Part V - Airworthiness Manual Chapter 500 - General

Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) 2017-2

Preamble

The Airworthiness Manual

The first reference to the Airworthiness Manual was contained in Part I of the Canada Gazette of January 1979, when the proposal to amend the Air Regulations relating to airworthiness were published. The Air Regulations were subsequently amended in August 1982. Section 211(1) stated that the Minister may cause to be published an Airworthiness Manual and an Engineering and Inspection Manual containing standards of airworthiness. The same revision to the Air Regulations also adopted by reference those U.S. Federal Aviation Regulations which contained the standards of airworthiness for a number of types of aeronautical products, such as aeroplanes, rotorcraft, aircraft engines and propellers. In addition, the U.S. airworthiness standards for appliances (TSOs), contained in FAA AC 20-110 were adopted, as well as the European JAR-22 for gliders and powered gliders, and ICAO Annex 16 Volume I addressing aircraft noise emissions.

Mr. Justice C. L. Dubin in Volume 2 of the report of his Commission of Inquiry on Aviation Safety recommended that an "Airworthiness Code" should be developed, containing the appropriate provisions of the Aeronautics Act and comprehensive regulations relating to airworthiness. The Aeronautics Act Task Force mandated to implement such recommendations reserved for airworthiness the Series V of the Canadian Code. For this reason, in publishing the Airworthiness Manual, the standards adopted by reference were numbered by adding a number "5" in front of the original number sections. What was envisaged as Canadian Aeronautics Code eventually developed in the present Canadian Aviation Regulations (CAR), which maintains the same structure. The airworthiness requirements are embodied in Part V of the CAR. The standards of airworthiness for the design of aeronautical products are and will continue to be published in the Manual, and this Manual forms part of the CAR.

Because of international obligations and harmonization, the numbering of CAR Part V and the related standards published in the Airworthiness Manual do not follow the conventional numbering system of the other Parts of the CAR, and the original structure of the standards of airworthiness adopted by reference is maintained intact.

Now that the entire Airworthiness Manual is published, the Engineering and Inspection Manual is superseded and serves the function of historic-reference document for past certifications. Aviation Notice A011 Edition 1 dated 31 December 1998 provides a concordance table.

Chapter 500 - General Provisions

First Edition

The definitions and the abbreviations and symbols used throughout the chapters of the Airworthiness Manual were initially published in Chapter 501 (1st Edition). After October 10, 1996, Chapter 501 was reissued to address the requirements for "Annual Airworthiness Information Report" (AAIR), leaving incertitude in the application of the airworthiness standards because these definitions were not covered in the Canadian Aviation Regulations.

As the old Chapter 501, this new chapter is based on the United States Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 14, Chapter 1, Part 1, entitled "Definitions and Abbreviations". These definitions and abbreviations are updated to include FAR Amendment 1-48 dated 18 Feb. 1998 (FR). In addition, some of the definitions previously contained in Chapter 501 have been deleted, since they are now contained in the Canadian Aviation Regulations.

As a reminder to the user, the interpretation section includes the definitions of rated take-off augmented thrust, rated take-off power and take-off thrust which differ from the corresponding definitions of FAR Part 1. These Canadian definitions were published in Change 501-1 effective January 1, 1986 for use with the Canadian requirement of paragraph 525.1521(b)(6) as incorporated in Change 525-1 effective January 1, 1987.

Change 500-1

Published: December 1, 2009

On December 1, 2009, Part V Subpart 21 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations (CAR 521) came into force. CAR 521 replaces the following Regulations in Part V—Airworthiness:

Subpart 11 - Approval of the Type Design of an Aeronautical Product
Subpart 13 - Approval of Modification and Repair Designs
Subpart 16 - Aircraft Emissions
Subpart 22 - Gliders and Powered Gliders
Subpart 23 - Normal, Utility, Aerobatic and Commuter Category Aeroplanes
Subpart 25 - Transport Category Aeroplanes
Subpart 27 - Normal Category Rotorcraft
Subpart 29 - Transport Category Rotorcraft
Subpart 31 - Manned Free Balloons
Subpart 33 - Aircraft Engines
Subpart 35 - Aircraft Propellers
Subpart 37 - Aircraft Appliances and Other Aeronautical Products
Subpart 41 - Airships
Subpart 51 - Aircraft Equipment
Subpart 91 - Service Difficulty Reporting
Subpart 93 - Airworthiness Directives

In addition, with publication of CAR 521, the following Chapters of the Airworthiness Manual have been withdrawn:

Chapter 511 - Approval of the Type Design of an Aeronautical Product
Chapter 513 - Approval of Modification and Repair Designs
Standard 591 - Service Difficulty Reporting
Standard 593 - Airworthiness Directives

This change amends sections 500.1, 500.2 and 500.3 to reflect changes required because of the introduction of CAR 521.
As noted, the introduction of CAR 521 withdraws a number of Standards and Chapters of the AWM that are referenced in the table of section 500.01. In addition, a number of Chapters of the AWM have been renamed Standards. The table no longer reflects the same intent as when it was published and it is no longer possible to think of all of the Chapters as forming a single “Airworthiness Manual”. As such the table has been deleted.

Sections 500.02 and 500.03 have been amended to reflect this change.

Change 500-2

Published: December 1, 2010

This change incorporates the following amendment to the United States Code of Federal Regulations, Title 14, Chapter I, Part 33:

 

FAR Amendment 33-30

Effective: May 27, 2010

Table of Change Information
Notice of Proposed Amendment Amended Section(s)
2009-120 500.02

This Amendment entitled “Airworthiness Standards:  Aircraft Engine Standards Overtorque Limits” amends the airworthiness standards for aircraft engines to establish requirements for approval of maximum engine overtorque. Specifically, this action will add a new engine overtorque test, amend engine ratings and operating limits, and define maximum engine overtorque for certain turbopropeller and turboshaft engines. Notice of proposed amendment (NPA) 2009-120 proposes to amend section 500.02 of the Airworthiness Manual to introduce the new definition “maximum engine overtorque” relating to FAR amendment No. 33-30 as adopted into AWM 533.

AIRWORTHINESS MANUAL CHAPTER 500 - GENERAL

(2001/03/01)

500.01 Applicability

This Chapter contains definitions, abbreviations and symbols for use with the Standards and the Chapters of the Airworthiness Manual that make up Part V of the Canadian Aviation Regulations.
(amended 2009/12/01)

Information Note:

Background information on the Airworthiness Manual and its numbering system is presented in the preamble to this chapter.
(amended 2009/12/01)

500.02 Interpretation

The following definitions are used throughout the Standards and the Chapters of the Airworthiness Manual that make up Part V of the Canadian Aviation Regulations. They are in addition to those contained in the Aeronautics Act and the Canadian Aviation Regulations:
(amended 2009/12/01)

"aerodynamic coefficient" means nondimensional coefficient for aerodynamic forces and moments; (coefficient aérodynamique)

"aircraft engine" means an engine that is used or intended to be used for propelling aircraft. It includes turbosuperchargers, appurtenances and accessories necessary for its functioning but does not include propellers; (moteur d’aéronef)

"airframe" means the fuselage, booms, nacelles, cowlings, fairings, airfoil surfaces (including rotors but excluding propellers and rotating airfoils of engines), and landing gear of an aircraft and their accessories and controls; (cellule)

"altitude engine" means a reciprocating aircraft engine having a rated takeoff power that is producible from sea level to an established higher altitude; (moteur suralimenté)

"autorotation" means a rotorcraft flight condition in which the lifting rotor is driven entirely by action of the air when the rotorcraft is in motion; (autorotation)

"auxiliary rotor" means a rotor that serves either to counteract the effect of the main rotor torque on a rotorcraft or to maneuver the rotorcraft about one or more of its three principal axes; (rotor auxiliaire)

"brake horsepower" means the power delivered at the propeller shaft (main drive or main output) of an aircraft engine; (puissance au frein)

"calibrated airspeed" means indicated airspeed of an aircraft, corrected for position and instrument error. Calibrated airspeed is equal to true airspeed in standard atmosphere at sea level; (vitesse conventionnelle)

"canard" means the forward wing of a canard configuration and may be a fixed, movable, or variable geometry surface, with or without control surfaces; (canard)

"canard configuration" means a configuration in which the span of the forward wing is substantially less than that of the main wing; (configuration canard)

"category A" with respect to normal and transport category rotorcraft, means multiengine rotorcraft designed with engine and system isolation features specified in Chapter 527 or 529 and utilizing scheduled takeoff and landing operations under a critical engine failure concept which assures adequate designated surface area and adequate performance capability for continued safe flight in the event of engine failure; (catégorie A)

"category B" with respect to transport category rotorcraft, means single-engine or multiengine rotorcraft which do not fully meet all Category A standards. Category B rotorcraft have no guaranteed stay-up ability in the event of engine failure and unscheduled landing is assumed; (catégorie B)

"critical altitude" means the maximum altitude at which, in standard atmosphere, it is possible to maintain, at a specified rotational speed, a specified power or a specified manifold pressure. Unless otherwise stated, the critical altitude is the maximum altitude at which it is possible to maintain, at the maximum continuous rotational speed, one of the following:

  1. (1) The maximum continuous power, in the case of engines for which this power rating is the same at sea level and at the rated altitude;

  2. (2) The maximum continuous rated manifold pressure, in the case of engines, the maximum continuous power of which is governed by a constant manifold pressure; (altitude critique)

"equivalent airspeed" means the calibrated airspeed of an aircraft corrected for adiabatic compressible flow for the particular altitude. Equivalent airspeed is equal to calibrated airspeed in standard atmosphere at sea level; (équivalent de vitesse-air)

"extended over-water operations"
     (Repealed 2015/08/01)

"external load" means a load that is carried, or extends outside of the aircraft fuselage; (charge externe)

"external-load attaching" means the structural components used to attach an external load to an aircraft, including external-load containers, the back-up structure at the attachment points, and any quick-release device used to jettison the external load; (moyens de fixation d’une charge extérieure)

"final take-off speed" means the speed of the aeroplane that exists at the end of the take-off path in the en route configuration with one engine inoperative (vitesse au décollage)
(amended 2003/11/10)

"fireproof" means

  1. (1) with respect to materials and parts used to confine fire in a designated fire zone, the capacity to withstand at least as well as steel in dimensions appropriate for the purpose for which they are used, the heat produced when there is a severe fire of extended duration in that zone; and(2) with respect to other materials and parts, the capacity to withstand the heat associated with fire at least as well as steel in dimensions appropriate for the purpose for which they are used; (à l’épreuve du feu)

"fire resistant" means

  1. (1) with respect to sheet or structural members, the capacity to withstand the heat associated with fire at least as well as aluminum alloy in dimensions appropriate for the purpose for which they are used; and

  2. (2) with respect to fluid-carrying lines, fluid system parts, wiring, air ducts, fittings, and powerplant controls, the capacity to perform the intended functions under the heat and other conditions likely to occur when there is fire at the place concerned; (résistant au feu)

"flame resistant" means not susceptible to combustion to the point of propagating a flame, beyond safe limits, after the ignition source is removed; (résistant à la flamme)

"flammable"with respect to a fluid or gas, means susceptible to igniting readily or to exploding; (inflammable)

"flap extended speed" means the highest speed permissible with flaps in a prescribed extended position; (vitesse volets sortis)

"flash resistant" means not susceptible to burning violently when ignited; (non fusant)

"forward wing" means a forward lifting surface of a canard configuration or tandem-wing configuration aeroplane. The surface may be a fixed, movable, or variable geometry surface, with or without control surfaces; (aile avant)

"go-around power or thrust setting" means the maximum allowable in-flight power or thrust setting identified in the performance data (Régime de remise des gaz ou réglage de poussée)

"idle thrust" means the jet thrust obtained with the engine power control level set at the stop for the least thrust position at which it can be placed; (poussée au ralenti)

"indicated airspeed" means the speed of an aircraft as shown on its pilot static airspeed indicator calibrated to reflect standard atmosphere adiabatic compressible flow at sea level uncorrected for airspeed system errors; (vitesse indiquée)

"landing gear extended speed" means the maximum speed at which an aircraft can be safely flown with the landing gear extended; (vitesse train d’atterrissage sorti)

"landing gear operating speed" means the maximum speed at which the landing gear can be safely extended or retracted; (vitesse train d’atterrissage en manoeuvre)

"load factor" means the ratio of a specified load to the total weight of the aircraft. The specified load is expressed in terms of any of the following:
aerodynamic forces, inertia forces, or ground or water reactions; (facteur de charge)

"mach number" means the ratio of true airspeed to the speed of sound; (nombre de mach)

"main rotor" means the rotor that supplies the principal lift to a rotorcraft; (rotor principal)

"manifold pressure" means absolute pressure as measured at the appropriate point in the induction system and usually expressed in inches of mercury; (pression d’admission)

“maximum engine overtorque”, as it applies to turbopropeller and turboshaft engines incorporating free power turbines for all ratings except one engine inoperative (OEI) ratings of two minutes or less, means the maximum torque of the free power turbine rotor assembly, the inadvertent occurrence of which, for periods of up to 20 seconds, will not require rejection of the engine from service or any maintenance action other than to correct the cause. (surcouple maximal du moteur)
(amended 2010/05/27)

"maximum speed for stability characteristics (VFC/MFC)" means a speed that may not be less than a speed midway between maximum operating limit speed (VMO/MMO) and demonstrated flight diving speed (VDF/MDF), except that, for altitudes where the Mach number is the limiting factor, MFC need not exceed the Mach number at which effective speed warning occurs; (vitesse maximale pour la démonstration des caractéristiques de stabilité VFC/MFC)

"pitch setting" means the propeller blade setting as determined by the blade angle measured in a manner, and at a radius, specified by the instruction manual for the propeller; (calage de pas)

"rated continuous OEI power"means, with respect to rotorcraft turbine engines, the approved brake horsepower developed under static conditions at specified altitudes and temperatures within the operating limitations established for the engine under Chapter 533 of the Airworthiness Manual, and limited in use to the time required to complete the flight after the failure or shutdown of one engine of a multiengine rotorcraft; (puissance nominale continue avec un moteur en panne (OEI))
(amended 2010/01/29)

"rated maximum continuous augmented thrust" means, with respect to turbojet engine type certification, the approved jet thrust that is developed statically or in flight, in standard atmosphere at a specified altitude, with fluid injection or with the burning of fuel in a separate combustion chamber, within the engine operating limitations established under Chapter 533 of the Airworthiness Manual, and approved for unrestricted periods of use; (poussée nominale continue maximale augmentée)

"rated maximum continuous power" means, with respect to reciprocating, turbopropeller, and turboshaft engine, the approved brake horsepower that is developed statically or in flight, in standard atmosphere at a specified altitude, within the engine operating limitations established under Chapter 533 of the Airworthiness Manual, and approved for unrestricted periods of use; (puissance nominale maximale continue)

"rated maximum continuous thrust", with respect to turbojet engine type certification, means the approved jet thrust that is developed statically or in flight, in standard atmosphere at a specified altitude, without fluid injection and without the burning of fuel in a separate combustion chamber, within the engine operating limitations established under Chapter 533 of the Airworthiness Manual, and approved for unrestricted periods of use; (poussée nominale maximale continue)

"rated take-off augmented thrust" means, with respect to turbojet engine type certification, the approved jet thrust that is developed statically under standard sea level conditions, with fluid injection or with the burning of fuel in a separate combustion chamber, within the engine operating limitations established under Chapter 533 of the Airworthiness Manual, and limited in use to periods of not over 5 minutes for take-off operation or periods of not more than 10 minutes of one-engine-inoperative climb; (poussée nominale augmentée au décollage)

"rated take-off power" means, with respect to reciprocating, turbopropeller, and turboshaft engine type certification, the approved brake horsepower that is developed statically under standard sea level conditions, within the engine operating limitations established under Chapter 533 of the Airworthiness Manual, and limited in use to periods of not over 5 minutes for take-off operation or periods of not more than 10 minutes of one-engine-inoperative climb; (puissance nominale au décollage)

"rated take-off thrust" means, with respect to turbojet engine type certification, the approved jet thrust that is developed statically under standard sea level conditions, without fluid injection and without the burning of fuel in a separate combustion chamber, within the engine operating limitations established under Chapter 533 of the Airworthiness Manual, and limited in use to periods of not over 5 minutes for take-off operation or periods of not more than 10 minutes of one-engine-inoperative climb; (poussée nominale au décollage)

“rated 2-minute OEI power” means, with respect to rotorcraft turbine engines, the approved brake horsepower developed under static conditions at specified altitudes and temperatures within the operating limitations established for the engine under Chapter 533 of the Airworthiness Manual, for continuation of one-flight operation after the failure of one engine in multiengine rotorcraft, for up to three periods of use no longer than 2 minutes each in any one flight, and followed by mandatory inspection and prescribed maintenance action; (puissance nominale 2-minutes OEI)
(amended 2010/01/29)

“rated 2½-minute OEI power” means, with respect to rotorcraft turbine engines, the approved brake horsepower developed under static conditions at specified altitudes and temperatures within the operating limitations established for the engine under Chapter 533 of the Airworthiness Manual, for periods of use no longer than 2 ½ minutes after the failure or shutdown of one engine of a multiengine rotorcraft; (puissance nominale 2½ minutes OEI)
(amended 2010/01/29)

“rated 30-minutes OEI power” means, with respect to rotorcraft turbine engines, the approved brake horsepower developed under static conditions at specified altitudes and temperatures within the operating limitations established for the engine under Chapter 533 of the Airworthiness Manual, and limited to one period of use no longer than 30 minutes after the failure or shutdown of one engine of a multi-engine rotorcraft; (puissance nominale 30 minutes OEI)
(amended 2010/01/29)

“rated 30-second OEI power” means, with respect to rotorcraft turbine engines, the approved brake horsepower developed under static conditions at specified altitudes and temperatures within the operating limitations established for the engine under Chapter 533 of the Airworthiness Manual, for continuation of one-flight operation after the failure or shutdown of one engine in multiengine rotorcraft, for up to three periods of use no longer than 30 seconds each in any one flight, and followed by mandatory inspection and prescribed maintenance action; (puissance nominale 30 secondes OEI)
(amended 2010/01/29)

"reference landing speed" means the speed of the aeroplane, in a specified landing configuration, at the point where it descends through the 50 foot height in the determination of the landing distance (vitesse de référence à l'atterissage)
(amended 2003/11/10)

"rotorcraft" means a heavier-than-air aircraft that depends principally for its support in flight on the lift generated by one or more rotors; (giravion)

"rotorcraft-load combination"

Information Note:

Refer to CAR 101.01 definition of "Helicopter Class A, Class B, Class C, and Class D external loads"; (combinaison giravion-charge)

"sea level engine" means a reciprocating aircraft engine having a rated take-off power that is producible only at sea level; (moteur atmosphérique)

"standard atmosphere" means the atmosphere defined in U.S. Standard Atmosphere, 1962 (Geopotential altitude tables); (atmosphère type)

"take-off power" means

  1. (1) with respect to reciprocating engines, means the brake horsepower that is developed under standard sea level conditions, and the maximum conditions of crankshaft rotational speed and engine manifold pressure approved for the normal take-off, and limited in continuous use to the period of time shown in the approved engine specification; and

  2. (2) with respect to turbine engines, means the brake horsepower that is developed under static conditions at a specified altitude and atmospheric temperature, and under the maximum conditions of rotor shaft rotational speed and gas temperature to the period of time shown in the approved engine specification; (puissance au décollage)

"take-off thrust" with respect to turbine engines, means the jet thrust that is developed under static conditions at a specific altitude and atmospheric temperature under the maximum conditions of rotorshaft rotational speed and gas temperature approved for the normal take-off, and limited in continuous use to the period of time shown in the approved engine specification; (poussée au décollage)

"tandem wing configuration" means a configuration having two wings of similar span, mounted in tandem; (configuration à ailes en tandem)

"true airspeed" means the airspeed of an aircraft relative to undisturbed air. True airspeed is equal to equivalent airspeed multiplied by (ro/r)½; (vitesse vraie)

"winglet" or "tip fin" means an out-of-plane surface extending from a lifting surface. The surface may or may not have control surfaces. (ailette ou plan d’extrémité d’aile)

500.03 Abbreviations and Symbols

The following abbreviations and symbols are used throughout the Standards and the Chapters of the Airworthiness Manual that make up Part V of the Canadian Aviation Regulations. They are in addition to those contained in the Aeronautics Act and the Canadian Aviation Regulations:
(amended 2009/12/01)

"AIR" means Airworthiness Inspection Representative; (RIN)
"CAS" means calibrated airspeed; (CAS)
"DOT" means Department of Transport; (MdT)
"EAS" means equivalent airspeed; (EAS)
"FAA" means Federal Aviation Administration; (FAA)
"FSR" means Field Service Representative; (FSR)
"GS" means glide slope; (GS)
"IAS" means indicated airspeed; (IAS)
"ICAO" means International Civil Aviation Organization; (OACI)
"ILS" means instrument landing system; (ILS)
"LOC" means ILS localizer; (LOC)
"M" means mach number; (M)
"MSL" means mean sea level; (MSL)
"MRB" means 1. Material Review Board; (MRB)
2. Maintenance Review Board; (MRB)
"OEI" means one engine inoperative; (OEI)
"TAS" means true airspeed; (TAS)
"VA" means design manoeuvring speed; (VA)
"VB" means design speed for maximum gust intensity; (VB)
"VC" means design cruising speed; (VC)
"VD" means design diving speed; (VD)
"VDF/MDF" means demonstrated flight diving speed; (VDF/MDF)
"VEF" means the speed at which the critical engine is assumed to fail during take-off (VEF)
"VF" means design flap speed; (VF)
"VFC/MFC" means maximum speed for stability characteristics; (VFC/MFC)
"VFE" means maximum flap extended speed; (VFE)
"VFTO" means final take-off speed; (VFTO)
(amended 2003/11/10)
"VH" means maximum speed in level flight with maximum continuous power; (VH)
"VLE" means maximum landing gear extended speed; (VLE)
"VLO" means maximum landing gear operating speed; (VLO)
"VLOF" means lift-off speed; (VLOF)
"VMC" means minimum control speed with the critical engine inoperative; (VMC)
"VMO/MMO" means maximum operating limit speed; (VMO/MMO)
"VMU" means minimum unstick speed; (VMU)
"VNE" means never-exceed speed; (VNE)
"VNO" means maximum structural cruising speed; (VNO)
"VR" means rotation speed; (VR)
"VREF" means reference landing speed; (VREF)
(amended 2003/11/10)
"VS" means the stalling speed or the minimum steady flight speed at which the aeroplane is controllable; (VS)
"VSO" means the stalling speed or the minimum steady flight speed in the landing configuration; (VSO)
"VS1" means the stalling speed or the minimum steady flight speed obtained in a specified configuration; (VS1)
"VSR" means reference stall speed; (VSR)
(amended 2003/11/10)
"VSR0" means reference stall speed in the landing configuration; (VSR0)
(amended 2003/11/10)
"VSR1" means reference stall speed in a specific configuration; (VSR1)
(amended 2003/11/10)
"VSW" means speed at which onset of natural or artificial stall warning occurs; (VSW)
(amended 2003/11/10)
"VX" means speed for best angle of climb; (VX)
"VY" means speed for best rate of climb; (VY)
"V1" means the maximum speed in the take-off at which the pilot must take the first action (e.g., apply brakes, reduce thrust, deploy speed brakes) to stop the aeroplane within the accelerate-stop distance. V1 also means the minimum speed in the take-off, following a failure of the critical engine at VEF at which the pilot can continue the take-off and achieve the required height above the take-off surface within the take-off distance.(V1)
"V2" means take-off safety speed; (V2)
"V2 min" means minimum take-off safety speed; (V2 min)
"VRA" means allowable rough-air speed; (VRA)
"VT" means maximum aero-tow speed (522 only); (VT)
"VW" means maximum winch-launch speed (522 only). (VW)

AMA 500/00 M

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