Part V - Airworthiness Manual Chapter 516 - Aircraft Emissions

Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) 2017-2

Procurement of Reference Publication

The titles of the publications referenced in this Chapter of the Airworthiness Manual are as follows:

International Standards and Recommended Practices - Environmental Protection, Annex 16 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation:

- Volume I, Aircraft Noise,

- Volume II, Aircraft Engine Emissions. 

Orders for these publications may be sent to the following address, together with the appropriate remittance:

Document Sales Unit
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
999 University Street
Montreal, Quebec
H3C 5H7

Telephone 514-954-8022
Telex: 05-24513
Facsimile: 514-954-6769
Sitatex: YULCAYA
Internet Site: sales_unit@icao.org

Preamble

First Edition

Effective: 30 November 1985

This chapter incorporates by reference Chapters 2, 3, 5 and 6 of Annex 16 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation entitled “Environmental Protection”, Volume I, “Aircraft Noise”, as amended by Amendment 1 dated 24 November 1983, published by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).

Amendment 1 to Volume I incorporates the Introduction of SARPs for noise abatement operating procedures and transfer of detailed procedures to PANS-OPS, Volume I.

Change 516-01

Effective: 10 August 1987

This change incorporates by reference the standards of Chapter 8 of ICAO Annex 16, Volume I, as amended by Amendment 2, for the noise certification of helicopters, and also the amendments to Chapters 5 and 6 of that document containing the standards for propeller-driven commuter category aeroplanes.

The content of this change was subjected to consultation with appropriate industry associations and received general acceptance (NPA 87-01).

Amendment 2 to Volume I incorporates:

  1. a) improvements in the noise certification procedures; and

  2. b) relaxation of maximum noise limits for helicopters

Note:

In 516-1 changes were identified by marginal black lines. In future, changes will be identified by brackets [ ]; editorial alterations and typographical corrections will not be identified.

Change 516-02

Effective: 30 November 1988

This change incorporates by reference the standards of Chapter 10 of ICAO Annex 16, Volume I, as amended by Amendment 3, for the noise compliance certification of propeller-driven aeroplanes not exceeding 9 000 kg, and any changes resulting from adoption of ICAO Amendment 3 to Annex 16, Volume I.

The content of this change was subjected to consultation with appropriate industry associations and received general acceptance (NPA 88-02).

Amendment 3 to Volume I incorporates:

  1. a) further improvements in the noise certification procedures;

  2. b) introduction of a new Chapter 10 for propeller-driven aeroplanes not exceeding 9 000 kg maximum certificated takeoff mass; and

  3. c) editorial changes in Part V cross-referencing the relevant provisions in the PANS-OPS (Doc 8168).

Chapter 516, 2nd Edition
(renamed Change 516-03)

Effective: 1 November 1991

The first edition of Chapter 516, effective Nov. 30, 1985, contained aircraft noise standards, based on the International Standards and Recommended Practices of Annex 16, Volume I to the Convention on International Civil Aviation, which were incorporated by reference. The chapter was subsequently amended in 1987 and 1988. While the title and the requirements of the first edition are maintained unchanged in Subchapter A of this second edition, the presentation and the wording are changed for consistency with the new Subchapter B.

In 1986, at the time of the publication of Chapter 516, the engine emission standards of Annex 16, Volume II were not adopted due to controversial interpretations of the Aeronautics Act. The Department of Justice has reviewed the issue and has concluded that, under the provisions of paragraph 4.9 (b) of the Aeronautics Act, the Department of Transport has the power to regulate aircraft engine emissions. Accordingly, following consultation with the Canadian aviation industry and the Department of Environment, the Department of Transport has adopted the aircraft engine emissions standards of Volume II of Annex 16 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation, First edition, 1981, published by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). These standards are published in the new Subchapter B.

The adoption of the standards of Annex 16, Volume II has required significant editorial changes to the first edition. Therefore, Chapter 516 is reissued in its entirety, and its title is changed to “Aircraft Emissions”. In the Canadian context, environmental protection is the responsibility of the Department of Environment and, while the standards of this chapter will have an ultimate environmental effect, the authorization in paragraph 4.9 (b) of the Aeronautics Act is to regulate the design of aeronautical products. Therefore, the title “Aircraft Emissions” has been found more appropriate than “Environmental Protection”, which is the title given to ICAO Annex 16.

The content of this change was subjected to consultation with appropriate industry associations and received general acceptance (NPA 91-14).

Chapter 516, 2nd Edition-1
(renamed Change 516-04)

Effective: 11 November 1993

This change incorporates by reference, Amendment 4 and Amendment 2 to Volume I “Aircraft Noise”, and Volume II “Aircraft Engine Emissions” respectively of Annex 16 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation. These amendments arise from the recommendations of the second meeting on the Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP/2) held in December 1991.

Amendment 4 to Volume I incorporates:

  1. a) improvements in the noise certification procedures;

  2. b) introduction of a new Chapter 11 for light helicopters;

  3. c) expansion of Appendix 2 to include helicopters and replacement of Appendix 4; and

  4. d) introduction of guidance on applicability.

Amendment 2 to Volume II incorporates;

  1. a) increased stringency of Nox emissions limits;

  2. b) improvements in the smoke and gaseous emissions certification procedure.

Chapter 516, 2nd Edition-2
(renamed Change 516-05)

Effective: 8 February 1998

The publication and release of this Change 2 to the 2nd Edition, follows the completion of CARAC NPA 97-451 process, dated 17 November 1997.

This change incorporates by reference, Amendment 5 to Volume I “Aircraft Noise”, of Annex 16 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation. This amendment is the result of recommendations of the third meeting on the Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP/3) held in December 1995.

For consistency with the new Canadian Aviation Regulations, references to Air Regulation 214, have been replaced with references to the Canadian Aviation Regulations, Part V, Subpart 11. Also the term “type approval” has been replaced with “type certificate”.

Amendment 5 to Volume I incorporates:

  1. a) simplification and clarification of the noise certification schemes in Chapter 3 for propeller-driven aircraft;

  2. b) harmonization of the helicopter Standards in Chapters 8 and 11 with national codes; and

  3. c) alignment of the take-off mass in Chapter 10 with airworthiness limits.

Note:

Due to an administrative oversight, change 516 (2nd Edition)-2 (renamed 516-05) of AWM Chapter 516 adopted ICAO Annex 16, Volume II, Amendment 3, without prior consultation. To correct the error, ICAO Annex 16, Volume II, Amendment 3, has been included in NPA 1999-169 and incorporated at Change 516-06.

Change 516-06

Published: 1 September 2001

  1. 1. General

    1. This change incorporates by reference ICAO Annex 16 amendment 6 to Volume I, and Amendments 3 &4 to volume II. The contents of these amendments are summarized below, and were the subject of the formal adoption process with appropriate industry associations and received CARAC acceptance.

  2. 2. ICAO Annex 16 Amendments

    1. This change incorporates by reference the technical standards contained in the following amendments to ICAO Annex 16 resulting from the recommendations of the Fourth Meeting of the Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP/4) held in April 1998.

Volume I - Amendment 6

Effective: 23 November 1999

This amendment introduces an increase in stringency of Annex 16, Volume I, Chapter 10 noise requirements for single-engine light propeller-driven aeroplanes; changes of a generally minor nature that are intended to improve the consistency of the Annex and reflect changes that had arisen from the on-going harmonization of the European Joint Aviation Regulations (JARs) and the United States Federal Aviation Regulations (FARs). The opportunity has also been taken to introduce a number of required editorial corrections amendments to the Annex; and introduces a definition of human performance in Part I and new provisions concerning human factors in Part V (NPA 1999- 169).

Volume II - Amendment 3

Effective: 23 November 1999

This amendment changes the criteria on calibration and test gases in Appendices 3 and 5 (NPA 1999- 169).

Volume II - Amendment 4

Effective: 23 November 1999

This amendment introduces a new paragraph “c” into Part III, Chapter 2, section 2.3.2 - Regulatory Levels. Paragraph ‘c’, lowers the emissions limits of the oxides of nitrogen (Nox) and is applicable to engines for which the date of manufacture of the first production model is after 31 December 2003 (NPA 1999- 169).

Change 516-7

Published: 1 June 2005

  1. 1. General

    1. This change incorporates by reference ICAO Annex 16 amendment 7 to Volume I. The content of this amendment is summarized below, and were the subject of the formal adoption process with appropriate industry associations and received CARAC acceptance.

  2. 2. ICAO Annex 16 Amendments

    1. This change incorporates by reference the technical standards contained in the following amendments to ICAO Annex 16 resulting from the recommendations of the Fifth Meeting of the Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP/5) held in January 2001.

Volume I - Amendment 7

Effective: 6 August 2003

This amendment introduces an increase in stringency of the turbo jet and heavy propeller-driven aeroplane noise requirements (new Chapter 4 - existing Chapter 4 becomes Chapter 12); new provisions relating to the re-certification of Chapter 3 aeroplanes; increase in stringency of the helicopter noise requirements of Chapter 8 and 11; change to clarify or redefine existing certification procedures, align with harmonized JAR/FAR requirements, introduce new provisions relating to digital instrumentation.

Change 516-8

Published: June 30, 2007

  1. 1. General

    1. This amendment adopts by reference ICAO Annex 16 amendment 8 (4th Edition) to Volume I and ICAO Annex 16 amendment 5 to Volume II. The content of this amendment is summarized below and is adopted in accordance with the CARAC simplified process for the amendment of design standards.

  2. 2. ICAO Annex 16 Amendments

    1. This change incorporates by reference the technical standards contained in the following amendments to ICAO Annex 16 resulting from the recommendations of the Sixth Meeting of the Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP/6) held 2-12 February 2004.

Volume I – Amendment 8

Effective: March 8, 2007

This amendment introduces: ambient noise correction procedure including definitions for "background noise", "ambient noise" and "broadband noise"; allowable wind speed limits during testing; applicability language clarification including temporary changes in type design and provisions to allow the recertification of Chapter 5 aeroplanes to Chapter 4; rotorcraft-related technical issues; and new Attachments G and H containing guidelines for the administration of noise certification documentation and guidelines for obtaining helicopter noise data for land-use planning purposes, respectively (NPA 2006-008).

Volume II – Amendment 5

Effective: March 8, 2007

This amendment introduces an increase in stringency of the NOX emissions Standards (NPA 2006-037).

Change 516-9

Published: December 1, 2009

On December 1, 2009, Part V Subpart 21 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations (CAR 521) came into force. CAR 521 replaces the following Regulations in Part V—Airworthiness:

Subpart 11 - Approval of the Type Design of an Aeronautical Product
Subpart 13 - Approval of Modification and Repair Designs
Subpart 16 - Aircraft Emissions
Subpart 22 - Gliders and Powered Gliders
Subpart 23 - Normal, Utility, Aerobatic and Commuter Category Aeroplanes
Subpart 25 - Transport Category Aeroplanes
Subpart 27 - Normal Category Rotorcraft
Subpart 29 - Transport Category Rotorcraft
Subpart 31 - Manned Free Balloons
Subpart 33 - Aircraft Engines
Subpart 35 - Aircraft Propellers
Subpart 37 - Aircraft Appliances and Other Aeronautical Products
Subpart 41 - Airships
Subpart 51 - Aircraft Equipment
Subpart 91 - Service Difficulty Reporting
Subpart 93 - Airworthiness Directives

In addition, with publication of CAR 521, the following Chapters of the Airworthiness Manual have been withdrawn:

Chapter 511 - Approval of the Type Design of an Aeronautical Product
Chapter 513 - Approval of Modification and Repair Designs
Standard 591 - Service Difficulty Reporting
Standard 593 - Airworthiness Directives

This change amends sections 516.1, 515.3, 516.101, 516.103 and 516.107 to reflect changes in legal drafting style, in terminology and in references required because of the introduction of CAR 521. In addition, section 521.32 of the CARs is now used to legally enable this Chapter of the AWM.

Change 516-10

Published: December 1, 2010

  1. 1. General

    1. This amendment adopts by reference ICAO Annex 16 amendment 9 (5th Edition) to Volume I and ICAO Annex 16 amendment 6 to Volume II. The content of this amendment is summarized below and is adopted in accordance with the CARAC simplified process for the amendment of design standards.

  2. 2. ICAO Annex 16 Amendments

    1. This change incorporates by reference the technical standards contained in the following amendments to ICAO Annex 16 resulting from the recommendations of the Seventh Meeting of the Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP/7) held 7 March 2008.

Volume I - Amendment 9

Effective: May 27, 2010

This amendment introduces: new text to Attachment H containing guidelines for obtaining helicopter noise data for land-use planning purposes by providing the option for additional microphone positions; a change to Note 2 of the definition of “derived version of a helicopter” to clarify that it applies to Chapter 11 as well as Chapter 8 helicopters; noise certification procedures for helicopters amended to ensure that the maximum operational rotor speed will be used; clarification of the definitions relating to wind speeds during tests; an update of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) references; a clarification regarding the increment to be added to the V2 speed to determine the climb speed to be used during certification training; an amendment of the applicability provisions to align them with similar provisions in other ICAO documents; minor editorial changes. (NPA 2009-021)

Volume II - Amendment 6

Effective: May 27, 2010

This amendment introduces: a clarification of applicable corrections to reference day and reference engine conditions and of the humidity terminology used; amendments allowing the use of test fuels outside those specified with certificating authority approval; standardization of terminology relating to thrust setting; clarification of the appropriate value of fuel flow to be used at each LTO point; amendments to the requirements specifying the materials that may be used in sampling rates. (NPA 2009-021)

Change 516-11

Published: June 30, 2015

  1. 1. General

    1. This amendment complies with the provisions of Annex 16, Volume I including all amendments up to and including Amendment 10 and Volume II including all amendments up to and including Amendment 7. Editorial changes have been made to harmonize titles of Chapter 516 of the Airworthiness Manual (AWM) with those of Annex 16, Volume I and as a result AWM paragraph 516.3(b) was found to be unnecessary and was removed.

  2. 2. ICAO Annex 16 Amendments

    1. This change incorporates by reference the technical standards contained in the following amendments to ICAO Annex 16 resulting from the recommendations of the Eighth Meeting of the Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP/7) held 4 March 2011.

Volume I - Amendment 10

Effective: December 23, 2014

Amendment 10 to Annex 16, Volume I includes changes to the applicability provisions in order to remove unnecessary complexity, repetition and redundancy in the text while improving clarity and harmonization amongst different chapters; harmonization of the language for noise certification procedures of tilt-rotors has been harmonized with that of helicopters already adopted in Chapters 8 and 11 of Annex 16, Volume I, in order to clarify that the maximum rotor revolutions per minute (RPM) corresponding with the reference flight condition shall be used; clarification that the maximum noise levels applicable to subsonic jet aeroplanes may be used as a guideline for supersonic aeroplanes; a consequential amendment arising from Amendment 17 to Annex 5 replacing “km/h” by “m/s” as the SI unit to measure wind speed; and minor editorial changes. (NPA 2014-005)

Volume II - Amendment 7

Effective: December 23, 2014

Amendment 7 to Annex 16, Volume II includes an increase in stringency of NOx emissions Standards; procedures for the Emissions Certification of Aircraft Engines; updates to the text to replace “variations in procedures” by “equivalent procedures,” in order to improve consistency and harmonization within Annex 16, Volume II and with the Environmental Technical Manual (Doc 9501), Volume II — Procedures for the Emissions Certification of Aircraft Engines; the format of applicability dates in Section 2.3.2 made consistent with the convention used in Annex 6 and Annex 16, Volume I; improved readability by moving some paragraphs to more appropriate places; and minor editorial changes. (NPA 2014-005)

PART V - AIRWORTHINESS AIRWORTHINESS MANUAL CHAPTER 516 - AIRCRAFT EMISSIONS

(2001/09/01)

SUBCHAPTER A AIRCRAFT NOISE

General

  1. (a) This subchapter sets out noise standards for subsonic turbo-jet and propeller-driven aeroplanes and helicopters.
    (amended 2009/12/01)

  2. (b) Reserved.
    (amended 2009/12/01)

  3. (2nd Edition, Change 2 (98-02-08))

516.3 Interpretation

In this subchapter,

  1. (a) “Annex 16, Volume I” means Annex 16 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation entitled “Environmental Protection”, Volume I entitled “Aircraft Noise”, Sixth Edition July 2011, which incorporated Amendments 1 to 10 to Volume I, published by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).
    (effective 2014/12/23)

  2. (b) Reserved.
    (effective 2014/12/23)

  3. Information Notes:

    1. (i) For the purpose of determining the applicable noise standards, the applicability dates are the dates set out in Chapter 1 of Annex 16, Volume I, Part II.
      (amended 2009/12/01)

    2. (ii) Unless otherwise defined in Chapter 500 of the AWM, the definitions contained in Annex 16, Volume I, Part I, apply.
      (amended 2009/12/01)

  4. (2nd Edition (93-11-11))
    (2nd Edition, Change 2 (98-02-08))
    (Change 516-06 (99-11-23))

516.5 Noise Emission Standards

The standards related to aircraft noise emission are those contained in the following Chapters of Annex 16, Volume I, Part II:
(effective 2014/12/23)

  1. (a) Chapter 2, entitled “Subsonic jet aeroplanes Application for Type Certificate submitted before 6 October 1977”.
    (effective 2014/12/23)

  2. (b) Chapter 3, entitled:

    1. “1. Subsonic jet aeroplanes Application for Type Certificate submitted on or after 6 October 1977 and before 1 January 2006”.
      (effective 2014/12/23)

    2. “2. Propeller driven aeroplanes over 8618 kg Application for Type Certificate submitted on or after 1 January 1985 and before 1 January 2006”.
      (effective 2014/12/23)

  3. (c) Chapter 4, entitled:
    (amended 2003/08/06)

    1. “1. Subsonic jet aeroplanes - Application for Type Certificate submitted on or after 1 January 2006”.
      (effective 2014/12/23)

    2. “2. Propeller-driven aeroplanes over 8618 kg - Application for Type Certificate submitted on or after 1 January 2006”.
      (effective 2014/12/23)

  4. (d) Chapter 5, entitled “Propeller driven aeroplanes over 8618 kg Application for Type Certificate submitted before 1 January 1985”.
    (effective 2014/12/23)

  5. (e) Chapter 6, entitled “Propeller driven aeroplanes not exceeding 8618 kg Application for Type Certificate submitted before 17 November 1988”.
    (effective 2014/12/23)

  6. (f) Chapter 8, entitled “Helicopters”.

  7. (g) Chapter 10, entitled “Propeller driven aeroplanes not exceeding 8618 kg Application for Type Certificate or Certification of Derived Version submitted on or after 17 November 1988”.
    (effective 2014/12/23)

  8. (h) Chapter 11, entitled “Helicopters not exceeding 3175 kg maximum certificated take-off mass”.
    (amended 2003/08/06)

  9. (2nd Edition (93-11-11))

516.7 Noise Evaluation Methods

The methods for the evaluation of aircraft noise are those contained in the following Appendices of Annex 16, Volume I:
(effective 2014/12/23)

  1. (a) APPENDIX 1, entitled “Evaluation method for noise certification of subsonic jet aeroplanes Application for Type Certificate submitted before 6 October 1977”.
    (effective 2014/12/23)

  2. (b) APPENDIX 2, entitled “Evaluation method for noise certification of:”

    1. “1. Subsonic jet aeroplanes Application for Type Certificate submitted on or after 6 October 1977”.

    2. “2. Propeller driven aeroplanes over 8618 kg Application for Type Certificate submitted on or after 1 January 1985”.
      (effective 2014/12/23)

    3. “3. Helicopters”.
      (effective 2014/12/23)

    4. (2nd Edition (93-11-11))

  3. (c) APPENDIX 3, entitled “Evaluation method for noise certification of propeller driven aeroplanes not exceeding 8618 kg Application for Type Certificate submitted before 17 November 1988”.
    (effective 2014/12/23)

  4. (d) APPENDIX 4, entitled “Evaluation method for noise certification of helicopters not exceeding 3175 kg maximum certificated take-off mass”.
    (amended 2003/08/06)

  5. (e) APPENDIX 6, entitled “Evaluation method for noise certification of propeller driven aeroplanes not exceeding 8618 kg Application for Type Certificate submitted on or after 17 November 1988”.
    (effective 2014/12/23)

  6. (f) APPENDIX 7, deleted.

  7. (2nd Edition (93 11 11))
    (2nd Edition, Change 2 (98 02 08))

SUBCHAPTER B AIRCRAFT ENGINE EMISSIONS

516.101 General

  1. (a) This subchapter sets out standards related to:
    (amended 2009/12/01)

    1. (1) The prevention of intentional fuel venting of turbine-engine powered aircraft; and
      (amended 2009/12/01)

    2. (2) Aircraft engine emissions consisting of smoke and gaseous emissions of turbo-jet and turbofan engines intended for propulsion at subsonic or supersonic speeds, as applicable.
      (amended 2009/12/01)

  2. (b) Reserved.
    (amended 2009/12/01)

  3. (2nd Edition, Change 2 (98-02-08))

516.103 Interpretation

In this subchapter,

  1. (a) “Annex 16, Volume II” means Annex 16 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation entitled “Environmental Protection”, Volume II entitled “Aircraft Engine Emissions”, Third Edition July 2008, which incorporated Amendments 1 to 6, as amended by Amendment 7 to Volume II, published by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).
    (effective 2014/12/23)

  2. (b) Reserved.
    (effective 2014/12/23)

  3. Information Note:

    1. Unless otherwise defined in Chapter 500 of the AWM, the definitions and symbols contained in Annex 16, Volume II, Part I, apply.
      (amended 2009/12/01)

  4. (2nd Edition (93-11-11))
    (2nd Edition, Change 2 (98-02-08))
    (Change 516-06 (99-11-23))

516.105 Vented Fuel Standards

The standards related to the prevention of intentional fuel venting are those contained in Annex 16, Volume II, Part II “Vented Fuel”.

516.107 Aircraft Engine Emission Standards

The standards related to aircraft engine emissions consisting of smoke and gaseous emissions are those contained in Annex 16, Volume II, Part III “Emissions Certification”, as follows:
(amended 2009/12/01)

  1. (a) CHAPTER 2, entitled “Turbojet and turbofan engines intended for propulsion only at subsonic speeds”; and

  2. (b) CHAPTER 3, entitled “Turbojet and turbofan engines intended for propulsion at supersonic speeds”.

516.109 Aircraft Engine Emission Evaluation Methods

The methods for the evaluation of aircraft engine emissions are those contained in Annex 16, Volume II, Appendices 1 through 6 inclusive.

Date modified: