Part V - Airworthiness Manual Chapter 522 - Gliders and Powered Gliders

Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) 2017-2

Content last revised: 2012/06/01

SUBCHAPTERS

  • A (522.1-522.3) 
  • B (522.21-522.255) 
  • C (522.301-522.597) 
  • D (522.601-522.885) 
  • E (522.901-522.1193) 
  • F (522.1301-522.1449)
  • G (522.1501-523.1589)
  • H (522.1801-523.1857)
  • J (522.1901-523.1947)

(2007/12/30; previous version)

Preamble

General

The content of this chapter of the Airworthiness Standards is based on the Joint Aviation Requirements, JAR-22 entitled "Gliders and Powered Gliders". These JAR airworthiness standards have been used and adapted as the model for the Canadian standards supplemented by additional airworthiness requirements based on operational experience and environmental conditions in Canada.

Format

The standards in this chapter are presented in a two column format with the JAR presented in the left column and the Canadian standards in the right column. Chapters, sub-chapters, sections and subsections numbering and headings are opposite to the equivalent JAR. Where the Canadian standard is identical to the JAR, the words "No Variation" appear; where a variation exits, the affected part of text is printed opposite to the JAR with all changes underlined.

The JAR numbering system is used; the Canadian standards bears the same number as the JAR equivalent, prefixed by the number "5", as this chapter forms part of Series 5 of the Canadian Aeronautics Code.

Subchapters E (Powerplants), H (Engines) and J (Propellers) are applicable only to Powered Gliders. Where requirements in other subchapters are applicable only to Powered Gliders, they are identified in the margin by a vertical line and the letter P.

First Edition

Effective - 2 January 1986

The content of this chapter is based on the Joint Aviation Requirements, JAR 22, "Gliders and Powered Gliders", as amended to and including Amendment 3, effective January 31, 1983, published by the government of the United Kingdom on behalf of the Joint Aviation Authorities Steering Committee.

In addition to administrative changes (e.g. type certificate = type approval; Part = Chapter), the following Canadian variations based on FAA AC 21.17-2, dated July 13, 1989 were included:

522.1(a)(2) Maximum weight now 909 kg, was previously 850 kg.
522.143(d) Transition from powered flight to gliding should not require exceptional piloting skill.
522.147 For powered gliders, directional and lateral control should be accomplished without significant sideslip or skid.
522.177(b) Control force reversal in a sideslip should not require exceptional piloting skill.
522.207(b) and (e) A powered glider must have a clear and distinct stall warning.
522.1303 All gliders, powered and unpowered, require a magnetic compass, airspeed indicator and an altimeter.
522.1545(a) Airspeed indicator must have means to indicate VNE at any altitude.
522.1581(d) and (e) Use of metric units and reference to operating rules in the Flight Manual.

Change 522-1

Effective - 31 August 1987

This change incorporates:

Change 4 to JAR-22 published by the Joint Aviation Authorities Steering Committee on May 7, 1987, which includes the following JAR 22 amendments:

  • Amendment 22/84/1
  • Amendment 22/85/1
  • Amendment 22/86/1; and
  • - Canadian variations to section 522.1303, paragraph (a)(3), which requires either a magnetic compass or a magnetic direction indicating system.

Note: In 522-1 changes are identified by marginal black lines. In future, changes will be identified by brackets [ ]; editorial alterations and typographical corrections will not be identified.

Change 522-2

Effective - 30 June 1993

This change incorporates the following amendments to JAR 22, published as "Orange Pages" by the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA):

  • Amendment 22/90/1 : includes changes to standards and advisory material affecting: spinning and spin recovery requirements, design loads for the installation and analysis of winglets, combined loads for tail surfaces, launching hook design, location, accessibility and unobstructed motion of controls, emergency exit of cockpit, powerplant extension and retraction speed, and data to be furnished in the Flight Manual. Because of this amendment, the Canadian variation 522-1581 (d) and (e) were renumbered (c) and (d).
  • Amendment 22/91/1 : includes changes to standards and advisory material affecting: definition and limitation of self-sustaining powered gliders and a higher stalling speed (90 km/h) for gliders with retracted airbrakes and maximum water ballast weight. Vs is amended to become Vs1, which is defined. A new paragraph on fuel tank expansion space is added. Other changes deal with battery cables and digital solid state displays.
  • Amendment 22/92/1 : adds new advisory material (ACJ) to the list of AMA 522/1.

This change also includes the rewriting of the original "Introduction" and "Foreword" in the form of "Preamble" and the issue of Revision B of AMA 522/1.

Change 522-3

Effective - 30 April 1994

The First Edition of this Chapter included some Canadian variations which mostly originated from FAA AC 21.17-2. In the reissue "A" of this AC, dated February 10, 1993 some of the additional FAA requirements were withdrawn.

To achieve greater international harmonization some of the original differences are revoked by this change, as follows:

  • The variation of paragraph 522.1(a)(2) is revoked, hence the maximum weight for powered gliders is reduced from 909 kg to 850 kg, as it is in JAR 22, and FAA AC 21.17-2;
  • The variations of paragraphs 522.143(d) and 522.177(b)(1) to (b)(4) were deleted to harmonize with the amendment to FAA AC 21.17-2;
  • The requirement of 522.177(b)(5), which originated from FAR, section 23.177, is revoked;
  • The variation in section 522.1303 is deleted because the requirement is contained in A.N.O., Series II, No . 19, section 2(a), and the JAR 22 text is adopted;
  • The variation is section 522.1545(a) is deleted, and the original text of JAR 22.1581 is made applicable;
  • Paragraph 522.1581 (c)(3) is deleted, because the requirement is presently included in the text of the introductory paragraph.

In addition, the Preamble to change 522-2 has been corrected for completeness and clarity, and several editorial corrections to the existing text have been made.

Change 522-4

Published: June 30, 2007

In accordance with the CARAC simplified process for the amendment of design standards, this change incorporates JAR 22 Change 5 and Amendment 6, as published by the Joint Aviation Authorities prior to the creation of the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA).  As described below, this amendment also deletes three Canadian variations and adds one variation.

This change incorporates the following amendments:

JAR-22 Change 5

Effective: November 25, 2000
Table of Change Information
Notice of Proposed Amendment Amended Section
  • 2000-242
  • 522.51(a),(b)
  • 522.65(a)
  • 522.73(a),(b)
  • 522.145(c)(2)
  • 522.611(a),(b),(c)
  • 522.777(a),(b),(d)
  • 522.779
  • 522.1322
  • 522.1523
  • 522.1545(a)
  • 522.1583(j)
  • 522.1585(f),(h),(i),(j)

This amendment adopts JAR-22 Orange Paper Amendment 22/94/1 into the standards of AWM Chapter 522 for gliders and powered gliders.  With the exception of existing Canadian variations, this amendment reflects the requirements published in JAR-22 Change 5, dated 28 October 1995.

Note: JAR 22.821 was not applicable in Canada, hence no change to Chapter 522 is required as a result of JAA NPA 22D-66 (Deletion of Dutch National Variant in JAR 22.821).

Deletion of Canadian Variation 522.147

Effective: December 13, 2000
Table of Change Information
Notice of Proposed Amendment Amended Section
  • 2000-342
  • 522.147

This amendment deletes the Canadian variation to JAR-22 paragraph 22.147, harmonizing this requirement.

Deletion of Canadian Variation 522.1581(c)(2), (d)

Effective: December 13, 2000
Table of Change Information
Notice of Proposed Amendment Amended Section
  • 2000-344
  • 522.1581(c)(2), (d)

This amendment removes Canadian variations 522.1581(c)(2) and (d) with respect to JAR‑22, relating to the presentation of metric units and reference to foreign operating rules in the Flight Manual, harmonizing this requirement. Transport Canada issued Airworthiness Manual Advisory (AMA) 500/13 to provide guidance on the format and content of Flight Manuals.

Deletion of Canadian Variation 522.1581(c)(1)

Effective: May 23, 2001
Table of Change Information
Notice of Proposed Amendment Amended Section
  • 2001-013
  • 522.1581(c)(1)

This amendment removes the Canadian variation 522.1581(c)(1) with respect to JAR-22, harmonizing AWM 522.1581 with JAR 22.1581 (Change 5).

Addition of Canadian Variation 522.1557(b)(3)

Effective: May 22, 2002
Table of Change Information
Notice of Proposed Amendment Amended Section
  • 2000-343
  • 522.1557(b)(3)

This amendment introduces the requirement for the use of metric units on placards and markings at fuel and oil tank openings of powered gliders.  This requirement is consistent with what has been required for many years to all powered aircraft in Canada. 

JAR-22 Amendment 6

Effective: January 15, 2003
Table of Change Information
Notice of Proposed Amendment Amended Section
  • 2002-061
  • 522.51(a)
  • 522.207(a),(d)
  • 522.785(e),(f)
  • 522.788
  • 522.1149(a)
  • 522.1305(h)
  • 522.1521(b)(4)
  • 522.1559
  • 522.1563
  • 522.1585(f),(h),(i),(j),(k)
  • 522.1587(c)
  • 522.1923

This amendment revises sections of AWM Chapter 522 based on JAA NPAs 22B-31, 22D‑46, 22D-64, 22B-65, 22E-68, and 22G-69, which make up JAR-22 Change 5 Amendment 6, dated 1 August 2001.

This amendment also re-harmonizes AWM 522.1585(f), (h), (i) and (j) with JAR-22.  Included in this change is the removal of 522.1585(f)(1) through (f)(5) that were included into AWM Chapter 522 by NPA 2000-242, which replaced the text of AWM 522.1585(f) with the text of AMC 22.1585(f), arising from JAA NPA 22G–59.  Although the intent of NPA 2000‑242 was to harmonize with amendments introduced by JAR-22 Orange Paper Amendment 22/94/1 (subsequently Change 5), the Canadian variation was inadvertently introduced.  The text of AMC 22.1585(f) will be adopted as Transport Canada advisory material in Advisory Circular 522-001. Subparagraph 522.1585(k) is adopted into the AWM based on JAR 22.1585(k) that arose from JAA NPA 22D-64.

JAA NPA 22B-31 amended the requirements of JAR 22.207(a) and (d) such that the JAR‑22 Amendment 6 requirements now reflect what had been the Canadian variation, AWM 522.207(e), since the First Edition.  Hence, this amendment removes the Canadian variation and harmonizes the text of AWM 522.207 with JAR 22.207.

Change 522-5

Published: December 30, 2007

This change incorporates three amendments.  The first incorporates editorial corrections; the second incorporates JAR-22 Amendment 7; and the third amends AWM Chapter 522 by adopting new standards based on the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) Certification Specifications CS-22.

Editorial Corrections

Effective: July 16, 2007
Table of Change Information
Notice of Proposed Amendment Amended Section
  • 2006-038
  • Enabling Authority
  • Table of Contents
  • 522.1(a), (b) and (d)
  • 522.143(b) and (c)
  • 522.147
  • 522.161(c)
  • 522.181
  • 522.201(f)
  • 522.221(b)
  • 522.331(d)
  • 522.345 (b)
  • 522.423
  • 522.479(b) & (c)
  • 522.483
  • 522.485
  • 522.583(a), (b) & (c)
  • 522.585(a)
  • 522.625(a)
  • 522.711(d) & (h)
  • 522.729(b)
  • 522.901(c)
  • 522.971(a)
  • 522.1323(c)
  • 522.1511
  • 522.1583(a), (d) & (f)
  • 522.1801
  • 522.1901

This amendment entitled “Editorial” makes editorial corrections to provisions of AWM Chapter 522 already incorporated by reference from JAR-22 Sailplanes and Powered Sailplanes.  AWM Chapter 522 has inadvertently contained editorial errors with respect to the adopted standards of JAR-22. Therefore, these editorial and other corrections are needed to realign the AWM with respect to the already incorporated JAR‑22 amendments.

AR-22 Amendment 7

Effective: July 16, 2007
Table of Change Information
Notice of Proposed Amendment Amended Section
  • 2007-026
  • 522.3(d)
  • 522.23(a)
  • 522.49(b)
  • 522.73(b)
  • 522.151(c)
  • 522.201(g)
  • 522.207(c)
  • 522.221(a)
  • 522.333(c)
  • 522.345(a)
  • 522.441
  • 522.473(b)
  • 522.483
  • 522.581(b)
  • 522.697(c)
  • 522.723
  • 522.725(b) & (c)
  • 522.891
  • 522.892
  • 522.893
  • 522.894
  • 522.895
  • 522.896
  • 522.897
  • 522.1149(b)
  • 522.1303(d)
  • 522.1514
  • 522.1529(n)
  • 522.1557(g) & (h)
  • 522.1583(g) & (k)
  • 522.1585(g),(h),(i),(j),(k),(l) & (m)

This amendment entitiled “JAR-22 Amendment 7” adopts by reference Amendment 7 of JAR-22, issued by the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA) on September 1, 2003.

Certification Specifications CS-22
(ED No. 2003/13/RM)

Effective: July 16, 2007
Table of Change Information
Notice of Proposed Amendment Amended Section
  • 2007-027
  • 522.995(d)
  • 522.1305(i)
  • 522.1557(b)
  • 522.1585(l), (m), (n)
  • 522.1801
  • 522.1857
  • 522.1901
  • 522.1947
  • Appendix F
  • Appendix G
  • Appendix I
  • Appendix J
  • Appendix K

This amendment entitled “CS-22” adopts by reference changes introduced by Certification Specifications CS-22 (ED No. 2003/13/RM), issued by the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) that entered into force on November 14, 2003.

Chapter 522 of the Airworthiness Manual (AWM) was originally based on the standards of the Joint Aviation Authorities requirements JAR-22.  However, on September 28, 2003, the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) was created and on November 14, 2003, the new Certification Specifications (CS) were put into force.

The new Certification Specifications for Sailplanes and Powered Sailplanes «CS-22» are introduced by EASA to replace JAR-22.  The requirements of CS-22 and are now being used by Transport Canada as the basis for the Canadian airworthiness standards for Gliders and Powered Gliders, supplemented by additional airworthiness requirements based on operational experience and environmental conditions in Canada.

Note that Appendices F, G, I, J and K are now formally included into AWM Chapter 522, as per CS-22 Book 1, and are hence now removed from Transport Canada Advisory Circular 522-001 at Issue 2.

Change 522-6

Published: December 1, 2009

On December 1, 2009, Part V Subpart 21 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations (CAR 521) came into force. CAR 521 replaces the following Regulations in Part V - Airworthiness:

Subpart 11 - Approval of the Type Design of an Aeronautical Product
Subpart 13 - Approval of Modification and Repair Designs
Subpart 16 - Aircraft Emissions
Subpart 22 - Gliders and Powered Gliders
Subpart 23 - Normal, Utility, Aerobatic and Commuter Category Aeroplanes
Subpart 25 - Transport Category Aeroplanes
Subpart 27 - Normal Category Rotorcraft
Subpart 29 - Transport Category Rotorcraft
Subpart 31 - Manned Free Balloons
Subpart 33 - Aircraft Engines
Subpart 35 - Aircraft Propellers
Subpart 37 - Aircraft Appliances and Other Aeronautical Products
Subpart 41 - Airships
Subpart 51 - Aircraft Equipment
Subpart 91 - Service Difficulty Reporting
Subpart 93 - Airworthiness Directives

In addition, with publication of CAR 521, the following Chapters of the Airworthiness Manual have been withdrawn:

Chapter 511 - Approval of the Type Design of an Aeronautical Product
Chapter 513 - Approval of Modification and Repair Designs
Standard 591 - Service Difficulty Reporting
Standard 593 - Airworthiness Directives

This change amends section 522.1 to reflect changes in legal drafting style, in terminology and in references required because of the introduction of CAR 521. In addition, subsection 521.31(1) of the CARs is now used to legally enable this Chapter of the AWM.

Change 522-7

Published: December 1, 2010

Proposed adoption by reference of changes introduced by the Certification Specification CS‑22 Amendment 1, issued by the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) that entered into force on January 10, 2008.

As discussed in the EASA NPA 2007-12, the objective of this amendment is to improve the occupant protection against serious injuries with lasting effects and enhance the survivability chances in case of emergency landing conditions. In particular, this amendment introduces structural requirements for emergency landing conditions corresponding to the improvements in glider design achieved within the last 20 years and to incorporate the results of research programmes related to the crashworthiness of glider cockpits.

Table of Change Information
Notice of Proposed Amendment Amended Section
  • 2009-118
  • 522.561(b)(1)
  • 522.561(b)(2)
  • 522.561(b)(2)(d)
  • 522.785(f)
  • 522.787(b)

The revised section 522.561 of the CARs, Emergency Landing Conditions, reflects the current knowledge for protecting glider occupants against serious injury during emergency (outfield) landings and impacts, following recovery from emergency situations close to the ground. The increased loads in the revised section 522.561 of the CARs, also take into account the introduction of Glider Parachute Rescue Systems (GPRS), which after activation brings the glider or its damaged body to the ground at a vertical speed of maximum 8 m/sec and approximately 45º negative pitch.

Change 522-8

Published: June 1, 2012

This change incorporates three amendments. The first amends Chapter 522 by adopting by reference new standards based on the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) Certification Specifications CS-22 at Amendment 2. The second and third notices of proposed amendment incorporate editorial corrections.

Certification Specifications CS-22
Amendment 2 - Emergency Exits

Effective:  March 27, 2012
Table of Change Information

Notice of Proposed Amendment

Amended Section

  • 2011-015
  • 522.807(a)

This notice of proposed amendment modifies the emergency exit design standards in light of accidents and incidents involving escape from an aircraft in an inverted position. It introduces a requirement that crash attitudes, such as turnover, be considered in the design.

The Agency has received two safety recommendations following unrelated accidents to UK registered aeroplanes. In both cases, non-fatal accidents occurred where the aeroplanes came to rest in an inverted position with the occupants unable to escape unaided due to the design of the canopy, which opened upwards.

Correction to 522.1947 - Propeller
Adjustments and Parts Replacement

Effective:  March 27, 2012
Table of Change Information

Notice of Proposed Amendment

Amended Section

  • 2010-026
  • 522.1947

This notice of proposed amendment is to make a correction to section 522.1947 of the Airworthiness Manual that was erroneously revised at Change 522-5. There originally was and currently is no intent to have a technical difference between section 522.1947 and CS 22.1947.

Correction to 522.207 Stall Warning

Effective:  March 27, 2012
Table of Change Information

Notice of Proposed Amendment

Amended Section

  • 2011-014
  • 522.207(c)(2)

This notice of proposed amendment is to make a correction to section 522.207 of the Airworthiness Manual (AWM). This error was introduced through NPA 2007-026 at change 522-5. A correction to section 522.207(c)(2) of the AWM is required to harmonize this section with CS 22.207(c)(2) published by the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA).

Change 522-9

Published: February 2, 2017

This change contains the following:

Editorial Corrections

Effective: February 2, 2017
Table of Change Information

Notice of Proposed Amendment

Amended Section

  • 2016-012
  • 522.01

This amendment revises the design standards of Chapter 522 of the Airworthiness Manual (AWM) Section 522.01 as it is no longer required. Chapter 522 originally laid out the standards for gliders and powered gliders by presenting the European source code Joint Aviation Requirements (JAR) 22 Sailplanes and Powered Sailplanes directly. AWM 522.01 provided tailoring of the European term “Sailplane” to the Canadian term “Glider”. AWM 522.01 became unnecessary at Change 522-4 when the JAR 22 text was no longer used directly within the AWM.

Prior to Change 522-4, Chapter 522 was presented in a two column format with the text of the Joint Aviation Requirements (JAR) 22 adopted by reference on the left, and the AWM variations, if any, on the right. If no variation existed, the JAR 22 text was adopted without change, but subject to the tailoring for the Transport Canada context.

The two column format was discontinued at Change 522-4 in favour of a Canadian-only standard published in a “newspaper column format” and made pursuant to the then newly introduced Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs). With the newly published Canadian-only version of Chapter 522, the tailoring previously necessary and specified in AWM 522.01 was no longer relevant, but to the present day has never been removed.

This amendment removes section 522.01 of the Airworthiness Manual, which is no longer necessary. The change has no effect on the present interpretation of Chapter 522.

Date modified: