Part V - Airworthiness Manual Chapter 522 - Gliders and Powered Gliders

Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) 2017-2

Content last revised: 2012/06/01

Preamble

SUBCHAPTERS 

  • A (522.1-522.3)
  • B (522.21-522.255)
  • C (522.301-522.597)
  • D (522.601-522.885)
  • E (522.901-522.1193)
  • F (522.1301-522.1449)
  • G (522.1501-523.1589)
  • H (522.1801-523.1857)
  • J (522.1901-523.1947)

(2007/12/30)

SUBCHAPTER E POWERPLANT GENERAL

522.901 Installation

  1. (a) For the purpose of this Chapter 522, the glider powerplant installation includes each component that -

    1. (1) is necessary for propulsion; and

    2. (2) affects the safety of the propulsive unit.

  2. (b) The powerplant must be constructed, arranged and installed to-

    1. (1) insure safe operation; and

    2. (2) be accessible for necessary inspections and maintenance.

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))

522.902 Installation: Gliders with Retractable Powerplants or Propellers

Powered gliders with retractable powerplants or propellers must comply with the following:

  1. (a) Retraction and extension must be possible without risk of damage and without the use of exceptional skill or effort or excessive time.

  2. (b) It must be possible to secure the retraction (extension) mechanism in the extreme positions. There must be a means to inform the pilot that this mechanism is secured in the fully retracted or extended position.

  3. (c) Any doors associated with extension and retraction must not impair extension and retraction and they must be restrained against spontaneous opening.

  4. (d) The installation must be so designed as to prevent the heat of the engine from causing a fire or other hazardous condition.

  5. (e) Fuel or lubricant must not discharge in dangerous quantities from the engine, its components or accessories, when the powerplant is in the retracted position and during extension and retraction.

522.903 Engines

  1. (a) The engine must be type approved or otherwise approved in accordance with Subchapter H.

  2. (b) Restarting of the engine in flight must be possible.

522.905 Propellers

The propeller must be type approved or otherwise approved in accordance with Subchapter J.

522.925 Propeller Clearance

If an unshrouded propeller is to be installed, propeller clearances with the powered glider at maximum weight, with the most adverse c.g. and with the propeller in the most adverse pitch position, may not be less than the following:

  1. (a) Ground clearance. There must be a clearance of at least 180 mm (for a powered glider with a nose-wheel landing gear) or 230 mm (for a powered glider with a tail-wheel landing gear) between the propeller and the ground, with the landing gear statically deflected and in the level attitude, normal take-off attitude or taxiing attitude, whichever is most critical. In addition, there must be positive clearance between the propeller and the ground in the level take-off attitude, with:

    1. (1) the critical tire completely deflated and the corresponding landing gear strut statically deflected; and

    2. (2) the critical landing gear strut bottomed and the corresponding tire statically deflected.

  2. (b) Structural clearance. There must be:

    1. (1) At least 25 mm radial clearance between the blade tips and the glider structure, plus any additional radial clearance necessary to prevent harmful vibration;

    2. (2) At least 13 mm longitudinal clearance between the propeller blades or cuffs and stationary parts of the glider; and

    3. (3) Positive clearance between other rotating parts of the propeller or spinner and stationary parts of the glider.

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))

Fuel System

522.951 General

  1. (a) Each fuel system must be constructed and arranged to ensure a flow of fuel at a rate and pressure established for proper engine functioning under any normal operating condition.

  2. (b) Each fuel system must be arranged so that no fuel pump can draw fuel from more than one tank at a time. Gravity feed systems may not supply fuel to the engine from more than one tank at a time, unless the air spaces are interconnected in a manner to ensure that all interconnected tanks feed equally.

522.955 Fuel Flow

  1. (a) Gravity systems. The fuel flow rate for gravity systems (main and reserve supply) must be 150% of the take-off fuel consumption of the engine.

  2. (b) Pump systems. The fuel flow rate for each pump system (main and reserve supply) must be 125% of the take-off fuel consumption of the engine at the maximum power established for take-off.

522.959 Unusable Fuel

The unusable fuel supply for each tank must be established as not less than that quantity at which the first evidence of malfunctioning occurs under the most adverse fuel feed conditions occurring during take-off, climb, approach and landing involving that tank.

522.963 Fuel Tanks: General

  1. (a) Each fuel tank must be able to withstand, without failure, the vibration, inertia, fluid and structural loads that it may be subjected to in operation.

  2. (b) Each flexible fuel tank must be of an acceptable kind.

522.965 Fuel Tank Tests

  1. (a) Each fuel tank must be able to withstand the following pressures without failure or leakage;

    1. (1) for each conventional metal tank and non-metallic tank with walls not supported by the glider structure, a pressure of 0.25 bar;

    2. (2) for each non-metallic tank with walls supported by the glider structure and constructed in an acceptable manner using acceptable basic tank material, and with actual or simulated support conditions, a pressure of 0.14 bar for the first tank of a specific design.

522.967 Fuel Tank Installation

  1. (a) Each fuel tank must be supported so that the loads resulting from the weight of the fuel are not concentrated. In addition:

    1. (1) there must be pads, if necessary, to prevent chafing between each tank and its supports; and

    2. (2) materials employed for supporting the tank or padding the supporting members must be non-absorbent or treated to prevent the absorption of fuel.

  2. (b) Each tank compartment must be ventilated and drained to prevent accumulation of flammable fluids and vapors. Each compartment adjacent to a tank must be treated in a similar manner.

  3. (c) No fuel tank may be located on the engine side of the firewall. There must be at least 15 mm of clearance between the fuel tank and the firewall.

  4. (d) If the fuel tank is installed in the personnel compartment, it must be demonstrated that adequate ventilation and drainage are provided, that the presence of the tank will in no way interfere with the operation of any part of the powered glider, or the normal movement of occupants, and that no leaking fuel will fall directly on to any occupant.

  5. (e) Fuel system components which could cause leakage of fuel as a result of a wheels-up landing must be suitably protected from damage.

522.969 Fuel Tank Expansion Space

Each fuel tank must have an expansion space of sufficient capacity, but of not less than 2% of the tank capacity, to prevent spillage of fuel onto the surfaces of the glider due to thermal expansion, sloping ground or any normal ground attitude or manoeuvre, unless the design of the venting system precludes such spillage. it must not be possible to fill the expansion space inadvertently with the powered glider in any normal ground attitude.

(Change 522-2 (93-06-30))

522.971 Fuel Tank Sump

  1. (a) Each fuel tank must have a drainable sump with an effective capacity, in the normal ground and flight attitudes, of 0.10% of the tank capacity, or 120 cm3, whichever is the greater, unless -
    (amended 2007/07/16)

    1. (1) the fuel system has a sediment bowl or chamber that is accessible for drainage and has a capacity of 25 cm3;

    2. (2) Each fuel tank outlet is located so that, in the normal ground attitude, water will drain from all parts of the tank to the sediment bowl or chamber.

  2. (b) The drainage system must be readily accessible and easy to drain.

  3. (c) Each fuel system drain must have manual or automatic means for positive locking in the closed position.

522.973 Fuel Tank Filler Connection

Fuel tank filler connections must be located outside personnel compartments, except where the fuel tank must be taken out of those compartments for refuelling. Spilled fuel must be prevented from entering the fuel tank compartment or any part of the powered glider other than the tank itself.

(Change 522-2 (93-06-30))

522.975 Fuel Ttank Vents

Each fuel tank must be vented as close as practicable to the highest point of the tank installation, or from the top part of the expansion space where this is required to be provided. In addition:

  1. (a) Each vent outlet must be located and constructed in a manner that minimizes the possibility of its being obstructed by ice or other foreign matter.

  2. (b) Each vent must be constructed to prevent siphoning of fuel during normal operation.

  3. (c) Each vent must discharge clear of the powered glider.

(Change 522-2 (93-06-30))

522.977 Fuel Strainer or Filter

  1. (a) There must be a fuel filter between the fuel tank outlet and the carburettor inlet (or an enginedriven fuel pump, if any).

  2. (b) There must be a finger strainer with 3 to 6 meshes per cm at the outlet of each fuel tank. The length of each strainer must be at least twice the diameter of the fuel tank outlet.

  3. (c) Each filter or strainer must be easily accessible for drainage and cleaning.

522.993 Fuel System Lines and Fittings

  1. (a) Each fuel line must be installed and supported to prevent excessive vibration and to withstand loads due to fuel pressure and accelerated flight conditions.

  2. (b) Each fuel line connected to components of the glider between which relative motion could exist must have provisions for flexibility.

  3. (c) Each flexible hose must be approved or must be shown to be suitable for the particular application.

  4. (d) Each fuel line and fitting in any area subject to engine fire conditions must be at least fire-resistant.

522.995 Fuel Valves and Controls

  1. (a) There must be a means to allow the pilot to shut off rapidly in flight the fuel to the engine.

  2. (b) No shut-off valve may be on the engine side of any firewall.

  3. (c) The portion of the line between the fuel cock and the carburettor must be as short as possible.

  1. (d) Each fuel tank selector must
    (amended 2007/07/16)

    1. (1) Require a separate and distinct action to place the selector in the “OFF” position; and
      (amended 2007/07/16)

    2. (2) Have the tank selector positions located in such a manner that it is impossible for the selector to pass through the “OFF” position when changing from one tank to another.
      (amended 2007/07/16)

Oil Systems

522.1011 General

  1. (a) If an engine is provided with an oil system, it must be capable of supplying the engine with an appropriate quantity of oil at a temperature not exceeding the maximum established as safe for continuous operation.

  2. (b) Each oil system must have a usable capacity adequate for the endurance of the powered glider.

522.1013 Oil Tanks

  1. (a) Each oil tank must be installed to:

    1. (1) meet the requirements of 522.967(a), (b) and (d); and

    2. (2) withstand any vibration, inertia and fluid loads expected in operation.

  2. (b) The oil level must be easy to check without having to remove any cowling parts (with the exception of oil tank access covers) or to use any tools.

  3. (c) If the oil tank is installed in the engine compartment it must be made of fireproof material.

522.1015 Oil Tank Tests

Oil tanks must be subjected to the tests specified in 522.965 for fuel tanks, except that in the pressure tests a pressure of 0.35 bar must be applied.

522.1017 Oil Lines and Fittings

  1. (a) Oil lines must comply with 522.993 and each oil line and fitting must be made of fireproof material.

  2. (b) Breather lines. Breather lines must be arranged so that:

    1. (1) condensed water vapour or oil that might freeze and obstruct the line cannot accumulate at any point;

    2. (2) the breather discharge will not constitute a fire hazard if foaming occurs or cause emitted oil to strike the pilot's wind shields;

    3. (3) the breather does not discharge into the engine air induction system;

    4. (4) if the engine is retractable, there must be no discharge of oil from the breather line when the engine is completely retracted.

Cooling

522.1041 General

The powerplant cooling provisions must be able to maintain the temperatures of powerplant components and engine fluids within the temperature limit established by the engine constructor during all likely operating conditions.

522.1047 Cooling Test Procedure for Reciprocating Engine Powered Gliders

  1. (a) To determine compliance with the requirement of 522.1041, a cooling test must be carried out as follows:

    1. (1) Engine temperatures must be stabilized in flight with the engine at not less than 75% of maximum continuous power.

    2. (2) After temperatures have stabilized, a climb must be begun at the lowest practical altitude and continued for one minute with the engine at take-off power.

    3. (3) At the end of one minute, the climb must be continued at maximum continuous power for at least 5 minutes after the occurrence of the highest temperature recorded.

  2. (b) The climb required in (a) must be conducted at a speed not more than the best rate-of-climb speed with maximum continuous power.

  3. (c) The maximum anticipated air temperature (hot-day conditions) is 38°C at sea-level. Above sea-level, the temperature decreases with a temperature gradient of 6.5°C per 1000m altitude. If the tests are conducted under conditions deviating from this value, the recorded temperatures must be corrected according to (d), unless a more rational method is applied.

  4. (d) The temperatures of the engine fluids and of the powerplant components (with the exception of cylinder barrels) must be corrected by adding to them the difference between the maximum ambient anticipated air temperature and the temperature of the ambient air at the time of the first occurrence of the maximum recorded component or fluid temperature.

Induction System

522.1091 Air Induction

The air induction system for the engine must supply the air required by the engine under all likely operating conditions.

522.1093 Induction System Icing Protection

  1. (a) Except as permitted by (b), each engine having a conventional venturi carburettor must be provided with a pre-heater capable, in air free of visible moisture at a temperature of -1°C, of increasing the intake air temperature by 50°C with the engine at 75% of maximum continuous power.

  2. (b) Where the intake air is continuously heated, and it is demonstrated that the temperature rise is adequate, a pre-heater need not be provided.

522.1103 Induction System Ducts

  1. (a) Each induction system duct must have a drain to prevent the accumulation of fuel or moisture in the normal ground and flight attitudes. No drain may discharge where it will cause a fire hazard.

  2. (b) Each duct connected to components between which relative motion could exist must have means for flexibility.

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))

522.1105 Induction System Screens

If induction system screens are used -

  1. (a) each screen must be upstream of the carburettor;

  2. (b) it must be impossible for fuel to strike the screen.

Exhaust System

522.1121 General

  1. (a) The exhaust system must ensure safe disposal of exhaust gases without fire hazard or carbon monoxide contamination in any personnel compartment.

  2. (b) Each exhaust system part with a surface hot enough to ignite flammable fluids or vapours must be located or shielded so that leakage from any system carrying flammable fluids or vapours will not result in a fire caused by impingement of the fluids or vapours on any part of the exhaust system, including shields for the exhaust system.

  3. (c) Each exhaust system component must be separated by fireproof shields from adjacent flammable parts of the glider that are outside the engine compartment.

  4. (d) No exhaust gases may discharge dangerously near any oil or fuel system drain.

  5. (e) No exhaust gases may be discharged where they will cause a glare seriously affecting pilot vision at night.

  6. (f) Each exhaust system component must be ventilated to prevent points of excessively high temperature.

522.1125 Exhaust Manifold

  1. (a) The exhaust manifold must be fireproof and corrosion-resistant, and must have means to prevent failure due to expansion by operating temperature.

  2. (b) The exhaust manifold must be supported to withstand the vibration and inertia loads to which it may be subjected in normal operation.

  3. (c) Parts of the manifold connected to components between which relative motion could exist must have means for flexibility.

Powerplant Controls and Accessories

522.1141 General

The portion of each powerplant control located in the engine compartment that is required to be operated in the event of fire must be at least fire-resistant.

522.1145 Ignition Switches

  1. (a) Each ignition circuit must be independently switched, and must not require the operation of any other switch for it to be made operative.

  2. (b) Ignition switches must be arranged and designed to prevent inadvertent operation.

  3. (c) The ignition switch must not be used as the master switch for other circuits.

522.1149 Propeller Speed and Pitch Controls

  1. (a) Propeller speed and pitch must be limited to values that ensure safe operation under normal operating conditions. In addition:
    (amended 2003/01/15)

    1. (1) If there are propeller speed or pitch controls, their operation must not require undue attention or exceptional skill.
      (amended 2003/01/15)

    2. (2) For variable pitch propellers, provisions must be made for a positive indication that:
      (amended 2003/01/15)

      1. (i) the allowable pitch range for engine start, and
        (amended 2003/01/15)

      2. (ii) the takeoff pitch position has been reached.
        (amended 2003/01/15)

  1. (b) Propellers that cannot be controlled in flight must meet the following requirements:

    1. (1) during take-off and initial climb at VY, the propeller must limit the engine rotational speed at full throttle to a value not greater than the maximum allowable take-off rotational speed, and

    2. (2) during a glide at VNE with throttle closed or the engine inoperative, provided this has no detrimental effect on the engine, the propeller must not permit the engine to achieve a rotational speed greater than 110% of the maximum continuous speed.

    3. (3) For powered gliders capable of extending and retracting the powerplant during a glide at VPE with the throttle closed, the propeller must not permit the engine to achieve a rotational speed of more than 110% of the maximum continuous speed. VPE must not be less than 1•4 VS1 where VS1 is the stalling speed with the wing flaps neutral at maximum weight.
      (amended 2007/07/16)

  2. (c) A propeller that can be controlled in flight but does not have constant speed controls must be so designed that -

    1. (1) 522.1149(b)(1) is met with the lowest possible pitch selected, and

    2. (2) 522.1149(b)(2) is met with the highest possible pitch selected.

  3. (d) A controllable pitch propeller with constant speed controls must comply with the following requirements:

    1. (1) with the governor in operation, there must be a means to limit the maximum engine rotational speed to the maximum allowable take-off speed, and

    2. (2) with the governor inoperative, there must be a means to limit the maximum engine rotational speed to 103% of the maximum allowable take-off speed with the propeller blades at the lowest possible pitch and the powered glider stationary with no wind.

522.1163 Powerplant Accessories

  1. (a) Each engine-driven accessory must -

    1. (1) be satisfactory for mounting on the engine concerned; and

    2. (2) use the provisions on the engine for mounting.

  2. (b) Electrical equipment subject to arcing or sparking must be installed to minimize the probability of contact with any flammable fluids or vapours that might be present in a free state.

522.1165 Engine Ignition Systems

  1. (a) Each battery ignition system must be supplemented by a generator that is automatically available as an alternative source of electrical energy to allow continued engine operation if any battery becomes depleted.

  2. (b) The capacity of the batteries and generators must be large enough to meet the simultaneous demands of the engine ignition system and the greatest demands of any other electrical system components that draw from the same source.

  3. (c) There must be a means to warn the pilot if, while the engine is running, malfunctioning of any part of the electrical system is causing continuous discharge of any battery used for engine ignition.

Powerplant Fire Protection

522.1191 Firewalls

  1. (a) The engine must be isolated from the rest of the glider by a firewall, shroud or equivalent means.

  2. (b) The firewall or shroud must be constructed so that no hazardous quantity of liquid, gas or flame can pass from the engine compartment to other parts of the glider.

  3. (c) The firewall and shroud must be fireproof and protected against corrosion.

522.1193 Cowling and Nacelle

  1. (a) Each cowling must be constructed and supported so that it can resist any vibration, inertia and air loads to which it may be subjected in operation.

  2. (b) There must be a means for rapid and complete drainage of each part of the cowling in the normal ground and flight attitudes. No drain may discharge where it will cause a fire hazard.

  3. (c) Cowling must be at least fire-resistant.

  4. (d) Each part behind an opening in the engine compartment cowling must be at least fire-resistant for a distance of at least 600 mm aft of the opening.

  5. (e) Each part of the cowling subjected to high temperatures due to its nearness to exhaust system ports or exhaust gas impingement, must be fireproof.

SUBCHAPTER F EQUIPMENT

General

522.1301 Function and Installation

  1. (a) Each item of required equipment must:

    1. (1) be of a kind and design appropriate to its intended function;

    2. (2) be labelled as to its identification, function, or operating limitations, or any applicable combination of these factors;

    3. (3) be installed according to limitations specified for that equipment; and

    4. (4) function properly when installed.

  2. (b) Instruments and other equipment may not in themselves, or by their effect upon the glider, constitute a hazard to safe operation.

522.1303 Flight and Navigation Instruments

The following are required flight and navigation instruments:

  1. (a) For all gliders:

    1. (1) an air-speed indicator;

    2. (2) an altimeter.

  2. (b) For Powered Gliders. In addition to the instruments required in 522.1303(a):

    1. (1) a magnetic direction indicator.

  3. (c) For Gliders of Category A. In addition to the instruments required in 522.1303(a) and (b):

    1. (1) an accelerometer capable of retaining maximum and minimum values of acceleration for any selected period of flight.

  1. (d) For gliders equipped for water ballast. In addition to the instruments required in 522.1303(a), (b) and (c).
    (amended 2007/07/16)

    1. (1) An outside air temperature gauge.
      (amended 2007/07/16)

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))
(Change 522-3 (94-04-30))

522.1305 Powerplant Instruments

The following are the required powerplant instruments for powered gliders:

  1. (a) a tachometer;

  2. (b) a fuel quantity indicator for each fuel tank;

  3. (c) an oil temperature indicator except for two stroke engines;

  4. (d) an oil pressure indicator or warning device except for two stroke engines;

  5. (e) a cylinder head temperature indicator for each air-cooled engine when cowl flaps are used;

  6. (f) an elapsed-time indicator;

  7. (g) an oil quantity indicator for each tank, e.g. dipstick.

  8. (h) a manifold pressure indicator for an engine equipped with a variable pitch propeller, where manifold pressure and rotational speed are independently controllable.
    (amended 2003/01/15)

  1. (i) for pump-fed engines, one of the following instruments/procedures
    (amended 2007/07/16)

    1. (1) a fuel pressure indicator;
      (amended 2007/07/16)

    2. (2) a low fuel pressure warning; or
      (amended 2007/07/16)

    3. (3) a special pre-flight procedure.
      (amended 2007/07/16)

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))

522.1307 Miscellaneous Equipment

An approved safety harness must be available to each occupant.

Instruments: Installation

522.1321 Arrangement and Visibility

Flight and navigation instruments must be clearly arranged and plainly visible to each pilot.

522.1322 Warning, Caution, and Advisory Lights
(amended 2000/11/25)

If warning, caution, or advisory lights are installed in the cockpit, they must, unless otherwise approved by the Minister, be:
(amended 2000/11/25)

  1. (a) red, for warning lights (lights indicating a hazard which may require immediate corrective action);
    (amended 2000/11/25)

  2. (b) amber, for caution lights (lights indicating the possible need for future corrective action);
    (amended 2000/11/25)

  3. (c) green, for safe operation lights;
    (amended 2000/11/25)

  4. (d) any other colour, including white, for lights not described in 522.1322 (a) to (c), provided the colour differs sufficiently from the colours prescribed in 522.1322 (a) to (c) to avoid possible confusion; and
    (amended 2000/11/25)

  5. (e) effective under all probable cockpit lighting conditions.
    (amended 2000/11/25)

522.1323 Airspeed Indicating System

  1. (a) The airspeed indicating system must be calibrated to indicate true airspeed at sea level in standard atmosphere with a maximum pilotstatic error not exceeding + 8 km/h or + 5% whichever is greater, throughout the following speed range 1.2 VS to VNE, and with wing-flaps neutral and air brakes closed.

  2. (b) Calibration must be made in flight.

  1. (c) The airspeed indicating system must be suitable for speeds between VSO and at least 1.05 times VNE.
    (amended 2007/07/16)

522.1325 Static Pressure System

  1. (a) Each instrument provided with static pressure case connections must be so vented that the influence of glider speed and the opening and closing of windows, moisture or other foreign matter will not significantly affect the accuracy of the instruments.

  2. (b) The design and installation of a static pressure system must be such that:

    1. (1) positive drainage of moisture is provided;

    2. (2) chafing of the tubing, and excessive distortion or restriction at bends in the tubing, is avoided; and

    3. (3) the materials used are durable, suitable for the purpose intended, and protected against corrosion.

522.1327 Magnetic Direction Indicator

  1. (a) Each magnetic direction indicator required must be installed so that its accuracy is not excessively affected by the glider's vibration or magnetic fields.

  2. (b) The compensated installation must not have a deviation in level flight, greater than 10° on any heading, except that when radio is in use or the engine of a powered glider is running, the deviation may exceed 10° but must not exceed 15°.

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))

522.1337 Powerplant Instruments

  1. (a) Instruments and instrument lines

    1. (1) Each powerplant instrument line must meet the requirements of 522.993.

    2. (2) Each line carrying flammable fluids under pressure must have restricting orifices or other safety devices at the source of pressure to prevent the escape of excessive fluid if the line fails.

  2. (b) Each exposed sight gauge used as a fuel quantity indicator must be protected against damage.

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))

Electrical Systems and Equipment

522.1353 Storage Battery Design and Installation

  1. (a) Each storage battery must be designed and installed as prescribed in this paragraph.

  2. (b) No explosive or toxic gases emitted by any battery in normal operation, or as the result of any probable malfunction in the charging system or battery installation, may accumulate in hazardous quantities within the glider.

  3. (c) No corrosive fluids or gases that may escape from the battery may damage surrounding structures or adjacent essential equipment.

522.1361 Master Switch Arrangement

  1. (a) In powered gliders there must be a master switch arrangement to allow ready disconnection of electric power sources from the main bus. The point of disconnection must be adjacent to the sources controlled by the switch.

  2. (b) The master switch or its controls must be so installed that the switch is easily discernible and accessible to the pilot.

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))

522.1365 Electric Cables and Equipment

  1. (a) Each electric connecting cable must be of adequate capacity and correctly routed, attached and connected so as to minimize the probability of short circuits and fire hazards.

  2. (b) Overload protection must be provided for each electrical equipment. No protective device may protect more than one circuit essential to flight safety.

  3. (c) Unless each cable installation from the battery to a circuit protective device or master switch, whichever is closer to the battery, is of such power-carrying capacity that no hazardous damage will occur in the event of a short circuit, this length of cable shall be so protected or routed in relation to parts of the powered glider that the risk of short circuit is minimised.

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))
(Change 522-3 (93-06-30))

522.1385 External Lights

If external lights are to be installed they must be approved.

Miscellaneous Equipment

522.1431 ATC Airborne Equipment

Each ATC airborne equipment provided must comply with the following:

  1. (a) The equipment and its aerials may neither in themselves nor by their mode of operation or by their effect upon the operating characteristics of the glider and its equipment constitute a hazard to safe operation.

  2. (b) The equipment and its control and monitoring devices must be arranged so as to be easily controllable. Their installation must be such that they are sufficiently ventilated to prevent overheating.

522.1441 Oxygen Equipment and Supply

  1. (a) Oxygen equipment must be approved.

  2. (b) Oxygen equipment must be free from hazards in itself, in its method of operation, and its effect upon other components.

  3. (c) There must be a means to allow the crew to readily determine, during the flight, the quantity of oxygen available in each source of supply.

  4. (d) Oxygen bottles must be installed so as not to be hazardous in crash landings.

522.1449 Means for Determining Use of Oxygen

There must be a means to allow the crew to determine whether oxygen is being delivered to the dispensing equipment.

SUBCHAPTER G OPERATING LIMITATIONS AND INFORMATION

522.1501 General

  1. (a) Each operating limitation specified in 522.1505 through 522.1525 and other limitations and information necessary for safe operation must be established.

  2. (b) The operating limitations and other information necessary for safe operations must be made available to the pilot as prescribed in 522.1541 through 522.1585.

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))

522.1505 Airspeed Limitations

  1. (a) All flight speeds must be stated in terms of airspeed indicator readings (IAS).

  2. (b) The never exceed speed, VNE must not exceed 0.90 times the maximum speed demonstrated in flight tests (VDF).

  3. (c) VDF must not exceed the design maximum speed, VD and must not be less than 0.9 times the design maximum speed according to 522.335(f).

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))

522.1507 Manoeuvring Speed

The manoeuvring speed must not exceed the design manoeuvring speed, VA as defined in 522.335(a).

522.1511 Wing-flap operating speed

For each positive wing-flap position, the maximum wing-flap operating speed VFE must not be greater than 0.95 times the speed VF as defined in 522.335(b) for which the structure has been designed.
(amended 2007/07/16)

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))

522.1513 Powerplant Extension and Retraction Speed

The flight speed range for extension and retraction of the powerplant must be established, together with any limitations associated with it.

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))
(Change 522-2 ((3-06-30))

522.1514 Powerplant Extended Maximum Permitted Speed
(amended 2007/07/16)

The powerplant extended maximum speed VPE must be established as required by 522.1149(b) for powered gliders capable of extending and retracting the powerplant.
(amended 2007/07/16)

522.1515 Landing Gear Operating Speed

The maximum landing gear operating speed VLO, if lower than the never exceed speed VNE, must be established for retractable landing gear. It may, however, not be lower than VT or VW, whichever is greater.

522.1517 Rough Airspeed

The rough airspeed, VRA may not exceed the design gust speed in free flight VB as defined in 522.335(c).

522.1518 Aerotow and Winch-launching Speeds

  1. (a) The maximum aerotow speed may not exceed the design speed VT established in accordance with 522.335(d) and may not exceed the speed demonstrated in flight tests.

  2. (b) The maximum winch-launch speed may not exceed the design speed VW established in accordance with 522.335(e) and may not exceed the speed demonstrated in flight tests.

522.1519 Weight and c.g.

  1. (a) The maximum weight determined under 522.25(a) must be established as an operating limitation.

  2. (b) The weight of non-lifting structural parts must be established.

  3. (c) The c.g. limitations determined under 522.23 must be established as operating limitations.

  4. (d) The empty weight and the corresponding c.g. positions must be determined in accordance with 522.29.

522.1521 Powerplant Limitations

  1. (a) General. The powerplant limitations prescribed in this paragraph must be established so that they do not exceed the corresponding limits for which the engine or propeller is type certificated.

  2. (b) Take-off and continuous operation. The take-off and continuous operation must be limited by:

    1. (1) the maximum rotational speeds- (r.p.m.);

    2. (2) the time limit for the use of take-off power;

    3. (3) the maximum allowable cylinder head, oil, and liquid coolant temperatures, as appropriate; and

    4. (4) the maximum allowable manifold pressure or any other parameter limiting the engine power if the engine is equipped with a continuously variable pitch propeller.
      (amended 2003/01/15)

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))

522.1523 Solo Flight Operation
(amended 2000/11/25)

The pilot’s seat for solo flight must be designated so that it is appropriate for safe operation, considering the accessibility of the controls that must be used by the solo pilot during all normal and emergency operations, when the pilot is seated at the designated seat station.
(amended 2000/11/25)

522.1525 Kinds of Operation

The kinds of operation to which the glider is limited are established by the category in which it is eligible for certification and by the installed equipment.

522.1529 Maintenance Manual

A maintenance manual containing the information that the applicant considers essential for proper maintenance must be provided. The applicant must consider at least the following in developing the essential information:

  1. (a) description of systems;

  2. (b) lubrication instructions setting forth the frequency and the lubricants and fluids which are to be used in the various systems;

  3. (c) pressures and electrical loads applicable to the various systems;

  4. (d) tolerances and adjustments necessary for proper functioning of the glider;

  5. (e) methods of levelling, raising and ground towing;

  6. (f) methods of balancing control surfaces, and maximum permissible values of play at hingepins and control circuit backlash;

  7. (g) allowed rigging tension in the cables of cable-operated control systems as established according to 522.411(b).

  8. (h) identification of primary and secondary structures;

  9. (i) frequency and extent of inspections necessary for proper maintenance of the glider;

  10. (j) special repair methods applicable to the glider;

  11. (k) special inspection techniques;

  12. (l) list of special tools;

  13. (m) rigging data necessary for the proper operation of the glider;

  1. (n) a separate section titled “Airworthiness Limitations”, segregated and clearly distinguishable from  the rest of the document, containing statement of service life limitations, replacement or mandatory  overhaul of parts, components and accessories subject to such limitations and structural inspection intervals. Those limitations which are given in documents referred to in (o) must be referenced;
    (amended 2007/07/16)

  2. (o) list of maintenance documents for parts, components and accessories approved independently of the glider;

  3. (p) the materials necessary for small repairs;

  4. (q) care and cleaning recommendations;

  5. (r) instructions for rigging and de-rigging;

  6. (s) information on supporting points for ground transport;

  7. (t) of placards and markings and their locations.

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))

Markings and Placards

522.1541 General

  1. (a) the glider must contain -

    1. (1) the markings and placards specified in 522.1545 through 522.1567 and

    2. (2) any additional information, instrument markings, and placards required for the safe operation if it has unusual design, operating, or handling characteristics.

  2. (b) Each marking and placard prescribed in subparagraph (a) of this paragraph -

    1. (1) must be displayed in a conspicuous place; and

    2. (2) may not be easily erased, disfigured, or obscured.

  3. (c) The units of measurement used to indicate air speed on placards must be the same as those used on the indicator.

522.1543 Instrument Markings - General

For each instrument:

  1. (a) when markings are on the cover glass of the instrument, there must be means to maintain the correct alignment of the glass cover with the face of the dial; and

  2. (b) each arc and line must be wide enough and located to be clearly visible to the pilot and not mask any portion of the dial.

522.1545 Airspeed Indicator

Each airspeed indicator must show the following markings:

  1. (a) for VNE a radial red line. If VNE varies with altitude, there must be a means to indicate to the pilot the appropriate limitations throughout the operating altitude range;
    (amended 2000/11/25)

  2. (b) for the upper caution range a yellow arc extending from VNE to the allowable rough-air speed VRA;

  3. (c) for the normal operating range, a green arc with the lower limit at 1.1 VS1 with maximum weight and for wing-flaps neutral (see ACJ 22.335) and landing gear retracted and the upper limit at the rough-air speed VRA;

  4. (d) for the wing-flap operating range, a white arc with the lower limit at the stall speed 1.1 VSo for maximum weight and the upper limit at the allowable wing-flaps extended speed VFE;

  5. (e) a yellow marking (triangle) for the lowest approach speed (at maximum weight without water ballast) recommended by the manufacturer;

  6. (f) for the best rate-of-climb speed VY a blue radial line (for powered gliders only).

(Change 522-3 (94-04-30))

522.1547 Magnetic Direction Indicator

Unless the deviation is less than 5° on all headings, the deviation values for magnetic headings in not more than 30° increments must be placarded near the magnetic direction indicator.

522.1548 Accelerometer

Each accelerometer required by 522.1303(c) must show red radial lines for the maximum positive and negative limit manoeuvring load factors.

522.1549 Powerplant Instruments

For each required powerplant instrument, as appropriate to the type of instruments:

  1. (a) each maximum and, if applicable, minimum safe operating limit must be marked with a red radial line;

  2. (b) each normal operating range must be marked with a green arc, not extending beyond the maximum and minimum safe limits;

  3. (c) each take-off and precautionary range must be marked with a yellow arc.

  4. (d) In the case of digital solid state displays, limitations, precautionary and operating ranges required by sub-paragraphs (a), (b) and (c) of this paragraph must be clearly indicated. The display must be readable under all lighting conditions likely to be met in service.

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))
(Change 522-2 (93-06-30))

522.1553 Fuel Quantity Indicator

Each fuel quantity indicator must be calibrated to read "zero" during level flight when the quantity of fuel remaining in the tank is equal to the unusable quantity determined in accordance with 522.959.

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))

522.1555 Control Markings

  1. (a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight controls, must be clearly marked as to its function and method of operation.

  2. (b) The colour markings of cockpit controls must be in accordance with those specified in 522.780.

  3. (c) For powerplant fuel controls:

    1. (1) Each fuel tank selector control must be marked to indicate the position corresponding to each tank.

    2. (2) If safe operation requires the use of any tanks in a specific sequence, that sequence must be marked on or near the selector for those tanks.

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))

522.1557 Miscellaneous Marking and Placards

  1. (a) Baggage compartment. Each baggage compartment must have a placard stating the loading limitations.

  2. (b) Fuel and oil filler openings. The following apply:

    1. (1) Fuel filler openings must be marked at or near the filler cover with the minimum fuel grade.

    2. (2) Oil filler openings must be marked at or near the filler cover, indicating:
      (amended 2002/05/22)

      1. (i) the grade of oil; and
        (amended 2002/05/22)

      2. (ii) whether the oil is detergent or non-detergent.
        (amended 2002/05/22)

    3. (3) If placards and markings at the fuel or oil opening include tank capacity, the capacity must be specified in litres. Imperial or U.S. gallons may also be included.
      (amended 2002/05/22)

  3. (c) Fuel tanks. The usable fuel capacity of each tank must be marked either at the selector or on the gauge (when provided) or on the tank if this is translucent and visible to the pilot in flight.

  4. (d) In-flight engine starting. A placard must be provided stating any limitations to be observed during in-flight engine starting.

  5. (e) Tire pressure. In the case of gliders fitted with a landing wheel or wheels, the tire pressure must be marked on or in the glider.

  6. (f) Aerobatic manoeuvres. A list of permissible aerobatic manoeuvres, including spins, must be placarded in each glider, so that it is plainly visible to the pilot.

  7. (g) Removable ballast. If removable ballast is used, the place for carrying ballast must have a placard stating instructions for the proper placement of the removable ballast under each loading condition for which each removable ballast is necessary.
    (amended 2007/07/16)

  8. (h) Weight and cockpit load. The following additional data must be placarded in each glider so that they are plainly visible to the pilot:
    (amended 2007/07/16)

    1. (1) maximum weight;
      (amended 2007/07/16)

    2. (2) maximum and minimum cockpit weight.
      (amended 2007/07/16)

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))

522.1559  (Deleted)
(amended 2003/01/15)

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))
(Change 522-2 (93-06-30))

522.1561 Safety Equipment

Each attachment point for an occupant's parachute static line must be marked red.

522.1563 Airspeed Placards
(amended 2003/01/15)

The following speeds, if they are not marked on the airspeed indicator, must be placarded in each glider or powered glider so that they are plainly visible to the pilot:
(amended 2003/01/15)

  1. (a) the maximum winch-launching speed, VW (when winch-launching is allowed);
    (amended 2003/01/15)

  2. (b) the maximum aerotow speed, VT (when aerotow is allowed);
    (amended 2003/01/15)

  3. (c) the manoeuvring speed;
    (amended 2003/01/15)

  4. (d) the maximum landing gear operating speed, VLO, where applicable;
    (amended 2003/01/15)

  5. (e) the powerplant extension and retraction speeds VPO min and VPO max, where applicable.
    (amended 2003/01/15)

Flight Manual

522.1581 General

  1. (a) Furnishing information. A flight manual must be furnished with each glider. There must be an appropriate location for stowage of the flight manual aboard the glider and each flight manual must contain the following:

    1. (1) Information required in 522.1583 through 522.1589 including the explanations necessary for their proper use and the significance of the symbols used.

    2. (2) Other information that is necessary for safe operation because of design, operating or handling characteristics.

    3. (3) A list of effective pages, with the identification of those containing approved information according to sub-paragraph (b).

  2. (b) Approved information. Each part of the flight manual containing information prescribed in 522.1583 through 522.1587(a) must be limited to such information and must be approved, identified and clearly distinguished from each other part of the flight manual. All manual material must be of a type that is not easily erased, disfigured or misplaced and it must be in the form of individual sheets capable of being inserted in a manual provided by the applicant, or in a folder, or in any other permanent form.

  3. (c) Units. The units of measurement used in the flight manual must be the same as those used on the indicators.
    (amended 2001/05/23)

(Change 522-2 (93-06-30)
(Change 522-3 (94-04-30))

522.1583 Operating Limitations

  1. (a) Airspeed limitations. The following information must be furnished:

    1. (1) Information necessary for the marking of the airspeed limits on the indicator as required in 522.1545, and the significance of the colour coding used on the indicator.

    2. (2) The speeds VA,, VLO, VT, VW and, where appropriate, VPO min, VPO max and VPE and their significance.
      (amended 2007/07/16)

  2. (b) Weights. The following information must be furnished:

    1. (1) the maximum weight and the maximum weight of non-lifting parts. If the glider is equipped for expendable water-ballast, the maximum weight with and without water-ballast must be furnished.

    2. (2) Any other weight limit, if necessary.

  3. (c) Centre of gravity. The established c.g. limits required by 522.23 must be furnished.

  4. (d) Manoeuvres. Authorized manoeuvres established in accordance with 522.3(a) or 522.3(b), as appropriate, together with permissible ranges of wing-flap position must be stipulated.
    (amended 2007/07/16)

  5. (e) Flight load factors. Manoeuvring load factors; the following must be furnished:

    1. (1) The factors corresponding to point A and point G of Figure 1 of 522.333(b), stated to be applicable at VA

    2. (2) The factors corresponding to point D and point E of Figure 1, of 522.333(b), stated to be applicable at VNE.

    3. (3) The factor with airbrakes extended as specified in 522.345.

    4. (4) The factor with wing-flaps extended as specified in 522.345.

    5. (5) Markings in accordance with 522.1548.

  6. (f) Kinds of operation. The kinds of operation (such as VFR, cloud-flying, day-or-night operation) in which the glider may be used, must be stated. The minimum equipment required for the respective kind of operation must be listed.
    (amended 2007/07/16)

  7. (g) Aerotow, auto-tow and winch-launching. The following information on aerotowing, auto-towing and winch-launching must be stated:

    1. (1) the maximum permissible nominal strength for the towing cable or weak link;

    2. (2) the minimum towing cable length established in accordance with 522.151(d);

    3. (3) Only textile ropes must be used for aerotowing.
      (amended 2007/07/16)

  8. (h) Powerplant limitations. The following information must be furnished:

    1. (1) Limitations required by 522.1521.

    2. (2) Information necessary for marking the instruments required by 522.1549 through 522.1553.

  9. (i) Placards. Placards required by 522.1555 through 522.1559 must be presented.

  10. (j) In the case of the two seat glider the single pilot seat location and the limitations for solo flight must be furnished as determined under 522.1523.
    (amended 2000/11/25)

  11. (k) Any limitation associated with the carriage of water ballast necessary for safe operation must be furnished.
    (amended 2007/07/16)

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))
(Change 522-2 (93-06-30)

522.1585 Operating Data and Procedures

Information concerning normal and emergency procedures and other pertinent information necessary for safe operation must be furnished, including:

  1. (a) The stall speed in the various configurations;

  2. (b) Any loss of altitude of more than 30 m or any pitch attitude more than 30° below the horizon occurring during the recovery part of the manoeuvre prescribed in 522.201;

  3. (c) Any loss of altitude of more than 30 m occurring in the recovery part of the manoeuvre prescribed in 522.203;

  4. (d) Spinning characteristics, including loss of altitude, any tendency for the spin to turn into a spiral dive, and recommended recovery procedure.

  5. (e) Recommended operational speeds and entry speeds for each authorized manoeuvre.

  6. (f) Slip characteristics in landing configuration, with airbrakes extended.
    (amended 2003/01/15)

  7. (g) Any special procedures or advice to the pilot that may be necessary for aerotowing, wire or bungee launching.
    (amended 2007/07/16)

  8. (h) The take-off distances in the conditions of 522.51, unless classified as a Self-Sustaining Powered Glider, in which case there must be a statement in the limitations section of the Flight Manual that the glider is not approved for take-off by sole means of its own power. In addition, the statement must make clear which configurations are approved for launching.

  9. (i) Special procedures to start the engine in flight, if necessary. The maximum demonstrated engine start density altitude, after a prolonged in-flight shutdown, and the normal height loss to be expected during extension/unfeathering restart, and the achievement of minimum climb power, must be stated.
    (amended 2003/01/15)

  10. (j) For self-sustaining powered gliders, the maximum altitude that can be sustained.
    (amended 2003/01/15)

  11. (k) Information on the total quantity of usable fuel.
    (amended 2003/01/15)

  12. (l) Special pre-flight procedures to ensure safe operation of engine and acccessories, if necessary.
    (amended 2007/07/16)

  13. (m) Advice to the pilot for correct adjustment and positioning of an adjustable headrest, if installed.
    (amended 2003/01/15)

  14. (n) Information on the use of water ballast.
    (amended 2007/07/16)

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))
(Change 522-2 (93-06-30)

522.1587 Performance Information

The following information must be furnished:

  1. (a) Airspeed system calibration.

  2. (b) The demonstrated crosswind velocity.

  3. (c) The take-off performance versus density altitude and the influence of other than smooth and hard surfaces.
    (amended 2003/01/15)

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))
(Change 522-2 (93-06-30)

522.1589 Loading Information

The following loading information must be furnished:

  1. (a) The empty weight and the position of the empty weight c.g.

  2. (b) Instruction enabling the pilot of the glider to determine the water ballast load versus the useful load.

(Change 522-1 (87-08-31))
(Change 522-2 (93-06-30)

SUBCHAPTER H ENGINES GENERAL

522.1801 Applicability

This Subchapter H is applicable to spark-and-compression-ignition engines for powered gliders.
(amended 2007/07/16)

522.1805 Instruction Manual

An instruction manual containing the information that the applicant considers essential for installing, operating, servicing and maintaining the engine must be provided.

522.1807 Engine Ratings and Operating Limitations

Engine ratings and operating limitations to be established are based on the operating conditions demonstrated during the bench tests prescribed in this Subchapter H. They include power ratings and operational limitations relating to speeds, temperatures, pressures, fuels and oils which the applicant finds necessary for the safe operation of the engine.

522.1808 Selection of Engine Power Ratings

Each selected rating must be for the lowest power that all engines of the same type may be expected to produce under the conditions to determine that rating.

Design and Construction

522.1815 Materials

The suitability and durability of materials used in the engine must -

  1. (a) Be established on the basis of experience or tests; and

  2. (b) Conform to approved specifications that ensure their having the strength and other properties assumed in the design data.

522.1817 Fire Prevention

  1. (a) The design and construction of the engine and the materials used must minimize the probability of the occurrence and spread of fire because of structural failure, overheating or other causes.

  2. (b) Each external line or fitting that conveys flammable fluids must be at least fire resistant. Components must be shielded or located to safeguard against the ignition of leaking flammable fluid.

522.1819 Durability

Engine design and construction must minimize the probability of occurrence of an unsafe condition of the engine between overhauls.

522.1821 Engine Cooling

Engine design and construction must provide the necessary cooling under conditions in which the powered glider is expected to operate.

522.1823 Engine Mounting Attachments and Structure

  1. (a) The maximum allowable loads for engine mounting attachments and related structure must be specified by the applicant.

  2. (b) The engine mounting attachments and related structure must be able to withstand the specified loads without failure, malfunction or permanent deformation.

522.1825 Accessory Attachment

Each accessory drive and mounting attachment must be designed and constructed so that the engine will operate properly with the accessories attached. The design of the engine must allow the examination, adjustment or removal of each essential engine accessory.

522.1833 Vibration

The engine must be designed and constructed to function throughout its normal operating range of crankshaft rotational speeds and engine powers without inducing excessive stress in any of the engine parts because of vibration and without imparting excessive vibration forces to the structure of the powered glider.

522.1835 Fuel and Induction System

  1. (a) The fuel system of the engine must be designed and constructed to supply the appropriate mixture of fuel to the combustion chambers throughout the complete operating range of the engine under all starting, flight and atmospheric conditions.

  2. (b) The intake passages of the engine through which air, or fuel in combination with air, passes must be designed and constructed to minimize ice accretion and vapour condensation in those passages. The engine must be designed and constructed to permit the use of a means for ice prevention.

  3. (c) The type and degree of fuel filtering necessary for protection of the engine fuel system against foreign particles in the fuel must be specified. The applicant must show (e.g. within the 50-hour run prescribed in 522.1849(a)) that foreign particles passing through the prescribed filtering means will not critically impair engine fuel system functioning.

  4. (d) Each passage in the induction system that conducts a mixture of fuel and air, and in which fuel may accumulate, must be self-draining to prevent a liquid lock in the combustion chambers. This applies to all attitudes that the applicant establishes as those the engine can have when the powered glider in which it is installed is in the static ground attitude.

522.1839 Lubrication System (Four-stroke Engines Only)

  1. (a) The lubrication system of the engine must be designed and constructed so that it will function properly in all attitudes and atmospheric conditions in which the powered glider is expected to operate. In wet-sump engines this requirement must be met when the engine contains only the minimum oil quantity, the minimum quantity being not more than half the maximum quantity.

  2. (b) The lubrication system of the engine must be designed and constructed to allow installing a means of cooling the lubricant.

  3. (c) The crankcase must be vented to preclude leakage of oil from excessive pressure in the crankcase.

Bench Tests

522.1843 Vibration Test

Except where the engine is of a type of construction known not to be prone to hazardous vibration, the engine must undergo a vibration survey to establish crankshaft torsional and bending characteristics over a range of rotational speeds from idling to 110% of the maximum continuous speed or 103% of the maximum desired take-off speed, whichever is the greater. The survey must be conducted with a representative propeller. No hazardous condition may be present.

522.1845 Calibration Test

Each engine must be subjected to the calibration tests necessary to establish its power characteristics and the conditions for the endurance test specified in 522.1849(a) to (c). The results of the power characteristics calibration tests form the basis for establishing the characteristics of the engine over its entire operating range of crank shaft rotational speeds, manifold pressures, and fuel/air mixture settings. Power ratings are based on standard atmospheric conditions at sea-level.

522.1847 Detonation Test (Spark Ignition Only)

The engine must be tested to establish that it can function without detonation throughout the range of intended conditions of operation.

522.1849 Endurance Test

  1. (a) The engine must be subjected to an endurance test (with a representative propeller) that includes a total of 50 hours of operation and consists of the cycles specified in 522.1849(c).

  2. (b) Additional endurance testing at particular rotational speed(s) may be required depending on the results of the tests prescribed in 522.1843, to establish the ability of the engine to operate without fatigue failure.

  3. (c) Each cycle must be conducted as follows:

Sequence Duration
(Minutes)
Operating Conditions
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
15
5
60
5
Starting - idle
Take-off power
Cooling run (Idle)
Take-off power
Cooling run (Idle)
Take-off power
Cooling run (Idle)
75% of maximum continuous power
Cooling run (Idle)
Maximum continuous power
Cooling run and stop
Total 120  
  1. (d) During or following the endurance test the fuel and oil consumption must be determined.

522.1851 Operation Test

The operation test must include the demonstration of backfire characteristics, starting, idling, acceleration, overspeeding and any other operational characteristics of the engine.

522.1853 Engine Component Test

  1. (a) For engine components that cannot be adequately substantiated by endurance testing in accordance with 522.1849(a) to (c), the applicant must conduct additional tests to establish that components are able to function reliably in all normally anticipated flight and atmospheric conditions.

  2. (b) Temperature limits must be established for each component that requires temperature controlling provisions to ensure satisfactory functioning, reliability and durability.

522.1855 Teardown Inspection

After the endurance test has been completed the engine must be completely disassembled. No essential component may show rupture, cracks or excessive wear.

522.1857 Engine Adjustment and Parts Replacement

Service and minor repairs to the engine may be made during the bench tests. If major repairs or replacements of parts is necessary during the tests or after the teardown inspection, or if essential parts have to be replaced, the engine must be subjected to any additional tests the Minister may require.
(amended 2007/07/16)

SUBCHAPTER J PROPELLERS

General

522.1901 Applicability

This Subchapter J is applicable to propellers for powered gliders.
(amended 2007/07/16)

522.1903 Instruction Manual

An instruction manual containing the information that the applicant considers essential for installing, servicing and maintaining the propeller must be provided.

522.1905 Propeller Operating Limitations

Propeller operating limitations must be established on the basis of the conditions demonstrated during the tests specified in this Subchapter J.

Design and Construction

522.1917 Materials

The suitability and durability of materials used in the propeller must -

  1. (a) Be established on the basis of experience or tests; and

  2. (b) Conform to approved specifications that ensure their having the strength and other properties assumed in the design data.

522.1919 Durability

Propeller design and construction must minimize the possibility of the occurrence of an unsafe condition of the propeller between overhauls.

522.1923 Pitch Control

  1. (a) Failure of the propeller pitch control must not cause hazardous overspeeding under intended operating conditions.
    (amended 2003/01/15)

  2. (b) If the propeller can be feathered, the control system must be designed to minimize:
    (amended 2003/01/15)

    1. (1) consequential hazards, such as a propeller runaway resulting from malfunction or failure of the control system, and
      (amended 2003/01/15)

    2. (2) the possibility of an unintentional operation.
      (amended 2003/01/15)

Tests and Inspections

522.1933 General

The applicant must show that the propeller and its main accessories complete the tests and inspections prescribed in 522.1935 through 522.1947 without evidence of failure or malfunction.

522.1935 Blade Retention Test

The hub and blade retention arrangement of propellers with detachable blades must be subjected to a load equal to twice the centrifugal force occurring at the maximum rotational speed (other than transient overspeed) for which approval is sought, or the maximum governed rotational speed,as appropriate. This may be done either by a whirl test or a static pull test.

522.1937 Vibration Load Limit Test

The vibration load limits of each metal hub and blade, and of each primary load-carrying metal component of non-metallic blades, must be determined for all reasonably foreseeable vibration load patterns.

522.1939 Endurance Test

  1. (a) Fixed pitch or ground-adjustable wood or metal propellers. Fixed-pitch or ground-adjustable wood or metal propellers must be subjected to one of the following tests:

    1. (1) A 50-hour flight test in level flight or in climb. At least five hours of this flight test must be with the propeller at the rated rotational speed and the remainder of the 50 hours must be with the propeller operated at not less than 90% of the rated rotational speed. This test must be conducted on a propeller of the greatest diameter for which certification is requested.

    2. (2) A 50-hour endurance bench test on an engine at the power and propeller rotational speed for which certification is sought. This test must be conducted on a propeller of the greatest diameter for which certification is requested.

  2. (b) Variable pitch propellers. Wood or metal variable pitch propellers (propellers the pitch of which can be changed by the pilot or by automatic means while the propeller is rotating) must be subjected to one of the following tests:

    1. (1) A 50-hour test on an engine with the same power and rotational speed characteristics as the engine or engines with which the propeller is to be used. Each test must be made at the maximum continuous rotational speed and power rating of the propeller. If a take-off performance greater than the maximum continuous rating is to be established, an additional 10-hour bench test must be made at the maximum power and rotational speed for the take-off rating.

    2. (2) Operation of the propeller throughout the engine endurance tests prescribed in Subchapter H. 

522.1941 Functional Tests

  1. (a) Each variable pitch propeller must be subjected to all applicable functional tests of this paragraph. The same propeller used in the endurance test must be used in the functional test and must be driven by an engine on a test stand or on a powered glider.

  2. (b) Manually controllable propellers. 500 complete cycles of control throughout the pitch and rotational speed ranges, excluding the feathering range.

  3. (c) Automatically controllable propellers. 1500 complete cycles of control throughout the pitch and rotational speed ranges, excluding the feathering range.

522.1945 Teardown Inspection

After the endurance test has been completed the propeller must be completely disassembled. No essential component may show rupture, cracks or excessive wear.

522.1947 Propeller Adjustments and Parts Replacement

The applicant may service and make minor repairs to the propeller during the tests. If major repairs or replacement of parts is found necessary during the tests or in the teardown inspection, any additional tests that the Minister finds necessary must be conducted.
(amended 2012/03/27)

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