Part V - Airworthiness Manual Chapter 522 - Subchapter A & B - Gliders and Powered Gliders

Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) 2017-2

Content last revised: 2012/06/01

Preamble

SUBCHAPTERS

  • A (522.1-522.3)
  • B (522.21-522.255)
  • C (522.301-522.597)
  • D (522.601-522.885)
  • E (522.901-522.1193)
  • F (522.1301-522.1449
  • G (522.1501-523.1589)
  • H (522.1801-523.1857)
  • J (522.1901-523.1947)

(2007/12/30)

522.01 Reserved
(effective 2017/02/02)

SUBCHAPTER A GENERAL

522.1 Applicability
(modified 2007/12/30)

  1. a) This Chapter sets out airworthiness standards for the issue of type certificates, and changes to those certificates, for gliders and powered gliders in the utility U and aerobatic A categories:
    (amended 2007/07/16)

    1. (1) Gliders the maximum weight of which does not exceed 750 kg;

    2. (2) Single engined (sparkor compression ignition) powered gliders the design value W/b2 (weight to span2) of which is not greater than 3(W [kg], b[m]) and the maximum weight of which does not exceed 850 kg; and

    3. (3) Gliders and powered gliders the number of occupants of which does not exceed two.

  2. b) Reserved.
    (amended 2009/12/01)

  3. c) Those requirements in this Chapter 522 which apply only to powered gliders are marginally annotated with the letter P. Requirements not so marked apply both to gliders and to powered gliders with engines stopped and engine or propeller retracted where appropriate. In these requirements the word “glider” means both “glider” and “powered glider”.

  4. d) Unless specifically stated otherwise, the term “powered glider” includes those powered gliders which may be incapable of complying with 522.51 and/or 522.65(a) and which must consequently be prohibited from taking off solely by means of their own power by a limitation in the Flight Manual. These are referred to in the text as “Self Sustaining Powered Gliders”. For Self Sustaining Powered Gliders, the additional requirements in Appendix I are applicable.
    (amended 2009/12/01)

(M. à j. 522-1 (87-08-31))
(M. à j. 522-2 (93-06-30))
(M. à j. 522-3 (94-04-30))

522.3 Glider Categories

  1. a) The Utility Category is limited to gliders intended for normal soaring flight. The following aerobatic manoeuvres may be permitted if demonstrated during type certification

    1. (1) Spins;

    2. (2) Lazy eights, chandelles, stall turns and steep turns;

    3. (3) Positive loops.

  2. b) Gliders intended for aerobatic manoeuvres additional to those permitted in the Utility Category must be certificated in the Aerobatic Category. The permitted aerobatic manoeuvres must be established during type certification.

  3. c) Gliders may be certified in more than one category if the requirements of each requested category are met.

  4. d) Powered gliders may be used for aerotowing gliders if they comply with Appendix K.
    (amended 2007/07/16)

SUBCHAPTER B FLIGHT GENERAL

522.21 Proof of Compliance

  1. a) Each requirement of this Subchapter must be met at each appropriate combination of weight and c.g. within the range of loading conditions for which certification is requested. This must be shown:

    1. (1) By test upon a glider of the type for which certification is requested or by calculations based on and equal in accuracy to the result of testing; and

    2. (2) By systematic investigation of each critical combination of weight and c.g.

  2. b) Compliance must be established for all configurations (such as position of air brakes, wing flaps, landing gear etc.) at which the glider will be operated except as otherwise stated. In demonstrating compliance, the powerplant or propeller, if retractable, must be retracted, except as otherwise stated.

NOTE: Flight tests required in this Subchapter B do not constitute all the flight testing necessary to show compliance with Chapter 522.

(Change 522 1 (87 08 31))

522.23 Load Distribution Limits

  1. a) The ranges of weight and c.g. within which the glider may be safely operated must be established and must include the range for lateral c.g. if possible loading conditions can result in significant variation. Compliance must be shown over the lateral c.g. range and over a longitudinal c.g. range between the foremost limit of the c.g. and 1% of the standard mean chord or 10 mm, whichever is greater, aft of the aftmost limit of the c.g.
    (amended 2007/07/16)

  2. b) The c.g. range must not be less than that which corresponds to the weight of each occupant, including parachute, varying between 110 kg and 70 kg, without the use of ballast as defined in 522.31 c).

522.25 Weight Limits

  1. a) Maximum weight. The maximum weight must be established so that it is:

    1. (1) Not more than:

      1. (i) The highest weight selected by the applicant;

      2. (ii) The highest weight selected by the applicant;

      3. (iii) The highest weight at which compliance with each applicable flight requirement of this Chapter is shown.

    2. (2) Not less than the weight which results from the empty weight of the glider, plus a weight of occupant(s) and parachute(s) of 110 kg for a single seat glider or 180 kg for a two seat glider, plus the required minimum equipment, plus any expendable ballast and for a powered glider sufficient fuel for at least half an hour of flight at maximum continuous power.

  2. b) The minimum weight must be established so that it is not more than the sum of:

    1. (1) The empty weight determined under 522.29; and

    2. (2) A weight of occupant and parachute of 55 kg. plus any ballast as defined in 522.31 c).

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))
(Change 522-3 (94-04-30))

522.29 Empty Weight and Corresponding Centre of Gravity

  1. a) The empty weight and corresponding c.g. must be determined by weighing the glider:

    1. (1) With:

      1. (i) Fixed ballast;

      2. (ii) Required minimum equipment;

      3. (iii) For a powered glider, unusable fuel, maximum oil and, where appropriate, engine coolant and hydraulic fluid.

    2. (2) Excluding:

      1. (i) Weight of occupant(s) and parachute(s);

      2. (ii) Other readily removable items of load.

  2. b) The condition of the glider at the time of determining empty weight must be one that is well defined and easily repeated.

522.31 Ballast

There are three types of ballast:

  1. a) Fixed ballast intended for correcting a deficiency in the glider’s balance;

  2. b) Expendable ballast which can be jettisoned in flight and which serves to increase the weight and consequently the speed of the glider; and

  3. c) Removable ballast used to supplement the weight of an occupant and parachute (when lower than 70 kg) in order to keep the c.g. position within limits. This ballast can be adjusted before, but not during, flight.

Performance

522.45 General

Compliance with performance requirements of this Subchapter must be shown for still air in standard atmosphere and at sea level.

522.49 Stalling Speed

  1. a) Vso is the stalling speed, (CAS), if obtainable, or the minimum steady speed at which the glider is controllable, with:

    1. (1) Landing gear extended;

    2. (2) Wing flaps in the landing position;

    3. (3) Air brakes retracted or extended whichever position results in the lowest value of Vso;

    4. (4) Maximum weight; and

    5. (5) c.g. in the most unfavourable position within the allowable range.

    6. (6) For a powered glider;

      1. (i) The engine idling (throttle closed);

      2. (ii) Propeller in the take off position;

      3. (iii) Cowl Flaps closed.

  2. b) The stalling speed in the landing configuration must not exceed:

    1. (1) 80 km/h with:

      1. (i) air brakes retracted; and at

      2. (ii) maximum weight with water ballast tanks empty.

    2. (2) 90 km/h with:

      1. (i) air brakes retracted; and at
        (amended 2007/07/16)

      2. (ii) maximum weight with water ballast.

    3. (3) 95 km/h with:
      (amended 2007/07/16)

      1. (i) airbrakes fully extended; and at
        (amended 2007/07/16)

      2. (ii) maximum weight with water ballast.
        (amended 2007/07/16)

  3. c) Vs1 is the stalling speed (CAS), if obtainable, or the minimum steady speed at which the glider is controllable with the:

    1. (1) Glider in the configuration existing in the test in which Vs1 is being used; and

    2. (2) Weight used when Vs1 is being used as a factor to determine compliance with a required performance standard.

    3. (3) For a powered glider;

      1. (i) The engine idling (throttle closed)

      2. (ii) Propeller in the take off position;

      3. (iii) Cowl flaps closed.

  4. d) Reserved.

  5. e) Vso and Vs1 must be determined by flight tests using the procedure specified in 522.201.

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))
(Change 522-2 (93-06-30))

522.51 Take off

  1. a) For a powered glider the take off distance at maximum weight and in zero wind, from rest to attaining a height of 15 m must be determined and must not exceed 500 m when taking off from a dry, level, hard surface. In demonstration of the take-off distance, the powered glider must be allowed to reach the selected speed promptly after lifting off and this speed must be maintained throughout the climb.
    (amended 2003/01/15)

  2. b) The selected speed must not be less than:
    (amended 2000/11/25)

    1. (1) 1.3 VS1, or
      (amended 2000/11/25)

    2. (2) any lesser speed, not less than 1.15 VS1, that is shown to be safe under all reasonably expected operating conditions, including turbulence and complete engine failure.
      (amended 2000/11/25)

(Chang 522-1 (87-08-31))

522.65 Climb

  1. a) For a powered glider the time for climb from leaving the ground up to 360 m above the field must not exceed four minutes with:
    (amended 2000/11/25)

    1. (1) not more than take off power;

    2. (2) landing gear retracted;

    3. (3) wing flaps in take off position;

    4. (4) cowl flaps (if any) in the position used in the cooling tests.

  2. b) cowl flaps (if any) in the position used in the cooling tests.

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))
(Change 522-2 (93-06-30))

522.71 Rate of Descent

For a powered glider the smallest rate of descent in power off configuration at maximum weight and most unfavourable c.g. position must not exceed the following limits:

  1. a) With a single seater powered glider, 1.0 m/s;

  2. b) with a two seater powered glider, 1.2 m/s.

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))

522.73 Descent, High Speed

It must be shown that the glider with the air brakes extended, will not exceed VNE in a dive at an angle to the horizon of:
(amended 2000/11/25)

  1. a) 45o when the glider is certified for cloud flying and/or aerobatics when certificated in the Aerobatic or Utility Category;
    (amended 2000/11/25)

  2. b) in other cases
    (amended 2007/07/16)

    1. (i) 30°
      (amended 2007/07/16)

    2. (ii) less than 30° when a rate of descent of more than 30 m/s can be achieved.
      (amended 2007/07/16)

522.75 Descent, Approach

It must be shown that the glider has a glide slope not flatter than one in seven at a speed of 1.3 Vso with air brakes extended at maximum weight.

Controllability and Manoeuvrability

522.143 General

  1. a) It must be possible to make a smooth transition from one flight condition to another (including turns and slips) without exceptional piloting skill, alertness or strength, and without danger of exceeding the limit load factor, under any probable operating condition, and additionally, in the case of a powered glider, with the engine running at all allowable power settings.

  2. b) Any unusual flying characteristics observed during the flight tests required to determine compliance with the flight requirements and any significant variations in flight characteristics caused by rain must be determined. In the case of a powered glider this requirement must be met with the engine running at all allowable powers.

  3. c) If marginal conditions exist with regard to required pilot strength, the ‘strength of pilots’ limits must be shown by quantitative tests. In no case may the limits exceed those prescribed in the following table. In the case of a powered glider this requirement must be met with the engine running at all allowable powers.

Force applied at hand grip or rudder pedal Pitch Roll Yaw Air brakes, towing release, wing flaps, landing gear
  daN daN daN daN
a) Temporary application        
hand 20 10   20
feet     40  
         
b) Prolonged application       ...
hand 2.0 1.5    
feet     10  

(amended 2007/07/16)
(M. à j. 522-1 (87-08-31))
(M. à j. 522-2 (93-06-30))
(M. à j. 522-3 (94-04-30))

522.145 Longitudinal Control

  1. a) It must be possible at any speed below 1.3 VS1 to pitch the nose downwards so that a speed equal to 1.3 VS1 can be reached promptly.

    1. (1) Test conditions: all possible configurations and trimmed at 1.3 VS1.

  2. b)It must be possible throughout the appropriate flight envelope to change the configuration (landing gear, air brakes, wing flaps, etc.) without exceptional piloting skill and without exceeding the control forces defined in 522.143 c).

  3. c) It must be possible, without exceptional piloting skill, to maintain the glider in steady straight flight:

    1. (1) In towed flight, when the wing flap configuration is changed within the range of permissible flap settings during steady straight flight;

    2. (2) When retraction or extension of the air brakes is made at speeds between 1.1 VS1 and 1.5 VS1, where VS1 is the stalling speed with air brakes retracted or extended, whichever is the higher, for a given flap position;
      (amended 2000/11/25)

    3. (3) When gradual change of the wing flap configuration within the range of permissible flap settings is made during steady horizontal flight at 1.1 Vs1 with simultaneous application of maximum continuous power.

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))
(Change 522-2 (93-06-30))

522.147 Lateral and Directional Control

Using an appropriate combination of controls it must be possible to reverse the direction of a turn with a 45o bank in the opposite direction within b/3 seconds (b is the span in metres) when the turns are made at a speed of 1.4 VS1 with wing flaps in the most positive en route position, air brakes and, where applicable, landing gear retracted and without significant slip or skid.
(amended 2007/07/16)

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))
(Change 522-2 (93-06-30))

522.151 Aerotowing

  1. a) If the glider is equipped for aerotowing, aerotows must be demonstrated at speeds up to VT without:

    1. (1) Excessive control forces and displacements for maintaining the wings at zero bank angle and in keeping a steady flight path;

    2. (2) Control forces exceeding those given in 522.143, at speeds up to VT;

    3. (3) Difficulty being experienced in regaining normal towing position after the glider has been displaced laterally or vertically; and

    4. (4) Difficulty being experienced in regaining normal towing position after the glider has been displaced laterally or vertically; and

  2. b) Tests must be carried out with crosswind components not less than 0.2 Vso or 15 km/h, whichever is the greater.

  3. c) Compliance with the following requirements must be shown:

    1. (1) Compliance with the following requirements must be shown: 30°. The pilot must then be able to regain the normal towing position without exceptional piloting skill.

    2. (2) The glider must be flown in a high towing position (approximately 15’ above the flight path of the towing aircraft), and also in a low towing position (below the wake of the towing position without exceptional piloting skill.

    3. (3) In conditions associated with the early stages of the aerotow, any pitching tendency of the glider must be immediately controllable, without exceptional piloting skill, under any combinations of allowable towing conditions.
      (amended 2007/07/16)

  4. d) A suitable range of cable lengths must be determined.

  5. e) A suitable range of cable lengths must be determined.

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))
(Change 522-2 (93-06-30))

522.152 Winch launching and Auto-tow Launching

  1. a) If the glider is equipped for winch launching, or auto tow launching, such launches must be demonstrated at speeds up to Vw, without:

    1. (1) Difficulty being experienced in maintaining the wings at zero bank angle when leaving the ground and in effecting a release;

    2. (2) Control forces exceeding those given in 522.143 or excessive control displacements;

    3. (3) Excessive pitching oscillation;

    4. (4) Push forces during the climb. If a trimming device is fitted, the position used during the climb must be stated.

  2. b) Tests must be carried out with crosswind components not less than 0.2 Vso or 15 km/h, whichever is the greater.

  3. c) or 15 km/h, whichever is the greater.

522.153 Approach and Landing

  1. a) With a crosswind component of not less than 0.2 Vso or 15 km/h, whichever is the greater, it must be possible to perform normal approaches and landings until the glider comes to a stop, without Exceptional piloting skill and without encountering any uncontrollable ground looping tendency.

  2. b) After touchdown there must be no undue tendency to ground loop, pitching oscillation or nose over.

  3. c) The use of air brakes during the approach must not cause excessive variation of control force or control displacement nor affect the controllability of the glider, when it is brought into use at any allowable speed down to 1.2 Vs1, where Vs1 is appropriate to the configuration with air brakes retracted or extended, whichever gives the greater value.

522.155 Elevator Control Force in Manoeuvres

The elevator control forces during turns or when recovering from maneuvers must be such that an increase in load factor causes an increase in control force. The minimum value of this force for a stabilized turn with a 45o bank at 1.4 Vs1 must be 0.5 daN, with the controls trimmed to maintain the glider in equilibrium at 1.4 Vs1 in steady straight flight with wing flaps in the most critical position, air brakes and, where applicable, landing gear retracted.

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))

Trim

522.161 Trim

  1. a) General. Each glider must meet the trim requirements of this paragraph after being trimmed and without further pressure upon, or movement of, the primary controls or their corresponding trim controls by the pilot.

  2. b) Lateral and Directional Trim.

    1. (1) Lateral trim. The glider must be capable of being so trimmed that there is no tendency for the glider when in straight flight at 1.4 Vs1 with wing flaps in all en route positions, air brakes, and where applicable, landing gear retracted, to turn or bank, when the aileron control is released and the rudder control held fixed in the neutral position.

    2. (2) Directional trim. The glider must be capable of being so trimmed that there is no tendency for the glider, when in straight flight at 1.4 Vs1 with wing flaps in all en route positions, air brakes, and where applicable, landing gear retracted, to yaw when the rudder control is released and the aileron control held fixed in the neutral position.

  3. c) Longitudinal Trim.

    1. (1) If the glider has no inflight adjustable trimming device, the trim speed must be between 1.2 Vs1 and 2.0 Vs1 for all c.g. positions.
      (amended 2007/07/16)

    2. (2) If the glider has an inflight adjustable trimming device, the following requirements must be met without further pressure upon or movement of the primary control or the corresponding trim control:

      1. (i) The glider must maintain trim with wing flaps in the landing position, the air brakes retracted and landing gear extended within the speed range between 1.2 Vs1 and 2.0 Vs1;

      2. (ii) In towed flight the glider must maintain trim within the speed range between 1.4 VS1 and VT;

      3. (iii) In the most adverse out of trim condition, the control force must be less than 20 daN between 1.1 VS1 and 1,5 VS1.

    3. (3) For powered gliders, retraction and extension of the powerplant or propeller must not produce excessive trim changes.

    4. (4) The powered glider, with the engine operating, must maintain longitudinal trim during:

      1. (i) a climb with maximum continuous power at a speed VY with the landing gear retracted and wingflaps in the take off position;

      2. (ii) level flight at all speeds between VY and 0,9 VH, level flight at all speeds between

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))

Stability

522.171 Stability

The glider must meet the conditions of 522.173 through 522.181 inclusive. In addition, the glider must show suitable stability and control ‘feel’ in any condition normally encountered in service.

522.173 Static Longitudinal Stability

  1. a) Under the conditions and throughout the speed range specified in 522.175:

    1. (1) The slope of the curve, stick force versus speed, must be positive and have a value such that any significant speed change will cause a variation in stick force plainly perceptible to the pilot.

    2. (2) The slope of the curve, stick displacement versus speed, must not be negative, except that a negative slope may be acceptable provided that it can be demonstrated that there is no difficulty in control.

  2. b) The air speed must return to within ± 15% or ± 15 km/h of the original trimmed speed, whichever is the greater when the control force is slowly released at any trimmable speed up to VNE and where applicable VFE and down to the appropriate minimum speed for steady unstalled flight. In addition, for a powered glider with the engine running, this requirement must be met at all allowable power settings.

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))
(Change 522-2 (93-06-30))

522.175 Demonstration of Static Longitudinal Stability

The stick force/speed curve must have a stable slope in the following conditions:

  1. a) Cruising Configuration:

    1. (1) At all speeds between 1.1 VS1 and VNE;

    2. (2) Wing flaps in the position for cruising and for circling flight;

    3. (3) Landing gear retracted;

    4. (4) Glider trimmed at 1.4 VS1 and 2 VS1 (if fitted with a trimming device); and

    5. (5) Air brakes retracted.

  2. b) Approach:

    1. (1) At all speeds between 1.1 VS1 and VFE;

    2. (2) Wing flaps in the landing position;

    3. (3) Wing flaps in the landing position;

    4. (4) Glider trimmed at 1.4 VS1 (if fitted with a trimming device); and

    5. (5) Air brakes both retracted and extended.

  3. c) Climb for Powered Glider:

    1. (1) At all speeds between 0.85 VY or 1.05 VS1, whichever is higher, and 1.15 VY

    2. (2) Landing gear retracted;

    3. (3) Wing flaps in the position for climb;

    4. (4) Maximum weight;

    5. (5) Maximum continuous power; and

    6. (6) Glider trimmed at VY (if fitted with a trimming device).

  4. d) Cruise for Powered Glider:

    1. (1) At all speeds between 1.3 VS1 and VNE;

    2. (2) Landing gear retracted;

    3. (3) Wing flaps retracted or, in the case of flaps approved for use in en route flying, in all appropriate positions;

    4. (4) Maximum weight;

    5. (5) Power for level flight at 0.9 VH; and

    6. (6) Glider trimmed for level flight (if fitted with a trimming device).

  5. e) Glider trimmed for level flight (if fitted with a trimming device).

    1. (1) At all speeds between 1.1 VS1 and VFE

    2. (2) Wing flaps in the landing position;

    3. (3) Landing gear extended.

    4. (4) Glider trimmed at 1.5 VS1 (if fitted with a trimming device);

    5. (5) Air brakes both retracted and extended;

    6. (6) Engine idling (throttle closed); and

    7. (7) Propeller in take off position.

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))
(Change 522-2 (93-06-30))

522.177 Lateral and Directional Stability

  1. a) With the glider in straight steady flight, and when the aileron and rudder controls are gradually applied in opposite direction, any increase in sideslip angle must correspond to an increased deflection of the lateral control. This behaviour need not follow a linear law.

  2. b) In a sideslip any control force reversal must not be such as to require exceptional piloting skill to control the glider.

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))
(Change 522-3 (94-04-30))

522.181 Dynamic Stability

Any short period oscillations occurring between the stalling speed and VDF, must be heavily damped with the primary controls:
(amended 2007/07/16)

  1. a) Free.

  2. b) Fixed.

In the case of a powered glider this requirement must be met with the engine running at all allowable powers.

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))

Stalls

522.201 Wings Level Stall

  1. a) Stall demonstrations must be conducted by reducing the speed by approximately 2 km/h per second until either a stall results as evidenced by a downward pitching motion or rolling motion not immediately controllable or until the longitudinal control reaches the stop. It must be possible to produce and correct roll and yaw by unreversed use of the controls until the stall occurs.

  2. b) It must be possible to prevent more than 30° of roll by normal use of the controls during recovery. There must be no uncontrollable tendency of the glider to spin.

  3. c) Stalling behaviour must not be unduly sensitive to sideslip.

  4. d) The loss of altitude from the beginning of the stall until regaining level flight by applying normal procedures and the maximum pitch attitude below the horizon must be determined.

  5. e) With the glider in straight flight at 1.2 Vs1 in the configuration appropriate to winch launching by pulling rapidly on the control stick, a pitch attitude approximately 30° above the horizon must be achieved and the resulting stall must not be severe and such as to make prompt recovery difficult

  6. f) Compliance with the requirements of subparagraphs (a) through (d) and (g) of this paragraph must be shown under the following conditions:

    1. (1) Wing flaps in any position;

    2. (2) Air brakes retracted and extended;

    3. (3) Landing gear retracted and extended;

    4. (4) Glider trimmed to 1.5 Vs1 (if fitted with a trimmer);

    5. (5) (if fitted with a trimmer);

      1. (i) Cowl flaps in appropriate configuration;

      2. (ii) Power:
        (amended 2007/07/16)

      3. - engine idling, and

      4. - 90% of maximum continuous power;

      5. (iii) Propeller in take off position.

  7. g) For gliders equipped to carry water ballast, it must be shown that it is possible to regain level flight without encountering uncontrollable rolling or spinning tendencies in the stall demonstration of (a) with the asymmetry that may result from any single malfunction of the system.
    (amended 2007/07/16)

(amended 522-1 (87-08-31))

522.203 Turning Flight Stalls

  1. a) When stalled during a coordinated 45° banked turn, it must be possible to regain normal level flight without encountering uncontrollable rolling or spinning tendencies. Compliance with this requirement must be shown under the conditions of 522.201(f) that result in the most critical stall behaviour of the glider. In any case the landing configuration, with air brakes retracted and extended, must be investigated.

  2. b) The loss of altitude from beginning of the stall until regaining level flight by applying normal procedures must be determined.

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))

522.207 Stall Warning

  1. a) Except as provided by 522.207(d), there must be a clear and distinctive stall warning with air brakes, wing flaps and landing gear in any normal position, both in straight and in turning flight. In the case of a powered glider compliance with this requirement must also be shown with the engine running in the conditions prescribed in 522.201 f)(5).
    (amended 2003/01/15)

  2. b) The stall warning may be furnished either through the inherent aerodynamic qualities of the glider (e.g. buffeting) or by a device that will give clearly distinguishable indications.

  3. c) The stall warning must begin:

    1. (1) at a speed between 1.05 VS1 and 1.1 VS1, or

    2. (2) between 2 and 5 seconds before the stall occurs when longitudinal control is moved at a pace corresponding to approximately 2 km/h per second rate of reduction of speed
      (amended 2012/03/27)

    3. and must continue until the stall occurs.
      (amended 2012/03/27)

  4. d) Compliance with 522.207 a) through (c) is not required for a glider, a self-launching powered glider with the engine stopped, or a self-sustaining powered glider with the engine stopped or running if the following are met with air brakes, wing-flaps and landing gear in any normal position:
    (amended 2003/01/15)

    1. (1) recovery from a stall is prompt in both straight and turning flight:
      (amended 2003/01/15)

    2. (2) when a stall occurs from straight flight:
      (amended 2003/01/15)

      1. (i) it is possible to produce and correct roll by using the ailerons, the rudder being held neutral, and
        (amended 2003/01/15)

      2. (ii) no appreciable wing-dropping occurs when both ailerons and rudder are held neutral:
        (amended 2003/01/15)

    3. (3) when a stall occurs in a coordinated 45° banked turn, any subsequent rolling or yawing motion is not rapid and is readily controllable.
      (amended 2003/01/15)

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))
(Change 522-2 (93-06-30))
(Change 522-3 (94-04-30))

Spinning

522.221 General

  1. a) Compliance with the following requirements must be shown in all configurations and, for a powered glider, with the engine idling. For gliders equipped to carry water ballast, the demonstrations of (b) through (g) must also be made for the most critical water ballast asymmetry that might occur due to any single malfunction or due to lateral accelerations during a spin.
    (amended 2007/07/16)

  2. b) The glider must be able to recover from spins of at least five turns or such lesser number at which the spin changes into a spiral dive by applying the controls in a manner normal for recovery and without exceeding either the limiting air speed or the limiting positive manoevring load factor for the glider. Tests must be conducted with wing flaps and air brakes neutral and with:
    (amended 2007/07/16)

    1. (1) Controls held in the position normal for spins;

    2. (2) Ailerons and rudder used in opposite directions;

    3. (3) Ailerons applied in the direction of rotation.

    4. In addition and where applicable, tests must be conducted in critical combinations of air brake extension, wing flap deflection, water ballast, including trim water ballast and with the powerplant extended or retracted. For wing flap positions for which a VFE limitation is established, the flap position may be adjusted during recovery after the auto rotation has stopped.

  3. c) A glider, in the configurations certified for intentional spinning, must be able to recover from any point in a spin as defined in 522.221 (b) in not more than one additional turn. In those configurations not approved for intentional spinning, sub paragraph (d) shall be applied.

  4. d) A glider in the configurations not certified for intentional spinning, must still be able to recover from a spin as defined in 522.221 (b) in not more than one and a half additional turns.

  5. e) In addition, any glider must be able to recover from a one turn spin in any configuration in not more than one additional turn.

  6. f) The loss of altitude from the point at which recovery is initiated to the point at which horizontal flight is first regained must be determined in all of the above mentioned cases.

  7. g) It must be impossible to obtain uncontrollable spins with any use of the controls

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))
(Change 522-2 (93-06-30))

522.223 Spiral Dive Characteristics

If there is any tendency for the spin to turn into a spiral dive the stage at which this tendency occurs, must be determined. It must be possible to recover from the condition without exceeding either the limiting air speed or the limiting positive manoeuvring factor for the glider. Compliance with this requirement must be shown without the use of air brakes.

Ground Handling Characteristics

522.233 Directional Stability and Control

  1. a) With cross wind components not less than 0.2 VSO or 15 km/h, whichever is the greater, there must be no uncontrollable ground loop tendency at any speed at which the powered glider may be expected to be operated on the ground.

  2. b) The powered glider must have adequate directional control during taxiing.

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))

Miscellaneous Flight Requirements

522.251 Vibration and Buffeting

Each part of the glider must be free from excessive vibration at all speeds up to at least VDF. In addition, there must be no buffeting, in any normal flight condition including the use of air brakes, severe enough to interfere with the satisfactory control of the glider, cause excessive fatigue to the crew, or result in structural damage. Stall warning buffeting within these limits is allowable. In the case of a powered glider this requirement must be met with the engine running at all allowable powers. 

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))

522.255 Aerobatic Manoeuvres

  1. a) Each Aerobatic and Utility Category glider must be able to perform safely the aerobatic maneuvers for which certification is requested.

  2. b) It must be shown that aerobatic maneuvers can be carried out with adequate margins between the speeds and accelerations attained therein and the proof strength and design speed of the glider.

  3. c) When determining the flight characteristics, account must be taken of the possibility of exceeding the recommended entry speeds for the maneuvers and errors which are likely to be made by the pilot while being trained for aerobatic maneuvers.

  4. d) During the flight tests it is not permitted to use any means (e.g. air brakes, wing flaps) to restrict the speed in aerobatic manoeuvres.

  5. e) The recommended entry speed and where appropriate, the maximum acceleration must be determined for each manoeuvre approved.

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