Part IV - Personnel Licensing and Training

Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) 2016-1

Standard 421 - Flight Crew Permits, Licences and Ratings

Foreword

The Personnel Licensing and Training Standards Respecting Flight Crew Permits, Licences and Ratings outline the basic specifications that apply to the issuance of flight crew permits, licences and ratings and to the holders of flight crew permits, licences and ratings in compliance with Subpart 401 in the Canadian Aviation Regulations.

DIVISION I - GENERAL

421.05 Recency Requirements

  1. (1) In order to comply with the requirements of 401.05(1)(b)
    1. (a) the flight review shall include all items normally covered during the flight test for the issue of that permit or licence,
    2. (b) the flight instructor completing the flight review shall certify in the holder’s personal log that the skill requirement has been met, and
    3. (c) the holder shall successfully complete the written examination Student Pilot Permit or Private Pilot Licence for Foreign and Military Applicants, Air Regulations (PSTAR)
    4. (d) The certification in (b) above shall read:
      “This is to certify that the skill requirement for __________ (permit or licence) has been met” and shall include the date and the name, signature and licence number of the instructor.
  2. (2) In order to comply with the requirements of 401.05(2)(a), any of the following are considered acceptable as recurrent training programs:
    1. (a) completion of a flight review conducted by the holder of a flight instructor rating in the same category, shall include all items normally covered during the flight test for the issue of that permit or licence;
    2. (b) attendance at a safety seminar conducted by Transport Canada Aviation;
    3. (c) successful completion of a recurrent training program designed to update pilot knowledge, which could include subject areas such as human factors, meteorology, flight planning and navigation, and aviation regulations, rules and procedures that has been approved by the Minister as being satisfactory for those purposes;
      (amended 2005/12/01; previous version)
    4. (d) completion of the self-paced study program produced annually in the Transport Canada Aviation Safety Newsletter, which is designed to update pilot knowledge in the subjects specified in (c) above. The completed copy shall be the most current published by date and shall be retained by the licence holder;
    5. (e) completion of a training program or Pilot Proficiency Check as required by Parts IV, VI or VII of the Canadian Aviation Regulations;
    6. (f) completion of the skill requirements for issue or renewal of a pilot permit, licence or rating, including night rating, VFR over-the-top rating, instrument rating, multi-engine class rating, flight instructor rating, landplane or seaplane rating; or
      (amended 2000/09/01; previous version)
    7. (g) completion of the written examination(s) for a permit, licence or rating.

421.06 Issue and Endorsement of Flight Crew Permits, Licences and Ratings

(1) Proof of Citizenship

The following documents are acceptable as proof of citizenship:

  1. (a) a citizenship certificate;
  2. (b) a Certificate of Registration of Birth Abroad issued by the Department of Citizenship and Immigration;
  3. (c) a birth certificate or baptismal certificate issued in Canada or in a state whose citizens do not require a passport to travel in Canada. A copy certified by the issuing state or duly notarized is acceptable;
  4. (d) a passport. If no expiry date is indicated on the passport, an attestation that the passport is valid is required from the applicant’s state of citizenship;
  5. (e) an aviation personnel licence showing the citizenship of the holder and issued by the state of which the applicant is a citizen; and
  6. (f) a Canadian Immigration Record and Visa, Form IMM1000, issued to a landed immigrant by the Department of Citizenship and Immigration.

(2) Proof of Age

The following documents are acceptable proof of the age of an applicant for a personnel permit, licence or rating:

  1. (a) a citizenship certificate;
  2. (b) a Certificate of Registration of Birth Abroad issued by the Department of Citizenship and Immigration;
  3. (c) a birth certificate or baptismal certificate, certified by the issuing authority, or a duly notarized copy. If the date of birth is not shown on a baptismal certificate it shall be supported by a statutory declaration in which the applicant declares the date of birth;
  4. (d) a passport;
  5. (e) an aviation personnel permit or licence, showing the date of birth, issued by the state of which the applicant is a citizen;
  6. (f) a Canadian Immigration Record and Visa, Form IMM1000, issued to a landed immigrant by the Department of Citizenship and Immigration.

(3) Photograph

(amended 2008/04/17; no previous version)

A photograph submitted by an applicant for a flight crew permit or licence shall meet the following requirements:
(amended 2008/04/17; no previous version)

  1. (a) meet the specifications of a passport photograph pursuant to Passport Canada;
    (amended 2008/04/17; no previous version)
  2. (b) taken within 12 months preceding the application;
    (amended 2008/04/17; no previous version)
  3. (c) provide on the back of the photograph, the name of the applicant; and
    (amended 2008/04/17; no previous version)
  4. (d) provide on the back of the photograph, the name, signature and declaration from a person who verifies that the photograph is a true likeness of the applicant, which person can be one of the following:
    (amended 2008/04/17; no previous version)
    1. (i) a person who has a delegation of authority issued by the Minister of Transport to perform functions in support of civil aviation,
      (amended 2008/04/17; no previous version)
    2. (ii) a Transport Canada Civil Aviation employee who has been assigned these duties by a manager, or
      (amended 2008/04/17; no previous version)
    3. (iii) a person who is considered to be an eligible guarantor pursuant to Passport Canada.
      (amended 2008/04/17; no previous version)

      Information Note:

      For information concerning the specifications of a passport photograph or eligible guarantor pursuant to Passport Canada, you may visit the Passport Canada web site at: http://www.pptc.gc.ca/.
      (amended 2008/04/17; no previous version)

(4) Language Proficiency Scale

(amended 2008/04/17; no previous version)

LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY SCALE
EXPERT, OPERATIONAL AND BELOW OPERATIONAL LEVELS

(amended 2008/04/17; no previous version)

LEVEL PRONUNCIATION STRUCTURE VOCABULARY FLUENCY COMPREHENSION INTERACTION
Expert Level
describes proficiency more advanced than the minimum required standard
Pronunciation, stress, rhythm, and intonation infrequently are influenced by the first language or regional variation, but almost never interfere with ease of understanding. Both basic and complex grammatical structures and sentence patterns are consistently well controlled. Vocabulary range and accuracy are sufficient to communicate effectively on a wide variety of familiar and unfamiliar topics. Vocabulary is idiomatic, nuanced, and sensitive to register. Able to speak at length with a natural, effortless flow. Varies speech flow for stylistic effect, e.g. to emphasize a point. Uses appropriate discourse markers and connectors. Comprehension is consistently accurate in nearly all contexts and includes comprehension of linguistic and cultural subtleties. Interacts with ease in nearly all situations. Is sensitive to verbal and non-verbal cues and responds to them appropriately.
Operational Level
describes the minimum proficiency acceptable for radiotelephony communication
Pronunciation, stress, rhythm, and intonation are influenced by the first language or regional variation, to the extent that they sometimes interfere with ease of understanding. Basic grammatical structures and sentence patterns are used creatively and are usually well controlled. Errors may occur, particularly in unusual or unexpected circumstances, but rarely interfere with meaning. Vocabulary range and accuracy are usually sufficient to communicate effectively on common, concrete, and work-related topics. Can often paraphrase successfully when lacking vocabulary in unusual or unexpected circumstances. Produces stretches of language at an appropriate tempo. There may be occasional loss of fluency on transition from rehearsed or formulaic speech to spontaneous interaction, but this does not prevent effective communication. Can make limited use of discourse markers or connectors. Fillers are not distracting. Comprehension is mostly accurate on common, concrete, and work-related topics when the accent or variety used is sufficiently intelligible for an international community of users. When the speaker is confronted with a linguistic or situational complication or an unexpected turn of events, comprehension may be slower or require clarification strategies. Responses are usually immediate, appropriate, and informative. Initiates and maintains exchanges even when dealing with an unexpected turn of events. Deals adequately with apparent misunderstandings by checking, confirming, or clarifying.
Below Operational Level
describes a level of proficiency below the level required
Pronunciation, stress, rhythm, and intonation are influenced by the first language or regional variation, to the extent that they frequently interfere with ease of understanding. Basic grammatical structures and sentence patterns associated with predictable situations are not always well controlled. Errors frequently interfere with meaning. Vocabulary range and accuracy are limited and the word choice often inappropriate. Often unable to paraphrase successfully when lacking vocabulary. Produces stretches of language, but phrasing and pausing are often inappropriate. Hesitations or slowness in language processing may prevent effective communication. Fillers are sometimes distracting. Comprehension is often accurate on common, concrete and work-related topics when the accent or variety used is sufficiently intelligible for an international community of users. May fail to understand a linguistic of situational complication or an unexpected turn of events. Can initiate and maintain exchanges with reasonable ease on familiar topics and in predictable situations. Generally inadequate when dealing with an unexpected turn of events.

Information Note:

Language proficiency in English or English and French will be annotated on the licence, however, the level of proficiency will not be indicated.
(amended 2008/04/17; no previous version)

421.07 Validation of Foreign Licences

(1) Issue of Foreign Licence Validation Certificate

  1. (a) A Foreign Licence Validation Certificate shall be issued to an applicant who provides the following:
  2. (i) a foreign licence valid under the laws of a contracting state and valid for the privileges requested; and
  3. (ii) a letter requesting issue of the Foreign Licence Validation Certificate and specifying the purpose for which the foreign licence is to be validated.
  4. (b) The Foreign Licence Validation Certificate shall normally be issued for a period of one year from the date of issue. A shorter period may be granted upon the applicant’s request.
    (amended 1998/03/23; previous version)
  5. (c) If the medical validity period of the licence issued by a contracting state other than Canada is longer than the ICAO standard, the validation shall be limited to Canadian airspace.
    (amended 2003/03/01; previous version)

(2) Purposes For Which Foreign Licence Validation Certificates May Be Issued

  1. (a) for the holder to undergo a flight test;
  2. (b) for private recreational flying;
  3. (c) for ferry of an aircraft registered in Canada to or from a foreign country;
  4. (d) for the holder to give type rating training on an aircraft registered in Canada to the registered owner, or to Canadian flight crew employed by the registered owner;
    (amended 2003/03/01; previous version)
  5. (e) for the holder to receive training in a Canadian registered aircraft;
    (amended 1998/03/23; previous version)
  6. (f) for operation of aircraft registered in a foreign state under the operating certificate of a Canadian carrier provided that the privileges are limited to the type of aircraft being operated;
    (amended 1998/03/23; previous version)
  7. (g) for operation of Canadian aircraft on Canadian commercial air services in urgent circumstances; such as fire suppression operations, emergency agricultural and forestry aerial application, airlift in relief of domestic natural disasters, and search and rescue operations;
    (amended 1998/03/23; previous version)
  8. (h) for commercial air services operated entirely within a foreign country where pilots holding a licence from that country may have their licence validated for operation of Canadian registered aircraft in that country;
    (amended 1998/03/23; no previous version)
  9. (i) for the operation of aircraft registered in Canada on lease to foreign carriers;
    (amended 1998/03/23; no previous version)
  10. (j) for reasons other than those mentioned above where approval may be given if, in the opinion of the Minister, it is in the public interest and not likely to affect aviation safety.
    (amended 1998/03/23; no previous version)

421.08 Personal Logs

(amended 1999/03/01; no previous version)

(1) Loss of Personal Log

An applicant for a flight crew permit, licence or rating who is unable to provide proof of flying experience by means of a personal log, due to extenuating circumstances such as the loss of records through fire, theft or other similar cause, may submit an Affidavit or Statutory Declaration sworn before a Commissioner of Oaths, to the Minister.

  1. (a) The affidavit or declaration shall contain a breakdown of flying experience claimed, appropriate to the permit, licence or rating applied for and shall include the following details:
    1. (i) hours flown by day and by night on single and multi-engine aircraft as pilot-in-command, co-pilot and dual;
    2. (ii) hours flown cross-country by day and by night as pilot-in-command, co-pilot and dual;
    3. (iii) hours of instrument flight time and approved instrument ground trainer time;
    4. (iv) aircraft types and registrations; and
    5. (v) where applicable, names of employers and dates of employment.
  2. (b) The affidavit or declaration shall contain an explanation of the circumstances which prevented the submission of a personal log and a statement declaring that all attempts to reproduce and certify entries in a personal log have been unsuccessful.
  3. (c) Wherever practicable, the applicant shall obtain corroborating evidence, such as copies of journey log book entries.
  4. (d) Affidavits or Statutory Declarations submitted without corroborating evidence shall not be accepted by the Minister as evidence of flying experience beyond that required for the issue of a Commercial Pilot Licence.
  5. (e) The applicant shall, in addition, successfully complete all examinations and tests required for the permit, licence or rating applied for.

(2) Lack of Personal Log - Foreign Licence Holders

Holders of pilot licences issued by a Contracting State who are unable to provide a certified personal log may be credited by the Minister with the minimum flying experience specified in ICAO Annex 1 for the foreign licence held.

421.10 Reserved

(effective 2014/04/14)

421.11 Airline Transport Licence Training (Pilot-in-command Under Supervision)

(amended 1998/12/01; previous version)

(1) All air operators using large aeroplanes may institute programs of supervision to allow co-pilots to credit flight time as pilot-in-command time.

(2) Air operators using small aeroplanes and Air operators using helicopters may institute a program of supervision referred to in subsection (1) provided that they have received authorization to do so from the Minister based on the operator’s ability to institute such a program in a safe and effective manner.

(3) The training program shall be conducted in accordance with the following:

  1. (a) the operator shall ensure that the supervisory pilots are briefed on these procedures by the Minister; and
  2. (b) the pilot-in-command under supervision flight time may be acquired in the co-pilot's seat provided the pilot-in-command functions described in clauses (i) and (ii) can be performed from the seat. Otherwise, the pilot-in-command under supervision flight time shall include a minimum of ten hours in the pilot-in-command seat. The pilot-in-command under supervision flight time shall include:
    (amended 1998/12/01; previous version)
    1. (i) with the exception of taxiing, at least all the flight functions of a pilot-in-command including flight planning, takeoff, landing, en route flying and approach; and
    2. (ii) a minimum of one takeoff and one landing for each ten hours of flight time.

(4) The conditions for crediting an applicant's flight time are as follows:
(amended 1998/12/01; no previous version)

  1. (a) An applicant for an Airline Transport Pilot Licence - Aeroplane shall be given credit for up to 100 hours of pilot-in-command flight time under supervision, provided the applicant:
    1. (i) holds a Commercial Pilot Licence - Aeroplane with a multi-engine rating and the aeroplane type rating in which the flight time is acquired;
    2. (ii) has a Group I instrument rating; and
    3. (iii) has accumulated a minimum of 150 hours pilot-in-command flight time in aeroplanes.
  2. (b) An applicant for an Airline Transport Pilot Licence - Helicopter shall be given credit for up to 150 hours of pilot-in-command flight time under supervision, provided the applicant:
    1. (i) holds a Commercial Pilot Licence - Helicopter with the helicopter type rating in which the flight time is acquired; and
    2. (ii) has accumulated a minimum of 100 hours pilot-in- command flight time in helicopters.

(5) An applicant shall be credited flight time as follows:
(amended 1998/12/01; no previous version)

  1. (a) not more than 50% of the pilot-in-command under supervision flight time for a total of up to 100 hours in the case of an Airline Transport Pilot Licence - Aeroplane and up to 150 hours in the case of an Airline Transport Pilot Licence - Helicopter may be credited toward pilot-in-command experience requirements; and
  2. (b) Pilot-in-command under supervision flight time, provided such flight time is acquired within the 12 months preceding the date of application for the licence for which the flight time is to be credited.

(6) When an application for an Airline Transport Pilot Licence is based in part on pilot-in-command under supervision flight time, the applicant shall:
(amended 1998/12/01; no previous version)

  1. (a) submit a personal log or other reliable record that contains a summary of the pilot-in-command under supervision flight time and the number of takeoffs and landings; and
  2. (b) enter a notation on the application form showing the portion of pilot-in-command flight time that was done under supervision.

DIVISION II - TESTING

421.13 Examination Prerequisites

(1) For admission to a written examination required for the issue of a permit, licence or rating an applicant shall have met the medical standards for the issue of the permit, licence or rating and shall produce proof of medical fitness in one of the following forms:

  1. (a) a Medical Certificate in the appropriate medical category;
  2. (b) a Medical Assessment Letter (Form 26-0417) in the appropriate medical category;
  3. (c) in the case of a Student Pilot Permit - Aeroplane, Pilot Permit - Ultra-light Aeroplane or Pilot Licence - Glider, a Civil Aviation Medical Declaration (Form 26-0297);
  4. (d) a temporary Medical Certificate in the appropriate medical category; or
  5. (e) a Medical Examination Report assessed to the appropriate medical category by the Regional Aviation Medical Officer.

(2) For admission to a written examination, proof of identification shall be required in the form of a permit, licence or other official document bearing the signature and photograph of the candidate.
(amended 2005/12/01; previous version)

(3) To be eligible to write the examination required for the issue of a permit, licence or rating, the candidate shall produce the following letter of recommendation dated within 60 days prior to the date of the written examination:
(amended 2005/12/01; previous version)

  1. (a) an applicant for a Pilot Permit - Gyroplane, Private Pilot Licence, or Commercial Pilot Licence shall provide a letter of recommendation from the Flight Training Unit or from the flight instructor who is responsible for the training of the applicant, stating that the applicant has completed the ground school instruction, and has reached a sufficient level of knowledge to write the examination;
    (amended 2000/09/01; previous version)
  2. (b) an applicant for a Class 4 Instructor Rating shall provide a letter of recommendation from the applicant’s ground training instructor stating that the applicant has completed the ground school instruction, and has reached a sufficient level of knowledge to write the examination;
    (amended 1998/03/23; previous version)
  3. (c) in the case of a DND applicant, proof of having qualified to pilot wings standard;
  4. (d) in the case of an applicant holding a licence issued by a Contracting State, the recommendation shall not be required provided the applicant is applying for the equivalent or lower Canadian licence;
    (amended 2005/12/01; previous version)
  5. (e) a letter of recommendation required under this subsection may only be used once.
    (amended 2003/03/01; no previous version)

(4) To be eligible to write the examination required for the issue of a permit, licence or rating, the candidate shall provide proof that the experience and training requirements set out below have been met:
(amended 1998/03/23; previous version)

  1. (a) an applicant for a Pilot Permit - Gyroplane, Pilot Permit - Recreational-Aeroplane, or a Private Pilot Licence shall have completed 10 hours flight time in the same category of aircraft, or hold a valid Pilot Permit - Ultra-light Aeroplane;
    (amended 1998/03/23; previous version)
  2. (b) an applicant for a Class 4 Instructor Rating shall have completed fifty percent (50%) of the flight training requirement, and all ground school requirements;
  3. (c) an applicant for a higher class of Instructor Rating shall have completed fifty percent (50%) of the flight instructor experience requirement;
  4. (d) an applicant for an instrument rating shall have completed a minimum of 20 hours of instrument flight or ground time;
    (amended 1998/03/23; previous version)
  5. (e) an applicant for an Airline Transport Pilot Licence (Aeroplane) shall, when enrolled in an approved integrated ATP(A) course, have completed the ground school requirements and the Group 1 instrument rating flight test; and
    (amended 2005/12/01; previous version)
  6. (f) all other applicants shall have a minimum of fifty percent (50%) of the total flight experience for the issue of the permit, licence, or rating.
    (amended 2005/12/01; previous version)

421.14 Flight Test Prerequisites

(1) For admission to the flight test for a permit, licence or rating, the applicant shall have met the medical standards and hold a valid medical certificate appropriate to the permit, licence or rating for which application is made.
(amended 2006/12/14; previous version)

(2) For admission to a flight test, proof of identification shall be required in the form of a permit, licence or other official document bearing the signature and photograph of the candidate.
(amended 2005/12/01; previous version)

(3) Except as stated in paragraphs (c) and (d) below, for admission to a flight test required for the issue of a permit, licence or rating, the candidate shall produce a recommendation dated within 30 days prior to the date of the flight test, as follows:
(amended 2005/12/01; previous version)

  1. (a) in the case of an applicant for a Passenger Carrying Rating – Ultra-light Aeroplane, Pilot Permit - Gyroplane, Pilot Permit — Recreational — Aeroplane or Private Pilot Licence, a letter of recommendation from a qualified flight instructor certifying that the applicant meets the competency standard for issue of the Passenger Carrying Rating – Ultra-light Aeroplane, Pilot Permit - Gyroplane, Pilot Permit — Recreational — Aeroplane or Private Pilot Licence;
    (amended 2012/02/19; previous version)
  2. (b) in the case of an applicant for a Commercial Pilot Licence, who is not enrolled in an approved integrated course, proof of having successfully completed the required written examination, and a letter from a flight instructor certifying that the applicant has satisfactory knowledge of the subject area or areas in which a deficiency was indicated by the feedback letter issued by the Flight Training and Aviation Examination (FTAE) computer system and meets the competency standard for issuance of the Commercial Pilot Licence;
    (amended 2006/12/14; previous version)
  3. (c) Canadian Forces applicants who are qualified to pilot wings standard shall not be required to submit the letter referred to in paragraphs (a) and (b);
    (amended 2006/12/14; previous version)
  4. (d) holders of valid Private and Commercial Pilot Licences issued by a contracting state are not required to have the letter referred to in paragraphs (a) and (b), provided that the flight test is for the purpose of obtaining the equivalent Canadian licence;
    (amended 2006/12/14; previous version)
  5. (e) a letter of recommendation required under this subsection may only be used once.
    (amended 2005/12/01; no previous version)

(4) To be eligible to attempt a flight test required for the issue of a permit, licence or rating:

  1. (a) an applicant for a Pilot Permit - Gyroplane or a Private Pilot Licence shall have completed a minimum of 35 hours of the total flying experience required for that permit or licence;
    (amended 2012/02/19; previous version)
  2. (b) an applicant for a Passenger Carrying Rating – Ultra-light Aeroplane or Pilot Permit - Recreational - Aeroplane shall have met all of the experience requirements required for the rating or permit;
    (amended 2012/02/19; previous version)
  3. (c) an applicant for a permit or licence, other than a Pilot Permit - Gyroplane, Pilot Permit - Recreational - Aeroplane or Private Pilot Licence, shall have completed a minimum of 75% of the total flying experience required for that permit or licence;
    (amended 2006/12/14; previous version)
  4. (d) except as specified in paragraph (e) below, an applicant for an instrument or instructor rating flight test shall have met all the applicable knowledge and experience requirements set out in Division XIV, Division XVIII or Division XIX of Subpart 401 for the particular rating applied for prior to the flight test;
    (amended 2012/02/19; previous version)
  5. (e) an applicant for a Flight Instructor Rating – Ultra-light Aeroplane, shall have completed a minimum of 25 hours of the total flying experience required for the rating.
    (amended 2012/02/19; no previous version)

421.15 Reserved

(amended 2012/02/19; previous version)

421.16 Failure of a Flight Test

(1) Where an applicant has failed a flight test, the applicant shall be provided with a copy of his/her flight test report and informed by the person conducting the flight test of the conditions to be met prior to the next attempt of the flight test, as set out in the DFTE Standards.

(2) Where an applicant has failed a flight test, prior to attempting a re-test the applicant shall obtain a written recommendation or certification from a person authorized in Division XVIII, Division XIX, Division XX, Division XXI or XXII of Subpart 401, as applicable, to recommend or certify the applicant in respect of the permit, licence or rating applied for, stating that the applicant is considered competent to undertake a flight test.

421.17 Failure of a Flight Test for a Rating Renewal

(1) The Flight Test Requirements to determine whether an applicant passes, meets a lower class of that rating or fails the renewal flight test for the rating are found in the applicable Flight Test Standards and Guides.

(2) When the holder of a currently valid rating fails any exercise during a flight test for a rating, the examiner shall draw a line through the rating on the licence and add the following notation:

“________ (name of rating) Rating, suspended”

followed by the examiner’s signature and the date.

(3) The holder of a flight instructor rating attempting a re-test after a flight test in which any exercise has been assessed Fail, shall provide a written recommendation from a flight instructor authorized in Subpart 401 to recommend for the flight instructor rating applied for, stating that the applicant is considered competent to undertake a flight test.

421.18 Examiner’s Endorsement of Personal Log - Gliders and Balloons

(1) Gliders

The endorsement of personal log shall include the method of launch and the date and the name, signature and licence number of the examiner.

(2) Balloons

The endorsement of personal log shall include the method of inflation (gas or hot air) and the date and the name, signature and licence number of the examiner.

DIVISION III - STUDENT PILOT PERMITS

421.19 Student Pilot Permit - Requirements

(1) The Student Pilot Permit is issued in the following categories: gyroplane, ultra-light aeroplane, glider, balloon, aeroplane and helicopter.

(2) Requirements for Issue of a Student Pilot Permit

An applicant for a Student Pilot Permit shall meet the following requirements:

  1. (a) Citizenship

    Confirmation of citizenship shall be provided in accordance with subsection 421.06(1).

  2. (b) Age
    1. (i) Confirmation of age shall be provided in accordance with subsection 421.06(2).
    2. (ii) An applicant shall be a minimum of fourteen years of age for all aircraft categories of permits.
  3. (c) Medical Fitness
    (amended 2007/12/30; previous version)
    1. (i) An applicant for a Student Pilot Permit - Gyroplane, Balloon, or Helicopter category shall be in possession of one of the following:
      1. (A) a Medical Assessment Letter (Form 26-0417), Category 1 or 3; or
      2. (B) a Medical Certificate (Form 26-0055), Category 1 or 3.
    2. (ii) An applicant for a Student Pilot Permit - Aeroplane category shall be in possession of one of the following:
      (amended 2003/03/01; previous version)
      1. (A) a Civil Aviation Medical Declaration (Form 26-0297) with Part B completed by the applicant and Part C completed by a physician licensed to practice in Canada,
        (amended 2003/03/01; previous version)
      2. (B) a Medical Certificate (Form 26-0055), Category 1, 3 or 4, or
        (amended 2003/03/01; previous version)
      3. (C) a Medical Assessment Letter (Form 26-0417), Category 1, 3 or 4.
        (amended 2003/03/01; no previous version)
    3. (iii) An applicant for a Student Pilot Permit - Ultra-Light Aeroplane, or a Student Pilot Permit - Glider shall be in possession of one of the following:
      (amended 2003/03/01; previous version)
      1. (A) a Civil Aviation Medical Declaration (Form 26-0297) with Part B completed by the applicant,
        (amended 2003/03/01; previous version)
      2. (B) a Medical Certificate (Form 26-0055), Category 1, 3 or 4, or
        (amended 1998/03/23; previous version)
      3. (C) a Medical Assessment Letter (Form 26-0417), Category 1, 3 or 4.
        (amended 1998/03/23; previous version)
  4. (d) Knowledge

    An applicant for a Student Pilot Permit shall meet the knowledge requirement as follows:

    1. (i) Ultra-light Aeroplane
      1. (A) Provide certification from the holder of a flight instructor rating - ultra-light aeroplane or a flight instructor rating - aeroplane that the applicant has obtained a minimum of 90% in a written examination on the following subjects:
        (amended 2005/12/01; previous version)
        1. (I) Canadian Aviation Regulations,
        2. (II) Air Traffic Control Clearances and Instructions including Air Traffic Rules and Procedures,
        3. (III) Air Traffic Control procedures as they apply to the control of VFR traffic including Information Circulars and NOTAM,
        4. (IV) Air Traffic Control procedures at uncontrolled airports and aerodromes,
        5. (V) Special VFR Regulations , including meteorological phenomena as applicable,
        6. (VI) Aeronautical Information Circulars and A.I.P. Canada (ICAO) Supplements as published by the Air Navigation services provider,
        7. (VII) basic aerodynamics applicable to the type of ultra-light being used for the training,
        8. (VIII) emergency procedures including stall recognition and recovery procedures, and
        9. (IX) Human Factors, including pilot decision-making process.
      2. (B) The flight instructor administering the examination shall review with the applicant all areas of knowledge for which the applicant has demonstrated errors and all errors shall be corrected to 100%.
        (amended 2005/12/01; previous version)
    2. (ii) Glider

      Provide a statement of assurance from the holder of a flight instructor rating-glider stating that the applicant has passed an examination on the following subjects:

      1. (A) Canadian Aviation Regulations;
      2. (B) Air Traffic Control Clearances and Instructions;
      3. (C) Air Traffic Control procedures as they apply to the control of VFR traffic;
      4. (D) Air Traffic Control procedures at uncontrolled airports and aerodromes;
      5. (E) Special VFR Regulations; and
      6. (F) Information Circulars and A.I.P. Canada Supplements.
    3. (iii) Other categories - Flight Training Units

      Provide certification from the Flight Training Unit that the applicant has obtained a minimum of 90% in the written examination Student Pilot Permit or Private Pilot Licence for Foreign and Military Applicants, Air Regulations (PSTAR) on the subjects specified in subparagraph (ii) above. The PSTAR examination shall be corrected to 100% by the FTU flight or ground instructor who will ensure that the applicant reviews all weak knowledge areas.

    4. (iv) Other categories - Transport Canada Facility

      Obtain a minimum of 90% in the written examination PSTAR completed at a Transport Canada facility. The PSTAR examination shall be corrected to 100% by a computer feedback letter keyed to the study and reference guide.

  5. (e) Experience and Skill

    Once the Citizenship, Age, Medical, Fitness and Knowledge requirements have been met and evidence thereof presented to an Authorized Person, a Student Pilot Permit in the category applied for shall be issued. The instructor shall be responsible for ensuring that the applicant has reached a satisfactory standard of experience and skill to complete solo flight before authorizing the first solo flight.
    (amended 1998/03/23; previous version)

(3) Issue of Student Pilot Permit

  1. (a) When the requirements have been met a Student Pilot Permit in the category applied for shall be issued by a person who has been delegated the authority to issue a Student Pilot Permit.
  2. (b) An applicant completing training in two different categories of aircraft (e.g. aeroplane, glider, ultra-light aeroplane, etc.) at the same time shall be issued a second Student Pilot Permit provided the Medical Certificate is valid for the additional category of permit.

DIVISION IV - PILOT PERMITS

421.20 Gyroplane - Requirements

(1) Age

An applicant shall be a minimum of seventeen years of age.

(2) Medical Fitness

(amended 2007/12/30; previous version)

  1. (a) An applicant shall hold a Category 3 Medical Certificate valid for a Pilot Permit - Gyroplane.
  2. (b) The permit is maintained by a valid Category 1 or 3 Medical Certificate.
    (amended 2007/12/30; previous version)

(3) Knowledge

An applicant shall have:

  1. (a) completed a minimum of 40 hours gyroplane pilot ground school instruction on the following subjects:
    1. (i) Canadian Aviation Regulations,
    2. (ii) Aerodynamics and Theory of Flight,
    3. (iii) Meteorology,
    4. (iv) Airframes, Engines and Systems,
    5. (v) Flight Instruments,
    6. (vi) Radio and Electronic Theory,
    7. (vii) Navigation,
    8. (viii) Flight Operations,
    9. (ix) Licensing Requirements, and
    10. (x) Human Factors, including pilot decision-making; and
  2. (b) obtained a minimum of 60% on the written examination Pilot Permit - Gyroplane (GYROP).

(4) Experience

  1. (a) An applicant shall have completed a minimum of 45 hours pilot flight training in gyroplanes under the direction and supervision of the holder of a flight instructor rating-gyroplane.
  2. (b) The flight training shall include a minimum of:
    1. (i) Two or More Seats
      1. (A) 12 hours dual instruction flight time including 2 hours cross-country flight time, and
      2. (B) 12 hours solo flight time including 3 hours cross-country flight time with a flight of a minimum of 60 nautical miles which shall include 2 full stop landings at points other than the point of departure.
    2. (ii) Single Seat
  3. Where an applicant is completing training in a single seat gyroplane the 45 hours pilot flight time in gyroplanes, of which 15 hours may be in towed flight, shall include 3 hours cross-country flight time with a flight of a minimum of 60 nautical miles which shall include 2 full stop landings at points other than the point of departure.

(5) Skill

  1. (a) Within the 12 month preceding the date of application for the permit, an applicant shall demonstrate in flight and on the ground to the holder of a Flight Instructor Rating - Gyroplane familiarity with, and the ability to perform both normal and emergency manoeuvres appropriate to the gyroplane used in the test, and with a degree of competency appropriate to that of the holder of a Pilot Permit - Gyroplane.
    (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)
  2. (b) Where an applicant undertakes flight training and a flight test in a single-seat gyroplane, the flight test may be observed from another aircraft or the ground.

(6) Credits

  1. (a) Knowledge

    An applicant who holds a private or higher type pilot licence for aeroplanes or helicopters shall, when applying for the issue of a Pilot Permit - Gyroplane, have the 40 hour ground school instruction requirement reduced to 20 hours.

  2. (b) Experience
    1. (i) The total flight time must include a minimum of 30 hours in gyroplanes.
    2. (ii) Where an applicant holds a pilot licence in another aircraft category flight time credits shall be claimed as follows:
      1. (A) Aeroplane and Helicopter
        1. (I) a maximum of 15 hours towards the total flight time; and
        2. (II) a maximum of 4 hours solo flight time, 2 hours of which shall be credited to solo cross-country flight time.
      2. (B) Glider

        A maximum of 5 hours pilot-in-command flight time towards the total flight time.

(7) Credits for DND Applicants

  1. (a) Knowledge
    (amended 2005/12/01; previous version)

    Active and former Canadian Forces personnel who have qualified to pilot helicopter wings standard upon application for the issue of a Pilot Permit - Gyroplane, shall:
    (amended 2005/12/01; previous version)

    1. (i) meet the 40 hours ground school instruction requirement by completing only 20 hours of these requirements, and
      (amended 2005/12/01; previous version)
    2. (ii) be considered to have met the written examination requirement provided that the applicant obtains a minimum of 90% in the written examination Student Pilot Permit or Private Pilot Licence for Foreign and Military Applicants, Air Regulations (PSTAR),
      (amended 2005/12/01; previous version)
  2. (b) Experience
    (amended 2005/12/01; previous version)
    1. (i) active and former Canadian Forces personnel who have qualified to pilot helicopter wings standard may claim credits towards the experience requirements as follows:
      (amended 2005/12/01; previous version)
    2. (A) a maximum of 15 hours towards the total flight time,
    3. (B) a maximum of 4 hours solo flight time, 2 hours of which shall be credited to solo cross-country flight time, and
    4. (C) the total flight time must include a minimum of 30 hours in gyroplanes.

(8) Credits for Foreign Applicants

The holder of a permit or licence, in the gyroplane category, issued by a Contracting State shall be deemed to have met the ground school instruction requirement, the written examination requirement and the skill requirement provided that the applicant:

  1. (a) meets the experience requirements;
  2. (b) obtains a minimum of 90% in the written examination Student Pilot Permit or Private Pilot Licence for Foreign and Military Applicants, Air Regulations (PSTAR); and
  3. (c) has completed in gyroplanes a minimum of 5 take-offs and landings within the 6 months preceding the date of application for the Canadian licence.

421.21 Ultra-light Aeroplane - Requirement

(1) Age

An applicant shall be a minimum of sixteen years of age.

(2) Medical Fitness

(amended 2007/12/30; previous version)

  1. (a) An applicant shall hold a Category 4 Medical Certificate valid for a Pilot Permit - Ultra-light Aeroplane.
  2. (b) An applicant who meets the medical conditions specified on and signs the Civil Aviation Medical Declaration shall be deemed to have met the Category 4 Medical Standards.
  3. (c) The permit is maintained by a valid Category 1, 3, or 4 Medical Certificate.
    (amended 2007/12/30; previous version)

(3) Knowledge

An applicant shall have:

  1. (a) completed a minimum of 20 hours of ultra-light aeroplane pilot ground school instruction on the following subjects:
    (amended 2005/12/01; previous version)
    1. (i) Air Law, including laws, regulations, rules and orders, air traffic services, practices and procedures, and licensing requirements relevant to the permit,
    2. (ii) Navigation, including navigation, radio aids and electronic theory,
    3. (iii) Meteorology,
    4. (iv) Aeronautics – General, Knowledge including airframes, engines and systems, theory of flight, flight instruments, flight operations and human factors, including pilot decision making process, and
    5. (v) Emergency procedures, including stall recognition and recovery procedures, and
  2. (b) obtained a minimum of 60% on the written examination Pilot Permit - Ultra-light Aeroplane (ULTRA).
    (amended 2005/12/01; previous version)

(4) Experience

Within the 24 months preceding the date of application for the permit, an applicant shall have acquired in ultra-light aeroplanes under the direction and supervision of the holder of a flight instructor rating - ultra-light aeroplane or aeroplane a minimum of 10 hours of total flight time, including:

  1. (a) a minimum of 5 hours dual instruction flight time and 2 hours solo flight time, and
  2. (b) a minimum of 30 takeoffs and landings, including a minimum of 10 as sole occupant.

(5) Skill

Within the 12 months preceding the date of application for the permit, an applicant shall submit to the Minister a letter from the holder of a Flight Instructor Rating - Ultra-light Aeroplane, or the holder of a Flight Instructor Rating - Aeroplane certifying that the applicant has demonstrated the ability to perform both normal and emergency manoeuvres appropriate to the ultra-light aeroplane used for the training program, and with a degree of competency appropriate to that of the holder of a pilot permit - ultra-light aeroplane.
(amended 1999/03/01; previous version)

(6) Credits

  1. (a) Knowledge
    1. (i) An applicant who holds a pilot permit or licence in any other category of aircraft shall be deemed to have met the written examination requirement.
    2. (ii) An applicant who holds a pilot licence - aeroplane shall be deemed to have met the knowledge requirements.
  2. (b) Experience

    An applicant who is the holder of, or has held a pilot licence - aeroplane within the preceding 5 years shall have the experience requirements reduced to a minimum of 5 hours of flight time in ultra-light aeroplanes, including a minimum of 2 hours dual instruction flight time and a minimum of 2 hours solo flight time. The flight time shall include a minimum of 20 takeoffs, full circuits and landings, including a minimum of 10 as sole occupant.

  3. (c) Skill

    An applicant who holds a pilot licence - aeroplane shall be deemed to have met the skill requirements.

(7) Powered Parachutes

  1. (a) When the experience requirements have been met, in whole or in part, on powered parachutes, the permit, when issued, shall be restricted to powered parachutes.
  2. (b) The restriction shall be removed when the experience requirements have been met on ultra-light aeroplanes, other than powered parachutes.
  3. (c) For the issue of an Pilot Permit - Ultra-light Aeroplane restricted to powered parachutes, the 10 hours total flight time shall be reduced to 5 hours and the 5 hours dual instruction flight time shall be deemed to have been met.

421.22 Recreational - Aeroplane - Requirements

(1) Age

An applicant shall be a minimum of sixteen years of age.

(2) Medical Fitness

(amended 2007/12/30; previous version)

  1. (a) An applicant shall hold a Category 4 Medical Certificate valid for a Pilot Permit — Recreational — Aeroplane.
  2. (b) An applicant who meets the medical conditions specified on the Civil Aviation Medical Declaration and has signed it shall be deemed to have met the Category 4 Medical Standards, providing a physician licensed to practice medicine in Canada has signed Part C of the declaration.
  3. (c) The permit is maintained by a valid Category 1, 3, or 4 Medical Certificate.
    (amended 2007/12/30; previous version)

(3) Knowledge

An applicant shall have obtained a minimum of 60 percent (60%) in each of the following four mandatory areas, as well as in the overall written examination Pilot Permit - Recreational - Aeroplane (RPPAE), or Private Pilot Licence - Aeroplane (PPAER):
(amended 1998/03/23; previous version)

  1. (a) Air Law - regulations, rules and orders, air traffic services, practices and procedures, and licensing requirements relevant to the permit;
  2. (b) Navigation - navigation, radio aids and electronic theory;
  3. (c) Meteorology;
  4. (d) Aeronautics - General Knowledge - airframes, engines and systems, theory of flight, flight instruments, flight operations and human factors.

(4) Experience

  1. (a) An applicant shall have completed a minimum of 25 hours recreational pilot flight training under the direction and supervision of the holder of a flight instructor rating - aeroplane in aeroplanes operating with a Certificate of Airworthiness.
  2. (b) The flight training shall include a minimum of:
    1. (i) 15 hours dual instruction flight time, including a minimum of 2 hours cross-country flight time, and
      (amended 1998/03/23; previous version)
    2. (ii) 5 hours solo flight time.

(5) Skill

Within the 12 months preceding the date of application for the permit, an applicant shall successfully complete a flight test as pilot-in-command of an aeroplane in accordance with:
(amended 2012/02/19; previous version)

  1. (a) Schedule 2 “Flight Test for the Issuance of a Recreational Pilot Permit – Aeroplane” of Standard 428 - Conduct of Flight Tests; or
    (amended 2012/02/19; no previous version)
  2. (b) Schedule 3 “Flight Test for the Issuance of a Private Pilot Licence – Aeroplane” of Standard 428 - Conduct of Flight Tests.
    (amended 2012/02/19; no previous version)

(6) Credit

(amended 1999/03/01; previous version

An applicant for a Pilot Permit - Recreational - Aeroplane who holds a valid Pilot Permit - Ultra-light Aeroplane may credit all dual and solo flight time acquired in ultra-light aeroplanes towards the experience requirement.
(amended 1998/03/23; no previous version)

(7) Credits for Foreign Applicants

(amended 1999/03/01; no previous version)

The holder of a licence in the aeroplane category, issued by a Contracting State shall be considered to have met the written examination requirement and the skill requirement provided that the applicant:
(amended 2000/09/01; previous version)

  1. (a) meets the experience requirements;
    (amended 1999/03/01; no previous version)
  2. (b) obtains a minimum of 90% in the written examination Student Pilot Permit or Private Pilot Licence for Foreign and Military Applicants, Air Regulations (PSTAR); and
    (amended 1999/03/01; no previous version)
  3. (c) has completed in aeroplanes a minimum of 5 take-offs and 5 landings within the 6 months preceding the date of application for the Canadian permit.
    (amended 1999/03/01; no previous version)

421.23 Recreational - Helicopter - Requirements

[Reserved]

DIVISION V - PILOT LICENCE

421.24 Gliders - Requirements

(1) Age

An applicant shall be a minimum of sixteen years of age.

(2) Medical Fitness

(amended 2007/12/30; previous version)

  1. (a) An applicant shall hold a Category 4 Medical Certificate valid for a pilot licence - glider.
  2. (b) An applicant who meets the medical conditions specified on and signs the Civil Aviation Medical Declaration shall be deemed to have met the Category 4 Medical Standards.
  3. (c) The licence is maintained by a valid Category 1, 3 or 4 Medical Certificate.
    (amended 2007/12/30; previous version)

(3) Knowledge

An applicant shall have:

  1. (a) completed a minimum of 15 hours of glider pilot ground school instruction on the following subjects:
    1. (i) Canadian Aviation Regulations,
    2. (ii) Aerodynamics and Theory of flight,
    3. (iii) Meteorology,
    4. (iv) Airframes and Systems,
    5. (v) Flight Instruments,
    6. (vi) Navigation,
    7. (vii) Flight Operations,
    8. (viii) Emergency Procedures, and
    9. (ix) Human factors including pilot decision-making, and
  2. (b) obtained a minimum of 60% in the written examination Pilot Licence - Glider (GLIDE).

(4) Experience

  1. (a) Within the 24 months preceding the date of application for the licence, an applicant shall have completed a minimum of 6 hours of glider pilot flight training, under the direction and supervision of the holder of a Flight Instructor Rating - Glider.
  2. (b) The flight training shall include:
    1. (i) a minimum of 1 hour dual instruction flight time, and
    2. (ii) 2 hours solo flight time, including a minimum of 20 takeoffs and 20 landings.

(5) Skill

  1. (a) Within the 12 months preceding the date of application for the licence, an applicant shall demonstrate in flight and on the ground familiarity with, and the ability to perform both normal and emergency manoeuvres appropriate to the glider used in the test and with a degree of competency appropriate to the holder of a pilot licence - glider.
    (amended 1998/03/23; previous version)
  2. (b) An applicant shall submit a letter from the holder of a Flight Instructor Rating - Glider, qualified on the method of launch for the glider used for the test, attesting to the applicant’s satisfactory completion of the skill requirement.
    (amended 1998/03/23; previous version)

(6) Credits

  1. (a) Knowledge
    1. (i) An applicant who holds a pilot permit or licence in any other category of aircraft, except ultra-light aeroplanes, shall be deemed to have met 10 of the 15 hours ground school instruction requirement.
    2. (ii) An applicant who holds a pilot licence - aeroplane may be deemed to have met the ground school instruction requirement.
    3. (iii) An applicant who holds a pilot licence - aeroplane shall be deemed to have met the written examination requirement.
  2. (b) Experience

    An applicant who holds a pilot licence - aeroplane category shall have the total glider pilot flight training time reduced to a minimum of 3 hours, which shall include the minimum flight training specified.

(7) Licence Issued On the Basis of Foreign Licence

(amended 1999/03/01; previous version)

  1. (a) An applicant who holds a pilot licence - Glider issued by a Contracting State or an organization acceptable to that state, shall be considered:
    (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)
    1. (i) to have met the ground school instruction requirement; and
      (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)
    2. (ii) to have met the written examination requirement, the experience requirement and the skill requirement, provided that the foreign licence was not issued on the basis of a licence from another State, and that the applicant:
      (amended 2000/09/01; previous version)
      1. (A) has obtained at least the number of hours of flight training required by subsection (4);
        (amended 2000/09/01; previous version)
      2. (B) obtains a minimum of 90% in the written examination Student Pilot Permit or Private Pilot Licence for Foreign and Military Applicants, Aviation Regulations (PSTAR); and
        (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)
      3. (C) has completed, in gliders, a minimum of 5 take-offs and 5 landings within the 6 months preceding the date of application for the Canadian licence.
        (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)
  2. (b) In lieu of the requirement for take-offs and landings specified in clause 7(a)(ii)(C), an applicant may complete a minimum of 2 take-offs and 2 landings within the 6 months preceding the date of application for the Canadian licence and obtain, from the holder of a Canadian Flight Instructor Rating - Glider, a certificate of competency to carry passengers.
    (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)
  3. (c)The licence shall be annotated by the Minister to indicate that it was issued on the basis of the foreign licence.
    (amended 1999/03/01; no previous version)
  4. (d)The Minister shall remove the annotation from the licence, provided that the applicant has succesfully completed:
    (amended 1999/03/01; no previous version)
    1. (i) the written examination requirement (GLIDE); and
      (amended 1999/03/01; no previous version)
    2. (ii) the skill requirement.
      (amended 1999/03/01; no previous version)

(8) Credits for Foreign Applicants

(amended 1999/03/01; no previous version)

  1. (a) An applicant who holds a pilot licence - glider issued by a contracting state or an organization acceptable to that state and who does not wish to obtain a licence issued on the basis of the foreign licence, may be considered by the Minister to have met the ground school instruction requirement and the experience requirement provided that the applicant has obtained at least the number of hours of dual and solo flight training and experience required by subsection (4).
    (amended 2003/03/01; previous version)
  2. (b) An applicant who does not hold a pilot licence - glider issued by a contracting state may be credited foreign glider dual and solo flight training time and glider ground school time towards the knowledge and experience requirements for the issue of a Glider Pilot Licence, if the applicant provides certification from the holder of a Flight Instructor Rating - Glider that all ground and flight training exercises have been satisfactorily reviewed.
    (amended 2003/03/01; previous version)

421.25 Balloons - Requirements

(1) Age

An applicant shall be a minimum of seventeen years of age.

(2) Medical Fitness

(amended 2007/12/30; previous version)

  1. (a) An applicant shall hold a Category 3 Medical Certificate valid for a pilot licence - balloon.
  2. (b) The licence is maintained by a valid Category 1 or 3 Medical Certificate.
    (amended 2007/12/30; previous version)

(3) Knowledge

An applicant shall have:

  1. (a) completed a minimum of 10 hours of balloon pilot ground school instruction on the following subjects:
    1. (i) Canadian Aviation Regulations, NOTAM and Air Traffic Rules and Procedures,
    2. (ii) Aerostatics and Meteorology,
    3. (iii) a balloon and its accessories, inflation, rigging and patching in conformance with manufacturer’s recommendations,
    4. (iv) management of takeoffs and landings in free and tethered flight regimes,
    5. (v) precautions against cold and high altitude,
    6. (vi) instruments,
    7. (vii) navigation and aeronautical charts, and
    8. (viii) human factors including pilot decision-making; and
  2. (b) obtained a minimum of 60% in a written examination, Pilot Licence - Balloon (PIBAL).

(4) Experience

  1. (a) Within the 24 months preceding the date of application for the licence, an applicant shall have completed a minimum of 16 hours balloon pilot flight time, of which a minimum of 11 hours shall be untethered flight time under the direction and supervision of the holder of a Flight Instructor Rating - balloon.
  2. (b) Untethered flight time shall include a minimum of:
    1. (i) 6 dual instruction flights of a minimum of 30 minutes each including 1 ascent to an altitude of a minimum of 5,000 feet above ground level; and
    2. (ii) 2 flights as sole occupant of a minimum of 30 minutes each between takeoff and landing.

(5) Skill

  1. (a) Within the 12 months preceding the date of application for the licence an applicant shall demonstrate, in flight and on the ground, familiarity with and the ability to perform both normal and emergency manoeuvres and procedures appropriate to the balloon used in the test and with a degree of competency appropriate to the holder of a Pilot Licence - Balloon.
  2. (b) An applicant shall submit a letter from the holder of a Flight Instructor Rating - Balloons, qualified on the method of inflation for the balloon used in the test, attesting to the applicant’s satisfactory completion of the skill requirement.
    (amended 1998/03/23; previous version)

(6) Credits - Knowledge

An applicant who holds a pilot permit or licence in any other category of aircraft, except ultra-light aeroplane, shall be deemed to have met 5 of the 10 hours of ground school instruction requirement.

(7) Licence Issued On the Basis of Foreign Licence

(amended 1999/03/01; previous version)

  1. (a) An applicant who holds a pilot licence - Balloon, issued by a Contracting State shall be considered:
    (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)
    1. (i) to have met the ground school instruction requirement; and
      (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)
    2. (ii) to have met the written examination requirement, the experience requirement and the skill requirement, provided that the foreign licence was not issued on the basis of a licence from another State, and that the applicant:
      (amended 2000/09/01; previous version)
      1. (A) has obtained at least the number of hours of flight training required by subsection (4);
        (amended 2000/09/01; previous version)
      2. (B) obtains a minimum of 90% in the written examination Student Pilot Permit or Private Pilot Licence for Foreign and Military Applicants, Aviation Regulations (PSTAR); and
        (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)
      3. (C) has completed in balloons, a minimum of 5 take-offs and 5 landings within the 6 months preceding the date of application for the Canadian licence.
        (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)
  2. (b) The licence shall be annotated by the Minister to indicate that it was issued on the basis of the foreign licence.
    (amended 1999/03/01; no previous version)
  3. (c) The Minister shall remove the annotation from the licence, provided the applicant has successfully completed:
    (amended 1999/03/01; no previous version)
    1. (i) the written examination (PIBAL); and
      (amended 1999/03/01; no previous version)
    2. (ii) the skill requirement.
      (amended 1999/03/01; no previous version)

(8) Credits for Foreign Applicants

(amended 1999/03/01; no previous version)

  1. (a) An applicant who holds a pilot licence - balloon, issued by a contracting state and who does not wish to obtain a licence issued on the basis of the foreign licence, may be considered by the Minister to have met the ground school instruction requirement and the experience requirement provided that the applicant has obtained at least the number of hours of dual and solo flight training and experience required by subsection (4).
    (amended 2003/03/01; previous version)
  2. (b) An applicant who does not hold a pilot licence - balloon issued by a contracting state may be credited foreign glider dual and solo flight training time and balloon ground school time towards the knowledge and experience requirements for the issue of a Balloon Pilot Licence, if the applicant provides certification from the holder of a Flight Instructor Rating - Balloon that all ground and flight training exercises have been satisfactorily reviewed.
    (amended 2003/03/01; previous version)

(9) Take-offs and Landings in Built-up Areas

A person may conduct a take-off in a balloon within a built-up area of any town or city, where the pilot-in-command has accumulated a minimum of:

  1. (a) 50 hours in untethered balloons and, except for balloons operated in a commercial air service, has conducted a minimum of 3 takeoffs and landings in the specific manufacturer’s model and AX class of balloon within the preceding 12 months, or
  2. (b) 300 hours of flight time in untethered balloons.

DIVISION VI - PRIVATE PILOT LICENCE

421.26 Aeroplanes - Requirements

(1) Age

An applicant shall be a minimum of seventeen years of age.

(2) Medical Fitness

(amended 2007/12/30; previous version)

  1. (a) An applicant shall hold a Category 3 Medical Certificate valid for a Private Pilot Licence - Aeroplanes:
    1. (i) where an applicant holds a Category 4 Medical Certificate for the purpose of a Student Pilot Permit, the applicant shall upgrade to a Category 3 Medical Certificate prior to making application for the Private Pilot Licence - Aeroplane.
  2. (b) The licence is maintained by a valid Category 1 or 3 Medical Certificate.
    (amended 2007/12/30; previous version)

(3) Knowledge

An applicant shall have:

  1. (a) completed a minimum of 40 hours private pilot aeroplane ground school instruction on the following subjects:
    1. (i) Canadian Aviation Regulations,
    2. (ii) Aerodynamics and Theory of Flight,
    3. (iii) Meteorology,
    4. (iv) Airframes, Engines and Systems,
    5. (v) Flight Instruments,
    6. (vi) Radio and Electronic Theory,
    7. (vii) Navigation,
    8. (viii) Flight Operations,
    9. (ix) Licensing Requirements, and
    10. (x) Human Factors, including pilot decision-making; and
  2. (b) obtained a minimum of 60% in each of the following four mandatory subject areas as well as in the overall written examination Private Pilot Licence - Aeroplane (PPAER):
    1. (i) Air Law - regulations, rules and orders, air traffic services, practices and procedures, and licensing requirements relevant to the licence;
    2. (ii) Navigation - navigation, radio aids and electronic theory;
    3. (iii) Meteorology;
    4. (iv) Aeronautics - General Knowledge - airframes, engines and systems, theory of flight, flight instruments and flight operations.

(4) Experience

  1. (a) An applicant shall have completed a minimum of 45 hours private pilot flight training in aeroplanes under the direction and supervision of the holder of a Flight Instructor Rating - Aeroplane. A maximum 5 of the 45 hours may be conducted on an approved aeroplane simulator or flight training device.
    (amended 1998/09/01; previous version)
  2. (b) The flight training shall include a minimum of:
    1. (i) 17 hours dual instruction flight time, including a minimum of 3 hours cross-country flight time and 5 hours of instrument time of which a maximum of 3 hours may be instrument ground time; and
      (amended 1998/09/01; previous version)
    2. (ii) 12 hours solo flight time, including 5 hours cross-country flight time with a flight of a minimum of 150 nautical miles which shall include 2 full stop landings at points other than the point of departure.

(5) Skill

Within the 12 months preceding the date of application for the licence, an applicant shall successfully complete a flight test as pilot-in-command of an aeroplane in accordance with Schedule 3 “Flight Test for the Issuance of a Private Pilot Licence – Aeroplane” of Standard 428 - Conduct of Flight Tests.
(amended 2012/02/19; previous version)

(6) Credits

  1. (a) Knowledge
    1. (i) An applicant who holds a Pilot Permit - Gyroplane or a private or higher type pilot licence for helicopters may, when applying for the issue of Private Pilot Licence - Aeroplane have the 40 hour ground instruction requirement reduced to 20 hours.
    2. (ii) An applicant who holds a Pilot Permit - Gyroplane or a private or higher type pilot licence for helicopters shall in lieu of completing the written examination PPAER obtain a minimum of 60% in the written examination Private Pilot Aeroplane Rating - Alternate Category (PARAC).
  2. (b) Experience
  3. (i) The total flight time must include a minimum of 30 hours in aeroplanes.
    1. (ii) Where an applicant holds a pilot permit or licence in another aircraft category flight time credits shall be claimed as follows:
      (amended 1998/03/23; previous version)
      1. (A) Helicopter and Gyroplane
        1. (I) a maximum of 15 hours towards the total flight time; and
        2. (II) a maximum of 4 hours solo flight time, 2 hours of which shall be credited to solo cross-country flight time.
      2. (B) Glider

        A maximum of 5 hours pilot-in-command flight time towards the total flight time.

      3. (C) Three Axis Ultra-light Aeroplane

        A maximum of 10 hours pilot-in-command flight time towards the total flight time.

      4. (D) Instrument Flight Time

        An applicant who holds a private or higher type licence in another category shall be credited with instrument flight time acquired in the other category towards meeting the instrument experience requirements provided that the instrument flight time acquired in the other category is not credited towards the 17 hours of dual instruction flight time or the 12 hours solo flight time.

(7) Credits for DND Applicants

  1. (a) Active and retired Canadian Forces personnel who have qualified to pilot aeroplane wings standard or who have successfully completed the Basic Flying Training course of approximately 120 hours shall be considered to have met the ground school instruction requirement, the written examination requirement, the course requirement and the skill requirement provided that:
    (amended 2003/03/01; previous version)
    1. (i) the applicant has met the flight time requirements specified in subsection (4) of which a minimum of 10 hours flight time in aeroplanes has been acquired in the 12 months preceding the date of application, and
      (amended 2003/03/01; previous version)
    2. (ii) the applicant obtains a minimum of 90% in the written examination Student Pilot Permit or Private Pilot Licence for Foreign and Military Applicants, Air Regulations (PSTAR).
      (amended 2003/03/01; previous version)
  2. (b) A person who has undergone aeroplane pilot flight training in the Canadian Forces may be credited military dual and solo aeroplane flight time and aeroplane ground school time towards the knowledge and experience requirements for the issue of a Private Pilot Licence - Aeroplane.
    (amended 2003/03/01; no previous version)

(8) Licence Issued On the Basis of Foreign Licence

(amended 1999/03/01; previous version)

  1. (a) An applicant who is the holder of a Private or higher pilot licence -aeroplane issued by a Contracting State shall be considered:
    (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)
    1. (i) to have met the ground school instruction requirement; and
      (amended 1999/03/01;previous version)
    2. (ii) to have met the written examination requirement and the flight test requirement, provided that the foreign licence was not issued on the basis of a licence from another State, and that the applicant:
      (amended 1999/03/01; no previous version)
      1. (A) has met the flight time requirements specified in subsection (4);
        (amended 2000/09/01; previous version)
      2. (B) has obtained a minimum of 90% in the written examination Student Pilot Permit or Private Pilot Licence for Foreign and Military Applicants, Aviation Regulations (PSTAR); and
        (amended 2000/09/01); previous version)
      3. (C) has completed, as pilot in command or co-pilot in aeroplanes, a minimum of 5 take-offs and 5 landings within the 6 months preceding the date of application for the Canadian licence.
        (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)
  2. (b) The licence shall be annotated by the Minister to indicate that it was issued on the basis of the foreign licence.
    (amended 1999/03/01; no previous version)
  3. (c) The Minister shall remove the annotation from the licence, provided that the applicant has successfully completed:
    (amended 1999/03/01; no previous version)
    1. (i) the written examination requirements (PPAER); and
      (amended 1999/03/01; no previous version)
    2. (ii) the skill requirement.
      (amended 1999/03/01; no previous version)

(9) Credits for Foreign Applicants

(amended 1999/03/01; no previous version)

  1. (a) An applicant who holds a Private or higher pilot licence - Aeroplane issued by a contracting state and who does not wish to obtain a licence issued on the basis of the foreign licence, may be considered by the Minister to have met the ground school instruction requirement.
    (amended 1999/03/01; no previous version)
  2. (b) An applicant who holds a Private or higher pilot licence - Aeroplane issued by a contracting state other than Canada and who meets the flight time requirements specified in subsection (4) is considered to have met the experience requirements.
    (amended 2000/09/01; previous version)
  3. (c) An applicant who does not hold a Private or higher pilot licence - Aeroplane issued by a contracting state may be credited foreign dual and solo aeroplane flight training time and aeroplane ground school time towards the knowledge and experience requirements for the issue of a Private Pilot Licence - Aeroplane, if the applicant provides certification from the holder of a Flight Instructor Rating - Aeroplane that all ground and flight training exercises have been satisfactorily reviewed.
    (amended 2003/03/01; previous version)

421.27 Helicopters - Requirements

(1) Age

An applicant shall be a minimum of seventeen years of age.

(2) Medical Fitness

(amended 2007/12/30; previous version)

  1. (a) An applicant shall hold a Category 3 Medical Certificate valid for a Private Pilot Licence - Helicopter.
  2. (b) The licence is maintained by a valid new Category 1 or 3 Medical Certificate.
    (amended 2007/12/30; previous version)

(3) Knowledge

An applicant shall have:

  1. (a) completed a minimum of 40 hours private pilot helicopter ground school instruction on the following subjects:
    1. (i) Canadian Aviation Regulations,
    2. (ii) Aerodynamics and Theory of Flight,
    3. (iii) Meteorology,
    4. (iv) Airframes, Engines and Systems,
    5. (v) Flight Instruments,
    6. (vi) Radio and Electronic Theory,
    7. (vii) Navigation,
    8. (viii) Flight Operations,
    9. (ix) Licensing Requirements, and
    10. (x) Human Factors, including pilot decision-making; and
  2. (b) obtained a minimum of 60% in each of the following four mandatory subject areas as well as in the overall written examination Private Pilot Licence - Helicopter (PPHEL):
    1. (i) Air Law - regulations, rules and orders, air traffic services, practices and procedures, and licensing requirements relevant to the licence;
    2. (ii) Navigation - navigation, radio aids and electronic theory;
    3. (iii) Meteorology;
    4. (iv) Aeronautics - General Knowledge - airframes, engines and systems, theory of flight, flight instruments and flight operations.

(4) Experience

  1. (a) An applicant shall have completed a minimum of 45 hours private pilot flight training in helicopters under the direction and supervision of the holder of a flight instructor rating - helicopter. A maximum 5 of the 45 hours may be conducted in an approved helicopter simulator or flight training device.
    (amended 1998/09/01; previous version)
  2. (b) The flight training shall include a minimum of:
    1. (i) 17 hours dual instruction flight time, including a minimum of 3 hours cross-country flight time and 5 hours of instrument time of which a maximum of 3 hours may be instrument ground time; and
      (amended 1998/09/01; previous version)
    2. (ii) 12 hours solo flight time including 5 hours cross-country flight time with a flight of a minimum of 100 nautical miles which shall include no fewer than 2 full stop landings at points other than the point of departure.

(5) Skill

Within the 12 months preceding the date of application for the licence, an applicant shall successfully complete a flight test as pilot-in-command of a helicopter, in accordance with Schedule 5 “Flight Test for the Issuance of a Private Pilot Licence – Helicopter” of Standard 428 — Conduct of Flight Tests.
(amended 2012/02/19; previous version)

(6) Credits

  1. (a) Knowledge
    1. (i) An applicant who holds a Pilot Permit - Gyroplane or a private or higher type pilot licence for aeroplanes shall, when applying for the issue of a Private Pilot Licence - Helicopter have the 40 hour ground instruction requirement reduced to 20 hours.
    2. (ii) An applicant who holds a Pilot Permit - Gyroplane or a private or higher type pilot licence for aeroplanes shall in lieu of completing the written examination PPHEL obtain a minimum of 60% in the written examination Private Pilot Helicopter Rating - Alternate Category (PHRAC).
  2. (b) Experience
    1. (i) The total flight time must include a minimum of 30 hours in helicopters.
    2. (ii) Where an applicant holds a pilot permit or licence in another aircraft category flight time credits shall be claimed as follows:
      (amended 1998/03/23; previous version)
      1. (A) Aeroplane and Gyroplane
        1. (I) a maximum of 15 hours towards the total flight time; and
        2. (II) a maximum of 4 hours solo flight time, 2 hours of which may be credited to solo cross-country flight time.
      2. (B) Glider

        A maximum of 5 hours pilot-in-command flight time towards the total flight time.

      3. (C) Instrument Flight Time

        An applicant who holds a private or higher type licence in another category shall be credited with instrument flight time acquired in the other category towards meeting the instrument experience requirements provided that the instrument flight time acquired in the other category is not credited towards the 17 hours of dual instruction flight time or the 12 hours solo flight time.

(7) Credits for DND Applicants

  1. (a) Active and retired Canadian Forces personnel who have qualified to pilot helicopter wings standard shall be considered to have met the ground school instruction requirement, the written examination requirement, the course requirement and the skill requirement provided that:
    (amended 2003/03/01; previous version)
    1. (i) the applicant has met the flight time requirements specified in subsection (4) of which a minimum of 10 hours flight time in helicopters has been acquired in the 12 months preceding the date of application, and
      (amended 2003/03/01; previous version)
    2. (ii) the applicant obtains a minimum of 90% in the written examination Student Pilot Permit or Private Pilot Licence for Foreign and Military Applicants, Air Regulations (PSTAR).
      (amended 2003/03/01; previous version)
  2. (b) A person who has undergone helicopter pilot flight training in the Canadian Forces may be credited military dual and solo helicopter flight time and helicopter ground school time towards the knowledge and experience requirements for the issue of a Private Pilot Licence - Helicopter.
    (amended 2003/03/01; no previous version)

(8) Licence Issued On the Basis of Foreign Licence

(amended 1999/03/01; previous version)

  1. (a) An applicant who holds a Private or higher pilot licence - Helicopter issued by a Contracting State shall be considered:
    (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)
    1. (i) to have met the ground school instruction requirement; and
      (amended 1999/03/01; no previous version)
    2. (ii) to have met the written examination requirement and the flight test requirement, provided that the foreign licence was not issued on the basis of a licence from another State, and that the applicant:
      (amended 1999/03/01; no previous version)
      1. (A) has met the flight time requirements specified in subsection (4);
        (amended 2000/09/01; previous version)
      2. (B) has obtained a minimum of 90% in the written examination Student Pilot Permit or Private Pilot Licence for Foreign and Military Applicants, Aviation Regulations (PSTAR); and
        (amended 2000/09/01; previous version)
      3. (C) has completed as pilot in command or co-pilot in helicopters, a minimum of 5 take-offs and 5 landings within the 6 months preceding the date of application for the Canadian licence.
        (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)
  2. (b) The licence shall be annotated by the Minister to indicate that it was issued on the basis of the foreign licence.
    (amended 1999/03/01; no previous version)
  3. (c) The Minister shall remove the restriction from the licence, provided that the applicant has succesfully completed:
    (amended 1999/03/01; no previous version)
    1. (i) the written examination requirements (PPHEL); and
      (amended 1999/03/01; no previous version)
    2. (ii) the skill requirement.
      (amended 1999/03/01; no previous version)

(9) Credits for Foreign Applicants

(amended 1999/03/01; no previous version)

  1. (a) An applicant who holds a Private or higher pilot licence - Helicopter issued by a contracting state and who does not wish to obtain a licence issued on the basis of the foreign licence may be considered by the Minister to have met the ground school instruction requirement.
    (amended 2003/03/01; previous version)
  2. (b) An applicant who holds a Private or higher pilot licence - Helicopter issued by a contracting state other than Canada and who meets the flight time requirements specified in subsection (4) is considered to have met the experience requirements.
    (amended 2003/03/01; previous version)
  3. (c) A person who does not hold a Private or higher pilot licence - Helicopter issued by a contracting state may be credited foreign dual and solo helicopter flight training time and helicopter ground school time towards the knowledge and experience requirements for the issue of a Private Pilot Licence - Helicopter, if the applicant provides certification from the holder of a Flight Instructor Rating - Helicopter that all ground and flight training exercises have been satisfactorily reviewed.
    (amended 2003/03/01; previous version)

DIVISION VII - COMMERCIAL PILOT LICENCE

421.30 Aeroplanes - Requirements

The requirements in respect of an application for a Commercial Pilot Licence — Aeroplane are the following:
(amended 2006/12/14; no previous version)

(1) Age

An applicant shall be a minimum of eighteen years of age.

(2) Medical Fitness

(amended 2007/12/30; previous version)

  1. (a) An applicant shall hold a Category 1 Medical Certificate valid for a Commercial Pilot Licence - Aeroplane.
  2. (b) The licence holder may exercise Private Pilot Licence - Aeroplane privileges until the end of the medical period specified for the Private Pilot Licence.
    (amended 2007/12/30; previous version)
  3. (c) The licence is maintained by a valid Category 1 Medical Certificate.
    (amended 2007/12/30; previous version)

(3) Knowledge

Ground School Instruction

(amended 2006/12/14; no previous version)

  1. (a) An applicant shall have completed a minimum of 80 hours commercial pilot aeroplane ground school instruction including at least the following subjects:
    (amended 2006/12/14; previous version)
    1. (i) Canadian Aviation Regulations,
    2. (ii) aerodynamics and theory of flight,
    3. (iii) meteorology,
    4. (iv) airframes, engines and systems,
    5. (v) flight instruments,
    6. (vi) radio and electronic theory,
    7. (vii) navigation,
    8. (viii) flight operations,
    9. (ix) licensing requirements, and
    10. (x) human factors including pilot decision-making.
  2. (b) An applicant who is a graduate from an approved integrated course shall have completed the applicable course requirements in section 426.75 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations.
    (amended 2006/12/14; previous version)
Written Examination

(amended 2006/12/14; no previous version)

  1. (c) All applicants shall have obtained a minimum of 60% in each of the following four mandatory subjects areas as well as in the overall written examination Commercial Pilot Licence — Aeroplane (CPAER):
    (amended 2006/12/14; previous version)
    1. (i) Air Law - regulations, rules and orders, air traffic services, practices and procedures, and licensing requirements relevant to the licence,
    2. (ii) Navigation - navigation, radio aids and electronic theory,
    3. (iii) Meteorology, and
    4. (iv) Aeronautics - General Knowledge - airframes, engines and systems, theory of flight, flight instruments and flight operations.
  2. (d) An applicant who is a graduate from an approved integrated course shall have completed the applicable course requirements in section 426.75 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations.
    (amended 2006/12/14; no previous version)

(4) Experience

  1. (a) An applicant for a commercial pilot licence — aeroplane shall
    (amended 2006/12/14; previous version)
    1. (i) have completed, subject to paragraph (b), a minimum of 200 hours flight time in aeroplanes, of which a minimum of 100 hours shall be pilot-in-command time including 20 hours cross-country pilot-in-command flight time, and
      (amended 2006/12/14; previous version)
    2. (ii) following the issuance of a private pilot licence — aeroplane by Canada or another contracting state, have completed 65 hours of commercial pilot flight training in aeroplanes consisting of a minimum of:
      (amended 2006/12/14; previous version)
      1. (A) 35 hours dual instruction flight time, under the direction and supervision of the holder of a Flight Instructor Rating — Aeroplane, including:
        (amended 2006/12/14; previous version)
        1. (I) 5 hours night, including a minimum of 2 hours of cross-country flight time;
          (amended 2006/12/14; previous version)
        2. (II) 5 hours cross-country, which may include the cross-country experience stated in subclause (I); and
          (amended 2006/12/14; previous version)
        3. (III) 20 hours of instrument flight time in addition to the experience stated in subclauses (I) and (II). A maximum 10 hours of the 20 hours may be conducted on an approved aeroplane simulator or synthetic flight training device.
          (amended 2006/12/14; previous version)
      2. (B) 30 hours solo flight time including:
        (amended 2006/12/14; previous version)
        1. (I) 25 hours solo flight time emphasizing the improvement of general flying skills of the applicant which shall include a cross-country flight to a point of a minimum of 300 nautical mile radius from the point of departure and shall include a minimum of 3 landings at points other than that of departure; and
          (amended 2006/12/14; previous version)
        2. (II) 5 hours solo flight time by night during which a minimum of 10 takeoffs, circuits and landings were completed.
          (amended 2006/12/14; previous version)
  2. (b) An applicant who is a graduate from an approved integrated course shall have completed the applicable experience requirements in section 426.75 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations.
    (amended 2006/12/14; no previous version)

(5) Skill

Within the 12 months preceding the date of application for the licence, an applicant for a commercial pilot licence — aeroplane shall successfully complete a flight test as pilot-in-command of an aeroplane, in accordance with Schedule 4 “Flight Test for the Issuance of a Commercial Pilot Licence – Aeroplane” of Standard 428 — Conduct of Flight Tests.
(amended 2012/02/19; previous version)

(6) Restricted Licence - Daylight Flying

  1. (a) If an applicant has not completed the night flight time requirements, the licence shall be restricted to daylight flying, however the total dual instruction flight time and solo flight time requirements for the issuance of the licence shall be met.
    (amended 2006/12/14; previous version)
  2. (b) If an applicant completes the night flight time requirements, the restriction shall be removed.
    (amended 2006/12/14; previous version)
  3. (c) If an applicant holds a pilot licence - helicopter valid for night flying, the night flight time experience may be reduced to 5 hours pilot flight time which shall include:
    (amended 2006/12/14; previous version)
    1. (i) 2 hours dual instruction night flight time,
      (amended 2006/12/14; previous version)
    2. (ii) 1 hour solo night flight time, and
    3. (iii) 1 hour dual instruction instrument flight time.
      (amended 2006/12/14; previous version)

(7) Credits

  1. (a) Knowledge
    1. (i) An applicant who holds a Commercial Pilot Licence - Helicopter or higher, shall, when applying for the issue of a Commercial Pilot Licence — Aeroplane, be credited with 20 hours of the 80 hour ground school instruction requirement.
      (amended 2006/12/14; previous version)
    2. (ii) An applicant who holds a Commercial Pilot Licence - Helicopter or higher, shall, in lieu of completing the written examination Commercial Pilot - Aeroplane (CPAER), obtain a minimum of 60% in the written examination Commercial Pilot Licence (Aeroplane) - Alternate Category (CARAC).
      (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)
  2. (b) Experience
    (amended 2006/12/14; previous version)
  3. If an applicant holds a pilot permit or licence in another aircraft category, flight time credits may be claimed as follows:
    1. (i) Commercial Pilot Licence - Helicopter

      If an applicant holds a Commercial Pilot Licence - Helicopter, the 200 hours total flight time in aeroplanes required by subparagraph (4)(a)(i) is considered to have been met if the applicant has completed a minimum of 100 hours pilot flight time in aeroplanes, including the 65 hours experience required by subparagraph (4)(a)(ii). In this case, it is not necessary to obtain a Private Pilot Licence — Aeroplane prior to obtaining the Commercial Pilot Licence — Aeroplane.
      (amended 2006/12/14; previous version)

    2. (ii) Private Pilot Licence - Helicopter

      If an applicant holds a Private Pilot Licence — Helicopter, the following must be met:
      (amended 2006/12/14; previous version)

      1. (A) a maximum of 50 hours flight time in helicopters shall be credited towards the 200 hours total flight time requirement, and
      2. (B) a maximum of 25 hours of pilot-in-command flight time in helicopters shall be credited towards the 100 hours pilot-in-command flight time requirement.
    3. (iii) Pilot Licence - Glider

      If an applicant holds a Pilot Licence - Glider, a maximum of 50 hours flight time in gliders shall be credited towards the 200 hours total flight time requirement but this time shall not be credited towards the 100 hour pilot-in-command flight time.
      (amended 2006/12/14; previous version)

    4. (iv) Three Axis Ultra-light Aeroplane

      If an applicant holds a Pilot Permit — Ultra-light Aeroplane, a Recreational Pilot Permit — Aeroplane or a Private Pilot Licence — Aeroplane, a maximum of 25 hours pilot-in-command flight time in three axis ultra-light aeroplanes shall be credited towards the 200 hours total flight time requirement but this time shall not be credited towards the 100 hour pilot-in-command flight time.
      (amended 2006/12/14; previous version)

    5. (v) Instrument Flight Time

      If an applicant holds a Pilot Licence — Helicopter category, they shall be credited with instrument flight time acquired in helicopters towards meeting the instrument flight time experience requirements provided that the applicant has acquired a minimum of 10 hours of dual instruction instrument flight time in aeroplanes.
      (amended 2006/12/14; previous version)

    6. (vi) Night Flight Time
      1. (A) If an applicant holds a Private Pilot Licence — Aeroplane with a night rating, the total dual instruction and solo night flight time requirements are considered to have been met provided that the 35 hours dual instruction flight time and 30 hours solo flight time requirements are met.
        (amended 2006/12/14; previous version)
      2. (B) If an applicant holds a Pilot Licence — Helicopter valid for night privileges, the night flight time acquired in helicopters shall be credited towards the total dual instruction flight time and solo night flight time requirements provided that the applicant has acquired at night, in aeroplanes, a minimum of 1 hour dual instruction flight time and 1 hour solo flight time and the 35 hours dual instruction flight time and 30 hours solo flight time requirements are met.
        (amended 2006/12/14; previous version
  4. (c) Experience – Same Category – Instrument Rating
    (amended 2005/12/01; no previous version)

    An applicant who holds or has held an instrument rating in the aeroplane category within the preceding 24 months is considered to have met the 20 hours dual instrument flight requirement of subclause 421.30(4)(a)(ii)(A)(III).
    (amended 2005/12/01; no previous version)

(8) Credits for Canadian Forces Applicants

(amended 2006/12/14; previous version)

Active and retired Canadian Forces personnel who have qualified to pilot aeroplane wings standard are considered to have met the ground school instruction requirement, the written examination requirement, the skill requirement and the requirement to hold a Private Pilot Licence, if the applicant:
(amended 2006/12/14; previous version)

  1. (a) has met the flight time requirements specified in paragraph (4)(a) of which a minimum of 10 hours flight time was acquired in aeroplanes in the 12 months preceding the date of application; and
    (amended 2006/12/14; previous version)
  2. (b) obtains a minimum of 60% in the written examination Commercial Pilot Licence (Aeroplane) Air Law, Air Traffic Rules and Procedures (ARPCO).
    (amended 2006/12/14; previous version)

(9) Credits for Foreign Applicants

If an applicant has met the flight time requirements specified in paragraph (4)(a), the applicant who holds a commercial or higher type pilot licence in the aeroplane category, issued by a contracting state is considered to have met the ground school requirement.
(amended 2006/12/14; previous version)

421.31 Helicopters - Requirements

(1) Age

An applicant shall be a minimum of eighteen years of age.

(2) Medical Fitness

(amended 2007/12/30; previous version)

  1. (a) An applicant shall hold a Category 1 Medical Certificate valid for a Commercial Pilot Licence - Helicopter.
  2. (b) The licence holder may exercise Private Pilot Licence - Helicopter Category privileges until the end of the medical period specified for the Private Pilot Licence.
    (amended 2007/12/30; previous version)
  3. (c) The licence is maintained by a valid Category 1 Medical Certificate.
    (amended 2007/12/30; previous version)

(3) Knowledge

  1. (a) An applicant who holds a Private Pilot Licence - Helicopter shall have:
    1. (i) completed a minimum of 40 hours commercial pilot helicopter ground school instruction, on the following subjects:
      1. (A) Canadian Aviation Regulations,
      2. (B) Aerodynamics and Theory of Flight,
      3. (C) Meteorology,
      4. (D) Airframes, Engines and Systems,
      5. (E) Flight Instruments,
      6. (F) Radio and Electronic Theory,
      7. (G) Navigation,
      8. (H) Flight Operations,
      9. (I) Licensing Requirements, and
      10. (J) Human factors including pilot decision-making; and
    2. (ii) obtained a minimum of 60% in each of the following four mandatory subject areas as well as in the overall written examination Commercial Pilot Licence - Helicopter (CPHEL):
      1. (A) Air Law - regulations, rules and orders, air traffic services, practices and procedures, and licensing requirements relevant to the licence;
      2. (B) Navigation - navigation, radio aids and electronic theory;
      3. (C) Meteorology; and
      4. (D) Aeronautics - General Knowledge - airframes, engines and systems, theory of flight, flight instruments and flight operations.
  2. (b) An applicant who does not hold a Private Pilot Licence - Helicopter shall complete an additional 40 hours commercial pilot helicopter ground school instruction for a total of 80 hours.

(4) Experience

  1. (a) An applicant shall have completed a minimum of 100 hours pilot flight time in helicopters, of which a minimum of 35 hours shall be pilot-in-command flight time, including 10 hours cross-country pilot-in-command flight time; and
  2. (b) an applicant who holds a Private Pilot Licence - Helicopter or a Private Pilot Licence - Helicopter issued by a Contracting State other than Canada shall have completed 60 hours of commercial pilot flight training in helicopters consisting of a minimum of:
    (amended 2000/09/01; previous version)
    1. (i) 37 hours dual instruction flight time, under the direction and supervision of the holder of a flight Instructor Rating - Helicopter, including:
      (amended 2000/09/01; previous version)
      1. (A) 15 hours of advanced dual instruction, emphasizing the improvement of general flying ability and skill, including a minimum of 5 hours of cross-country flight;
      2. (B) 5 hours night flight time including a minimum of 2 hours cross-country flight time;
      3. (C) in addition to (A) and (B), 10 hours of instrument flight time, using suitable radio navigational facilities to complete elementary navigation procedures and two-way radio to comply with Air Traffic Control procedures and clearances including a minimum of 5 hours in helicopters. A maximum 5 hours of the 10 hours may be conducted on an approved helicopter simulator or flight training device.
        (amended 1998/09/01; previous version)
      4. (D) Credit for a maximum of 5 hours of dual instrument time acquired during training for issue of the Private Pilot Licence - Helicopter shall be given towards the 10 hours of dual instrument time.
    2. (ii) 23 hours solo flight time emphasizing the improvement of general flying ability and skill, including:
      1. (A) a cross-country flight of at least 2 hours duration and to a point a minimum of 45 minutes flight time at normal cruising speed from the point of departure including a minimum of 3 landings at points other than the point of departure, and
        (amended 2005/06/01; previous version)
      2. (B) 5 hours solo flight time by night, including a minimum of 10 takeoffs, circuits and landings.
        (amended 1998/09/01; previous version)
  3. (c) An applicant who does not hold a Private Pilot Licence - Helicopter shall have completed a minimum of 100 hours commercial pilot flight training in helicopters, consisting of a minimum of:
    1. (i) 55 hours dual instruction flight time under the direction and supervision of the holder of a flight Instructor Rating - Helicopter, including:
      (amended 2000/09/01; previous version)
      1. (A) 5 hours cross-country flight time, and
      2. (B) in addition to (A), 10 hours of dual instrument flight time, using suitable radio navigational facilities to complete elementary navigation procedures and two-way radio to comply with Air Traffic Control procedures and clearances, including a minimum of 5 hours in helicopters. A maximum of 5 hours of the 10 hours may be conducted on an approved helicopter simulator or flight training device.
        (amended 1998/09/01; previous version)
    2. (ii) 35 hours solo flight time emphasizing the improvement of general flying ability and skill, including a cross-country flight to a point a minimum of 2 hours flight time at normal cruising speed from the point of departure including a minimum of 3 landings at points other than the point of departure.
      (amended 1998/09/01; previous version)
    3. (iii) The licence shall be issued restricted to daylight flying.

(5) Skill

Within the 12 months preceding the date of application for the licence, an applicant shall successfully complete a flight test as pilot-in-command of a helicopter, in accordance with Schedule 6 “Flight Test for the Issuance of a Commercial Pilot Licence – Helicopter” of Standard 428 — Conduct of Flight Tests.
(amended 2012/02/19; previous version)

(6) Restricted Licence - Daylight Flying

  1. (a) Where an applicant has not completed the night flight time requirements the licence shall be issued restricted to daylight flying and the total dual instruction flight time and solo flight time required for the issue of the licence shall be met.
  2. (b) Where an applicant completes the night flight time requirements, the restriction shall be removed.
  3. (c) Where an applicant holds a pilot licence - aeroplane valid for night flying, the night flight time experience shall be reduced to 5 hours pilot flight time which shall include:
    1. (i) 2 hours dual night flight time,
    2. (ii) 1 hour solo night flight time, and
    3. (iii) 1 hour dual instrument flight time.

(7) Credits

  1. (a) Knowledge
    1. (i) An applicant who holds a Commercial Pilot Licence - Aeroplane shall, when applying for the issue of a Commercial Pilot Licence - Helicopter have the 40 hour ground school instruction requirement reduced to 20 hours.
    2. (ii) An applicant who holds a Private Pilot Licence in another category but does not hold a Private Pilot Licence - Helicopter shall, when applying for a Commercial Pilot Licence - Helicopter have the 80 hours ground school requirement reduced to 60 hours.
    3. (iii) An applicant who holds a Commercial Pilot Licence - Aeroplane shall, in lieu of completing the written examination CPHEL, obtain a minimum of 60% in the written examination Commercial Pilot Licence (Helicopter) - Alternate Category (CHRAC).
  2. (b) Experience

    Where an applicant holds a pilot permit or licence in another aircraft category, flight time credits shall be claimed as follows:

    1. (i) Commercial Pilot Licence or higher - Aeroplane

      Where an applicant holds a Commercial Pilot Licence - Aeroplane or higher type licence in the aeroplane category, the 100 hours total flight time in helicopters required by paragraph (4)(a) above shall be deemed to have been met provided the applicant has completed a minimum of 60 hours flight time in helicopters, including all of the experience requirements demanded by paragraph (4)(b) above.
      (amended 2000/09/01; previous version)

    2. (ii) Instrument Flight Time

      An applicant who holds a pilot licence - aeroplane category shall be credited with instrument flight time acquired in aeroplanes towards meeting the instrument flight time experience requirements provided that the applicant has acquired a minimum of 5 hours of dual instrument flight time in helicopters, and the instrument flight time in aeroplanes is not credited towards the 37 hours of dual instruction flight time or the 23 hours solo flight time.

    3. (iii) Night Flight Time
      1. (A) Where an applicant holds a Private Pilot Licence - Helicopter with a night rating, the total dual and solo night flight time requirements shall be deemed to have been met provided that the 37 hours dual instruction flight time and the 23 hours solo flight time requirements are met.
      2. (B) Where an applicant holds a pilot licence - aeroplane category, valid for night privileges, night flight time acquired in aeroplanes shall be credited towards the total dual and solo night flight time requirements provided that the applicant has acquired at night, in helicopters a minimum of 1 hour dual instruction flight time and 1 hour solo flight time, and the 37 hours dual instruction flight time and the 23 hours solo flight time requirements are met.

(8) Credits for DND Applicants

  1. (a) Active and former Canadian Forces personnel who have qualified to pilot helicopter wings standard are considered to have met the ground school instruction requirement, the written examination requirement and the skill requirement if the applicant:
    (amended 2005/12/01; previous version)
    1. (i) has met the flight time requirements specified in subsection (4) of which a minimum of 10 hours flight time was acquired in helicopters in the 12 months preceding the date of application, and
      (amended 2005/12/01; previous version)
    2. (ii) obtains a minimum of 60% in the written examination Commercial Pilot Licence (Helicopter) Air Law, Air Traffic Rules and Procedures (HARPC).
      (amended 2005/12/01; previous version)
  2. (b) Active and former Canadian Forces personnel who have not qualified to pilot helicopter wings standard but who have undergone helicopter pilot flight training in the Canadian Forces may be credited military dual and solo helicopter flight time and helicopter ground school time towards the knowledge and experience requirements for the issue of a Commercial Pilot Licence – Helicopter.
    (amended 2005/12/01; previous version)

(9) Credits for Foreign Applicants

Provided that the applicant has met the flight time requirements specified in subsection (4):
(amended 2005/06/01; previous version)

  1. (a) the holder of a Commercial or higher type pilot licence in the helicopter category issued by a Contracting State is considered to have met the ground school instruction requirement specified in subparagraph (3)(a)(i) and the experience requirements specified in subsection (4); or
    (amended 2005/12/01; previous version)
  2. (b) the holder of an Airline Transport Pilot Licence in the helicopter category issued by a Contracting State is considered to have met the skill requirement specified in subsection (5) by passing a Pilot Proficiency Check (PPC) for operations in accordance with Part VII, within the 12 months preceding the date of the application for the licence.
    (amended 2005/06/01; previous version)

DIVISION VIII - AIRLINE TRANSPORT PILOT LICENCE

421.34 Aeroplanes - Requirements

(1) Age

An applicant shall be a minimum of twenty-one years of age.

(2) Medical Fitness

(amended 2007/12/30; previous version)

  1. (a) An applicant shall hold a Category 1 Medical Certificate valid for an Airline Transport Pilot Licence - Aeroplane.
  2. (b) The licence holder may exercise Private Pilot Licence - Aeroplane privileges until the end of the medical period specified for the Private Pilot Licence.
    (amended 2007/12/30; previous version)
  3. (c) The licence is maintained by a valid Category 1 Medical Certificate.
    (amended 2007/12/30; previous version)

(3) Knowledge

An applicant shall have obtained a minimum of 70% in each of three written examinations on the following aviation subjects:

  1. (a) Airline Transport Pilot Licence (Aeroplane) Meteorology, Radio Aids to Navigation and Flight Planning (SAMRA) including:
    1. (i) general system of weather collection and dissemination,
    2. (ii) weather map, weather forecast, weather abbreviations, symbols and nomenclature,
    3. (iii) pressure systems and their association with fronts, cloud forms and icing conditions,
    4. (iv) the movement of upper winds and their effect on aircraft operations,
    5. (v) weather service circulars and instructions for air route meteorological service which are pertinent to aircraft operations, and
    6. (vi) radio communication procedures relating to aircraft operation; and
  2. (b) Airline Transport Pilot Licence (Aeroplane) Air Law, Aeroplane Operation and Navigation General (SARON) including:
    1. (i) basic principles of air navigation such as formulae, instruments and other navigational aids which are commonly used in the navigation of aircraft,
    2. (ii) basic principles of loading and weight distribution and their effect on flight characteristics,
    3. (iii) Canadian Aviation Regulations, Air Traffic Rules and Procedures, Information Circulars and NOTAM, and
    4. (iv) human factors, including pilot decision-making; and
  3. (c) Instrument Rating (INRAT).

(4) Experience

An applicant shall have met the training requirements for the issue of a Commercial Pilot Licence - Aeroplane that is not restricted to daylight flying and completed a minimum of 1500 hours total flight time of which a minimum of 900 hours shall have been completed in aeroplanes. The total flight time shall include a minimum of:
(amended 2000/09/01; previous version)

  1. (a) 250 hours pilot-in-command flight time in aeroplanes which shall include where applicable, a maximum of 100 hours pilot-in-command under supervision flight time completed in accordance with Section 421.11. The pilot-in-command and/or pilot-in-command under supervision flight time shall include a minimum of 100 hours cross-country flight time of which a minimum of 25 hours shall have been by night;
  2. (b) 100 hours night flight time as pilot-in-command or as co-pilot of which a minimum of 30 hours shall have been acquired in aeroplanes;
  3. (c) 100 additional hours cross-country flight time as pilot-in-command or 200 hours as co-pilot or any combination thereof, with flight time calculated in accordance with section 421.10. Flight time as pilot-in-command may be part of the 250 hours pilot-in-command flight time specified in paragraph (a); and
    (amended 2005/12/01; previous version)
  4. (d) 75 hours instrument flight time of which a maximum of 25 hours may have been acquired in approved instrument ground trainers and a maximum of 35 hours may have been acquired in helicopters. Instrument ground time shall not be applied toward the total 1500 hour flight time requirement.

(5) Skill

  1. (a) Within the 12 months preceding the date of application for the licence, an applicant shall demonstrate in a multi-engined aeroplane with no central thrust configuration and fitted with instruments and equipment suitable for IFR flight in controlled airspace, familiarity with and the ability:
    (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)
    1. (i) to perform both normal and emergency flight procedures and manoeuvres appropriate to the aeroplane in which the flight test is conducted; and
    2. (ii) to execute all manoeuvres and procedures set forth in Division XIV for issue of a Group 1 instrument rating.
  2. (b) For issue of the Airline Transport Pilot Licence - Aeroplane, the Minister shall only endorse a Group 1 Instrument Rating on the licence.
    (amended 2005/06/01; previous version)

(6) Credits - Experience

  1. (a) Glider

    Where an applicant holds a Pilot Licence - Glider, a maximum of 50 hours flight time in gliders shall be credited towards the total 1500 hour flight time requirement.

  2. (b) Three Axis Ultra-light Aeroplanes

    Where an applicant holds a Pilot Permit - Ultra-light Aeroplane, a Recreational Pilot Permit – Aeroplane, a Private Pilot Licence – Aeroplane or a Commercial Pilot Licence – Aeroplane, a maximum of 50 hours flight time in three axis ultra-light aeroplanes shall be credited towards the total 1500 hour flight time requirement.
    (amended 2005/06/01; previous version)

(7) Credits for DND Applicants

Active and retired Canadian Forces personnel who hold a Canadian Forces Instrument Rating (unrestricted) in a multi-engined aeroplane (Group 1) shall be deemed to have met the skill requirement.

421.35 Helicopters - Requirement

(1) Age

An applicant shall be a minimum of twenty-one years of age.

(2) Medical Fitness

(amended 2007/12/30; previous version)

  1. (a) An applicant shall hold a Category 1 Medical Certificate valid for an Airline Transport Pilot Licence - Helicopter.
  2. (b) The licence holder may exercise Private Pilot Licence - Helicopter privileges until the end of the medical period specified for the Private Pilot Licence.
    (amended 2007/12/30; previous version)
  3. (c) The licence is maintained by a valid Category 1 Medical Certificate.
    (amended 2007/12/30; previous version)

(3) Knowledge

An applicant shall have obtained a minimum of 70% on each of the two Airline Transport Pilot Licence (Helicopter) examinations Meteorology, Radio Aids to Navigation and Flight Planning (HAMRA) and Air Law, Helicopter Operation and Navigation General (HARON) on the following subjects:

  1. (a) Canadian Aviation Regulations, and air traffic rules and procedures;
  2. (b) Aerodynamics and theory of flight relating to helicopters;
  3. (c) Meteorology;
  4. (d) Airframes, engines and systems;
  5. (e) Flight instruments;
  6. (f) Avionics;
  7. (g) Navigation;
  8. (h) Aircraft performance;
  9. (i) Flight operations; and
  10. (j) Human factors, including pilot decision-making.

(4) Experience

An applicant shall have met the training requirements for the issue of a Commercial Pilot Licence - Helicopter that is not restricted to daylight flying and completed a minimum of 1000 hours total flight time of which a minimum of 600 hours shall have been completed in helicopters. The total flight time shall include a minimum of:

  1. (a) 250 hours pilot-in-command flight time in helicopters as pilot-in-command, which may include a maximum of 150 hours pilot-in-command under supervision flight time in accordance with Section 421.11;
  2. (b) 50 hours night flight time as pilot-in-command or as co-pilot of which a minimum of 15 hours shall have been acquired in helicopters;
  3. (c) 200 hours cross-country flight time in helicopters of which a minimum of 100 hours shall be as pilot-in-command or as pilot-in-command under supervision in accordance with Section 421.11;
  4. (d) 30 hours instrument time of which a maximum of 10 hours may be instrument ground time and a maximum of 15 hours may have been acquired in aeroplanes. Instrument ground time may not be applied toward the total 1000 hour flight time requirement.

(5) Skill

Within the 12 months preceding the date of application for the licence, an applicant shall demonstrate in flight and on the ground familiarity with and the ability to perform, as pilot-in-command of a helicopter required to be operated with a co-pilot, both normal and emergency procedures and manoeuvres appropriate to the privileges of an Airline Transport Pilot Licence - Helicopter.
(amended 1999/03/01; previous version)

(6) Restricted Licence - Aerial Work Only

  1. (a) Where an applicant has not completed the instrument flight time requirement or the night flight time requirement, the licence shall be issued restricted to aerial work only and the total dual and solo flight time requirements for the issue of the licence shall be met.
  2. (b) Where an applicant completes the instrument flight time and night flight time requirements, the restriction shall be removed.

(7) Credits for DND Applicants

Active and retired Canadian Forces personnel who hold a Canadian Forces Instrument Rating completed on a helicopter required to be operated with a co-pilot shall be deemed to have met the skill requirement.
(amended 1998/03/23; previous version)

DIVISION IX - FLIGHT ENGINEER LICENCE

421.37 Requirements

(1) Age

An applicant shall be a minimum of eighteen years of age.

(2) Medical Fitness

(amended 2007/12/30; previous version)

  1. (a) An applicant shall hold a Category 1 Medical Certificate valid for a Flight Engineer Licence.
    (amended 2007/12/30; previous version)
  2. (b) The licence is maintained by a valid Category 1 Medical Certificate.
    (amended 2007/12/30; previous version)

(3) Knowledge

An applicant shall have:

  1. (a) obtained a minimum of 60% in the Flight Engineer Licence (FLENG) written examination including:
    1. (i) Canadian Aviation Regulations, Air Traffic Rules and Procedures, and Aeronautical Information applicable to the duties of a flight engineer,
    2. (ii) theory of flight,
    3. (iii) aircraft limitations and performance data,
    4. (iv) flight documentation relating to flight engineer’s duties,
    5. (v) principles of flight planning based on typical charts and graphs applicable to loading, centre of gravity, aircraft performance fuel consumption, engine power, control of engine power output and the effect thereon of varying meteorological conditions,
    6. (vi) general principles of maintenance and functioning of airframes and power plants, including their accessories, instruments, installed equipment and cabin systems in aircraft certificated for operation by a minimum crew that includes a flight engineer,
    7. (vii) emergency procedures in the event of power plant and systems malfunctions, and
    8. (viii) human factors; and
  2. (b) completed, during an approved course of training, an examination including the aircraft performance, systems, and normal and emergency procedures with respect to the aircraft type to be endorsed on the licence.

(4) Experience

An applicant shall have completed in the performance of the duties of a flight engineer:

  1. (a) a minimum of 100 hours of experience, under the supervision of a flight engineer or second officer endorsed for the aircraft type, of which a maximum of 50 hours aircraft type simulator time acquired during an approved course of training shall be credited towards the total experience; or
  2. (b) where the applicant is the holder of a Commercial Pilot or higher licence - aeroplane and has successfully completed the approved course of training, a minimum of 50 hours experience, under the supervision of a flight engineer or second officer, endorsed for the aircraft type, of which not more than 25 hours aircraft type simulator time acquired during an approved course of training shall be credited towards the total experience.
    (amended 2000/09/01; previous version)

(5) Skill

  1. (a) An applicant shall provide a letter certifying that within the 12 months preceding the date of application for the licence the applicant has, with respect to the aircraft type to be endorsed on the licence, demonstrated in the aeroplane type or approved aeroplane type simulator the ability to perform both normal and emergency procedures to a degree of competency appropriate to the privileges granted by the licence.
    (amended 2005/06/01; previous version)
  2. (b) The letter of certification shall be signed by one of the following persons:
    1. (i) a supervisory Flight Engineer whose Canadian Flight Engineer Licence is valid and endorsed for the aircraft type;
    2. (ii) a supervisory Second Officer holding a Commercial or higher licence with a Second Officer endorsement for the aircraft type;
    3. (iii) the Canadian company's Chief Pilot;
      (amended 2000/09/01; previous version)
    4. (iv) the applicant’s Commanding Officer in the case of Canadian Forces personnel; or
    5. (v) a designated Department of Transport Civil Aviation Inspector.

(6) Endorsement of Aircraft Types

  1. (a) An aircraft type rating shall be issued concurrently with the initial issue of a Flight Engineer Licence.
  2. (b) Additional aircraft types may be endorsed on a Flight Engineer Licence upon submission of a letter certifying that, with respect to the aircraft type, the applicant has met the skill requirement and has successfully completed an approved course of training.

(7) Credits

The holder of a Commercial or higher licence with a Second Officer rating for the applicable aircraft type shall be deemed to have met the knowledge, experience and skill requirements provided the applicant:

  1. (a) is, or has been within the three months preceding the date of application, assigned as a second officer, and
  2. (b) has, within the 12 months preceding the date of application acquired a minimum of 50 hours flight time in the performance of the duties of a flight engineer.

(8) Credits for DND Applicants

A Canadian Forces flight engineer qualified on the applicable aircraft type shall be deemed to have met the knowledge and experience requirements provided that the applicant:

  1. (a) submits the application for licence not later than 3 months following the date of retirement, discharge or termination of active reserve duty,
  2. (b) obtains a minimum of 60% in the written examination Flight Engineer Licence (Aeroplane) Air Law, Air Traffic Rules and Procedures (FLEAR), and
  3. (c) has acquired 50 hours flight time in the performance of the duties of a flight engineer within the 12 months preceding the date of application for the licence.

(9) Credits for Foreign Applicants

The holder of a Flight Engineer Licence, with the applicable aircraft type rating, issued by a Contracting State, shall be considered to have met the experience requirements provided that the applicant has, within the 12 months preceding the date of application, acquired 50 hours flight time in the performance of the duties of a flight engineer.

(10) Training Outside Canada

An applicant who has successfully completed a flight engineer or second officer course of training outside of Canada shall provide a syllabus of the training program and evidence from the Licensing Authority of that State that the course meets their licence standards.

DIVISION X - AEROPLANE CLASS RATINGS

421.38 Requirements

(1) Seaplane Rating - Requirements

  1. (a) Experience
    1. (i) An applicant for a seaplane rating shall complete a total of 7 hours of seaplane training, including:
      (amended 1998/03/23; previous version)
      1. (A) a minimum of 5 hours dual instruction, and
        (amended 1998/03/23; previous version)
      2. (B) a minimum of 5 takeoffs and landings as sole occupant of the aeroplane, except for two crew aircraft, in which case the takeoffs and landings shall be done as pilot-in-command.
    2. (ii) The following exercises shall be included in the seaplane training:
      1. (A) taxiing,
      2. (B) sailing,
      3. (C) docking,
      4. (D) takeoffs, and
      5. (E) landings, and
      6. (F) as conditions exist, operations on glassy water, rough water and in crosswind conditions.
  2. (b) Skill

    Within the 12 months preceding the date of application for a seaplane rating, an applicant shall have successfully completed a qualifying flight under the supervision of a Transport Canada Inspector or a person qualified in accordance with CAR 425.21(6) by demonstrating the level of skill specified in the Instructor Guide - Seaplane Rating (TP12668).
    (amended 2000/09/01; previous version)

  3. (c) Credits for DND Applicants
    (amended 1998/03/23; previous version)

    Active and retired personnel of the Canadian Forces who are qualified to the pilot aeroplane wings standard shall be deemed to have satisfied the seaplane training requirements specified above, provided that the applicant:

    1. (i) has completed not less then 50 hours flight time as pilot-in-command in seaplanes during the 12 months preceding the date of application for the rating, or
    2. (ii) has met the prescribed standard of the Canadian Forces to act as pilot-in-command of seaplanes during the 24 months preceding the date of application for the rating.
  4. (d) Credits for Foreign Applicants
    (amended 1998/03/23; no previous version)

    The holder of a pilot licence - aeroplane category, issued by a Contracting State, shall be deemed to have met the seaplane training requirements specified above, provided that the applicant:

    1. (i) has completed a minimum of 50 hours flight time as pilot-in-command in seaplanes during the 12 months preceding the date of application for the rating, or
    2. (ii) has met the prescribed standards of the State concerned, to act as pilot-in-command of seaplanes during the 12 months preceding the date of application for the rating.

(2) Landplane Rating - Requirements

  1. (a) Experience

    An applicant for a landplane rating shall complete the following:

    1. (i) a total of 3 hours of landplane training including:
      1. (A) a minimum of 2 hours dual instruction, and
      2. (B) a minimum of 5 takeoffs and five landings as sole occupant of the aeroplane.
    2. (ii) The following exercises shall be included in the landplane training:
      1. (A) taxiing,
      2. (B) landings, including crosswind landings, and
      3. (C) takeoffs.
  2. Active and retired personnel of the Canadian Forces who are qualified to the pilot aeroplane wings standard shall be deemed to have satisfied the landplane training requirements specified above, provided that the applicant:

    (b) Credits for DND Applicants
    1. (i) has completed not less then 50 hours flight time as pilot-in-command in landplanes during the 12 months preceding the date of application for the rating, or
    2. (ii) has met the prescribed standard of the Canadian Forces to act as pilot-in-command of landplanes during the 24 months preceding the date of application for the rating.
  3. (c) Credits for Foreign Applicants

    The holder of a pilot licence - aeroplane category, issued by a Contracting State shall be deemed to have met the landplane training requirements specified above, provided that the applicant:

    1. (i) has completed a minimum of 50 hours flight time as pilot-in-command in landplanes during the 12 months preceding the date of application for the rating, or
    2. (ii) has met the prescribed standards of the State concerned, to act as pilot-in-command of landplanes during the 12 months preceding the date of application for the rating.

(3) Multi-engine Class Rating - Requirements

  1. (a) Skill

    An applicant for a multi-engine class rating shall successfully complete a flight test as pilot-in-command of a multi-engine class aeroplane, in accordance with Schedule 7 “Flight Test for the Issuance of a Multi-Engine Class Rating – Aeroplane” of Standard 428 - Conduct of Flight Tests.
    (amended 2012/02/19; previous version)

  2. (b) Credits for DND Applicants

    Active and retired personnel of the Canadian Forces who are qualified to the pilot aeroplane wings standard shall be considered to have satisfied the skill requirements as set forth above provided that the applicant:
    (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)

    1. (i) has acquired a minimum of 50 hours flight time as pilot-in-command in multi-engine aeroplanes during the 24 months preceding the date of application for the rating, or
    2. (ii) has met the prescribed standards of the Canadian Forces to act as pilot-in-command of multi-engine aeroplanes during the 24 months preceding the date of application for the rating.
  3. (c) Credits for Foreign Applicants

    The holder of a pilot licence - aeroplane category, issued by a Contracting State shall be considered to have satisfied the skill requirements as set forth above, provided that the applicant:
    (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)

    1. (i) has acquired a minimum of 50 hours flight time as pilot-in-command in multi-engine aeroplanes during the 12 months preceding the date of application for the rating, or
    2. (ii) has met the prescribed standards, of the State concerned, for issue of a multi-engine class rating during the 12 months preceding the date of application for the rating.

(4) Multi-engine Centre Line Thrust Class Rating - Requirements

(amended 1999/03/01; no previous version)

  1. (a) Skill
    (amended 1999/03/01)

    An applicant for a multi-engine centre line thrust class rating shall successfully complete a flight test as pilot-in-command of a multi-engine centre line thrust class aeroplane, in accordance with Schedule 7 “Flight Test for the Issuance of a Multi-Engine Class Rating – Aeroplane” of Standard 428 — Conduct of Flight Tests.
    (amended 2012/02/19; previous version)

  2. (b) Credits for DND Applicants
    (amended 1999/03/01; no previous version)

    Active and retired personnel of the Canadian Forces who are qualified to the pilot aeroplane wings standard shall be considered to have satisfied the above skill requirement, provided that the applicant
    (amended 1999/03/01; no previous version)

    1. (i) has acquired a minimum of 50 hours flight time as pilot-in-command in multi-engine centre line thrust aeroplanes during the 24 months preceding the date of application for the rating, or
      (amended 1999/03/01; no previous version)
    2. (ii) has met the prescribed standards of the Canadian Forces to act as pilot-in-command of multi-engine centre line thrust aeroplanes during the 24 months preceding the date of application for the rating.
      (amended 1999/03/01; no previous version)
  3. (c) Credits for Foreign Applicants
    (amended 1999/03/01; no previous version)

    The holder of a pilot licence - Aeroplane issued by a Contracting State shall be considered to have satisfied the above skill requirement, provided that the applicant
    (amended 1999/03/01; no previous version)

    1. (i) has acquired a minimum of 50 hours flight time as pilot-in-command in multi-engine centre line thrust aeroplanes during the 12 months preceding the date of application for the rating, or
      (amended 1999/03/01; no previous version)
    2. (ii) has met the prescribed standards of the State concerned, for issue of a multi-engine centre line thrust class rating during the 12 months preceding the date of application for the rating.
      (amended 1999/03/01; no previous version)

DIVISION XI - AIRCRAFT TYPE RATINGS

421.40 Blanket and Individual Type Ratings

Where an applicant has met the applicable requirements for issuance, the following Permits and Licences may be endorsed with the indicated Type Ratings:

Appendix A – Aircraft Type Designator Tables (includes Blanket and Individual Type Ratings)

(1) Blanket Type Ratings

Except where a licence is restricted to an individual aircraft type or types, blanket aircraft type ratings are issued automatically with the issue of the appropriate licence, as follows:

  1. (a) Aeroplanes

    All aeroplanes with a minimum flight crew requirement of one pilot excluding high performance;

    NOTE:

    When the aeroplane blanket rating is endorsed on a licence it is normally combined with an aeroplane class rating; e.g. “all single pilot, non-high performance single engine land aeroplanes”.

  2. (b) Gliders

    All gliders;
    (amended 1998/03/23; previous version)

  3. (c) Balloons

    All non-power driven balloons;

  4. (d) Ultra-Light Aeroplanes

    All ultra-light aeroplanes;
    (amended 1998/03/23; previous version)

  5. (e) Gyroplanes

    All single seat gyroplanes.

(2) Individual Type Ratings

An individual aircraft type rating is issued for aircraft not included in a blanket type rating. It is indicated by the appropriate aircraft type designator from Appendix A found at the end of this Subpart, endorsed on a permit or licence as follows:
(amended 2005/12/01; previous version)

  1. (a) Aeroplanes
    1. (i) each aeroplane with a minimum flight crew requirement of at least two pilots;
    2. (ii) each aeroplane with a minimum flight crew requirement of at least two pilots utilizing a cruise relief pilot;
    3. (iii) each high performance aeroplane type to be endorsed on a pilot licence - aeroplane category;
    4. (iv) each aeroplane type to be endorsed on a flight engineer licence;
    5. (v) each aeroplane type to be endorsed on a second officer rating; and
    6. (vi) each aeroplane type to be endorsed on a licence for which no blanket type rating is issued.
      (amended 2005/06/01; previous version)
  2. Each type of helicopter;

    (b) Helicopters
    Each type of helicopter;

  3. (c) Balloons
    (amended 1998/03/23; previous version)

    Each type of power driven balloon or airship;

  4. (d) Gyroplanes
    (amended 1998/03/23; previous version)

    Each type of gyroplane other than single seat gyroplanes;

  5. (e) Restricted Licence
    (amended 1998/03/23; previous version)

    Individual aircraft type ratings shall be issued for certain medically restricted licences.

(3) Individual Type Rating Requirements

  1. (a) Aeroplane - Two Crew
    1. (i) Knowledge

      An applicant for an individual aircraft type rating for aeroplanes with a minimum flight crew requirement of at least two pilots shall have completed a program of ground school instruction and flight training on the aeroplane type, and
      (amended 2006/12/14; previous version)

      1. Private Pilot Licence - Aeroplane or Commercial Pilot Licence-Aeroplane
      2. (A) in the case of the holder of a Private Pilot Licence-Aeroplane or Commercial Pilot Licence-Aeroplane, within the 24 months preceding the application for the first endorsement of the two crew rating, an applicant shall have obtained a minimum score of 70 percent (70%) on the Type Rating-Aeroplane (IATRA) written examination;
        (amended 2001/03/01; previous version)
      3. Airline Transport Pilot Licence - Aeroplane
      4. (B) in the case of the applicant who has obtained a minimum score of 70 percent (70%) on the Airline Transport Pilot Licence-Aeroplane written examinations (SAMRA and SARON) within the 24 months preceding the application for the endorsement of the rating, the written examination requirement shall be considered to have been met; or
        (amended 2001/03/01; previous version)
      5. (C) in the case of the holder of an Airline Transport Pilot Licence — Aeroplane, the written examination requirement shall be considered to have been met, or
        (amended 2006/12/14; previous version)
      6. (D) in the case of an applicant who completed the airline transport pilot licence (ATP(A)) integrated course and who completed the Airline Transport Pilot Licence — Aeroplane written examinations within the five-year period immediately preceding the application for endorsement of the rating, the written examination requirement shall be considered to have been met.
        (amended 2006/12/14; no previous version)
    2. (ii) Experience

      An applicant shall have completed flight training on the aeroplane type and have completed a minimum of 250 hours pilot flight time on aeroplanes.

    3. (iii) Skill

      The applicant shall comply with one of the following requirements:
      (amended 2005/12/01; previous version)

      1. (A) An applicant shall have passed a pilot proficiency check conducted in accordance with Part VII of the Canadian Aviation Regulations for that aeroplane type within the 12 months preceding the application for the rating or passed a pilot proficiency check acceptable to the Minister for that aeroplane type within 12 months preceding the application for the rating;
        (amended 2005/12/01; previous version)
      2. (B) An applicant who successfully completes a Line Operational Evaluation (LOE) from an approved Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) within the 12 months preceding the application for the rating shall be considered to have met the pilot proficiency check requirement pursuant to Part VII of the Canadian Aviation Regulations; or
        (amended 2005/12/01; previous version)
      3. (C) When employed by the holder of a private operator certificate issued pursuant to section 604.03 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, an applicant shall have successfully completed the operator’s training and proficiency program and be certified proficient for operations by the chief pilot within the 12 months preceding the application.
        (amended 2005/12/01; previous version)
  2. (b) Aeroplane - Two Crew - Restricted to Cruise Relief Pilot Duties Only
    (amended 1998/03/23; previous version)
    1. (i) Prerequisite

      An applicant for an individual aircraft type rating - restricted to cruise relief pilot duties only for aeroplanes with a minimum flight crew requirement of at least two pilots shall hold a Commercial Pilot Licence - Aeroplane, or an Airline Transport Pilot Licence - Aeroplane, and a Group 1 Instrument Rating.
      (amended 1998/03/23; previous version)

    2. (ii) Knowledge

      An applicant for an individual aircraft type rating - restricted to cruise relief pilot duties only for aeroplanes with a minimum flight crew requirement of at least two pilots shall have completed a program of ground and flight training on the aeroplane type, and
      (amended 1998/03/23; previous version)

      1. Commercial Pilot Licence - Aeroplane
      2. (A) in the case of the holder of a Commercial Pilot Licence - Aeroplane, within the 24 months preceding the application for the first endorsement of a two crew rating, an applicant shall have obtained a minimum score of 70 percent (70%) on the Type Rating - Aeroplane (IATRA) examination;
        (amended 2001/03/01; previous version)
      3. Airline Transport Pilot Licence - Aeroplane
      4. (B) in the case of the applicant who has obtained a minimum score of 70 percent (70%) on the Airline Transport Pilot Licence - Aeroplane written examinations (SAMRA and SARON) within the 24 months preceding the application for the endorsement of the rating, the written examination requirement shall be considered to have been met; or
        (amended 2001/03/01; previous version)
      5. (C) in the case of the holder of an Airline Transport Pilot Licence - Aeroplane, the written examination requirement shall be considered to have been met.
        (amended 2001/03/01; no previous version)
    3. (iii) Experience

      An applicant shall have completed flight training on the aeroplane type and have completed a minimum of 250 hours flight time on aeroplanes.
      (amended 1998/03/23; no previous version)

    4. (iv) Skill

      An applicant shall have passed a pilot proficiency check conducted in accordance with Part VI or Part VII, excluding the takeoffs and landings, for that aeroplane type within the 12 months preceding the application for the rating or passed a pilot proficiency check acceptable to the Minister for that aeroplane type within 12 months preceding the application for the rating.
      (amended 2000/09/01; previous version)

  3. (c) High Performance Aeroplane
    1. (i) Knowledge

      An applicant for an individual aircraft type rating for a high performance aeroplane shall have completed ground training on the aeroplane type.

    2. (ii) Experience

      An applicant shall have completed flight training and have acquired a minimum of 200 hours pilot flight time on aeroplanes.

    3. (iii) Skill

      Within the 12 months preceding the date of application for the rating, an applicant shall have successfully completed a qualifying flight under the supervision of a Transport Canada Inspector or a qualified person qualified in accordance with CAR 425.21(7)(a).
      (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)

  4. (d) Flight Engineer
    1. (i) Experience

      An applicant for an individual aircraft type rating to be endorsed on a Flight Engineer Licence shall have passed an approved course of training, within the 12 months preceding the application for the rating.

    2. (ii) Skill

      An applicant shall have passed a Flight Engineer proficiency check on the aeroplane type, within the 12 months preceding the application for the rating.

  5. (e) Second Officer
    1. (i) Experience

      An applicant for an individual aircraft type rating for an aeroplane type associated with a Second Officer rating shall have passed within the 12 months preceding the application for the rating, a course of training relating to that aircraft type that is administered by an institution recognized by the Minister as being qualified to administer such training.

    2. (ii) Skill

      An applicant shall have passed a Second Officer proficiency check on the aeroplane type.

  6. (f) Helicopter - Two Pilots
    1. (i) Knowledge

      An applicant for an individual aircraft type rating for a helicopter with a minimum flight crew requirement of at least two pilots shall have completed a program of ground and flight training on the helicopter type and for
      (amended 2001/03/01; previous version)

      1. Private Pilot Licence - Helicopter or Commercial Pilot Licence - Helicopter
      2. (A) in the case of the holder of a Private Pilot Licence - Helicopter or a Commercial Pilot Licence - Helicopter, within the 24 months preceding the application for the first endorsement of a two crew rating, an applicant shall have obtained a minimum score of 70 percent (70%) on the Type Rating - Helicopter (HATRA) examination;
        (amended 2001/03/01; previous version)
      3. Airline Transport Pilot Licence - Helicopter
      4. (B) in the case of the applicant who has obtained a minimum score of 70 percent (70%) on the Airline Transport Pilot Licence - Helicopter written examinations (HAMRA and HARON) within the 24 months preceding the application for the endorsement of the rating, the written examination requirement shall be considered to have been met; or
        (amended 2001/03/01; previous version)
      5. (C) in the case of the holder of an Airline Transport Pilot Licence - Helicopter, the written examination requirement shall be considered to have been met.
        (amended 2001/03/01; previous version)
    2. (ii) Experience

      An applicant shall have completed flight training on the helicopter type and have completed a minimum of 166 hours pilot flight time on helicopters.
      (amended 2000/09/01; previous version)

    3. (iii) Skill

      An applicant shall have passed a pilot proficiency check conducted in accordance with Part VII for that helicopter type within the 12 months preceding the application for the rating or passed a pilot proficiency check acceptable to the Minister for that helicopter type within 12 months preceding the application for the rating.
      (amended 2000/09/01; previous version)

    4. (iv) Restricted Type Rating
      (amended 1998/03/23; no previous version)

      Where an applicant has not met the knowledge requirement specified in (i) above, the type rating shall be issued with a restriction as follows:

      “SK61 (or applicable type) restricted to Aerial Work - Canada and USA Only”.

      The restriction shall be removed upon completion of the knowledge requirement.

    5. (v) An applicant for an individual aircraft type rating that is certificated as “single pilot VFR and two pilots IFR” who does not meet the above requirements, shall be issued a restricted helicopter type rating.
      (amended 1999/03/01; no previous version)
    6. (vi) When all of the requirements for the two pilot helicopter rating have been met, the restriction shall be removed.
      (amended 1999/03/01; no previous version)
  7. (g) Helicopter - One Pilot

    Within the 12 months preceding the application for the rating, an applicant for an individual aircraft type rating for a helicopter with a minimum flight crew requirement of one pilot shall have successfully completed:
    (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)

    1. (i) a flight test, on the helicopter type, for the issue of a Private or Commercial Pilot Licence - Helicopter; or
    2. (ii) a Pilot Proficiency Check on the helicopter type; or
    3. (iii) a qualifying flight under the supervision of a person qualified in accordance with CAR 425.21(7)(b).
      (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)
  8. (h) Glider - Motor-driven Touring

    [Reserved]

  9. (i) Airship or Powered Balloon
    1. (i) Experience

      An applicant shall complete flight experience on the type of airship or powered balloon for which application is made.

    2. (ii) Skill

      The applicant shall provide a letter of recommendation, in accordance with the skill requirement for the issuance of a Pilot Licence - Balloon, from a balloon flight instructor whose licence is endorsed for the particular airship type or powered balloon, as the case may be.

  10. (j) Advanced Ultra-light Aeroplane

    [Reserved]

  11. (k) Gyroplane - Two-Seat

    Within the 12 months preceding the application for rating, an applicant for an individual aircraft type rating for a gyroplane having more than one seat shall have successfully completed:
    (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)

    1. (i) a flight test, on the gyroplane type, for the issue of a Pilot Permit - Gyroplane; or
    2. (ii) a qualifying flight under the supervision of a person qualified in accordance with CAR 425.21(7)(c).
      (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)
  12. (l) Any Other Individual Aircraft Type Rating

    An applicant for any other individual aircraft type ratings shall have, within the 12 months preceding the application for rating, performed a qualifying flight under the supervision of a person who has been delegated the authority to supervise a qualifying flight.

(4) Credits for DND Applicants

  1. (a) Active and retired members of the Canadian Armed Forces who are qualified to wings standard shall be deemed to have met the qualifying flight requirement specified in 3(c)(iii), 3(g)(iii), 3(k)(ii), and 3(l) above provided the applicant:
    (amended 1998/03/23; previous version)
    1. (i) has acquired a minimum of 10 hours pilot-in-command flight time on the appropriate aircraft type during the 24 months preceding the application for rating, or
      (amended 1998/03/23; no previous version)
    2. (ii) has qualified as pilot-in-command on the aircraft type during the 24 months preceding the application for rating.
      (amended 1998/03/23; no previous version)
  2. (b) Active and retired members of the Canadian Armed Forces who are qualified to wings standard shall be deemed to have met the Pilot Proficiency Check requirement specified in 3(a)(iii), 3(b)(iii), 3(f)(iii),and 3(g)(ii) above provided the applicant:
    (amended 1998/03/23; previous version)
    1. (i) has acquired a minimum of 50 hours flight time on the appropriate aircraft type during the 24 months preceding the application for rating, or
      (amended 1998/03/23; no previous version)
    2. (ii) has qualified as pilot-in-command on the aircraft type during the 24 months preceding the application for rating.
      (amended 1998/03/23; no previous version)

(5) Credits for Foreign Applicants

  1. (a) Qualifying Flight Requirement
    (amended 2000/09/01; previous version)

    The holder of a licence issued by a Contracting State shall be considered to have met the qualifying flight requirement specified in 3(c)(iii), 3(g)(iii), 3(k)(ii), and 3(l) above provided the applicant has acquired a minimum of 10 hours pilot-in-command flight time on the appropriate aircraft type during the 12 months preceding the application for rating;
    (amended 2005/06/01; previous version)

  2. (b) Pilot Proficiency Check Requirement

    The holder of a licence with a two-crew type rating issued by a Contracting State shall be considered to have met the Pilot Proficiency Check requirement specified in 3(a)(iii), 3(b)(iii), 3(f)(iii), and 3(g)(ii) above provided the applicant has acquired a minimum of 50 hours flight time on that aircraft type during the 12 months preceding the application for the rating.
    (amended 2005/06/01; previous version)

(6) Credits for Foreign Flight Test

(amended 2005/06/01; previous version)

  1. (a) The qualifying flight requirement specified in subparagraphs 3(c)(iii), 3(g)(iii), 3(k)(ii), and 3(l) above may be performed under the supervision of a qualified person who is licensed by a Contracting State provided the applicant submits a letter from the State’s Licensing Authority, or other source acceptable to the Minister confirming the personal log entry, and the qualification of the person who supervised the flight;
    (amended 2005/06/01; previous version)
  2. (b) The Pilot Proficiency Check requirement specified in subparagraphs 3(a)(iii), 3(b)(iii), 3(f)(iii), and 3(g)(ii) may be performed by a person authorized by a Contracting State provided the applicant submits confirmation from the State’s Licensing Authority, or other source acceptable to the Minister confirming that the applicant meets the State’s skill test requirement for the issue of the type rating.
    (amended 2005/06/01; previous version)

(7) Aircraft Type

(amended 1998/03/23; no previous version)

For issue of an individual aircraft type rating, the aircraft type shall be registered in the Canadian Civil Aircraft Register, except:
(amended 1998/03/23; no previous version)

  1. (a) aircraft purchased abroad where a provisional Canadian certificate of registration has been issued;
    (amended 1998/03/23; no previous version)
  2. (b) aircraft manufactured in Canada where no type approval has yet been issued, but a certification flight test program is being conducted; or
    (amended 1998/03/23; no previous version)

    NOTE:

    Aircraft type ratings under 6(b) may be issued only to flight test pilots and flight engineers employed by the manufacturer, or by Transport Canada.
    (amended 1998/03/23; no previous version)

  3. (c) aircraft not registered in the Canadian Civil Aircraft Register where a Canadian type approval, or a Canadian approved type certificate has been issued.
    (amended 1998/03/23; no previous version)

DIVISION XII - NIGHT RATING

421.42 Requirements

(1) Private Pilot Licence - Aeroplane

  1. (a) Experience

    An applicant for a night rating shall have acquired in aeroplanes a minimum of 20 hours of pilot flight time which shall include a minimum of:

    1. (i) 10 hours of night flight time including a minimum of:
      1. (A) 5 hours dual flight time, including 2 hours of cross-country flight time,
      2. (B) 5 hours solo flight time, including 10 takeoffs, circuits and landings, and
    2. (ii) 10 hours dual instrument time.
    3. (iii) Credit for a maximum of five hours of the 10 hours of dual instrument time may be given for instrument ground time, provided that the total instrument time shall be in addition to the 10 hours night flight time in subparagraph (a)(i) above.
      (amended 1998/03/23; previous version)
  2. (b) Skill

    Within the 12 months preceding the date of application for a night rating, an applicant shall have successfully completed a qualifying flight under the supervision of a Transport Canada Inspector or a person qualified in accordance with subsection 425.21(4) by demonstrating the level of skill specified in the Flight Instructor Guide-Aeroplane (TP 975).
    (amended 2000/09/01; previous version)

  3. (c) Credits

    An applicant who holds a licence endorsed with a night rating in one of the other aircraft categories shall have the total 20 hour pilot flight time reduced to a minimum of 5 hours in aeroplanes including a minimum of:

    1. (i) 2 hours dual night flight time,
    2. (ii) 1 hour solo night flight time, and
    3. (iii) 1 hour dual instrument flight time which shall be in addition to the flight time of (i) and (ii).

(2) Private Pilot Licence - Helicopter

  1. (a) Experience

    An applicant for a night rating shall have acquired in helicopters a minimum of 20 hours of pilot flight time which shall include a minimum of:

    1. (i) 10 hours of night flight time including a minimum of:
      1. (A) 5 hours dual flight time, including 2 hours of cross-country flight time,
      2. (B) 5 hours solo flight time, including 10 takeoffs, circuits and landings, and
    2. (ii) 10 hours dual instrument time.
    3. (iii) Credit for a maximum of 5 hours of the 10 hours of dual instrument time may be given for instrument ground time, provided the total instrument time is in addition to the 10 hours night flight time in subparagraph (a)(i) above.
      (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)
  2. (b) Skill

    Within the 12 months preceding the date of application for a night rating, an applicant shall have successfully completed a qualifying flight under the supervision of a Transport Canada Inspector or a person qualified in accordance with subsection 425.21(4) by demonstrating the level of skill specified in the Flight Instructor Guide-Aeroplane (TP 975).
    (amended 2000/09/01; previous version)

  3. (c) Credits

    An applicant who holds a licence endorsed with a night rating in one of the other aircraft categories shall have the total 20 hour pilot flight time reduced to a minimum of 5 hours in helicopters including a minimum of:

    1. (i) 2 hours dual night flight time,
    2. (ii) 1 hour solo night flight time, and
    3. (iii) 1 hour dual instrument flight time which shall be in addition to the flight time of (i) and (ii).

(3) Pilot Permit - Gyroplane

  1. (a) Experience

    An applicant for a night rating shall have acquired in gyroplanes a minimum of 20 hours of pilot flight time which shall include a minimum of:

    1. (i) 10 hours of night flight time including a minimum of:
      1. (A) 5 hours dual flight time, including 2 hours of cross-country flight time,
      2. (B) 5 hours solo flight time, including 10 takeoffs, circuits and landings, and
    2. (ii) 10 hours dual instrument time.
    3. (iii) Credit for a maximum of 5 hours of the 10 hours of dual instrument time may be given for instrument ground time, provided the total instrument time shall be in addition to the 10 hours night flight time in subparagraph (a)(i) above.
      (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)
  2. (b) Skill

    Within the 12 months preceding the application for a night rating, an applicant shall have successfully completed a qualifying flight under the supervision of a Transport Canada Inspector or a person qualified in accordance with subsection 425.21(4).
    (amended 2000/09/01; previous version)

  3. (c) Credits

    An applicant who holds a licence endorsed with a night rating in one of the other aircraft categories shall have the total 20 hour pilot flight time reduced to a minimum of 5 hours in gyroplanes including a minimum of:

    1. (i) 2 hours dual night flight time,
    2. (ii) 1 hour solo night flight time, and
    3. (iii) 1 hour dual instrument flight time which shall be in addition to the flight time of (i) and (iii).

(4) Pilot Licence - Balloon

An applicant for a night rating shall have completed in balloons a minimum of:
(amended 2005/12/01; previous version)

  1. (a) 1 dual and 1 solo ascent by night; and
  2. (b) a minimum of 4 hours of night flight time under the direction and supervision of the holder of a Flight Instructor Rating - Balloon, endorsed for night flying and for the Balloon type.

DIVISION XIII - VFR OVER-THE-TOP RATING

421.44 Requirements

(1) General

A VFR OTT rating may be issued for either the aeroplane or helicopter category. Once an applicant has obtained the VFR OTT privileges in one category, those privileges may also be attached to a licence held in the other category.
(amended 2000/09/01; previous version)

(2) Knowledge

An applicant for a VFR OTT rating shall acquire a standard of knowledge in accordance with the Flight Instructor Standard - VFR OTT.

(3) Experience

An applicant for a VFR OTT rating shall complete a minimum of 15 hours dual instrument time of which a maximum of 5 hours may be instrument ground time. Training shall be in accordance with the Flight Instructor Standard - VFR OTT.

(4) Skill

An applicant for a VFR OTT rating shall have reached the level of skill specified in the Flight Instructor Standard - VFR OTT.

(5) Credits

An applicant for a VFR OTT rating who holds, or has held an instrument rating shall be considered to have met the Knowledge, Experience and Skill Requirements specified above, and shall be issued a VFR OTT rating upon request.
(amended 1999/03/01; previous version)

(6) Credits for DND Applicants

(amended 1999/03/01; no previous version)

An applicant who holds or has held an Instrument Rating issued by the Canadian Forces shall be considered to have met the Knowledge, Experience and Skill requirements specified above.
(amended 1999/03/01; no previous version)

(7) Credits for Foreign Applicants

(amended 1999/03/01; no previous version)

An applicant who holds or has held an instrument rating issued by a Contracting State shall be considered to have met the Knowledge, Experience and Skill requirements specified above.
(amended 1999/03/01; no previous version)

DIVISION XIV - INSTRUMENT RATINGS

421.46 Requirements

(1) General

An instrument rating is issued for aircraft in one of the following groups:

  1. (a) Group 1 for all aeroplanes where the flight test was conducted in a multi-engine aeroplane,
  2. (b) Group 2 for multi-engine centre line thrust and single engine aeroplanes where the flight test was conducted in a multi-engine centre line thrust aeroplane,
  3. (c) Group 3 for single engine aeroplanes where the flight test was conducted in a single engine aeroplane, and
  4. (d) Group 4 for helicopters where the flight test was conducted in a helicopter.

(2) Requirements

  1. (a) Knowledge

    An applicant shall have obtained a minimum of 70% on the written examination Instrument Rating (INRAT) which shall include the following subjects:

    1. (i) Canadian Aviation Regulations;
    2. (ii) Instrument Flight Rules and Procedures;
    3. (iii) Meteorology;
    4. (iv) Instruments;
    5. (v) Radio and Radar systems; and
    6. (vi) Navigation.
  2. (b) Experience

    An applicant shall have completed a minimum of:

    1. (i) 50 hours of cross-country flight as pilot-in-command in aeroplanes or helicopters of which 10 hours must be in the appropriate category; and
    2. (ii) 40 hours of instrument time of which a maximum of 20 hours may be instrument ground time. The 40 hours instrument time shall include a minimum of:
      1. (A) 5 hours of dual instrument flight time acquired from the holder of a flight instructor rating ,
      2. (B) 5 hours in aeroplanes where the applicant is applying for a Group 1, 2 or 3 instrument rating or in helicopters where the applicant is applying for a Group 4 instrument rating,
      3. (C) Fifteen (15) hours of dual instrument flight time provided by a qualified person as specified in section 425.21(9); and
        (amended 1998/03/23; previous version)
      4. (D) one dual cross-country flight under simulated or actual IMC conditions of a minimum of 100 nautical miles, the flight to be conducted in accordance with an IFR flight plan to include at, two different locations, an instrument approach to minima.
  3. (c) Skill
    1. (i) Subject to paragraph (ii), an applicant shall successfully complete:
      (amended 2012/02/19; previous version)
      1. (A) a flight test as pilot-in-command of an aeroplane or helicopter, in accordance with Schedule 8 “Flight Test for the Issuance or Renewal of an Instrument Rating” of Standard 428 — Conduct of Flight Tests, or
        (amended 2012/02/19; previous version)
      2. (B) a Pilot Proficiency Check (PPC) for operations under IFR in accordance with Part VI or Part VII , as applicable.
        (amended 2012/02/19; previous version)
    2. (ii) An applicant who successfully completes a Line Operational Evaluation (LOE) from an approved Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) is deemed to have met the requirement of clause (B).
      (amended 2012/02/19; previous version)

(3) Credits for DND Applicants

  1. (a) The experience requirements specified in sub-paragraph 2(b) above may be acquired under the instruction of equivalent military personnel.
  2. (b) The flight test specified in paragraph (c) shall be deemed to have been met for Canadian Forces personnel who:
    (amended 1998/09/01; previous version)
    1. (i) have reached wings standard;
    2. (ii) hold an unrestricted Canadian Forces instrument rating appropriate to the class and type of aircraft; and
    3. (iii) have met the experience requirements specified in subsection 2.

(4) Foreign Applicants

The experience requirements specified in subparagraph 2(b) may be acquired under the instruction of foreign instructors with qualifications equivalent to those specified in Subpart 5.

421.48 Period of Validity

(1) 24 months calculated to the first day of the twenty-fifth month following the month in which the flight test was conducted.

(2) An instrument rating may be issued for a period of less than twenty four months.

421.49 Renewal of Instrument Rating

(1) An applicant for the renewal of an instrument rating shall successfully complete the flight test referred to in paragraph 421.46(2)(c).
(amended 1999/03/01; previous version)

(2) An applicant who successfully completes a Line Operational Evaluation (LOE) from an approved Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) shall be considered to have met the pilot proficiency check requirement pursuant to Part VII of the Canadian Aviation Regulations.
(amended 2005/12/01; previous version)

(3) An applicant for the renewal of an instrument rating, who is employed by the holder of a private operator certificate issued pursuant to section 604.03 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, with a pilot training and proficiency certification program, shall successfully complete that program and be certified proficient for operations under IFR by the chief pilot.
(amended 2005/12/01; previous version)

NOTE:

For the purpose of subsections (2) and (3), the chief pilot's assessment of an applicant's competence and proficiency shall be based on the mandatory items set out in TP 9939 Flight Test Standards - Instrument Ratings and, or TP 6533 - Approved Check Pilot Manual Chapter 10 - Assessment Standards.
(amended 2005/12/01)

(4) An applicant for the renewal of an instrument rating that expired more than 24 months before the date of application, shall:
(amended 1999/03/01; previous version)

  1. (a) successfully complete the flight test referred to in paragraph 421.46(2)(c); and
    (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)
  2. (b) obtain a minimum of 70% in the written examination (INRAT) described in CAR 421.46(2)(a) - Knowledge Requirement.
    (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)

(5) An applicant who holds a Canadian Forces unrestricted instrument rating and whose civil instrument rating expired more than 24 months before the date of application, shall be considered to have met the INRAT examination requirement, provided that:
(amended 2000/09/01; previous version)

  1. (a) the applicant holds a valid pilot licence; and
    (amended 2000/09/01; previous version)
  2. (b) the Canadian Forces flight test for renewal was done in a multi-engine aeroplane if a Group 1 instrument rating is held, in a single-engine aeroplane if a Group 3 instrument rating is held or in a helicopter if a Group 4 instrument rating is held.
    (amended 2000/09/01; previous version)

(6) An applicant who holds a Canadian Commercial Pilot Licence or Airline Transport Pilot Licence and whose instrument rating expired more than 24 months before the date of application, is considered to have met the INRAT examination requirement, provided that the applicant:
(amended 2005/12/01; previous version)

  1. (a) holds a Commercial Pilot Licence or Airline Transport Pilot Licence issued by a Contracting State;
    (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)
  2. (b) holds an instrument rating issued by a Contracting State; and
    (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)
  3. (c) successfully completes, within the 12 months preceding the date of application for the rating, an instrument flight test while working for hire or reward in a commercial operation while outside of Canada, and provides the Minister with a copy of:
    (amended 2005/12/01; previous version)
    1. (i) the foreign flight test record;
      (amended 2005/12/01; no previous version)
    2. (ii) the foreign licence, providing it indicates that the instrument flight test was completed within the 12 months preceding the date of application for the rating; or
      (amended 2005/12/01; no previous version)
    3. (iii) a letter from the foreign aviation authority attesting to the successful completion of an instrument flight test within the l2 months preceding the date of application for the rating.
      (amended 2005/12/01; no previous version)

(7) An applicant who holds a Second Officer Rating or a Flight Engineer Licence and whose instrument rating expired more than 24 months before the date of application, shall be considered to have met the INRAT examination requirement provided that:
(amended 2000/09/01; previous version)

  1. (a) the applicant works for hire or reward for a Canadian Air Carrier that operates aircraft requiring a Second Officer or a Flight Engineer; and
    (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)
  2. (b) the applicant, on commencement of work as a Second Officer or Flight Engineer, held an Instrument Rating and a Commercial Pilot Licence - Aeroplane.
    (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)

(8) [deleted 2008/05/01; previous version]

(9) A flight test for the renewal of an instrument rating may be conducted within the 90 day period prior to the valid to date of the existing rating. In this case, the renewed rating shall be valid to the same date as if the flight test was done during the month prior to the valid to date of the existing rating.
(amended 2000/09/01; no previous version)

DIVISION XV - SECOND OFFICER RATING

421.52 Requirements

(1) Knowledge/Experience

An applicant shall provide evidence of having successfully completed a Second Officer training program during the 12 months preceding the date of application.

(2) Skill

An applicant shall provide the report of a Second Officer proficiency check conducted during the 12 months preceding the date of application in the aeroplane type or approved aeroplane type simulator to be endorsed on the licence.

NOTE:

A Second Officer Rating does not, in itself, convey any pilot privileges upon the licence holder.

DIVISION XVI PASSENGER-CARRYING RATING – ULTRA-LIGHT AEROPLANE

(amended 2005/12/01; previous version)

421.55 Requirements

(amended 2005/12/01; previous version)

(1) Medical Fitness

  1. (a) An applicant holds a Category 4 Medical Certificate valid for a Pilot Permit - Ultra-light Aeroplane.
  2. (b) An applicant who meets the medical conditions specified on the Civil Aviation Medical Declaration and has signed it is considered to have met the Category 4 Medical Standards, providing a physician licensed to practice medicine in Canada has signed Part C of the declaration.
  3. (c) The medical validity period for the permit holder under 40 years of age is 60 months and for a permit holder 40 years of age or over, is 24 months.
  4. (d) The permit is maintained by a valid Category 1, 3, or 4 Medical Certificate.

(2) Experience

  1. (a) An applicant has completed a minimum of 25 hours pilot flight training in ultra-light aeroplanes under the direction and supervision of the holder of a Flight Instructor Rating - Ultra-light Aeroplane or a Flight Instructor Rating- Aeroplane.
  2. (b) The flight training includes a minimum of:
    1. (i) 15 hours dual instruction flight time, including a minimum of 2 hours cross-country flight time, and
    2. (ii) 5 hours solo flight time.

(3) Skill

Within the 12 months preceding the date of application for the rating, an applicant shall successfully complete a flight test as pilot-in-command in accordance with Schedule 1 “Flight Test for the Issuance of a Passenger Carrying Rating – Ultra-light Aeroplane” of Standard 428 — Conduct of Flight Tests.
(amended 2012/02/19; previous version)

(4) Credits

  1. (a) An applicant who holds a Pilot Licence - Aeroplane or Pilot Permit – Recreational - Aeroplane is considered to have met the skill requirement specified in subsection (3).
  2. (b) Until December 31, 2006, an applicant who holds a Flight Instructor Rating - Ultra-light Aeroplane, is considered to have met the experience and the skill requirements specified in subsections (2) and (3).

421.56 to 421.60 Reserved

(amended 2005/12/01; previous version)

DIVISION XVII  - FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR RATINGS - AEROPLANE AND HELICOPTER

421.62 Class 4 Supervision Requirement

The holder of a Class 4 Flight Instructor Rating shall be under the supervision of the holder of a Class 1 or 2 Flight Instructor Rating, in the applicable category, and shall submit for review to the supervising instructor the following:

(1) the training program for each student undergoing training by the holder of a Class 4 Flight Instructor Rating;

(2) flight progress checks for each student at intervals to be specified by the supervising flight instructor, but at least once before the first solo flight and once before the flight test for issue of the pilot licence;

(3) a record of results on the form “Instructor’s Training Record While Under Direct Supervision”; and

(4) the student’s pilot training record for each first solo flight and for each flight test recommendation for approval.

421.63 Class 1 or 2 - Supervision of the Holder of a Class 4 Flight Instructor Rating - Aeroplane and Helicopter

When providing direct supervision to the holder of a Class 4 Flight Instructor Rating, the holder of a Class 1 or 2 Flight Instructor Rating - aeroplane or helicopter shall:

(1) review and approve the holder of the Class 4 Flight Instructor Rating’s proposed training program for each student to ensure conformity with the Flight Training Manual and Flight Instructor Guide;

(2) specify the intervals at which progress checks are required, which shall be at least once before the first solo flight and once before the flight test for issue of the pilot licence;

(3) conduct the progress checks specified in (2) above;

(4) approve and countersign the student’s pilot training record for each first solo flight authorized and for each flight test recommended by the holder of a Class 4 Flight Instructor Rating; and

(5) review and certify the holder of a Class 4 Flight Instructor Rating’s “Instructor’s Training Record while under Direct Supervision” form, as to the student’s competency with respect to first solo flights and flight tests for issue of licences.

421.64 Class 4 - Record Keeping

The holder of a Class 4 Flight Instructor Rating - aeroplane or helicopter shall maintain a record of results for all students trained on the form “Instructor’s Training Record while under Direct Supervision”.

421.65 Period of Validity - Aeroplane and Helicopter

(1) Class 4

The Class 4 Flight Instructor Rating shall be issued valid to the first day of the thirteenth month following the month in which the instructor flight test was conducted.

(2) Class 3

The initial Class 3 Flight Instructor Rating shall be issued valid to the first day of the twenty-fifth month following the month in which the most recent instructor flight test was conducted.
(amended 2003/06/01; previous version)

(3) Class 2

The class 2 Flight Instructor Rating shall be issued valid to the first day of the thirty-seventh month following the month in which the instructor flight test was conducted.
(amended 1998/09/01; previous version)

(4) Class 1

The Class 1 Flight Instructor Rating shall be issued valid to the first day of the forty-ninth month following the month in which the instructor flight test was conducted.
(amended 1998/09/01; previous version)

(5) Aeroplane -Aerobatic

  1. (a) Class 2

    The class 2 Aeroplane Aerobatic Flight Instructor Rating shall be issued valid to the first day of the thirty-seventh month following the month in which the instructor flight test was conducted.
    (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)

  2. (b) Class 1

    The Class 1 Aeroplane Aerobatic Instructor Flight Rating shall be issued valid to the first day of the forty-ninth month following the month in which the instructor flight test is conducted.
    (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)

421.66 Renewal of Flight Instructor Rating

(1) An applicant for renewal of a Flight Instructor Rating - Aeroplane or Helicopter shall have the rating provided that the applicant:
(amended 1999/03/01; previous version)

  1. (a) successfully completes a flight test for the appropriate flight instructor rating;
    (amended 2000/09/01; previous version)
  2. (b) successfully completes a flight instructor refresher course, in which case the rating shall be renewed from the date of the last day of the course. When the last day of the course is within 90 days of the valid to date of the existing rating, the renewed rating shall be valid to the same date as if the refresher course was completed during the month prior to the valid to date of the existing rating; or
    (amended 2000/09/01; previous version)
  3. (c) in the previous 24 months, has acquired at least 300 hours of flight instructor experience and had, in this period, at least 80% of candidates recommended for the applicable flight tests pass on the first attempt. The renewal shall be based on no fewer than 5 flight tests.
    (amended 2000/09/01; previous version)
  4. (d) When an instructor flight test for the renewal or upgrade of a flight instructor rating is conducted within the 90 day period prior to the valid to date of the existing rating, the renewed rating shall be valid to the same date as if the flight test was done during the month prior to the valid to date of the existing rating.
    (amended 2000/09/01; previous version)

(2) Where the applicant has renewed the instructor rating twice consecutively by means other than a flight test, the next renewal shall be through successful completion of a flight test for the appropriate flight instructor rating.
(amended 2000/09/01; no previous version)

(3)

  1. (a) Where a flight instructor rating is or has been valid within the preceding 12 months, an applicant for renewal shall successfully complete a flight test for the appropriate flight instructor rating.
    (amended 2000/09/01; previous version)
  2. (b) Where a flight instructor rating has been invalid for more than 12 months but less than 24 months, an applicant for renewal shall:
    (amended 1998/09/01; previous version)
    1. (i) provide a recommendation from the holder of a Class 1 Flight Instructor Rating in the appropriate category indicating that the applicant is considered competent to undertake an instructor flight test; and
    2. (ii) successfully complete a flight test for the appropriate flight instructor rating.
      (amended 2000/09/01; previous version)
  3. (c) Where a flight instructor rating has been invalid for more than 24 months, an applicant for renewal shall:
    (amended 1998/09/01; previous version)
    1. (i) provide a recommendation from the holder of a Class 1 Flight Instructor Rating in the appropriate category indicating that the applicant is considered competent to complete the written examination(s) and undertake an instructor flight test;
    2. (ii) successfully complete the examination requirement set forth under Knowledge for the appropriate flight instructor rating; and
    3. (iii) successfully complete a flight test for the appropriate flight instructor rating.
      (amended 2000/09/01; previous version)

(4) [deleted 2008/05/01; previous version]

421.67 Flight Test Record

(amended 1998/03/23; previous version)

(1) Maintenance
(amended 1998/03/23; previous version)

A flight test record contains, for each candidate recommended for a flight test:
(amended 2006/12/14; previous version)

  1. (a) an assessment of the results for each flight test item;
    (amended 1998/03/23; previous version)
  2. (b) the overall results; and
    (amended 1998/03/23; previous version)
  3. (c) information on whether or not the candidate successfully completed the flight test.
    (amended 2006/12/14; previous version)

(2) Evaluation
(amended 1998/03/23; previous version)

Follow-up action will be required when a flight test record reflects the following:
(amended 1998/03/23; previous version)

  1. (a) more than three failures for the flight test among the last 10 candidates recommended by the flight instructor for issuance of the Pilot Permit -Recreational, Private Pilot Licence or Commercial Pilot Licence; or
    (amended 1998/03/23; previous version)
  2. (b) more than three failures for the flight test among the last 10 candidates recommended by the flight instructor for issuance of a flight instructor rating; or
    (amended 1998/03/23; previous version)
  3. (c) more than three failures in total for flight tests referred to in both (a), and (b) , if fewer than 10 candidates have been recommended by the flight instructor.
    (amended 2006/12/14; previous version)

(3) Follow-up Action
(amended 1998/03/23; no previous version)

  1. (a) Action will be taken only when the flight test failures can be attributed to the performance of the flight instructor;
    (amended 1998/03/23; no previous version)
  2. (b) Once the causal connection referred to in paragraph (a) is made and the extent of the problem is determined, the Minister shall ensure that a follow-up plan of action designed to assess and effectively deal with the problem is carried out. If the flight training is conducted in accordance with an approved Flight Training Operations Manual, the follow-up action plan may be developed and implemented by the Chief Flight Instructor in accordance with the procedures described in that manual;
    (amended 2006/12/14; previous version)
  3. (c) The plan of action referred to in paragraph (b) shall include, but is not limited to:
    (amended 1998/03/23; no previous version)
    1. (i) observation of in-flight, or ground instruction conducted by the flight instructor;
      (amended 1998/03/23; no previous version)
    2. (ii) consultation with the Chief Flight Instructor where the flight instructor is employed at a flight training unit; and
      (amended 1998/03/23; no previous version)
    3. (iii) remedial flight or ground school instruction from appropriate sources.
      (amended 2006/12/14; previous version)
  4. (d) After implementation of the plan of action referred to in paragraph (b), if more than two of the next five flight tests result in failures, the flight instructor may be required to complete a flight instructor rating flight test.
    (amended 2006/12/14; previous version)

DIVISION XVIII - FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR RATING - AEROPLANE

421.69 Class 4 - Aeroplane - Requirements

(1) Prerequisites

  1. (a) Before commencing flight training for the Class 4 Instructor Rating - Aeroplane, an applicant shall hold a Commercial or Airline Transport Pilot Licence - Aeroplane and have completed either:
    1. (i) a minimum of 200 hours total time including 20 hours instrument time, of which a minimum of 10 hours shall be instrument flight time; or
      (amended 2006/12/14; previous version)
    2. (ii) the commercial pilot licence - aeroplane/instrument rating (CPL(A)/IR) integrated course.
      (amended 2006/12/14; previous version)
  2. (b) Before commencing ground school instruction for the Class 4 Instructor Rating - Aeroplane, an applicant shall have successfully completed the written examination and flight test for the Commercial Pilot Licence - Aeroplane.
    (amended 2006/12/14; previous version)

(2) Knowledge

  1. (a) An applicant shall have completed a minimum of 25 hours of Instructor Rating ground school instruction which shall include:
    1. (i) practical application of the basic principles of learning and techniques of instruction;
    2. (ii) preparation and use of lesson plans;
    3. (iii) procedures for planning and presenting preparatory ground instruction, pre-flight briefings, in-flight instruction, and post-flight debriefings;
    4. (iv) theory of flight required to teach the air exercises;
    5. (v) aircraft flight manuals and aircraft operating limits;
    6. (vi) presentation of pilot decision-making concepts; and
    7. (vii) the use of the Transport Canada Flight Instructor Guide, Flight Training Manual, Canadian Aviation Regulations, Part IV and the appropriate Flight Test schedules and guides.
      (amended 2012/02/19; previous version)
  2. (b) An applicant shall obtain a minimum of 70% in the written examination Flight Instructor Rating - Aeroplane Class 4 (AIRAF).

(3) Experience

An applicant shall complete in aeroplanes a minimum of 30 hours of dual flight instruction on overall pilot proficiency and the presentation of all exercises set forth in the Flight Instructor Guide and shall include a minimum of 5 hours of training in the teaching of instrument flight skills. A maximum 5 of the 30 hours may be conducted on an approved aeroplane simulator or flight training device.
(amended 1998/09/01; previous version)

(4) Skill

An applicant shall successfully complete a flight test as pilot-in-command of an aeroplane, in accordance with Schedule 9 “Flight Test for the Issuance or Renewal of a Flight Instructor Rating – Class 4 – Aeroplane” of Standard 428 — Conduct of Flight Tests.
(amended 2012/02/19; previous version)

(5) Credits

  1. (a) Knowledge
    1. (i) An applicant who holds, or has held an instructor rating for helicopters, gyroplanes, gliders, balloons or aerobatics shall be credited with 10 hours of the 25 hours ground school instruction requirement.
      (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)
    2. (ii) An applicant who holds an Airline Transport Pilot Licence - Aeroplane, or a teaching certificate issued by provincial or territorial authorities, shall be credited with 10 hours of the 25 hours' ground school instruction requirement.
      (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)
    3. (iii) An applicant who holds or has held within the preceding 24 months, a flight instructor rating - Helicopter, shall be considered to have met the written examination requirement.
      (amended 2000/09/01; previous version)
  2. (b) Experience
    1. (i) An applicant who holds, or has held a Flight Instructor Rating - Helicopter, shall be credited with 10 hours of the 30 hours' of dual flight instruction requirement, and with the 5 hours requirement of training in the teaching of instrument flight skills.
      (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)
    2. (ii) An applicant who holds an Airline Transport Pilot Licence - Aeroplane, shall be credited with 10 hours of the 30 hours' dual flight instruction requirement.
      (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)

(6) Credits for DND Applicants

  1. (a) Knowledge
    1. (i) An applicant who holds, or has held within the preceding 24 months, Canadian Forces Instructor Category, Helicopters for initial flight training shall be deemed to have met 10 hours of the 25 hours ground school instruction requirement.
    2. (ii) An applicant who holds, or has held within the preceding 24 months, a Canadian Forces Qualified Flying Instructor (QFI) Category valid for training on single-engine aeroplanes shall be deemed to have met 15 hours of the 25 hours ground school instruction requirement.
      (amended 2000/09/01; previous version)
  2. (b) Experience

    An applicant who holds, or has held within the preceding 24 months, a Canadian Forces Qualified Flying Instructor (QFI) Category valid for training on single-engine aeroplanes shall be credited with a maximum of 15 hours of equivalent experience towards the 30 hours of dual flight instruction.
    (amended 2000/09/01; previous version)

(7) Credits for Foreign Applicants

  1. (a) Knowledge
    1. (i) An applicant who holds, or has held within the preceding 24 months, Flight Instructor Rating - Helicopter issued by a Contracting State shall be deemed to have met 10 hours of the 25 hours ground school instruction requirement.
    2. (ii) An applicant who holds, or has held within the preceding 24 months a Flight Instructor Rating - Aeroplane issued by a Contracting State shall be deemed to have met 15 hours of the 25 hours ground school instruction requirement.
  2. (b) Experience

    An applicant who holds, or has held within the preceding 24 months, a Flight Instructor Rating - Aeroplane issued by a Contracting State shall be credited with a maximum of 15 hours of equivalent experience towards the 30 hours of dual flight instruction.

421.70 Class 3 - Aeroplane - Requirements

(1) Prerequisites

  1. (a) An applicant for a initial Class 3 Flight Instructor Rating - Aeroplane shall hold a Class 4 Flight Instructor Rating - Aeroplane and meet the following knowledge, experience and skill requirements.
  2. (b) Providing that the additional knowledge, experience and skill requirements specified below are met, the requirement to hold a Class 4 Flight Instructor Rating - Aeroplane does not apply to:
    1. (i) a Canadian Forces Flight Instructor - Aeroplanes, or
    2. (ii) the holder of a Flight Instructor Rating - Aeroplane issued by a Contracting State provided that:
      1. (A) the State that issued the rating and Canada have formally agreed to grant reciprocal exemptions; and
      2. (B) the rating was not issued on the basis of a rating issued by a State with which Canada has not formally agreed to grant reciprocal exemptions.

(2) Knowledge

  1. (a) An applicant qualifying under 1(b) above who has acquired a minimum of 750 hours ab-initio flight instruction experience shall:
    1. (i) complete a course of ground instruction which shall include the subjects listed under the Knowledge requirement for a Class 4 Rating,
    2. (ii) obtain a letter of recommendation from the holder of a Class 1 Flight Instructor rating prior to attempting the written examinations specified below; and
    3. (iii) obtain a minimum of 70% in the written examination Flight Instructor Rating - Aeroplane Class 4 (AIRAF).
  2. (b) An applicant qualifying under 1(b) above who has completed less than 750 hours, but a minimum of 300 hours ab-initio flight instruction shall:
    1. (i) complete a course of a minimum of 10 hours ground instruction, which shall include the subjects listed under the Knowledge requirement for a Class 4 Rating,
    2. (ii) obtain a letter of recommendation from the holder of a Class 1 Flight Instructor Rating prior to attempting the written examinations specified above; and
    3. (iii) obtain a minimum of 70% in the written examination specified above.

(3) Experience

  1. (a) An applicant shall provide evidence of having conducted in aeroplanes, a minimum of 100 hours dual flight instruction for the issue of a pilot licence.
  2. (b) An applicant who is referred to in subparagraph (1)(b)(i) or (ii) shall be deemed to have met the requirements in (a) above.

(4) Skill

  1. (a) Subject to paragraph 4(b) below, an applicant shall complete an “Instructor's Training Record While Under Direct Supervision” indicating evidence of:
    (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)
    1. (i) authorizing no fewer than 3 students for their first solo flight,
      (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)
    2. (ii) recommending no fewer than 3 students for their flight test for issue of a permit or licence, all of whom demonstrated the required standard of skill and knowledge; and
      (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)
    3. (iii) having conducted 50% or more of the last 10 hours of the dual flight instruction for the students authorized in (i) and recommended in (ii) above.
      (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)
  2. (b) Where an applicant qualifies under 1(b) above, the applicant shall:
    1. (i) complete a course of dual instruction from the holder of a Class 1 Flight Instructor Rating;
    2. (ii) obtain a letter of recommendation from that instructor to attempt the flight test; and
    3. (iii) successfully complete a flight test as pilot-in-command of an aeroplane, in accordance with Schedule 10 “Flight Test for the Issuance or Renewal of a Flight Instructor Rating – Class 3 – Aeroplane” of Standard 428 — Conduct of Flight Tests.
      (amended 2012/02/19; previous version)
  3. (c) Provided the requirements in (a) above are met, a flight test is not required for the issue of a Class 3 Flight Instructor Rating - Aeroplane, unless the application for a Class 3 Instructor Rating coincides with the expiry date of a Class 4 Instructor Rating.
  4. (d) An applicant who is the subject of follow-up action with respect to the applicant’s Flight Test Record in accordance with Section 421.67, is not eligible to upgrade the instructor rating from a Class 4 to a Class 3.

421.71 Class 2 - Aeroplane - Requirements

(1) Prerequisites

An applicant for an initial class 2 Flight Instructor Rating - Aeroplane shall have held a Class 3 Flight Instructor Rating - Aeroplane during the previous 12 month period and meet the following knowledge, experience and skill requirements.

(2) Knowledge

The applicant shall have, within the previous 24 months, obtained a minimum of 70% in a written examination Flight Instructor Rating - Aeroplane (AIRAT).
(amended 2003/06/01; previous version)

(3) Experience

An applicant shall provide evidence of having conducted, in aeroplanes, a minimum of 500 hours of flight instructor experience, including a minimum of:

  1. (a) 400 hours dual flight instruction for the issue of a civil pilot licence or to military wings standards;
    (amended 2005/06/01; previous version)
  2. (b) have recommended no fewer than 10 applicants for the recreational, private and/or commercial flight test, of which a maximum of 3 may be for the recreational flight test; and
    (amended 2005/06/01; previous version)
  3. (c) five of the ten recommendations for the private or commercial flight test referred to in paragraph 3(b) shall be considered to have been met in the case of an applicant who holds or has held a Canadian Forces Qualified Flying Instructor (QFI) Category A1 or A2 valid for training on single-engine aeroplanes.
    (amended 2005/06/01; no previous version)

(4) Skill

  1. (a) An applicant shall successfully complete a flight test as pilot-in-command of an aeroplane, in accordance with Schedule 11 “Flight Test for the Issuance or Renewal of a Flight Instructor Rating – Class 2 – Aeroplane” of Standard 428 — Conduct of Flight Tests.
    (amended 2012/02/19; previous version)
  2. (b) An applicant who is the subject of follow-up action with respect to the applicant’s Flight Test Record in accordance with Section 421.67, is not eligible to upgrade the instructor rating from a Class 3 to a Class 2.

421.72 Class 1 - Aeroplane - Requirements

(1) Prerequisites

An applicant for an initial Class 1 Flight Instructor Rating - Aeroplane shall have held a class 2 Flight Instructor Rating - Aeroplane during the previous 12 month period and meet the following knowledge, experience and skill requirements.

(2) Knowledge

An applicant shall have, within the previous 24 months, obtained a minimum of 80% in a written examination Flight Instructor Rating - Aeroplane Class 1 (AIRAT).
(amended 2000/09/01; previous version)

(3) Experience

An applicant shall provide evidence of having conducted, in aeroplanes, a minimum of 750 hours of flight instruction, including a minimum of:

  1. (a) 600 hours dual flight instruction for the issue of a civil pilot licence or to military wings standards, and
  2. (b) have recommended no fewer than 10 applicants for the recreational, private and/or commercial flight test, of which a maximum of 3 may be for the recreational flight test.

(4) Skill

  1. (a) An applicant shall successfully complete a flight test as pilot-in-command of an aeroplane, in accordance with Schedule 12 “Flight Test for the Issuance or Renewal of a Flight Instructor Rating – Class 1 – Aeroplane” of Standard 428 — Conduct of Flight Tests.
    (amended 2012/02/19; previous version)
  2. (b) An applicant who is the subject of follow-up action with respect to the applicant’s Flight Test Record in accordance with Section 421.67, is not eligible to upgrade the instructor rating from a class 2 to a Class 1.
  3. (c) An applicant who has failed the previous instructor flight test is not eligible to upgrade the instructor rating from a Class 2 to a Class 1 until after successful re-instatement of a Class 2 Flight Instructor Rating.
    (amended 2005/12/01; no previous version)

DIVISION XIX  - FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR RATING - HELICOPTER

421.77 Class 4 - Helicopter - Requirement

(1) Prerequisites

Before commencing training for the Class 4 Instructor Rating, an applicant shall hold a Commercial Pilot Licence - Helicopter have completed a minimum of 250 hours pilot-in-command flight time in helicopters, and have completed a minimum of 15 hours instrument time of which a maximum of 10 hours may have been completed in approved instrument ground trainers.

(2) Knowledge

  1. (a) An applicant shall have completed a minimum of 25 hours of Instructor Rating ground school instruction which shall include:
    1. (i) practical application of the basic principles of learning and techniques of instruction;
    2. (ii) preparation and use of lesson plans;
    3. (iii) procedures for planning and presenting preparatory ground instruction, pre-flight briefings, in-flight instruction, and post-flight debriefings;
    4. (iv) theory of flight required to teach the air exercises;
    5. (v) aircraft flight manuals and aircraft operating limits;
    6. (vi) presentation of pilot decision-making concepts; and
    7. (vii) the use of the Transport Canada Helicopter Flight Instructor Guide, Flight Training Manual, Part IV of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, and the appropriate Flight Test schedules and guides.
      (amended 2012/02/19; previous version)
  2. (b) An applicant shall obtain a minimum of 70% in each of the following written examinations:
    1. (i) Flight Instructor Rating - Helicopter - Class 4 (HIRAF); and
    2. (ii) Flight Instructor Rating - Helicopter - Instrument Instruction (FIREN).

(3) Experience

An applicant shall complete in helicopters a minimum of 30 hours of dual flight instruction on overall pilot proficiency and the presentation of all exercises set forth in the Flight Instructor Guide and shall include a minimum of 5 hours of training in the teaching of instrument flight skills. A maximum of 5 of the 30 hours may be conducted on an approved helicopter simulator or flight training device.
(amended 1998/09/01; previous version)

(4) Skill

An applicant shall successfully complete a flight test as pilot-in-command of a helicopter, in accordance with Schedule 13 “Flight Test for the Issuance or Renewal of a Flight Instructor Rating – Class 4 – Helicopter” of Standard 428 — Conduct of Flight Tests.
(amended 2012/02/19; previous version)

(5) Credits

  1. (a) Knowledge
    1. (i) An applicant who holds, or has held within the preceding 24 months, an Instructor Rating for aeroplanes, gyroplanes, gliders, balloons or aerobatics shall be credited with 10 hours of the 25 hours ground school instruction requirement.
      (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)
    2. (ii) An applicant who holds an Airline Transport Pilot Licence - Helicopter, or a teaching certificate issued by provincial or territorial authorities shall be credited with 10 hours of the 25 hours' ground school instruction requirement.
      (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)
    3. (iii) An applicant who holds or has held within the preceding 24 months, a flight instructor rating - Aeroplane shall be considered to have met the written examination requirement.
      (amended 2000/09/01; previous version)
  2. (b) Experience
    1. (i) An applicant who holds or has held a Flight Instructor Rating - Aeroplane, shall be credited with 10 hours of the 30 hours' of dual flight instruction requirement, and with the 5 hours of training in the teaching of instrument flight skills.
      (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)
    2. (ii) An applicant who holds an Airline Transport Pilot Licence - Helicopter, shall be credited with 10 hours of the 30 hours dual flight instruction requirement.
      (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)

(6) Credits for DND Applicants

  1. (a) Knowledge
    1. (i) An applicant who holds, or has held within the preceding 24 months, Canadian Forces Instructor Category, Aeroplanes for initial flight training shall be deemed to have met 10 hours of the 25 hours ground school instruction requirement.
    2. (ii) An applicant who holds, or has held within the preceding 24 months a Canadian Forces Instructor Category, Helicopters for initial flight training shall be deemed to have met 15 hours of the 25 hours ground school instruction requirement.
  2. (b) Experience

    An applicant who holds, or has held within the preceding 24 months, a Canadian Forces Instructor Category, Helicopters for initial flight training shall be credited with a maximum of 15 hours of equivalent experience towards the 30 hours of dual flight instruction.

(7) Credits for Foreign Applicants

  1. (a) Knowledge
    1. (i) An applicant who holds, or has held within the preceding 24 months, a Flight Instructor Rating - Aeroplane issued by a Contracting State shall be deemed to have met 10 hours of the 25 hours ground school instruction requirement.
    2. (ii) An applicant who holds, or has held within the preceding 24 months a Flight Instructor Rating - Helicopter issued by a Contracting State shall be deemed to have met 15 hours of the 25 hours ground school instruction requirement.
  2. (b) Experience

    An applicant who holds, or has held within the preceding 24 months, a Flight Instructor Rating - Helicopter issued by a Contracting State shall be credited with a maximum of 15 hours of equivalent experience towards the 30 hours of dual flight instruction.

421.78 Class 3 - Helicopter - Requirements

(1) Prerequisites

  1. (a) An applicant for an initial Class 3 Flight Instructor Rating - Helicopter shall hold a Class 4 Flight Instructor Rating - Helicopter and meet the following knowledge, experience and skill requirements.
  2. (b) Providing that the additional knowledge, experience and skill requirements specified below are met, the requirement to hold a Class 4 Flight Instructor Rating - Helicopter does not apply to:
    1. (i) a Canadian Forces Flight Instructor - Helicopters, or
    2. (ii) the holder of a Flight Instructor Rating - Helicopter issued by a Contracting State provided that:
      1. (A) the State that issued the rating and Canada have formally agreed to grant reciprocal exemptions; and
      2. (B) the rating was not issued on the basis of a rating issued by a State with which Canada has not formally agreed to grant reciprocal exemptions.

(2) Knowledge

  1. (a) An applicant qualifying under 1(b) above who has acquired a minimum of 750 hours ab-initio flight instruction experience shall:
    1. (i) complete a course of ground instruction which shall include the subjects listed under the Knowledge requirement for a Class 4 Rating;
    2. (ii) obtain a letter of recommendation from the holder of a Class 1 Flight Instructor rating prior to attempting the written examinations specified below; and
    3. (iii) obtain a minimum of 70% in each of the following written examinations:
      1. (A) Flight Instructor Rating - Helicopter - Class 4 (HIRAF); and
      2. (B) Flight Instructor Rating - Helicopter - Instrument Instruction (FIREN).
  2. (b) An applicant qualifying under 1(b) above who has completed less than 750 hours, but a minimum of 300 hours ab-initio flight instruction shall:
    1. (i) complete a course of a minimum of 10 hours ground instruction, which shall include the subjects listed under the Knowledge requirements for a Class 4 Rating,
    2. (ii) obtain a letter of recommendation from the holder of a Class 1 Flight Instructor Rating prior to attempting the written examinations specified above; and
    3. (iii) obtain a minimum of 70% in each of the written examinations specified above.

(3) Experience

  1. (a) An applicant shall provide evidence of having conducted in helicopters, a minimum of 100 hours dual flight instruction for the issue of a pilot licence.
  2. (b) An applicant who meets the requirements of 1(b) shall be deemed to have met the requirements in (a) above.

(4) Skill

  1. (a) Subject to paragraph 4(b) below, an applicant shall complete an “Instructor’s Training Record While Under Direct Supervision” indicating evidence of:
    (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)
    1. (i) authorizing no fewer than 3 students for their first solo flight,
    2. (ii) recommending 3 students for their flight test for issue of a licence, all of whom demonstrated the required standard of skill and knowledge; and
      (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)
    3. (iii) having conducted 50% or more of the last 10 hours of the dual flight instruction for the students authorized in (i) and recommended in (ii) above.
      (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)
  2. (b) where an applicant qualifies under 1(b) above, the applicant shall:
    1. (i) complete a course of dual instruction from the holder of a Class 1 Flight Instructor Rating,
    2. (ii) obtain a letter of recommendation from that instructor to attempt the flight test; and
    3. (iii) successfully complete a flight test as pilot-in-command of a helicopter, in accordance with Schedule 14 “Flight Test for the Issuance or Renewal of a Flight Instructor Rating – Class 3 – Helicopter” of Standard 428 — Conduct of Flight Tests.
      (amended 2012/02/19; previous version).
  3. (c) Provided the requirements in (a) above are met, a flight test is not required for the issue of a Class 3 Flight Instructor Rating - Helicopter, unless the application for a Class 3 Instructor Rating coincides with the expiry date of a Class 4 Instructor Rating.
  4. (d) An applicant who is the subject of follow-up action with respect to the applicant’s Flight Test Record in accordance with Section 421.67, is not eligible to upgrade the instructor rating from a Class 4 to a Class 3.

421.79 Class 2 - Helicopter - Requirements

(1) Prerequisites

An applicant for an initial class 2 Flight Instructor Rating - Helicopter shall have held a Class 3 Flight Instructor Rating - Helicopter during the previous 12 month period and meet the following knowledge, experience and skill requirements.

(2) Knowledge

An applicant shall have, within the previous 12 months, obtained a minimum of 70% in a written examination Flight Instructor Rating - Helicopter - class 2 (HIRAT).

(3) Experience

An applicant shall provide evidence of having conducted, in helicopters, a minimum of 500 hours of flight instructor experience, including a minimum of:

  1. (a) 400 hours dual flight instruction for the issue of a civil pilot licence or to military wings standards; and
  2. (b) have recommended no fewer than 10 applicants for the private and/or commercial flight test.

(4) Skill

  1. (a) An applicant shall successfully complete a flight test as pilot-in-command of a helicopter, in accordance with Schedule 15 “ Flight Test for the Issuance or Renewal of a Flight Instructor Rating – Class 2 – Helicopter” of Standard 428 — Conduct of Flight Tests.
    (amended 2012/02/19; previous version)
  2. (b) An applicant who is the subject of follow-up action with respect to the applicant’s Flight Test Record in accordance with Section 421.67, is not eligible to upgrade the instructor rating from a Class 3 to a Class 2.

421.80 Class 1 - Helicopter - Requirements

(1) Prerequisites

An applicant for an initial Class 1 Flight Instructor Rating - Helicopter shall have held a class 2 Flight Instructor Rating - Helicopter during the previous 12 month period and meet the following knowledge, experience and skill requirements.

(2) Knowledge

An applicant shall have, within the previous 12 months, obtained a minimum of 80% in a written examination Flight Instructor Rating - Instructional Techniques (HIRAT).

(3) Experience

An applicant shall provide evidence of having conducted, in helicopters, a minimum of 750 hours of flight instruction, including a minimum of:

  1. (a) 600 hours dual flight instruction for the issue of a civil pilot licence or to military wings standards, and
  2. (b) have recommended no fewer than 10 applicants for the private and/or commercial flight test.

(4) Skill

  1. (a) An applicant shall successfully complete a flight test as pilot-in-command of a helicopter, in accordance with Schedule 16 “Flight Test for the Issuance or Renewal of a Flight Instructor Rating – Class 1 – Helicopter” of Standard 428 — Conduct of Flight Tests.
    (amended 2012/02/19; previous version)
  2. (b) An applicant who is the subject of follow-up action with respect to the applicant’s Flight Test Record in accordance with Section 421.67, is not eligible to upgrade the instructor rating from a class 2 to a Class 1.
  3. (c) An applicant who has failed the previous instructor flight test is not eligible to upgrade the instructor rating from a Class 2 to a Class 1 until after successful re-instatement of a Class 2 Flight Instructor Rating.
    (amended 2005/12/01; no previous version)

DIVISION XX  - FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR RATINGS - GLIDER, BALLOON AND GYROPLANE

421.82 Flight Instructor Rating - Glider - Requirements

(1) Age

An applicant shall be a minimum of eighteen years of age.

(2) Medical Fitness

An applicant shall hold a Category 1 or 3 Medical Certificate.

(3) Experience

An applicant shall have completed in gliders a minimum of:

  1. (a) 20 hours flight time including a minimum of 125 flights of which no fewer than 10 flights have been completed in a two-seat glider; or
  2. (b) 10 hours flight time including a minimum of 200 flights of which no fewer than 10 flights have been completed in a two-seat glider.

(4) Skill

An applicant shall submit a letter of recommendation from the holder of a Flight Instructor Rating - Glider certifying that the applicant has reached a standard of skill to instruct in gliders.

(5) Credits

  1. (a) An applicant who holds a private or higher pilot licence - aeroplane shall have the total flight time and the total number of flights specified in the Experience Requirement above reduced by 25%.
  2. (b) An applicant with aeroplane pilot experience in excess of 100 hours who holds a private or higher pilot licence - aeroplane shall be issued a Flight Instructor Rating - Glider after completing a minimum of 10 hours flight time in gliders and at least 50 flights with no fewer than 10 of these flights in two-seat gliders.
  3. (c) An applicant with a commercial or higher pilot licence - aeroplane who holds a valid Flight Instructor Rating - Aeroplane shall be issued a Flight Instructor Rating - Glider after completing a minimum of at least 25 flights in gliders with no fewer than 10 of these flights in two seat gliders.

421.83 Flight Instructor Rating - Balloon - Requirements

(1) Age

An applicant shall be a minimum of eighteen years of age.

(2) Knowledge

  1. (a) An applicant shall have completed a course of instructional techniques which shall be a minimum of 10 hours and include the following:
    1. (i) the practical application of the basic principles of learning and techniques of instruction;
    2. (ii) preparation and use of lesson plans;
    3. (iii) flight preparatory instruction;
    4. (iv) pre and post flight briefing procedures relative to air exercises and weather conditions; and
    5. (v) normal and emergency manoeuvres.
  2. (b) An applicant shall have obtained a minimum of 80% in a written examination Flight Instructor Rating Instructional Techniques (FITEN).

(3) Experience

  1. (a) An applicant shall have completed a minimum of 50 hours of flight time in balloons and within 12 months preceding the date of application, shall have completed flight training of a minimum of 5 hours including:
    1. (i) 3 dual flights on instructional techniques of a minimum of 30 minutes each between takeoff and landing;
    2. (ii) 2 dual tethered flights on instructional techniques of a minimum of 30 minutes each;
    3. (iii) 4 flights as pilot-in-command of a minimum of 30 minutes each between takeoff and landing; and
    4. (iv) 1 tethered flight as pilot-in-command of a minimum of 30 minutes.
  2. (b) The 50 hours of flight time referred to above shall include not more than 10 hours of tethered flight time.

(4) Skill

An applicant shall submit a letter of recommendation from the holder of a Flight Instructor Rating - Balloon certifying that the applicant has reached a standard of skill to instruct in balloons.

(5) Credit

The ground school and written examination specified under the Knowledge Requirement above shall be deemed to have been met if the applicant holds, or has held within the preceding 24 months, a valid Commercial or higher pilot licence with flight instructor privileges .

421.84 Flight Instructor Rating - Gyroplane - Requirements

(1) Knowledge

An applicant shall:

  1. (a) obtain a minimum of 70% in a written examination Flight Instructor Rating - Gyroplane (GYRIP); and
  2. (b) obtain a minimum of 90% in the written examination PSTAR, if not previously completed.

(2) Experience

An applicant shall have completed in gyroplanes a minimum of:

  1. (a) 250 hours of flight time as pilot-in-command;
  2. (b) 20 hours of ground school instruction on the following subjects:
    1. (i) basic theory of flight,
    2. (ii) aircraft operation limitations,
    3. (iii) pre and post flight briefing procedures,
    4. (iv) presentation of the air exercises, and
    5. (v) gyroplane flight test standard; and
  3. (c) 12 hours of dual air instruction on demonstration and presentation of the air exercises required ab-initio visual flight training, or
  4. (d) submit proof of successful completion of a course of training for gyroplane flight instructors offered by the gyroplane manufacturer and recognized by the Minister as being satisfactory for such training.

(3) Skill

By means of a flight test, an applicant shall demonstrate the ability to perform normal flight manoeuvres, gyroplane flight training techniques and the ability to conduct effective pre and post flight briefings.

(4) Alternate Gyroplane Instructor Qualifications

In cases where a qualified gyroplane flight instructor is not available, the gyroplane training to be acquired towards the experience requirement for the issue of a Pilot Permit - Gyroplane may be conducted by a person approved by the Minister to conduct the training if the following conditions are met:
(amended 1999/03/01; previous version)

  1. (a) that person is the holder of a Pilot Permit - Gyroplane, endorsed for the type of gyroplane in which instruction is to be given and has completed:
    (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)
    1. (i) not less than 50 hours of flight time in powered gyroplanes, and
    2. (ii) if towed flight instruction is to be given, no less than 10 towed flights in gyroplanes; or
      (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)
  2. (b) that person is the holder of a Flight Instructor Rating - Aeroplane or Helicopter.
    (amended 1999/03/01; previous version)

(5) Credits for Foreign Applicants

Courses conducted outside Canada shall be accepted as meeting the knowledge and experience requirements for an instructor rating - gyroplane providing that the applicant provides:

  1. (a) a syllabus of training which sets forth the duration of the course, enumerates all flight exercises to be undertaken and lists all ground school lecture subjects to be covered; and
  2. (b) evidence in writing from the Licensing Authority of the State concerned that the course meets their experience and knowledge requirements for the gyroplane instructor rating.

(6) Gyroplane Flight Instructor - Privileges

(amended 1998/03/23; no previous version)

After acquiring 200 hours flight time as a gyroplane flight instructor, a person may exercise the privileges in Section 401.84(f).
(amended 1998/03/23; no previous version)

421.85 Period of Validity

(1) Glider

(amended 1999/03/01; previous version)

An instructor rating - glider shall be valid to the first day of the thirty-seventh month following the month in which the letter of recommendation was dated.

(2) Balloon

(amended 1999/03/01; previous version)

An instructor rating - balloon shall be valid to the first day of the thirty-seventh month following the month in which the letter of recommendation was dated.

(3) Gyroplane

(amended 1999/03/01; previous version)

An instructor rating - gyroplane shall be valid to the first day of the thirteenth month following the month in which the flight test was conducted.

421.86 Renewal of Flight Instructor Ratings - Gliders, Balloon and Gyroplane

(amended 1999/03/01; previous version)

(1) Glider

An applicant for renewal of a Flight Instructor Rating - Glider shall:

  1. (a) have completed a minimum of 3 hours of flight time as a glider flight instructor during the preceding 12 months;
    (amended 2005/12/01; previous version)
  2. (b) provide a recommendation from the holder of a Flight Instructor Rating - Glider, certifying that the applicant is familiar with current instructional techniques and is competent to act as a glider flight instructor; or
    (amended 2005/12/01; previous version)
  3. (c) successfully complete a flight instructor refresher course, in which case the rating is renewed from the date of the last day of the course. When the last day of the course is within 90 days of the valid to date of the existing rating, the renewed rating is valid to the same date as if the refresher course was completed during the month prior to the valid to date of the existing rating.
    (amended 2005/12/01; no previous version)

(2) Balloon

An applicant for renewal of a Flight Instructor Rating - Balloon shall:

  1. (a) have completed a minimum of 3 hours of balloon flight instructor experience during the preceding 12 months;
    (amended 2005/12/01; previous version)
  2. (b) provide a recommendation from the holder of a Flight Instructor Rating - Balloon, certifying that the applicant is familiar with current instructional techniques and is competent to act as a balloon flight instructor; or
    (amended 2005/12/01; previous version)
  3. (c) successfully complete a flight instructor refresher course, in which case the rating is renewed from the date of the last day of the course. When the last day of the course is within 90 days of the valid to date of the existing rating, the renewed rating is valid to the same date as if the refresher course was completed during the month prior to the valid to date of the existing rating.
    (amended 2005/12/01; no previous version)

(3) Gyroplane

  1. (a) An applicant for renewal of a Flight Instructor Rating - Gyroplane shall:
    1. (i) complete a flight test, including a pre-flight briefing and a post-flight debriefing; and
    2. (ii) obtain a minimum of 70% in the written examination Flight Instructor Rating - Gyroplane (GYRIP)), unless already completed.
  2. (b) An applicant whose instructor rating has lapsed for more than 12 months must submit a completed application form certified by a qualified gyroplane flight instructor that the applicant is familiar with current instructional techniques and is competent to undergo a flight test.
  3. (c) An applicant whose instructor rating has lapsed for more than 24 months shall complete the written examination GYRIP before the flight test is conducted as well as meet the requirements specified in paragraph (b) above.

(4) [deleted 2008/05/01; previous version]

DIVISION XXI - FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR RATING - ULTRA-LIGHT AEROPLANE

421.88 Flight Instructor Rating - Ultra-light Aeroplane - Requirements

(1) Age

An applicant shall be a minimum of eighteen years of age.

(2) Medical Fitness

An applicant shall hold a Category 3 Medical Certificate.

(3) Knowledge

  1. (a) An applicant shall have completed training in instructional techniques which shall not be less than 10 hours and shall include:
    1. (i) the practical application of the basic principles of learning and learning factors with emphasis on the preparation and use of lesson plans,
    2. (ii) preparatory ground instruction,
    3. (iii) pre-flight, in-flight instruction and post-flight briefing, and
    4. (iv) flight safety.
  2. (b) An applicant shall have obtained 80% in the written examination Flight Instructor Rating Instructional Techniques (FITEN).
  3. (c) An applicant shall have successfully completed ground school training, including normal and emergency procedures, on ultra-light aeroplanes.
  4. (d) an applicant shall have obtained 90 percent (90%) in the written examination ULTRA.
    (amended 1998/03/23; previous version)

(4) Experience

Within the 24 months preceding the date of application an applicant shall have acquired in ultra-light aeroplanes a minimum of 50 hours flight time, including a minimum of:

  1. (a) 5 hours of dual instruction flight time,
  2. (b) 5 hours of dual flight time on instructional techniques, and
  3. (c) 25 hours solo flight time.

(5) Skill

  1. (a) An applicant shall submit a letter from the holder of a Flight Instructor Rating - Ultra-Light Aeroplane or the holder of a Flight Instructor Rating - Aeroplane certifying that the applicant has demonstrated the ability to instruct both normal and emergency manoeuvres appropriate to the ultra-light aeroplane used for the training program, and with a degree of competency appropriate to that of the holder of an ultra-light aeroplane instructor rating.
    (amended 2005/12/01; previous version)
  2. (b) After December 31, 2006, an applicant shall have successfully completed a flight test in accordance with the requirements outlined in the Standard titled Flight Test Standard – Ultra-light Aeroplane (TP13984E).
    (amended 2005/12/01; no previous version)

(6) Credits

  1. (a) An applicant who holds a permit or licence in any other category of aircraft shall be deemed to meet the knowledge requirement specified in paragraph (3)(d) above (ULTRA).
    (amended 2000/09/01; previous version)
  2. (b) An applicant who is the holder of, or has held a pilot licence of the aeroplane category within the preceding 5 years shall have the Experience requirement reduced to a minimum of 20 hours of flight time in Ultra-light Aeroplanes, including a minimum of 2 hours dual instruction flight time and a minimum of 10 hours solo flight time.
  3. (c) The Knowledge and Skill requirements shall be deemed to have been met if the applicant holds, or has held within the preceding two years, a Flight Instructor Rating - Aeroplane or Helicopter.
  4. (d) The requirement for a letter of recommendation for renewal of the rating can be satisfied by a successful instructor renewal flight test in the aeroplane or helicopter category aircraft.

(7) Flight Instructor Rating - Ultra-light Aeroplane - Restricted to the Operation and Instruction of Powered Parachutes

(amended 1998/03/23; no previous version)

  1. (a) The requirements for a Flight Instructor Rating - Ultra-light Aeroplane as set out in paragraphs (1) , (2), (3), (5), (6) also apply for a Flight Instructor Rating - Ultra-light Aeroplane - Restricted to Powered Parachutes;
    (amended 1998/03/23; no previous version)
  2. (b) Where any of the experience requirements has been met on powered parachutes, a Flight Instructor Rating - Ultra - Light Aeroplane - Restricted to the Flight Instruction on powered parachutes shall be issued;
    (amended 1998/03/23; no previous version)
  3. (c) An applicant for a Flight Instructor Rating - Ultra Light Aeroplane - Restricted to the operation and instruction of powered parachutes shall be deemed to have met the dual instruction and dual flight time requirements as set out in paragraphs (4)(a) and (4)(b);
    (amended 1998/03/23; no previous version)
  4. (d) The Powered Parachute restriction on a Flight Instructor Rating - Ultra - Light Aeroplane can be removed if, within the 24 months preceding the date of application, the applicant has either:
    (amended 1998/03/23; no previous version)
    1. (i) met the experience requirements of a minimum of 50 hours flight time in ultra-light aeroplanes as set our in paragraph (4), excluding powered parachutes; or
      (amended 1998/03/23; no previous version)
    2. (ii) has acquired a minimum of 85 hours flight time on ultra-light aeroplanes, including a minimum of 35 hours on ultra-light aeroplanes, excluding powered parachutes.
      (amended 1998/03/23; no previous version)

421.89 Period of Validity

(1) Validity

An instructor rating - ultra-light aeroplane will be valid to the first day of the sixty-first month (i.e. at the end of five years) following the month in which the letter of recommendation was dated.
(amended 1998/03/23; previous version)

(2) Renewal

(amended 1998/03/23; previous version)

  1. (a) An applicant for renewal of the flight instructor rating - ultra-light aeroplane shall do one of the following:
    (amended 1998/03/23; previous version)
    1. (i) complete a minimum of 10 hours flight time as an ultra-light aeroplane flight instructor during the preceding 12 months;
      (amended 2005/06/01; previous version)
    2. (ii) provide a recommendation from the holder of a Flight Instructor Rating - Ultra-light Aeroplane certifying that the applicant is familiar with current instructional techniques, and is competent to act as an ultra-light aeroplane flight instructor; or
      (amended 2005/06/01; previous version)
    3. (iii) successfully complete a flight instructor refresher course, in which case the rating shall be renewed from the date of the last day of the course. When the last day of the course is within 90 days of the valid to date of the existing rating, the renewed rating shall be valid to the same date as if the refresher course was completed during the month prior to the valid date of the existing rating.
      (amended 2005/06/01; no previous version)
  2. (b) [deleted 2008/05/01; previous version]

DIVISION XXII - FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR RATING - AEROPLANE - AEROBATIC

421.91 Class 2 Rating - Requirements

(1) Prerequisites

Before commencing training for a Class 2 Aerobatic Instructor Rating, an applicant shall:
(amended 2000/09/01; previous version)

  1. (a) hold a Commercial or Airline Transport Pilot Licence - Aeroplane; and
    (amended 2000/09/01; previous version)
  2. (b) provide a personal log with certification from the holder of a Class 1 or Class 2 Aerobatic Instructor rating that the applicant is competent to perform aerobatic manoeuvres.
    (amended 2000/09/01; previous version)

(2) Knowledge

  1. (a) An applicant shall have completed a minimum of 15 hours of Aerobatic Instructor Rating ground school instruction which shall include:
    1. (i) the practical application of the basic techniques of instruction and principles of learning as outlined in Section 1 of the Flight Instructor Guide;
    2. (ii) lesson planning;
    3. (iii) theory of flight applicable to aerobatics;
    4. (iv) preparatory ground instruction procedures;
    5. (v) pre and post-flight briefing procedures;
    6. (vi) teaching aerobatic flight manoeuvres;
    7. (vii) aircraft structural limitations;
    8. (viii) medical factors and human tolerances;
    9. (ix) aerobatic pre-flight inspection;
    10. (x) considerations for recovery from unplanned manoeuvres;
    11. (xi) flight safety considerations;
    12. (xii) regulations and airspace restrictions relating to aerobatic flight; and
    13. (xiii) presentation of pilot decision-making concepts.
  2. (b) An applicant shall have obtained 90% in the written examination PSTAR, unless previously completed.

(3) Experience

  1. (a) An applicant shall provide evidence of having completed a minimum of 10 hours of dual flight instruction on the teaching of aerobatic manoeuvres including:
    1. (i) aerobatic spin entry and recovery (minimum 1 turn);
    2. (ii) loop;
    3. (iii) barrel roll;
    4. (iv) slow roll;
    5. (v) snap roll;
    6. (vi) hammerhead turn;
    7. (vii) combination manoeuvres including:
      1. (A) 1/2 loop followed by 1/2 roll (Immelmann Turn),
      2. (B) 1/2 roll followed by 1/2 loop (Split S),
      3. (C) 5/8 loop followed by 45o descending 1/2 roll (1/2 Cuban 8), and
      4. (D) 45º climbing 1/2 roll followed by 5/8 loop (1/2 Reverse Cuban 8); and
    8. (viii) recovery techniques from unplanned aerobatic manoeuvres.

(4) Skill

The applicant shall successfully complete a flight test as pilot-in-command of an aeroplane, in accordance with Schedule 17 “Flight Test for the Issuance or Renewal of a Flight Instructor Rating – Class 2 –– Aeroplane — Aerobatic” of Standard 428 — Conduct of Flight Tests.
(amended 2012/02/19; previous version)

(5) Credits

  1. (a) Knowledge
    1. (i) An applicant who holds, or has held within the preceding 24 months, a Flight Instructor Rating - Glider - Aerobatic shall be deemed to have met 10 hours of the 15 hours ground school instruction requirement.
    2. (ii) An applicant who holds, or has held within the preceding 24 months, a Flight Instructor Rating for aeroplanes or helicopters shall be deemed to have met 10 hours of the 15 hours ground school instruction requirement.
  2. (b) Experience
    1. (i) An applicant who holds or has a Flight Instructor Rating - Gliders - Aerobatic shall be deemed to have met the experience requirement.
    2. (ii) An applicant who holds or has held a Flight Instructor Rating for aeroplanes or helicopters shall be deemed to have met the experience requirement.
    3. (iii) An applicant who holds or has held a Transport Canada “Statement of Aerobatic Competency” shall be deemed to have met the experience requirement.
      (amended 1998/09/01; no previous version)

(6) Credits for DND Applicants

  1. (a) Knowledge

    An applicant who holds, or has held within the preceding 24 months, a Canadian Forces Instructor Category, Aeroplanes shall be deemed to have met 10 hours of the 15 hours ground school instruction requirement.

  2. (b) Experience

    An applicant who holds or has held a Canadian Forces Qualified Flying Instructor (QFI) category valid for training on single-engine aeroplanes shall be deemed to have met the experience requirement.

(7) Credits for Foreign Applicants

  1. (a) Knowledge

    An applicant who holds, or has held within the preceding 24 months, a Flight Instructor Rating - Aeroplane issued by a Contracting State shall be deemed to have met 10 hours of the 15 hours ground school instruction requirement.

  2. (b) Experience
    1. (i) An applicant who holds or has held a Flight Instructor Rating - Aeroplane issued by a Contracting State shall be deemed to have met the experience requirement.
    2. (ii) An applicant who holds or has held an International Council of Airshows (ICAS) Aerobatic Competency Recommendation to the FAA shall be deemed to have met the experience requirement.

421.92 Class 1 Rating - Requirements

(1) Prerequisites

An applicant for a Class 1 Aerobatic Instructor Rating shall:

  1. (a) hold, or have held during the preceding 12 month period, a class 2 Aerobatic Instructor Rating - Aeroplane; or
  2. (b) where the prerequisite specified above has not been met, the applicant shall:
    1. (i) hold or have held within the previous 12 months, a Class 1 Flight Instructor rating - Aeroplane or Helicopter; and
    2. (ii) provide a letter certifying that the applicant is competent to perform the aerobatic manoeuvres specified in the Experience section of the class 2 Aerobatic Rating.

(2) Knowledge

  1. (a) An applicant shall have:
    1. (i) completed 10 hours of Aerobatic Instructor Rating ground school instruction on topics relating to the training of instructors; and
    2. (ii) obtained a minimum of 80% in the written examination Flight Instructor rating Instructional Techniques (FITEN).
  2. (b) An applicant who does not hold, or has not held within the previous 24 months, a class 2 Aerobatic Instructor Rating shall be required to meet the knowledge requirement for the class 2 Aerobatic Instructor Rating.

(3) Experience

An applicant shall:

  • (a) have completed a minimum of 50 hours aerobatic instructing experience; or
  • (b) hold a Class 1 Flight Instructor Rating and provide a letter certifying that the applicant is competent to perform the aerobatic manoeuvres specified in the Experience section of the class 2 Aerobatic Rating.

(4) Skill

The applicant shall successfully complete a flight test as pilot-in-command of an aeroplane, in accordance with Schedule 18 “Flight Test for the Issuance or Renewal of a Flight Instructor Rating – Class 1 –– Aeroplane — Aerobatic” of Standard 428 — Conduct of Flight Tests.
(amended 2012/02/19; previous version)

(5) Credits

An applicant who holds, or has held within the previous 24 months, a Class 1 Flight Instructor Rating - Aeroplane or Helicopter shall be deemed to have met the knowledge requirement.

DIVISION XXIII - FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR RATING - GLIDER - AEROBATIC

421.94 Requirements

(1) An applicant shall:

  1. (a) provide a recommendation from the holder of a Flight Instructor Rating - Glider - Aerobatic certifying that the applicant has demonstrated the ability to perform and instruct on aerobatic manoeuvres in gliders; or
  2. (b) demonstrate the ability to perform and instruct on aerobatic manoeuvres.

(2) Credits

The holder of an Aerobatic Instructor Rating - Aeroplane shall be considered to have met the requirements specified above.

421.95 to 421.99 Reserved

Appendix A - Aircraft Type Designators

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