than 80 candelas,

(vi) automatic high/low selection for day/dusk operation respectively,

(vii) instantaneous peak intensity of each flash not more than 150,000 candela for the low (day) selection and not more than 300,000 candela for the high (dusk) selection,

(viii) a beam centre elevation of 3 degrees above the horizontal, and

(ix) a beam spread measured at half the intensity points of not less than 6 degrees.

(2) For the purposes of subsection 305.39(3) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, emergency vehicles that are required to be lighted by any authority other than Transport Canada, shall display flashing lights when the vehicles are in use on the heliport.

Division XI - Heliport Requirements - Visual Aids for Denoting Restricted Use Areas

325.41 Visual Aids for Denoting Restricted Use Areas

Closed FATO and Other Areas

(1) For the purposes of subsection 305.41(1) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, closed area markings shall be in accordance with the following requirements and characteristics as outlined in Figure 7-1:

Figure 7-1. Closed FATO and helicopter parking position marking

(a) the requirements for closed markings are the following:

(i) a closed marking shall be displayed on a FATO, helicopter parking position, taxiway, or on any part of those areas, which is permanently closed to the use of all aircraft,

(ii) when an area of the heliport is temporarily closed or the area is snow covered, the heliport operator need not display a closed marking if a notice of the closure is contained in the Canada Flight Supplement (CFS) or has been reported in a Notice to Airmen (NOTAM),

(iii) a closed marking shall be superimposed on the aiming point marking of a closed FATO,

(iv) a closed marking shall be applied on any helicopter parking position associated with a closed FATO,

(v) a closed marking shall be placed, at a minimum, at each end of a taxiway or part of a taxiway that is closed, and

(vi) when a FATO, helicopter parking position, taxiway or part of those areas is permanently closed

(A) all normal markings shall be obliterated, and

(B) lighting shall not be operated except when required for maintenance purposes;

(b) the characteristics of closed markings are the following:

(i) a closed marking shall be an X that is white when displayed on a FATO and yellow when displayed on a taxiway or a helicopter parking position,

Information Note:

When an area is temporarily closed, frangible barriers or markings using materials other than paint, such as plastic sheeting or wood, may be used to identify the closed area.

(ii) on a FATO, the closed marking shall be larger than the size of the aiming point marking by at least 25% in accordance with Figure 7-1 and,

(iii) on a helicopter parking position a closed marking shall be superimposed on the inner circle and shall cover at least 75% of the diameter of the outer circle in accordance with Figure 7-1.

Non Load-Bearing Surfaces

(2) For the purposes of subsection 305.41(3) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the requirements in respect of non-load bearing surfaces are the following:

(a) where shoulders for taxiways, aprons and other non load-bearing surfaces which cannot be easily distinguished from (OR: would not be easily identifiable amongst) load-bearing surfaces and which, if used by an aircraft might result in damage to the aircraft, the boundary between those areas and the load-bearing surface must be marked by a taxi edge stripe marking; and

(b) a taxi edge stripe marking shall be placed, with the outer edge of the marking along the outer edge of the load-bearing pavement.

Unserviceability Markers

Information Note:

Unserviceability markers and lights are used for such purposes as warning pilots of a hole in a taxiway or apron pavement or outlining a portion of pavement that is under repair. They are not suitable for use for a portion of an elongated FATO or a taxiway when a major portion of the width becomes unserviceable. In such instances, the FATO or taxiway should be closed.

(3) For the purposes of subsection 305.41(4) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the requirements in respect of unserviceability markers, are the following:

(a) unserviceability markers shall be displayed on any part of a taxiway or apron that is unfit for the movement of aircraft;

(b) unserviceability markers shall be flags, cones, or marker boards;

(c) an unserviceability cone shall be at least 0.5 m high and red or international orange in combination with white;

(d) an unserviceability flag shall be at least 0.5 m square and red or international orange in combination with white;

(e) an unserviceability marker board shall be at least 0.5 m high and 0.9 m long, with alternate red and white or international orange and white vertical stripes; and

(f) unserviceability markers shall be placed at intervals that permit to delineate the unserviceable area.

Unserviceability Lights

(4) For the purposes of subsection 305.41(5) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the requirements, in respect of unserviceability lights are the following:

(a) unserviceability lights shall be displayed wherever any portion of a taxiway or apron used at night is unfit for the movement of aircraft;

(b) unserviceability lights shall be placed at intervals that permit the unserviceable area be delineated; and

(c) an unserviceability light shall consist of a red fixed light intense enough to allow it to be easily identifiable in relation to adjacent lights and the general level of illumination against which it will be viewed but in no case, less than 10 candela.

Division XII - Heliport Requirements - Equipement and Installations

325.43 Equipment and Installations

(1) Electrical Systems

Reserved

Fencing

(2) For the purposes of subsection 305.43(2) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the technical specifications in respect of fences or other barriers installed on the heliport, are the following:

(a) a fence or other barrier shall be provided on a heliport, as specified in the HOM, to prevent the inadvertent or unauthorized entry of persons, vehicles or animals;

Information Note:

In addition to the specifications contained below, heliports that receive scheduled passenger service may require additional security measures. See the Aerodrome Security Regulations.

(b) a fence or barrier shall be located, as specified in the HOM, outside of the safety area;

(c) a fence or barrier shall not project into an obstacle limitation surface associated with an instrument heliport;

(d) a fence at a non-instrument H3 heliport shall not project into the following surfaces:

(i) outer edge of FATO,

(ii) height, FATO edge elevation,

(iii) slope, 8 per cent (1:12.5), and

(iv) width, same as the associated approach/take-off surface;

(e) a fence at a non-instrument H2 heliport shall not project into the following surface:

(i) outer edge of FATO,

(ii) height, FATO edge elevation,

(iii) slope, 12 per cent (1:8.3) for a single approach/departure path,

(iv) slope, 16 per cent (1:6.25) where 2 or more approach/departure paths are available, and

(v) width, same as the associated approach/take-off surface; and

(f) where a fence is established less than 3 m outside the boundary of the safety area, the fence shall not be higher than 1.25 m above the elevation of the associated FATO edge.

Heliport Vehicle Operation

(3) For the purposes of subsection 305.43(3) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the requirements in respect of heliport vehicle operations are the following:

Information Note 1:

Guidance on aerodrome vehicle operations is contained in the Manual of Airport Traffic Directives for the Operation of Vehicles on Airport Movement Areas TP 2633.

Information Note 2:

Roads located on the movement area should be restricted to the exclusive use of heliport personnel and other authorized persons. Access to public buildings by an unauthorized person should not require the use of roads located on the movement area.

(a) a vehicle shall be operated

(i) on a movement area, under the direction of the air traffic services unit or the airport or heliport operator or a person working under the authority of that operator, and

(ii) on the apron, under the direction of the heliport operator or a person working under his or her authority;

Information Note:

At heliports where air traffic services, an authorized approach UNICOM or a community airport radio station are not provided, the requirement to equip vehicles with radios will be determined by the heliport operator taking into account the density of air traffic, the visibility under which operations are intended, the complexity of the heliport layout and the number of vehicles operating as specified in the HOM.

(b) the driver of a vehicle on the movement area shall comply with all mandatory instructions conveyed by marking and signs unless

(i) otherwise authorized by the air traffic services unit, the heliport operator or a person acting under his or her authority when on the movement area, or

(ii) giving way to aircraft;

(c) the driver of a vehicle on the movement area shall be trained for the tasks to be performed and shall comply with the instructions issued by the air traffic services unit, heliport operator or a person acting under his or her authority when on the movement area;

(d) where air traffic services, an authorized approach UNICOM or a community airport radio station are provided at a heliport or instrument approach procedures are in place

(i) vehicles operating on the movement area shall be equipped with two-way radio communication or be accompanied by a vehicle or person with radio communication equipment, and

(ii) a radio-equipped vehicle shall have two-way radio communication with the unit on the mandatory frequency before entering the movement area;

(e) where air traffic services, an authorized approach UNICOM or a community airport radio station are not provided or during any period where those services are not available, a radio-equipped vehicle shall

(i) before entering or changing location on the movement area, broadcast their position and intentions on the mandatory frequency or air traffic frequency,

(ii) when on the movement area, advise pilots of their position and intentions,

(iii) when requested, provide the location of other known ground traffic on the movement area, and

(iv) give way to aircraft at all times; and

(f) the driver of a radio-equipped vehicle shall maintain a continuous listening watch on the mandatory frequency when on a movement area.

Siting, Construction and Installations of Equipment

(4) For the purposes of subsection 305.43(5) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the requirements for the location, the construction and the installation of equipment required for air navigation purposes are the following:

(a) any equipment or installation that is required for air navigation purposes shall be of minimum practical mass and height, be frangible and sited in such a manner as not to create a safety hazard to aircraft.

Maintenance

(5) For the purposes of subsection 305.43(6) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the requirements in respect of visual aids, FATO lights and centre line lights on taxiways are the following:

(a) in the case of visual aids:

(i) shall be subject to a system of preventive maintenance, as specified in the HOM, to ensure that the lights and marking are reliable, and

(ii) a light is considered to be unserviceable when its output intensity, output luminance, or, if an isocandela diagram is applicable to the specification of the light’s performance, its main beam average intensity, is less than 50% of the originally available design value;

Information Note:

These specifications are not intended to define the operational failure of a lighting system.

(b) in the case of FATO/TLOF lights:

(i) no more than 10% of the lighting system or 2 lights, whichever is greater, of the FATO/TLOF edge lights shall be unserviceable, and

(ii) an unserviceable light shall not be permitted adjacent to another unserviceable light; and

Information Note:

With respect to FATO edge lights, lights are considered to be adjacent if located in sequence in the same row of edge lights.

(c) adjacent centre line lights on a taxiway intended for use in runway visual range conditions in the order of 1200 ft or less shall not be unserviceable at the same time.

Division XIII - Emergency and Other Services

325.45 Emergency Response Plan

(1) For the purposes of subsection 305.45(5) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the following information shall be included in the Heliport Emergency Response Plan:

(a) the types of emergencies planned for;

(b) how to initiate the plan for each emergency specified;

(c) the name of agencies on and off the heliport to contact for each type of emergency with telephone numbers or other contact information;

(d) the role of each agency for each type of emergency;

(e) a list of pertinent on-heliport services available with telephone numbers or other contact information;

(f) a copy of any written agreement with other agencies for mutual aid and the provision of emergency services; and

(g) a grid map of the heliport and its immediate vicinity.

325.46 Fire Protection

(1) For the purposes of subsection 305.46(1) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the requirements in respect of fire protection for a surface level certified heliport or for a heliport over a parking garage or an elevated structure are the following:

(a) above ground flammable liquid storage tanks, compressed gas storage tanks, and liquefied gas storage tanks shall be located at least 15 m from the edge of the FATO;

(b) the heliport shall have at least one access point that provides rapid access to fire-fighting personnel;

(c) the heliport shall be pitched or sloped so that drainage flows away from access points and passenger holding areas; and

(d) no smoking signs shall be erected at access and egress points of the heliport.

(2) For the purposes of subsection 305.46(2) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the requirements in respect of fire protection for a rooftop heliport, are the following:

(a) main structural support beams that could be exposed to a fuel spill shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours;

(b) the TLOF shall be pitched to provide drainage that flows away from passenger holding areas, access points, stairways, elevator shafts, ramps, hatches, and other openings not designed to collect drainage;

(c) the TLOF surface shall be constructed of non-combustible, non-porous materials;

(d) at least two means of egress from the TLOF shall be provided;

(e) the helicopter rooftop landing pad shall have at least two access points that provide rapid access to fire-fighting personnel;

(f) where buildings are provided with a fire alarm system, a manual pull station shall be provided near each designated means of egress from the roof;

(g) no smoking signs shall be erected at access and egress points of the heliport; and

(h) flammable liquids, compressed gas, and liquefied gas shall not be permitted within the approach/departure path.

325.47 Extinguishing Agents and Equipment

(1) For the purposes of section 305.47 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the performance standards for fire-fighting equipment and agents based on the longest helicopter for which the heliport is certified are the following:
(effective 2015/09/08)

Helicopter overall length Surface level and elevated Heliports Rooftop Heliports
Up to but not including 15m *Extinguisher with a minimum rating of 4-A: 80-B *Extinguisher with a minimum rating of 40-A: 320-B or Hose line capable of producing a foam solution at 150 L/min. for a minimum of two minutes

or

Foam fixed system capable of producing 4.1 L/min. per m2 and covering the entire roof landing pad for 5 minutes
15m and up to but not including 25m *Extinguisher with a minimum rating of 10-A:120-B Hose line capable of producing a foam solution at 325 L/min. for a minimum of two minutes

or

Foam fixed system capable of producing 4.1 L/min. per m2 and covering entire roof landing pad for 5 minutes
25m and up to but not including 35m *Extinguisher with a minimum rating of 30-A: 240-B Hose line capable of producing a foam solution at 1000 L/min. for a minimum of two minutes

or

Foam fixed system capable of producing 4.1 L/min. per m2 and covering the entire roof-landing pad for 5 minutes.
* One or more extinguishers or systems may satisfy the requirements.

Note: Extinguisher ratings are according to certification testing under the applicable Underwriter Laboratory of Canada (ULC) Standard.

(2) For the purposes of section 305.47 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the requirements in respect of extinguishing agents are the following:
(effective 2015/09/08)

(a) where a foam concentrate is provided as an extinguishing agent, it shall

(i) comply with the specifications of the Underwriters Laboratory of Canada (CAN-ULC S560), and

(ii) be suitable for the type of equipment to be used at the heliport;

(b) where foam concentrates of different types or from different manufacturers are provided as extinguishing agents, they shall not be mixed unless the Underwriters Laboratory of Canada has established, under the applicable ULC Standard, that they are completely interchangeable and compatible;

(c) where a dry chemical is provided as an extinguishing agent it shall

(i) comply with the specifications of the Underwriters Laboratory of Canada (CAN-ULC S514), and

(ii) be suitable for the type of equipment to be used and compatible with the foam selected at the heliport; and

(d) where there is any possibility that a fire-fighting extinguisher or a system will freeze, freeze protection shall be provided.

325.49 Training for Safety Personnel

(1) For the purposes of section 305.49 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the initial and refresher training aimed at providing the safety personnel with the knowledge and skills necessary to deal effectively with an emergency at a heliport, shall comprise of the following subjects:
(effective 2015/09/08)

(a) familiarization with the operation of the heliport;

(b) safety procedures around helicopters during ground operations;

(c) the use and functioning of the communication systems at the heliport;

(d) familiarization with the heliport emergency plan; and

(e) the use of any equipment, among the following, which is provided at the heliport:

(i) portable fire extinguishers,

(ii) fire hoses, nozzles and other similar appliances, and

(iii) extinguishing agents.

Division XIV - Heliport Operations Manual

Reserved

Division XV - Safety Management System

Reserved

Date modified: