Part IV - Personnel Licensing and Training

Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) 2015-2

Standard 425 - Flight Training

Content last revised:2006/12/14

Foreword

The Personnel Licensing and Training Standards Respecting Flight Training outline the requirements for complying with the Regulations respecting the requirements for Flight Training.

For ease of reference to the Regulations, the divisions and numbers of the Standards are assigned to correspond to the Regulations, therefore, Section 425.21 of the Standards would reflect a standard required by Section 405.21 of the Regulations.

In support of the Standards and for clarification, additional information may be found in the Appendices, in relevant Notes inserted throughout the Standards and in the AIP Canada.

DIVISION II - FLIGHT TRAINING PROGRAM

425.13 Flight Training Program Outline

The flight training program outline provided to each trainee at the time of commencing a flight training program shall include the following:

  1. (a) the name of the program in which the trainee is enrolled;

  2. (b) information in respect of the minimum age, medical fitness, knowledge, experience and skill for which the training is being conducted; and

  3. (c) a copy of the current applicable Study and Reference Guide and Flight Test Standard; and

  4. (d) the minimum weather conditions required for dual and solo training flights during day, night, VFR and IFR operations including:

    1. (i) minimum ceiling and visibility for local and cross-country training flights;

    2. (ii) maximum cross-wind for conducting a take-off and landing;

    3. (iii) minimum temperature for flight training operations;

  5. (e) the fuel reserves necessary for dual and solo, local and cross-country training flights;

  6. (f) the description and use of assigned practice areas;

  7. (g) the reporting of aircraft defects and unserviceabilities;

  8. (h) the securing of aircraft when not in use;

  9. (i) the procedures in the event of an unscheduled or forced landing; and

  10. (j) any other safety measures pertaining to the geographic area of operation that the person who conducts the flight training deems necessary for aviation safety.

DIVISION III - PERSONNEL AND AIRCRAFT

425.21 Qualifications of Flight Instructors

  1. (1) A person who acts as a flight instructor shall be the holder of a pilot permit or pilot licence for the category, class and type of aircraft, as appropriate, on which the flight training is conducted.

  2. (2) A person who conducts flight training in any category of aircraft, where the trainee does not hold a pilot permit or pilot licence for that category, or conducts a flight review, shall:

    1. (a) have a flight instructor rating for the category of aircraft used for the training; and

    2. (b) for aeroplanes, have experience of not less than 50 hours flight time on the class of aeroplane used for the training; or

    3. (c) for helicopters, have experience of not less than 10 hours flight time on the type of helicopter used for the training.

  3. (3) A person who conducts flight training toward the issuance of a commercial pilot licence shall
    (amended 2006/12/14)

    1. (a) have a flight instructor rating for the category of aircraft used for the training;
      (amended 2006/12/14)

    2. (b) if the training is conducted within an integrated course in any phase of training after the VFR navigation progress test, have
      (amended 2006/12/14; no previous version)

      1. (i) not less than 500 hours of flight time in aeroplanes, of which not less than 200 hours is flight instructor experience; or
        (amended 2006/12/14; no previous version)

      2. (ii) an Airline Transport Pilot Licence—Aeroplane and a flight instructor rating; and
        (amended 2006/12/14; no previous version)

    3. (c) if the training is conducted within an integrated course on seaplane or specialty aerial work, conduct the training under the following conditions:
      (amended 2006/12/14; no previous version)

      1. (i) be duly authorized in writing by the Chief Flight Instructor;
        (amended 2006/12/14; no previous version)

      2. (ii) complete the minimum experience required for training in the specialty operation specified in the Flight Training Operations Manual in accordance with section 426.61 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations; and
        (amended 2006/12/14; no previous version)

      3. (iii) have the number of hours of instructional techniques, ground school instruction and flight training required before being authorized, as specified in the Flight Training Operations Manual.
        (amended 2006/12/14; no previous version)

    4. (d) if multi-crew coordination (MCC) training is conducted, be qualified on aeroplanes required to be operated with a co-pilot, be thoroughly familiar with human factors and crew resource management (CRM) and be familiar with the latest developments in human factors training and CRM.
      (amended 2006/12/14; no previous version)

  4. (4) A person who conducts flight training toward the issuance of a night rating shall have a flight instructor rating for the category of aircraft used for the training.

  5. (5) A person who conducts flight training in a multi-engine aeroplane where the trainee does not have a multi-engine class rating shall:

    1. (a) be the holder of a Commercial Pilot Licence or an Airline Transport Pilot Licence;

    2. (b) have multi-engine pilot experience, which if acquired on centre thrust multi-engine aeroplanes may be credited toward qualifying a pilot to provide centre thrust multi-engine flight instruction only; and

    3. (c) have experience of not less than 50 hours flight time on multi-engine aeroplanes with not less than 10 hours on the type of aeroplane used for the training.

  6. (6) A person who conducts flight training toward the issuance of a landplane class rating or a seaplane class rating shall:

    1. (a) be the holder of a Commercial Pilot Licence or an Airline Transport Pilot Licence; and

    2. (b) have experience of not less than 50 hours flight time on the class of aeroplane used for the training.

  7. (7) A person who conducts flight training toward the issuance of an aircraft type rating shall:

    1. (a) in the case of training for a holder of an aeroplane pilot permit or pilot licence:
      (amended 2006/12/14)

      1. (i) be the holder of a Commercial Pilot Licence - Aeroplane or an Airline Transport Pilot Licence - Aeroplane; and
        (amended 2005/12/01)

      2. (ii) have experience of not less than 50 hours flight time on the class of aeroplane used for the training, of which not less than 10 hours must be on the aeroplane type;

    2. (b) in the case of training for a holder of a helicopter pilot permit or pilot licence:
      (amended 2006/12/14)

      1. (i) be the holder of a Commercial Pilot Licence - Helicopter or an Airline Transport Pilot Licence - Helicopter; and
        (amended 2005/12/01)

      2. (ii) have experience of not less than 10 hours flight time on the type of helicopter used for the training;

    3. (c) in the case of training for a holder of a Pilot Permit - Gyroplane:

      1. (i) obtain an authorization under the Canadian Aviation Regulations to conduct the flight training; or
        (amended 2006/12/14)

      2. (ii) meet the requirements of paragraph (d);

    4. (d) in the case of training for a holder of a Student Pilot Permit - Gyroplane:
      (amended 2006/12/14)

      1. (i) have a Flight Instructor Rating - Gyroplane and
        (amended 2006/12/14)

      2. (ii) have experience of not less than 50 hours flight time on gyroplanes, of which not less than 10 hours must be on the type of gyroplane used for the training; or

      3. (iii) have a Flight Instructor Rating - Aeroplane or a Flight Instructor Rating - Helicopter and obtain an authorization under the Canadian Aviation Regulations to conduct the flight training;
        (amended 2006/12/14)

    5. (e) in the case of training for a holder of a Pilot Licence - Balloon or Student Pilot Permit - Balloon, have a Flight Instructor Rating - Balloon.
      (amended 2006/12/14)

  8. (8) A person who conducts flight training toward the issuance of a VFR Over-the-Top rating shall have a flight instructor rating for the category of aircraft used for the training.

  9. (9) A person who conducts flight training toward the issuance of an instrument rating shall be the holder of a Commercial Pilot Licence or an Airline Transport Pilot Licence, have an instrument rating and:
    (amended 2006/12/14)

    1. (a) have a flight instructor rating; or
      (amended 2006/12/14)

    2. (b) have experience of not less than 500 hours pilot-in-command flight time, of which:
      (amended 2006/12/14)

      1. (i) not less than 100 hours shall be on the applicable aircraft group, and
        (amended 1998/03/23)

      2. (ii) in the case of Group I aircraft, not less than 10 hours shall be on the type of multi-engine aeroplane used for the training.
        (amended 1998/03/23)

  10. (10) A person who conducts flight training for experience in aerobatic manoeuvres shall:
    (amended 2006/12/14)

    1. (a) in the case of aeroplanes, have a Flight Instructor Rating - Aeroplane - Aerobatics; or
      (amended 2006/12/14)

    2. (b) in the case of gliders, have a Flight Instructor Rating - Glider - Aerobatics.
      (amended 2006/12/14)

  11. (11) A person who conducts ground school instruction for a flight instructor rating shall
    (amended 2006/12/14)

    1. (a) have a flight instructor rating for the category of aircraft used for the training; or
      (amended 2006/12/14)

    2. (b) be authorized, in accordance with section 406.24 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, to conduct the ground school instruction.
      (amended 2006/12/14)

  12. (12) A person who conducts flight training toward the issuance of a Flight Instructor Rating - Aeroplane or a Flight Instructor Rating - Helicopter shall have a Class 1 flight instructor rating for the category of aircraft used for the training.

  13. (13) A person who conducts flight training toward the issuance of a Flight Instructor Rating - Aeroplane - Aerobatic shall have a Class 1 Flight Instructor Rating - Aeroplane - Aerobatic.

  14. (14) A person who conducts flight training toward the issuance of a Flight Instructor Rating - Glider shall have a Flight Instructor Rating - Glider.

  15. (15) A person who conducts flight training toward the issuance of a Flight Instructor Rating - Glider - Aerobatic shall have a Flight Instructor Rating - Glider - Aerobatic.

  16. (16) A person who conducts flight training toward the issuance of a Flight Instructor Rating - Balloon shall have a Flight Instructor Rating - Balloon.

  17. (17) A person who conducts flight training toward the issuance of a Flight Instructor Rating - Gyroplane shall have a Flight Instructor Rating - Gyroplane.

  18. (18) A person who conducts flight training toward the issuance of a Flight Instructor Rating - Ultra-light Aeroplane shall have:

    1. (a) a Flight Instructor Rating - Ultra-light Aeroplane; or

    2. (b) a Flight Instructor Rating - Aeroplane.

  19. (19) A person who conducts flight training, using a synthetic flight training equipment, approved in accordance with section 606.03 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, toward the issuance of a pilot licence or rating shall
    (amended 2006/12/14; no previous version)

    1. (a) meet or have met the flight instructor rating qualifications for the applicable licence or rating; and
      (amended 2006/12/14; no previous version)

    2. (b) have received instruction on the operation of the synthetic flight training equipment from a person trained in the operation of the device.
      (amended 2006/12/14; no previous version)

425.23 Training Aircraft Requirements

  1. (1) An aircraft that is used for flight training shall: 

    1. (a) meet the aircraft equipment requirements of Subpart 605, in respect of the conditions and rules under which it is to be operated: day or night, VFR or IFR, and VMC or IMC;
      (amended 1999/03/01)

    2. (b) in the case of an aeroplane, be equipped with a turn and slip indicator or a turn coordinator; and
      (amended 1999/03/01)

    3. (c) in the case of a helicopter, be equipped with a turn and slip indicator, turn coordinator or a slip-skid indicator.
      (amended 1999/03/01)

  2. (2) An aircraft that is used for dual flight training, shall:
    (amended 1999/03/01)

    1. (a) be at least a two place aircraft;

    2. (b) have engine power controls and flight controls that are easily reached and that operate in a normal manner from both pilot stations, unless in the case of an ultra-light aeroplane, the trainee has received sufficient ground training and is considered competent to operate the available appropriate controls; and
      (amended 1999/03/01)

    3. (c) in the case of a helicopter, be equipped with an intercom system
      (amended 1999/03/01)

  3. (3) An aeroplane or helicopter that is used for instrument flight training toward the Private Pilot Licence or Commercial Pilot Licence, shall be equipped with flight instruments that enable the trainee to complete the applicable manoeuvres specified in the instrument flying exercise of the Flight Test Standards - Private and Commercial Pilot Licences.
    (amended 1999/03/01) 

  4. (4) An aeroplane or helicopter that is used for radio navigation training toward the Commercial Pilot Licence, Flight Instructor Rating or VFR Over-The-Top rating, shall be equipped with an ADF, VOR or GPS radio navigation aid receiver.
    (amended 1999/03/01) 

  5. (5) An aeroplane or helicopter that is used for instrument flight training toward the VFR Over-The-Top rating, shall be equipped with flight instruments in accordance with Subpart 605, Section 605.15 - Power-driven Aircraft - VFR OTT.
    (amended 1999/03/01)

  6. (6) An aeroplane, helicopter or gyroplane that is used for instrument flight training toward the night rating, shall be equipped with flight instruments in accordance with Subpart 605, Section 605.16 - Power-driven Aircraft - Night VFR.
    (amended 1999/03/01; no previous version)

  7. (7) An aeroplane or helicopter that is used for instrument flight training toward the instrument rating, shall be equipped with flight instruments in accordance with in Subpart 605, Section 605.18 - Power-driven Aircraft - IFR.
    (amended 1999/03/01; no previous version)

DIVISION IV - FLIGHT TRAINING OPERATIONS

425.33 Pilot Training Record

A pilot training record includes:

  1. (a) form 26-0313 for aeroplane training or form 26-0316 for helicopter training, produced by the Minister; or

  2. (b) a record that includes all items in the applicable form in paragraph (a).
    (amended 2000/09/01)

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