Part V - Airworthiness Manual Chapter 522 - Gliders and Powered Gliders

Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) 2017-2

Content last revised: 2007/12/30



  1. A (522.1-522.3) 

  2. B (522.21-522.255) 

  3. C (522.301-522.597) 

  4. D (522.601-522.885) 

  5. E (522.901-522.1193) 

  6. F (522.1301-522.1449)

  7. G (522.1501-523.1589)

  8. H (522.1801-523.1857)

  9. J (522.1901-523.1947)



(amended 2007/07/16)



(amended 2007/07/16)



(amended 2007/07/16)

  1. 1. Engine conditions & speeds 

  2. Two Conditions must be considered -

    1. (a) Engine extended and stopped (for cases related to engine idling).

    2. (b) Engine running at maximum power (for cases related to maximum continuous power, or all allowable power settings and also to 522.175(d)(5)).

  3. 2. Structure

  4. 522.361(a)(1) is not applicable.

  5. 3. Equipment

  6. 522.1305 Power-plant instruments.

  7. (a) A tachometer or a suitable substitute -

    1. (1) A simple indication (e.g. a green light) that the engine is producing the power upon which the performance information is based; and

    2. (2) A simple indication (e.g. a red light) that the limiting engine r.p.m. has been reached except where it has been shown that the maximum engine r.p.m. cannot be exceeded at all speeds up to VNE.

  8. (b) A fuel quantity indicator for each fuel tank. The installation of a simple device, e.g. a transparent tank, a sight gauge or a floating type of indicator is acceptable.

  9. (c) An oil temperature indicator or an oil temperature warning device (red light). (Except for two-stroke engines).

  10. (d) An oil pressure indicator or warning device (red light). (Except for two-stroke engines).

  11. (e) A cylinder head temperature indicator or warning device (red light) for each air-cooled engine when cowl flaps are fitted.

  12. (f) An elapsed-engine-time indicator is not required.

  13. (g) An oil quantity indicator, e.g. dipstick, unless the engine is a two-stroke type operating on pre-mixed fuel and oil.


(amended 2007/07/16)

For the H-point determination, the thigh contact area and the seat level are the two reference areas in a cockpit.

  1. (a) Levelling the glider

    1. The glider should be adjusted with the longitudinal axis horizontal and the wings level

  2. (b) Placing and adjusting of the device

    1. With the thighs below the transitional area of seat level and thigh contact area, the device is placed in the centre of the thigh contact area. The device is then slowly pushed down to the thigh contact area until the two lower ends of the thighs touch the seat pan at the same time. This process should ensure that the thighs fully touch the thigh contact area at all times.

    2. When both of the thighs have optimum contact with the thigh contact area or seat level, the device should be adjusted with the use of a spirit level until horizontal at the contact point and fixed in that position.

  3. (c) Marking of H-point and determination of optimum location of lap belt anchorage points

When the device is adjusted, the H-point device axis is pushed to one side until a felt-tip pen that is attached to the device touches the side wall of the seat pan. The H-point should be marked at this position. The same procedures should be repeated for the other side.

Continued adjustment of the device should enable the marking of the H-point for each adjusted position.

A rectangle should be drawn around all H-points marked on the side wall of the seat pan, which should be as small as possible. The intersecting point of the rectangle's diagonal shows the "determined H-point".

For the determination of optimum area for the anchorage point of the lap belts, the device is placed on the seat pan in such a way that the H-point of the device corresponds with the "determined H-point" of the seat pan.

The stencil should then be adjusted with the spirit level attached to it allowing the H-point axis to be fixed with the locking device in the connecting part. The area required for the anchorage point of the lap belt can then be identified on the stencil.

H-Point device

The device is basically composed of the two thighs, the connecting part, and the H-Point axis (see figure 1).

H-Point device

Figure 1

The original constructional drawing of the H-Point device can be ordered by
TÜV Rheinland Kraftfahrt GmbH
Institut für Verkehrssicherheit
Abteilung Luftfahrttechnik
Am Grauen Stein
D-51105 Köln


(amended 2007/07/16)


For powered gliders used for aerotowing gliders and for the powered glider - glider aerotowing combination itself (hereafter the combination is referred to as the “aerotow“), the following additional requirements apply:


In the following the term “glider “ is used for aerotowed gliders as well as for aerotowed powered gliders.

Aerotowing of more than one glider at a time needs further consideration and is not covered by this Appendix.

1. Subchapter B - Flight

  1. 1.1 (See Advisory Circular (AC) 522.001, Appendix K paragraph 1.1)

  2. 1.2 522.51 is applicable to the aerotow, except that 522.51 (b)(2) is not applicable.

    1. Compliance must be shown at 500 m above sea level.

  3. 1.3 522.65 is applicable to the aerotow.

    1. Compliance must be shown at 500 m above sea level.

  4. 1.4 A new paragraph 522.77 is added:

522.77 Aerotowing Speeds

The minimum aerotowing speed and the best-rate-of-climb aerotowing speed must be determined by flight test.

The minimum aerotowing speed must not be less than 1.3 VS1 of either the powered glider or the aerotowed glider, whichever is the higher.

  1. 1.5 522.143, except the sideslip condition under subparagraph (a), is to be applied also to the aerotow.

  2. 1.6 522.151 (c) and (d) are applicable to the aerotow.

  3. 1.7 522.207 (b) is amended to read:

    1. (b) An audible artificial stall warning giving a clear and distinctive indication must be provided for the powered glider unless the stall warning is sufficiently clear and distinctive for the pilot, even under the additional work load when aerotowing.

  4. 1.8 522.207 (d) does not apply to the aerotowing powered glider.

  5. 1.9 522.233 (c) Powered gliders used for aerotowing gliders must be able to taxi and take-off without additional ground assistance.

2. Subchapter C – Structure

2.1 522.307 applies to the aerotow.

2.2 522.581 is amended to read:

  1. (a) It must be assumed that the aerotow initially is in stabilised level flight and that an aerotowing cable load of 50 daN (in the absence of a more rational analysis) acts at the aerotowing hook in the following directions:

    1. (1) rearwards in the direction of the fuselage longitudinal axis;

    2. (2) in the plane of symmetry rearwards and downwards at an angle of 20° to the fuselage longitudinal axis;

    3. (3) in the plane of symmetry rearwards and upwards at an angle of 40° to the fuselage longitudinal axis; and

    4. (4) rearwards and sidewards at an angle of 30° to the fuselage longitudinal axis.

  2. (b) It must be assumed that the aerotow is initially subjected to the same conditions as specified in 522.581 (a) and the cable load due to surging suddenly increases to 1.0 Qnom.

  3. Note: It is assumed that only textile aerotowing cables are used.

    1. (1) The resulting cable load increment must be balanced by linear and rotational inertia forces. These additional loads must be superimposed on those arising from the conditions of 522.581(a).

    2. (2) Qnom is the rated ultimate strength of the weak links to be used for the aerotowed gliders and shown to be suitable in operation.

  4. 2.3 522.585 is amended to read:

    1. 522.585 Strength of the Aerotowing Hook Attachment

    2. The aerotowing hook attachment must be designed to carry a limit load of 1.5 Qnom as defined in 522.581 (b) acting in the directions specified in 522.581.

3. Subchapter D - Design and Construction

  1. 3.1 522.689 applies also for the aerotow release system of the powered glider.

  2. 3.2 522.711 applies also for the aerotowing powered glider and is amended by adding paragraphs (h) and (i):

    1. (h) Release mechanisms for aerotowing gliders must be installed so that there is no interference between the aerotow rope and any control surface throughout their full angular movement, with the aerotowed glider in any position as defined in 522.581(a).

    2. (i) The release mechanism of the aerotowing powered glider must be suitably protected against general degradation caused by mud and dirt, etc..

    3. (j) It must be possible for the pilot to visually check the aerotow cable situation.

  3. 3.3 522.713 (c) is applicable to the release mechanism of the aerotowing powered glider.

  4. 3.4 522.780 is amended by adding the following requirement:

    1. Aerotowing cable release and throttle must be located and arranged to be capable of operation by the same hand.

  5. 3.5 A Note is added:

    1. The requirements in Appendix K do not constitute all the requirements necessary to cover the installation of cable retracting devices. Compliance with further requirements may become necessary.

4. Subchapter E - Powerplant Installation

  1. 4.1 A new paragraph 522.991 is added:

    1. 522.991 Fuel Pumps

      1. (a) If for the purpose of 522.951 a fuel pump is required for proper engine operation, an emergency pump must be provided to immediately supply fuel if the main pump fails. The power supply for the emergency pump must be independent of the power supply for the main pump.

      2. (b) If both the normal pump and the emergency pump operate continuously, a means or a procedure must be provided to indicate failure of either pump.

      3. (c) The operation of any fuel pump may not affect the engine operation so as to create a hazard regardless of the engine power setting or the functioning of the other fuel pump.

  2. 4.2 522.1047 must be applied to the aerotow.

5. Subchapter F – Equipment

  1. 5.1 522.1305 (e) is amended to read:

    1. (e) a cylinder head temperature indicator or an indicator for the critical temperature determined in the cooling test.

  2. 5.2 522.1307 is amended by adding the following sentence:

    1. – An easily removable rear-view mirror of sufficient strength and rigidity must be attached and so located that the pilot, when seated with the seat belts fastened, has full and unobstructed view of the aerotowed glider in any position as defined in 522.581 (a). It must be possible to permanently observe the aerotowed glider without other pilot’s tasks being affected and without major turning movements of the head.

    2. – An Aerotow rope as specified by the applicant.

6. Subchapter G - Operating Limitations and Information

Note: This information should normally be furnished under Section 9 of the Flight Manual.

  1. 6.1 522.1529 applies to powered gliders equipped for aerotowing.

  2. 6.2 522.1583 is amended by adding the following paragraph (k):

    1. (k) Aerotowing of gliders

    2. The following information concerning aerotowing of gliders must be furnished:

      1. (1) Maximum weight of the powered glider (if different from the value under (b) (1))

      2. (2) Maximum weight of the aerotowed gliders

      3. (3) Maximum weight of the combination powered glider and glider

      4. (4) The minimum value for the maximum allowable aerotow speed of the aerotowed glider (VT)

      5. (5) Information that the powered glider must lift off only after lift-off of the aerotowed glider

      6. (6) Rated ultimate strength for the weak link to be used for the aerotowing cable.

      7. (7) The specification of the aerotow rope (length, material, weak link)

  3. 6.3 As far as applicable for the intended purpose, 522.1585 must be applied to the aerotow. In addition, the minimum aerotowing speed and the best-rate-of-climb speed for the aerotow must be furnished. Furthermore, glider types whose relevant characteristics are comparable to those of the types used in the flight tests must be furnished as examples.

  4. 6.4 522.1587 (c) must be applied to the aerotow and is amended by the following requirements:

    1. In addition, information about the degradation of performance in take-off distance due to long grass, rain drops or contamination of the wing (leading edge), as specified by the applicant, must be furnished.

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