Part V - Airworthiness Manual Chapter 523 - Normal, Utility, Aerobatic And Commuter Category Aeroplanes

Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) 2017-2

Content last revised: 2002/01/29



  • A (523.1-523.3),
  • B (523.21-523.253),
  • C (523.301-523.575),
  • D (523.601-523.871),
  • E (523.901-523.1203),
  • F (523.1301-523.1461),
  • G (523.1501-523.1589)


A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J

(2002/03/01; no previous version)


C523.1 Basic Landing Condition

Condition Tail Wheel Type Nose Wheel Type
  Level Landing Tail-Down Landing Level Landing With Inclined Reactions Level Landing With Nose Wheel Just Clear Of Ground Tail-
Reference section 523.479(a)(1) 523.481(a)(1) 523.479(a)(2)(i) 523.479(a)(2)(ii) 523.481
Vertical component at c.g. nW nW nW nW nW
Fore and aft component at c.g. KnW 0 KnW KnW 0
Lateral component in either direction at c.g. 0 0 0 0 0
Shock absorber extension (hydraulic shock absorber) Note (2) Note (2) Note (2) Note (2) Note (2)
Shock absorber deflection (rubber or spring shock absorber), percent. 100 100 100 100 100
Tire deflection Static Static Static Static Static
Main wheel loads (both wheels) (Vr) (n-L)W (n-L)W b/d (n-L)W a´/d´ (n-L)W (n-L)W
Main wheel loads (both wheels) (Dr) KnW 0 KnW a´/d´ KnW 0
Tail (nose) wheel loads (Vf) 0 (n-L)W a/d (n-L)W b´/d´ 0 0
Tail (nose) wheel loads (Df) 0 0 KnW b´/d´ 0 0
Notes (1), (3), and (4) (4) (1) (1), (3), and (4) (3) and (4)

Note 1: K may be determined as follows: K=0.25 for W=3,000 pounds or less; K=0.33 for W=6,000 pounds or greater, with linear variation of K between these weights.

Note 2: For the purpose of design, the maximum load factor is assumed to occur throughout the shock absorber stroke from 25 percent deflection to 100 percent deflection unless otherwise shown and the load factor must be used with whatever shock absorber extension is most critical for each element of the landing gear.

Note 3: Unbalanced moments must be balanced by a rational conservative method.

Note 4: L is defined in 523.725(b).

Note 5: n is the limit inertia load factor, at the c.g. of the aeroplane, selected under 523.473(d), (f), and (g).

Figure 1 - Basic Landing Conditions

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