Part V - Airworthiness Manual Chapter 523 - VLA - Very Light Aeroplanes

Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) 2017-2

Procurement of Reference Publication

The title of the publication referenced in this Chapter of the Airworthiness Manual is as follows:

Joint Aviation Requirements: Very Light Aeroplanes

Information related to the procurement of the above publication may be found on the JAA web site http://www.jaa.nl.

Index of Applicable Airworthiness Manual Advisories (AMAs)

Information Note:

The list of all current advisory material (AMAs) is published in AMA 500/00, Airworthiness Manual Advisory Index, and is amended periodically.

Advisory Circulars – Joint (ACJ)

JAR-VLA includes ACJs as Acceptable Means of Compliance and Interpretative Material which are incorporated into Section 2 of JAR-VLA. Transport Canada has accepted this advisory material. These ACJs, listed in AMA 523-VLA/1A, dated 15 November 1999, may be used as an acceptable means of compliance but not the only means of demonstrating compliance with the standards of Chapter 523-VLA.

Preamble

First Edition

Effective: 30 June 1993

Due to the rising costs of product liability and certification, manufacturers of light aeroplanes have virtually ceased production of single engine, two and four seat light aeroplanes. Although certain categories of light aircraft are unapproved (i.e. amateur-built kit aircraft, advanced ultra-light aeroplanes), Canadian manufacturers have indicated that it is very important for consumer confidence, insurance purposes, and export success that such aeroplanes have a Type certificate, be manufactured under a quality assurance programme and receive a standard Certificate of Airworthiness.

In 1986, as an interim response to this problem, Transport Canada issued a conceptual paper entitled "Aircraft Recreational Vehicles" which included a "primary category" aircraft. This category was intended to provide a level of safety similar to Chapter 523-approved aeroplanes and would include a simplified approval concept.

At the same time, the Civil Aviation Authorities of certain European countries, known as the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA), were in the process of drafting new airworthiness requirements for light aeroplanes using, as a basis, the United States Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) Part 23 airworthiness standards. During the drafting of these standards, known as the Joint Aviation Requirements for Very Light Aeroplanes (JAR-VLA), Transport Canada was consulted and thus was in general agreement with both the concept and content of these requirements.

The JAR-VLA standards were issued on 26 April 1990 and are recognized as providing a level of safety equivalent to FAR Part 23 at amendment 42 for the intended operations and class of aeroplanes.

Transport Canada announced in February 1993, that the JAR-VLA standards were adopted in Canada as well as simplified approval procedures that the FAA had accepted in the United States. With this announcement, Transport Canada has achieved international harmonization and provided impetus to the Canadian light aeroplane manufacturers.

Chapter 523-VLA herein is based upon the JAR-VLA dated 26 April 1990 and includes Amendment VLA/91/1 dated 22 October 1991 with certain variations due to unique Canadian conditions and experiences. Further, although JAR-VLA is limited to normal category, day VFR operation, Chapter 523-VLA also contains additional requirements for optional utility category and VFR night and IFR approval. (NPA 1993-1)

Second Edition

Change 523-VLA-1
Published December 1, 2001

The subchapter lettering and section numbering used in AWM 523-VLA was not consistent with JAR-VLA and other AWM chapters. To eliminate duplication and possible confusion the chapter has been completely renumbered and re-organized to harmonize the section subject and numbering with internationally accepted practice. It was intended that the reorganization of subject material would not introduce any new requirements other than those that are related to VFR night or IFR operation and for which amendments to AWM 523 are incorporated. Restricted applicability requirements in this Chapter, that is all VFR night and/or IFR operations, are in addition to the requirements of JAR-VLA. These requirements are identified accordingly by the opening statement of the appropriate paragraph. The variances in this Chapter are not underlined for the purpose of legibility. In those paragraphs that define requirements that are not restricted in applicability, the variance from JAR-VLA is provided with the JAR text following in italic.

The new paragraph numbering system used in this Chapter is the same as that used in JAR-VLA, except that the letters JAR are replaced by 523 and the space after VLA is replaced by a ".", e.g. JAR-VLA 221 is replaced by 523-VLA.221. Unless otherwise indicated, each section in this chapter replaces the equivalent paragraph in JAR-VLA, and where no equivalent JAR-VLA paragraph exists, the stated requirement is in addition to the JAR VLA requirements.

References to AWM 523 sections for night and IFR requirements have been replaced by incorporating the appropriate text from AWM 523 (Change 523-5,equivalent to FAR Part 23 at amendment 23-53) into this chapter. The requirement for AMA 523-VLA/2 has therefore been eliminated and the AMA is removed. It is intended that future revisions to AWM 523 that have relevance to very light aircraft will be incorporated into future revisions of this Chapter.

The references to the AWM 523 sections containing the night and IFR requirements failed to identify those which were applicable to both night and IFR and those requirements which were applicable to IFR only. This change identifies the night requirements as a separate entity from the IFR requirements.

A safety concern exists under night and/or IFR conditions when Very Light Aircraft are required to follow air traffic control instructions to maintain safe aircraft and obstacle separation. The potentially lower climb capabilities of these aircraft, compared with other aircraft operating under night and/or IFR conditions may not be expected or accounted for in the air traffic controller’s instructions and may give rise to unsafe separation distances. To correct this deficiency the "climb: all engines operating" requirements from AWM 523.65 have been added to the requirements for VFR night or IFR operation at paragraph
523-VLA.65.

The amendments described above were subject of NPA 2000-104 dated 20 April 2000 and were approved following consultation with aviation industry.

The JAR-VLA orange paper amendment VLA/92/1 is also incorporated.

In addition, paragraph 523-VLA.1093(a) is amended to correct errors in the section of this document adopted from the JAR-VLA dealing with induction system icing protection. An error was introduced during the temperature conversion process. It was discovered that the rise in temperature values in the FAR were converted as though they were actual temperatures rather than the rise in temperature that they actually represent. (NPA 2001-009)

Paragraph 523-VLA1581(d) is amended to cancel the requirement of SI units of measurement in the Flight Manual. This amendment is incorporated to achieve harmonization with JAR-VLA. Accordingly, section 523-VLA.1581 has been deleted from this document since there are no longer any variations with JAR-VLA 1581. This NPA completes the harmonization process started with NPA 2000-104. (NPA 2001-010)

The publication of revised advisory material:

  1. AMA 523VLA/1A Advisory Circulars - Joint (ACJ’s) Very Light Aeroplanes, dated 15 November 1999.

The cancellation of the following advisory material:

  1. AMA 523VLA/2 Additional Technical Requirements For Night And IFR Approval, dated 30 June 1993.

Note: All changes will be identified by brackets [ ]; editorial changes and typographical corrections will not be identified.

Change 523-VLA-2

Effective: December 1, 2004

In an effort to harmonize our regulatory guidance documents with those of other international aviation authorities and other branches within Transport Canada Civil Aviation (TCCA), the Aircraft Certification Branch has decided to replace existing Airworthiness Manual Advisories (AMA) related to certification of aeronautical products with new Advisory Circulars (AC). While the content of the new ACs will remain technically the same as the corresponding AMAs, which they will replace, the format of the ACs will be standardized to conform to other guidance documents published within the branch.

This change in guidance documentation becomes effective 1 December 2004 at which time the AMAs will be cancelled and replaced by their corresponding Advisory Circular concurrent with the next publishing of the Canadian Aviation Regulations (CAR). After this time, the CARAC Secretariat will no longer publish these AMAs and, consequently, ACs will not be published with their corresponding AWM Chapter. As of the 1 December 2004 issue of the CARs, any affected AMA references and content will have been removed. However, the AMA Index found in AMA 500/00 will, for now, continue to exist to provide a cross-reference between the old AMAs and the new ACs.

Change 523-VLA-3

Published: December 1, 2009

On December 1, 2009, Part V Subpart 21 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations (CAR 521) came into force. CAR 521 replaces the following Regulations in Part V - Airworthiness:

Subpart 11 - Approval of the Type Design of an Aeronautical Product
Subpart 13 - Approval of Modification and Repair Designs
Subpart 16 - Aircraft Emissions
Subpart 22 - Gliders and Powered Gliders
Subpart 23 - Normal, Utility, Aerobatic and Commuter Category Aeroplanes
Subpart 25 - Transport Category Aeroplanes
Subpart 27 - Normal Category Rotorcraft
Subpart 29 - Transport Category Rotorcraft
Subpart 31 - Manned Free Balloons
Subpart 33 - Aircraft Engines
Subpart 35 - Aircraft Propellers
Subpart 37 - Aircraft Appliances and Other Aeronautical Products
Subpart 41 - Airships
Subpart 51 - Aircraft Equipment
Subpart 91 - Service Difficulty Reporting
Subpart 93 - Airworthiness Directives

In addition, with publication of CAR 521, the following Chapters of the Airworthiness Manual have been withdrawn:

Chapter 511 - Approval of the Type Design of an Aeronautical Product
Chapter 513 - Approval of Modification and Repair Designs
Standard 591 - Service Difficulty Reporting
Standard 593 - Airworthiness Directives

This change amends section 523-VLA.1 to reflect changes in legal drafting style, in terminology and in references required because of the introduction of CAR 521. In addition, subsection 521.31(1) of the CARs is now used to legally enable this Chapter of the AWM.

Change 523-VLA-4

Published: June 30, 2015

This Change incorporates the following amendments to the United States Code of Federal Regulations, Title 14, Chapter I, Part 23-VLA:

Information Note: Although NPA 2009-029 was consulted and accepted during discussions of the Special Joint Technical Committee meeting held November 2-6, 2009, it was never published.

FAR Amendment 23-57

Effective: November 6, 2009

Table of Change Information
Notice(s) of Proposed Amendment Amended Sections(s)
  • 2009-029

  • 523-VLA.1308

  • Appendix A


This amendment entitled “High-Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection for Aircraft Electrical and Electronic Systems” revises the airworthiness standards for Very Light Aeroplanes. This action is necessary due to the vulnerability of aeroplane electrical and electronic systems and the increasing use of high-power radio frequency transmitters. It is intended to create a safer operating environment for civil aviation by protecting aeroplanes and their electrical and electronic systems from the adverse effects of HIRF.

The European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) Certification Specification CS-VLA does not include standards allowing for approval of night VFR and/or IFR flight for VLA. AWM 523-VLA is unique in this respect as it does permit applicants to seek approval in one or both of these specific categories. It is apparent that there may be increasing use of integrated avionics systems on VLA, systems that may be adversely affected by HIRF. With the adoption of this NPA, it will no longer be necessary to develop certification project specific Special Conditions – Airworthiness (SCA) to provide appropriate HIRF standards for night VFR and/or IFR approval of VLA aeroplanes.

AIRWORTHINESS MANUAL CHAPTER 523 - VLA - VERY LIGHT AEROPLANES

(2001/12/01)

SUBCHAPTER A GENERAL

523-VLA.1 Applicability

  1. (a) This subchapter sets out airworthiness standards for the issue of type certificates and changes to those type certificates for very light aeroplanes (VLA) of conventional design and construction in the normal and utility categories.

  2. (b)A VLA is an aeroplane with a single engine (spark or compression ignition), having not more than two seats, with a Maximum Certificated Takeoff Weight of not more than 750 kg (1653.5 lbs.) and a stalling speed in the landing configuration of not more than 45 knots Calibrated Air Speed (CAS).
    (amended 2009/12/01)

    1. JAR: This JAR-VLA prescribes airworthiness standards for issuance of a type certificate, and changes to that type certificate, for an aeroplane with a single engine (spark- or compression-ignition) having not more than two seats, with a Maximum Certificated Takeoff Weight of not more than 750 kg and a stalling speed in the landing configuration of not more than 45 knots (CAS). The approval to be for day-VFR only.

  3. (c)Reserved.
    (amended 2009/12/01)

JAR: Each person who applies for such a certificate or change must show compliance with the applicable requirements stated herein.
(amended 2004/12/01)

(Change 523-VLA-1)

523-VLA.3 [Aeroplane Categories]

  1. [(a) Normal category aeroplanes are intended for non-aerobatic operations. Non- aerobatic operations include:

    1. (1) any manoeuvres incident to normal flying;

    2. (2) stalls (except whip stalls); and

    3. (3) lazy eights, chandelles and steep turns in which the angle of bank is not more than 60°.

      1. JAR: This JAR-VLA applies to aeroplanes intended for non-aerobatic operation only. Non-aerobatic operation includes:

        1. (a) any manoeuvre incident to normal flying;

        2. (b) stalls (except whip stalls); and

        3. (c) lazy eights, chandelles, and steep turns, in which the angle of bank is not more than 60°.

  2. (b) Utility category aeroplanes are intended for limited aerobatic operations. Limited aerobatic operations include:

    1. (1) spins (if approved for the particular type of aeroplane); and

    2. (2) lazy eights, chandelles and steep turns in which the angle of bank is more than 60°.

JAR - No corresponding text.]

(Change 523-VLA-1)

523-VLA.5 [Variations to JAR-VLA]

[The airworthiness standards for the design of very light aeroplanes are set out in:

  1. (a) JAR-VLA, dated 26 April, 1990, as amended by orange paper amendment VLA/91/1 and VLA/92/1; and

  2. (b) The variations are identified in this Chapter. Unless otherwise indicated, each section in this chapter replaces the equivalent paragraph in JAR-VLA, and where no equivalent JAR-VLA paragraph exists the stated requirement is in addition to the JAR-VLA requirements.

JAR - No corresponding text.]

(Change 523-VLA-1)

SUBCHAPTER B[FLIGHT]

[523-VLA.65 Climb: All Engines Operating]

[Aeroplanes limited to VFR day operation shall meet the requirements of JAR-VLA 65, aeroplanes intended for VFR night or IFR operation shall have a steady climb gradient at sea level of at least 8.3 percent for landplanes or 6.7 percent for seaplanes and amphibians with:

  1. (a) not more than maximum continuous power on each engine;

  2. (b) the landing gear retracted;

  3. (c) the wing flaps in the takeoff position(s);

  4. (d) a climb speed not less than 1.2 VS1; and

  5. (e) the cowl flaps or other means for controlling the engine cooling air supply in the position used in the cooling tests required by JAR-VLA 1041 through JAR-VLA 1047.]

(Change 523-VLA-1)

[523-VLA.221 Spinning]

  1. [(a) A normal category aeroplane shall meet the requirements of JAR-VLA 221.

  2. (b) A utility category aeroplane shall meet the requirements of JAR-VLA 221. In addition, the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section shall be met if approval for spinning is requested.

  3. (c) Aircraft Approved for Spinning.

    1. (1) The aeroplane shall recover from any point in a spin, in not more than one and one-half additional turns after normal recovery application of the controls. Prior to normal recovery application of the controls, the spin test shall proceed for six turns or 3 seconds, whichever takes longer, with flaps retracted, and one turn or 3 seconds, whichever takes longer, with flaps extended. However, beyond 3 seconds, the spin may be discontinued when spiral characteristics appear with flaps retracted.

    2. (2) For both the flaps-retracted and flaps-extended conditions, the applicable airspeed limit and positive limit manoeuvring load factor shall not be exceeded. For the flaps-extended condition, the flaps may be retracted during recovery, if a placard is installed prohibiting intentional spins with flaps extended.

    3. (3) It shall be impossible to obtain unrecoverable spins with any use of the flight or engine power controls either at the entry into or during the spin.

JAR - No corresponding text.]

(Change 523-VLA-1)

SUBCHAPTER C[STRUCTURE]

[523-VLA.337 Limit Manoeuvring Load Factor]

  1. [(a) The positive limit manoeuvring load factor n shall not be less than:

    1. (1) 3.8 for normal category aeroplanes; or

    2. (2) 4.4 for utility category aeroplanes.
      JAR - No corresponding text.

  2. (b) The negative limit manoeuvring load factor shall not be less than -1.5.]

(Change 523-VLA-1)

[SUBCHAPTER D][DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION][ELECTRICAL BONDING AND LIGHTNING PROTECTION]

[523-VLA.867 Electrical Bonding and Protection Against Lightning and Static Electricity]

[Aeroplanes intended for IFR operation shall meet the following requirements:

  1. (a) the aeroplane shall be protected against catastrophic effects from lightning;

  2. (b) for metallic components, compliance with paragraph (a) of this section may be shown by:

    1. (1) bonding the components properly to the airframe, or

    2. (2) designing the components so that a strike will not endanger the aeroplane.

  3. (c) for non-metallic components, compliance with paragraph (a) of this section may be shown by:

    1. (1) designing the components to minimize the effect of a strike, or

    2. (2) incorporating acceptable means of diverting the resulting electrical current so as not to endanger the aeroplane.]

(Change 523-VLA-1)

[SUBCHAPTER E][POWER PLANT][GENERAL]

[523-VLA.903 Engines]

  1. [(a) Engine type certificate.

    1. (1) For aeroplanes that are limited to VFR day operation, the engine shall have a type certificate and shall meet the applicable requirements of JAR-VLA 903 (a), or Chapter 533 of this manual.

    2. (2) For aeroplanes intended for VFR night or IFR operation, the engine shall have a type certificate in accordance with Chapter 533 of the manual.

  2. (b) Restart envelope. An altitude and airspeed envelope shall be established for the aeroplane for in-flight engine restarting and the installed engine shall have a restart capability within that envelope.]

(Change 523-VLA-1)

[523-VLA.905 Propellers]

  1. [(a) The propeller shall have a type certificate or equivalent approval as follows:

    1. (1) for aeroplanes that are limited to VFR day operation the propeller shall have a type certificate or equivalent approval that meets the applicable requirements of JAR-VLA 905 (a), or Chapter 535 of this manual;

    2. (2) for aeroplanes intended for VFR night or IFR operation the propeller shall have a type certificate in accordance with Chapter 535 of the manual.

  2. (b) Engine power and propeller shaft rotational speed shall not exceed the limits for which the propeller is certificated or approved.]

(Change 523-VLA-1)

[Fuel System]

[523-VLA.954 Fuel System Lightning Protection]

[The fuel system for aeroplanes intended for IFR operation shall be designed and arranged to prevent the ignition of fuel vapour within the system by:

  1. (a) direct lightning strikes to areas having a high probability of stroke attachment;

  2. (b) swept lightning strokes on areas where swept strokes are highly probable; and

  3. (c) corona or streamer at fuel vent outlets.]

(Change 523-VLA-1)

[Power Plant – Induction System]

[523-VLA.1093 Induction System Icing Protection]

[The reciprocating engine air induction system shall have means to prevent and eliminate icing. Unless this is done by other means, it shall be shown that, in air free of visible moisture at a temperature of –1oC:

  1. (1) each aeroplane with a sea-level engine using a conventional venturi carburetor has a preheater that can provide a heat rise of 50oC with the engine at 75% of maximum continuous power;

    1. (1) JAR: Each aeroplane with a sea level engine using a conventional venturi carburetor has a preheater that can provide a heat rise of 32oC with the engine at 75% of maximum continuous power;

  2. (2) each aeroplane with an altitude engine using a conventional venturi carburetor has a preheater that can provide a heat rise of 67oC with the engine at 75% of maximum continuous power;

    1. (2) JAR: Each aeroplane with an altitude engine using a conventional venturi carburetor has a preheater that can provide a heat rise of 50oC with the engine at 75% of maximum continuous power;

  3. (3) each aeroplane with an altitude engine using a carburetor tending to prevent icing has a preheater that, with the engine at 60% of maximum continuous power, can provide a heat rise of 56oC.

    1. (3) JAR: Each aeroplane with an altitude engine using a carburetor tending to prevent icing has a preheater that, with the engine at 60% of maximum continuous power, can provide a heat rise of 38oC.]

(Change 523-VLA-1)

  1. (b) [No variation.]

[SUBCHAPTER F][EQUIPMENT GENERAL]

523-VLA.1308 High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection
(effective 2014/12/01)

For aeroplanes intended for night VFR and/or IFR operation, the following requirements must be met:

  1. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, each electrical and electronic system that performs a function whose failure would prevent the continued safe flight and landing of the aeroplane must be designed and installed so that:

    1. (1) The function is not adversely affected during and after the time the aeroplane is exposed to HIRF environment I, as described in Appendix A of this chapter;

    2. (2) The system automatically recovers normal operation of that function, in a timely manner, after the aeroplane is exposed to HIRF environment I, as described in Appendix A of this chapter, unless the system’s recovery conflicts with other operational or functional requirements of the system; and

    3. (3) The system is not adversely affected during and after the time the aeroplane is exposed to HIRF environment II, as described in Appendix A of this chapter.

  2. (b) Each electrical and electronic system that performs a function whose failure would significantly reduce the capability of the aeroplane or the ability of the flight crew to respond to an adverse operating condition must be designed and installed so the system is not adversely affected when the equipment providing the function is exposed to equipment HIRF test level 1 or 2, as described in Appendix A of this chapter.

  3. (c) Each electrical and electronic system that performs a function whose failure would reduce the capability of the aeroplane or the ability of the flight crew to respond to an adverse operating condition must be designed and installed so the system is not adversely affected when the equipment providing the function is exposed to equipment HIRF test level 3, as described in Appendix A of this chapter.

  4. (d) Before December 1, 2012, an electrical or electronic system that performs a function whose failure would prevent the continued safe flight and landing of an aeroplane may be designed and installed without meeting the provisions of paragraph (a) provided:

    1. (1) The system has previously been shown to comply with Special Conditions - Airworthiness for HIRF, specified by the Minister pursuant to Part V of the Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs).

    2. (2) The HIRF immunity characteristics of the system have not changed since compliance with the Special Conditions - Airworthiness was demonstrated; and

    3. (3) The data used to demonstrate compliance with the Special Conditions - Airworthiness is provided.

[523-VLA.1309 Equipment, Systems, and Installations]

[Aeroplanes limited to VFR operation shall meet the requirements of JAR-VLA 1309, for aeroplanes intended for IFR operation the following requirements shall be met:

  1. (a) each item of equipment, each system, and each installation:

    1. (1) when performing its intended function, shall not adversely affect the response, operation, or accuracy of any:

      1. (i) equipment essential to safe operation, or

      2. (ii) other equipment unless there is a means to inform the pilot of the effect; and

    2. (2) shall be designed to minimize hazards to the aeroplane in the event of a probable malfunction or failure.

  2. (b) The design of each item of equipment, each system, and each installation shall be examined separately and in relationship to other aeroplane systems and installations to determine if the aeroplane is dependent upon its function for continued safe flight and landing and if failure of a system would significantly reduce the capability of the aeroplane or the ability of the crew to cope with adverse operating conditions. Each item of equipment, each system, and each installation identified by this examination as one upon which the aeroplane is dependent for proper functioning to ensure continued safe flight and landing, or whose failure would significantly reduce the capability of the aeroplane or the ability of the crew to cope with adverse operating conditions, shall be designed to comply with the following additional requirements:

    1. (1) it shall perform its intended function under any foreseeable operating condition;

    2. (2) when systems and associated components are considered separately and in relation to other systems:

      1. (i) the occurrence of any failure condition that would prevent the continued safe flight and landing of the aeroplane shall be extremely improbable, and

      2. (ii) the occurrence of any other failure condition that would significantly reduce the capability of the aeroplane or the ability of the crew to cope with adverse operating conditions shall be improbable.

    3. (3) Warning information shall be provided to alert the crew to unsafe system operating conditions and to enable them to make appropriate corrective action. Systems, controls, and associated monitoring and warning means shall be designed to minimize crew errors that could create additional hazards.

    4. (4) Compliance with the requirements of paragraph (b)(2) of this section shall be shown by analysis and where necessary, by appropriate ground, flight, or simulator tests. The analysis shall consider:

      1. (i) possible modes of failure, including malfunctions and damage from external sources;

      2. (ii) the probability of multiple failures, and the probability of undetected faults;

      3. (iii) the resulting effects on the aeroplane and occupants, considering the stage of flight and operating conditions; and

      4. (iv) the crew warning cues, corrective action required, and the crew's capability of determining faults.

  3. (c) Each item of equipment, each system, and each installation whose functioning is required by this manual and that requires a power supply is an "essential load" on the power supply. The power sources and the system shall be able to supply the following power loads in probable operating combinations and for probable durations:

    1. (1) loads connected to the power distribution system with the system functioning normally;

    2. (2) essential loads after failure of any power converter or energy storage device;

    3. (3) essential loads for which an alternate source of power is required, as applicable, by any applicable operating rules after any failure or malfunction in any one power supply system, distribution system, or other utilization system.

  4. (d) In determining compliance with paragraph (c)(2) of this section, the power loads shall be assumed to be reduced under a monitoring procedure consistent with safety in the kinds of operations authorized.

  5. (e) In showing compliance with this section with regard to the electrical power system and to equipment design and installation., critical environmental and atmospheric conditions, including radio frequency energy and the effects (both direct and indirect) of lightning strikes, shall be considered. For electrical generation, distribution, and utilization equipment required by or used in complying with this manual, the ability to provide continuous, safe service under foreseeable environmental conditions shall be shown by environmental tests, design analysis, or reference to previous comparable service experience on other aeroplanes.

  6. (f) As used in this section, "system" refers to all pneumatic systems, fluid systems, electrical systems, mechanical systems, and powerplant systems included in the aeroplane design, except for the following:

    1. (1) powerplant systems provided as part of the certificated engine; and

    2. (2) the flight structure (such as wing, empennage, control surfaces and their systems, the fuselage, engine mounting, and landing gear and their related primary attachments) whose requirements are specific in subchapters C and D of JAR-VLA and this chapter.]

[Information Note:

Aircraft designs that contain extensive use of non-metallic materials in the structure and use electrical and electronic systems to perform critical functions, may be subject to special conditions to limit susceptibility to high intensity radiated fields.]

(Change 523-VLA-1)

[523-VLA.1311 Electronic Display Instrument Systems]

[Electronic display instrument systems installed in aircraft intended for VFR night or IFR operation shall meet the following requirements:

  1. (a) electronic display indicators, including those with features that make isolation and independence between powerplant instrument systems impractical, shall:

    1. (1) meet the arrangement and visibility requirements of 523-VLA.1321;

    2. (2) be easily legible under all lighting conditions encountered in the cockpit, including direct sunlight, considering the expected electronic display brightness level at the end of an electronic display indicator's useful life. Specific limitations on display system useful life shall be contained in the Maintenance Manual required by JAR-VLA 1529;

    3. (3) not inhibit the primary display of attitude, airspeed, altitude, or power plant parameters needed by any pilot to set power within established limitations, in any normal mode of operation;

    4. (4) not inhibit the primary display of engine parameters needed by any pilot to properly set or monitor power plant limitations during the engine starting mode of operation;

    5. (5) have an independent magnetic direction indicator and either an independent secondary mechanical altimeter, airspeed indicator, and attitude instrument or individual electronic display indicators for the altitude, airspeed, and attitude that are independent from the aeroplane’s primary electrical power system. These secondary instruments may be installed in panel positions that are displaced from the primary positions specified by 523-VLA.1321(c), but shall be located where they meet the pilot's visibility requirements of 523-VLA.1321(a);

    6. (6) incorporate sensory cues for the pilot that are equivalent to those in the instrument being replaced by the electronic display indicators; and

    7. (7) incorporate visual displays of instrument markings, required by 523-VLA.1541 and JAR-VLA 1543 through JAR-VLA 1551, or visual displays that alert the pilot to abnormal operational values or approaches to established limitation values, for each parameter required to be displayed by this Chapter.

  2. (b) the electronic display indicators, including their systems and installations, and considering other aeroplane systems, shall be designed so that one display of information essential for continued safe flight and landing will remain available to the crew, without need for immediate action by any pilot for continued safe operation, after any single failure or probable combination of failures;

  3. (c) as used in this section, "instrument" includes devices that are physically contained in one unit, and devices that are composed of two or more physically separate units or components connected together (such as a remote indicating gyroscopic direction indicator that includes a magnetic sensing element, a gyroscopic unit, an amplifier, and an indicator connected together). As used in this section, "primary" display refers to the display of a parameter that is located in the instrument panel such that the pilot looks at it first when wanting to view that parameter.]

(Change 523-VLA-1)

[Instruments: Installation]

[523-VLA.1321 Arrangement and Visibility]

[Aeroplanes limited to VFR day operation shall meet the requirements of JAR-VLA 1321, for aeroplanes intended for VFR night or IFR operation the following requirements shall be met:

  1. (a) each flight, navigation, and power plant instrument for use by any required pilot during takeoff, initial climb, final approach, and landing shall be located so that any pilot seated at the controls can monitor the aeroplane's flight path and these instruments with minimum head and eye movement. The power plant instruments for these flight conditions are those needed to set power within power plant limitations;

  2. (b) instrument panel vibration shall not damage, or impair the accuracy of, any instrument;

  3. (c) for each aeroplane the flight instruments required by JAR-VLA 1303, and, as applicable, by any applicable operating rules, shall be grouped on the instrument panel and centred as nearly as practicable about the vertical plane of each required pilot's forward vision. In addition:

    1. (1) the instrument that most effectively indicates the attitude shall be on the panel in the top centre position;

    2. (2) the instrument that most effectively indicates airspeed shall be adjacent to and directly to the left of the instrument in the top centre position;

    3. (3) the instrument that most effectively indicates altitude shall be adjacent to and directly to the right of the instrument in the top centre position;

    4. (4) the instrument that most effectively indicates direction of flight, other than the magnetic direction indicator required by JAR-VLA 1303 (c), shall be adjacent to and directly below the instrument in the top centre position; and

    5. (5) electronic display indicators may be used for compliance with paragraphs (c)(1) through (c)(4) of this section when such displays comply with requirements in 523-VLA.1311; and

  4. (d) if a visual indicator is provided to indicate malfunction of an instrument, it shall be effective under all probable cockpit lighting conditions.]

(Change 523-VLA-1)

[Electrical Systems and Equipment]

[523-VLA.1351  General]

[Aeroplanes limited to VFR day operation shall meet the requirements of JAR-VLA 1351, for aeroplanes intended for VFR night or IFR operation the following requirements shall be met:

  1. (a) Electrical system capacity. Each electrical system shall be adequate for the intended use. In addition:

    1. (1) electric power sources, their transmission cables, and their associated control and protective devices, shall be able to furnish the required power at the proper voltage to each load circuit essential for safe operation, and

    2. (2) compliance with paragraph (a)(1) of this section shall be shown by an electrical load analysis or by electrical measurements that account for the electrical loads applied to the electrical system in probable combinations and for probable durations.

  2. (b) Function. For each electrical system, the following requirements apply:

    1. (1) each system, when installed, shall be:

      1. (i) free from hazards in itself, in its method of operation, and in its effects on the other parts of the aeroplane;

      2. (ii) Protected from fuel, oil water, other detrimental substances, and mechanical damage;

      3. (iii) So designed that the risk of electrical shock to crew, passengers, and ground personnel is reduced to a minimum; and

    2. (2) electric power sources shall function properly when connected in combination or independently;

    3. (3) no failure or malfunction of any electric power source shall impair the ability of any remaining source to supply load circuits essential for safe operation.

  3. (c) Generating system. There shall be at least one generator/alternator if the electrical system supplies power to load circuits essential for safe operation. In addition:

    1. (1) each generator/alternator shall be able to deliver its continuous rated power, or such power as is limited by its regulation system;

    2. (2) generator/alternator voltage control equipment shall be able to dependably regulate the generator/alternator output within rated limits;

    3. (3) automatic means shall be provided to prevent damage to any generator/alternator and adverse effects on the aeroplane electrical system due to reverse current. A means shall also be provided to disconnect each generator/alternator from the battery and other generators/alternators;

    4. (4) there shall be a means to give immediate warning to the flight crew of a failure of any generator/ alternator;

    5. (5) each generator/alternator shall have an overvoltage control designed and installed to prevent damage to the electrical system, or to equipment supplied by the electrical system that could result if that generator/alternator were to develop an overvoltage condition.

  4. (d) Instruments. A means shall exist to indicate to appropriate flight crewmembers the electric power system quantities essential for safe operation. For aeroplanes with direct current systems, an ammeter that can be switched into each generator feeder may be used and, if only one generator exists, the ammeter may be in the battery feeder.

  5. (e) Fire resistance. Electrical equipment shall be so designed and installed that in the event of a fire in the engine compartment, during which the surface of the firewall adjacent to the fire is heated to 2000°F for 5 minutes or to a lesser temperature substantiated by the applicant, the equipment essential to continued safe operation and located behind the firewall will function satisfactorily and will not create an additional fire hazard.

  6. (f) External power. If provisions are made for connecting external power to the aeroplane, and that external power can be electrically connected to equipment other than that used for engine starting, means shall be provided to ensure that no external power supply having a reverse polarity, or a reverse phase sequence, can supply power to the aeroplane's electrical system. The external power connection shall be located so that its use will not result in a hazard to the aeroplane or ground personnel.

  7. (g) It shall be shown by analysis, tests, or both, that the aeroplane can be operated safely in VFR conditions, for a period of not less than five minutes, with the normal electrical power (electrical power sources excluding the battery and any other standby electrical sources) inoperative, with critical type fuel (from the standpoint of flameout and restart capability), and with the aeroplane initially at the maximum certificated altitude. Parts of the electrical system may remain on if:

    1. (1) a single malfunction, including a wire bundle or junction box fire, cannot result in loss of the part turned off and the part turned on, and

    2. (2) the parts turned on are electrically and mechanically isolated from the parts turned off.]

(Change 523-VLA-1)

[523-VLA.1357 Circuit Protective Devices]

[Aeroplanes limited to VFR day operation shall meet the requirements of JAR-VLA 1357, for aeroplanes intended for VFR night or IFR operation the following requirements shall be met:

  1. (a) protective devices, such as fuses or circuit breakers, shall be installed in all electrical circuits other than:

    1. (1) main circuits of starter motors used during starting only, and

    2. (2) circuits in which no hazard is presented by their omission;

  2. (b) a protective device for a circuit essential to flight safety shall not be used to protect any other circuit;

  3. (c) each resettable circuit protective device ("trip free" device in which the tripping mechanism cannot be overridden by the operating control) shall be designed so that:

    1. (1) a manual operation is required to restore service after tripping, and

    2. (2) if an overload or circuit fault exists, the device will open the circuit regardless of the position of the operating control; and

  4. (d) If the ability to reset a circuit breaker or replace a fuse is essential to safety in flight, that circuit breaker or fuse shall be so located and identified that it can be readily reset or replaced in flight;

  5. (e) for fuses identified as replaceable in flight:

    1. (1) there shall be one spare of each rating or 50 percent spare fuses of each rating, whichever is greater, and

    2. (2) the spare fuse(s) shall be readily accessible to any required pilot.]

(Change 523-VLA-1)

[Lights]

[523-VLA.1381 Instrument Lights]

[For aeroplanes intended for VFR night or IFR operation instrument lights shall:

  1. (a) make each instrument and control easily readable and discernible;

  2. (b) be installed so that their direct rays, and rays reflected from the windshield or other surface, are shielded from the pilot's eyes; and

  3. (c) have enough distance or insulating material between current carrying parts and the housing so that vibration in flight will not cause shorting.

[Information note:

A cabin dome light is not an instrument light.]

(Change 523-VLA-1)

[523-VLA.1383 Taxi and Landing Lights]

[For aeroplanes intended for VFR night or IFR operation each taxi and landing light shall be designed and installed so that:

  1. (a) no dangerous glare is visible to the pilots;

  2. (b) the pilot is not seriously affected by halation;

  3. (c) it provides enough light for night operations; and

  4. (d) it does not cause a fire hazard in any configuration.]

(Change 523-VLA-1)

[523-VLA.1385 Position Light System Installation]

[Aeroplanes intended for VFR night or IFR operation shall meet the following requirements:

  1. (a) General. Each part of each position light system shall meet the applicable requirements of this section and each system as a whole shall meet the requirements of 523-VLA.1387 through 523-VLA.1397;

  2. (b) Left and right position lights. Left and right position lights shall consist of a red and a green light spaced laterally as far apart as practicable and installed on the aeroplane such that, with the aeroplane in the normal flying position, the red light is on the left side and the green light is on the right side;

  3. (c) Rear position light. The rear position light shall be a white light mounted as far aft as practicable on the tail or on each wing tip; and

  4. (d) Light covers and colour filters. Each light cover or colour filter shall be at least flame resistant and shall not change colour or shape or lose any appreciable light transmission during normal use.]

(Change 523-VLA-1)

[523-VLA.1387 Position Light System Dihedral Angles]

[Aeroplanes intended for VFR night or IFR operation shall meet the following requirements:

  1. (a) except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, each position light shall, as installed, show unbroken light within the dihedral angles described in this section;

  2. (b) dihedral angle L (left) is formed by two intersecting vertical planes, the first parallel to the longitudinal axis of the aeroplane, and the other at 110° to the left of the first, as viewed when looking forward along the longitudinal axis;

  3. (c) dihedral angle R (right) is formed by two intersecting vertical planes, the first parallel to the longitudinal axis of the aeroplane, and the other at 110° to the right of the first, as viewed when looking forward along the longitudinal axis;

  4. (d) dihedral angle A (aft) is formed by two intersecting vertical planes making angles of 70° to the right and to the left, respectively, to a vertical plane passing through the longitudinal axis, as viewed when looking aft along the longitudinal axis; and

  5. (e) if the rear position light, when mounted as far aft as practicable in accordance with 523-VLA.1385 (c), cannot show unbroken light within dihedral angle A (as defined in paragraph (d) of this section), a solid angle or angles of obstructed visibility totalling not more than 0.04 steradians is allowable within that dihedral angle, if such solid angle is within a cone whose apex is at the rear position light and whose elements make an angle of 30° with a vertical line passing through the rear position light.]

(Change 523-VLA-1)

[523-VLA.1389 Position Light Distribution and Intensities]

[Aeroplanes intended for VFR night or IFR operation shall meet the following requirements:

  1. (a) General. The intensities prescribed in this section shall be provided by new equipment with each light cover and colour filter in place. Intensities shall be determined with the light source operating at a steady value equal to the average luminous output of the source at the normal operating voltage of the aeroplane. The light distribution and intensity of each position light shall meet the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section.

  2. (b) Position lights. The light distribution and intensities of position lights shall be expressed in terms of minimum intensities in the horizontal plane, minimum intensities in any vertical plane, and maximum intensities in overlapping beams, within dihedral angles L, R, and A, and shall meet the following requirements:

    1. (1) Intensities in the horizontal plane. Each intensity in the horizontal plane (the plane containing the longitudinal axis of the aeroplane and perpendicular to the plane of symmetry of the aeroplane) shall equal or exceed the values in 523-VLA.1391;

    2. (2) Intensities in any vertical plane. Each intensity in any vertical plane (the plane perpendicular to the horizontal plane) shall equal or exceed the appropriate value in 523-VLA.1393, where I is the minimum intensity prescribed in 523-VLA.1391 for the corresponding angles in the horizontal plane; and

    3. (3) Intensities in overlaps between adjacent signals. No intensity in any overlap between adjacent signals shall exceed the values in 523-VLA.1395, except that higher intensities in overlaps may be used with main beam intensities substantially greater than the minima specified in 523-VLA.1391 and 523-VLA.1393, if the overlap intensities in relation to the main beam intensities do not adversely affect signal clarity. When the peak intensity of the left and right position lights is more than 100 candles, the maximum overlap intensities between them may exceed the values in 523-VLA.1395 if the overlap intensity in Area A is not more than 10 percent of peak position light intensity and the overlap intensity in Area B is not more than 2.5 percent of peak position light intensity.

  3. (c) Rear position light installation. A single rear position light may be installed in a position displaced laterally from the plane of symmetry of an aeroplane if:

    1. (1) the axis of the maximum cone of illumination is parallel to the flight path in level flight; and

    2. (2) there is no obstruction aft of the light and between planes 70° to the right and left of the axis of maximum illumination.]

(Change 523-VLA-1)

[523-VLA.1391 Minimum Intensities in the Horizontal Plane of Position Lights]

[For aeroplanes intended for VFR night or IFR operation each position light intensity shall equal or exceed the applicable values in Table F1.

Dihedral angle
(light included)
Angle from right or left of longitudinal axis, measured from dead ahead Intensity (candles)
[L and R (red and green)] 0° to 10° 40
10° to 20° 30
20° to 110 5
A (rear white) 110° to 180° 20

Table F1]

(Change 523-VLA-1)

[523-VLA.1393 Minimum Intensities in any Vertical Plane of Position Lights]

[For aeroplanes intended for VFR night or IFR operation each position light intensity shall equal or exceed the applicable values in Table F2.

Angle Above Or Below The Horizontal Plane Intensity
0 1.00
0 to 5 0.90
5 to 10 0.80
10 to 15 0.70
15 to 20 0.50
20 to 30 0.30
30 to 40 0.10
40 to 90 0.05

Table F2]

(Change 523-VLA-1)

[523-VLA.1395 Maximum Intensities in Overlapping Beams of Position Lights]

[For aeroplanes intended for VFR night or IFR operation no position light intensity shall exceed the applicable values in Table F3, except as provided in 523-VLA.1389 (b)(3).

Overlaps Maximum Intensity
Area A
(candles)
Area B
(candles)
Green in dihedral angle L 10 1
Red in dihedral angle R 10 1
Green in dihedral angle A 5 1
Red in dihedral angle A 5 1
Rear white in dihedral angle L 5 1
Rear white in dihedral angle R 5 1

Table F3

Where:

  1. (a) area A includes all directions in the adjacent dihedral angle that pass through the light source and intersect the common boundary plane at more than 10° but less than 20°; and

  2. (b) area B includes all directions in the adjacent dihedral angle that pass through the light source and intersect the common boundary plane at more than 20°.]

(Change 523-VLA-1)

[523-VLA.1397 Colour Specifications]

[For aeroplanes intended for VFR night or IFR operation each position light colour shall have the applicable International Commission on Illumination chromaticity co-ordinates as follows:

  1. (a) aviation red:

    1. "y" is not greater than 0.335, and
      "z" is not greater than 0.002;

  2. (b) aviation green:

    1. "x" is not greater than 0.440-0.320 y;
      "x" is not greater than y-0.170; and
      "y" is not less than 0.390-0.170x;

  3. (c) aviation white:

    1. "x" is not less than 0.300 and not greater than 0.540;
      "y" is not less than "x-0.040" or "yo-0.010", whichever is the smaller; and
      "y" is not greater than "x+0.020" nor "0.636-0.400x".

Where "yo" is the "y" co-ordinate of the Planckian radiator for the value of "x" considered.]

(Change 523-VLA-1)

[523-VLA.1401 Anti-collision Light System]

[Aeroplanes intended for VFR night or IFR operation shall meet the following requirements:

  1. (a) General. The aeroplane shall have an anti-collision light system that:

    1. (1) consists of one or more approved anti-collision lights located so that their light will not impair the flight crew members' vision or detract from the conspicuity of the position lights; and

    2. (2) meets the requirements of paragraphs (b) through (f) of this section.

  2. (b) Field of coverage. The system shall consist of enough lights to illuminate the vital areas around the aeroplane, considering the physical configuration and flight characteristics of the aeroplane. The field of coverage shall extend in each direction within at least 75° above and 75° below the horizontal plane of the aeroplane, except that there may be solid angles of obstructed visibility totalling not more than 0.5 steradians.

  3. (c) Flashing characteristics. The arrangement of the system, that is, the number of light sources, beam width, speed of rotation, and other characteristics, shall give an effective flash frequency of not less than 40, nor more than 100, cycles per minute. The effective flash frequency is the frequency at which the aeroplane's complete anti-collision light system is observed from a distance, and applies to each sector of light including any overlaps that exist when the system consists of more than one light source. In overlaps, flash frequencies may exceed 100, but not 180, cycles per minute.

  4. (d) Colour. Each anti-collision light shall be either aviation red or aviation white and shall meet the applicable requirements of 523-VLA.1397.

  5. (e) Light intensity. The minimum light intensities in any vertical plane, measured with the red filter (if used) and expressed in terms of "effective" intensities, shall meet the requirements of paragraph (f) of this section. The following relation shall be assumed:

    1. where:

    2. Ie = effective intensity (candles);

    3. I(t) = instantaneous intensity as a function of time;

    4. t2-t1 = flash time interval (seconds).

    5. Normally, the maximum value of effective intensity is obtained when t2 and t1 are chosen so that the effective intensity is equal to the instantaneous intensity at t2 and t1.

  6. (f) Minimum effective intensities for anti-collision lights. Each anti-collision light effective intensity shall equal or exceed the applicable values in Table F4.

Angle Above Or Below The Horizontal Plane Effective Intensity (Candles)
0° to 5° 400
5° to 10° 240
10° to 20° 80
30° to 75° 40
0° to 5° 20

Table F4]

(Change 523-VLA-1)

[SUBCHAPTER G][OPERATING LIMITATIONS AND INFORMATION]

[523-VLA.1525 Kinds of Operation]

[The kinds of operation authorized (e.g. VFR, IFR, day or night) and the meteorological conditions (e.g. icing) to which the operation of the aeroplane is limited or from which it is prohibited, shall be established appropriate to the installed equipment.

JAR: The kinds of operation to which the aeroplane is limited are established by the category in which it is eligible for certification and by the installed equipment.]

(Change 523-VLA-1)

[Markings and Placards]

[523-VLA.1541 General]

  1. [(a) The aeroplane shall contain:

    1. (1) the markings and placards specified in JAR-VLA 1545 through JAR-VLA 1555, JAR-VLA 1561 and 523-VLA.1557 through 523-VLA.1567, and

      1. JAR: The markings and placards specified in JAR-VLA 1545 through JAR-VLA 1567.

    2. (2) any additional information, instrument markings, and placards required for the safe operation if it has unusual design, operating, or handling characteristics.

  2. (b) Each marking and placard prescribed in paragraph (a) of this section:

    1. (1) shall be displayed in a conspicuous place; and

    2. (2) shall not be easily erased, disfigured, or obscured.

  3. (c) The units of measurement used on the placards shall be the same as those used on the indicators.

  4. (d) For aeroplanes which are to be certificated in more than one category:

    1. (1) the applicant shall select one category upon which the placards and markings are to be based; and

    2. (2) the placards and markings information for all categories in which the aeroplane is to be certificated shall be furnished in the Aeroplane Flight Manual.

JAR - No corresponding text.]

(Change 523-VLA-1)

[523-VLA.1557 Miscellaneous Markings and Placards]

  1. [(a) Baggage and cargo compartments, and ballast location. Each baggage and cargo compartment, and each ballast location, shall have a placard stating any limitations on contents, including weight, that are necessary under the loading requirements.

  2. (b) Fuel and oil filler openings. The following apply:

    1. (1) fuel filler openings shall be marked at or near the filler cover with the minimum fuel grade, fuel designation, fuel capacity of the tank, and for each 2-stroke engine without a separate oil system, fuel/oil mixture ratio;

    2. (2) oil filler openings shall be marked at or near the filler cover:

      1. (i) with the grade, and

      2. (ii) if the oil is detergent or non-detergent; and

    3. (3) where placards and markings at the fuel or oil filler openings include tank capacity, the capacity shall be specified in litres. Imperial or U.S. gallons may also be included.

      1. JAR - No corresponding text.

  3. (c) Fuel tanks. The usable fuel capacity in volumetric units of each tank shall be marked at the selector and on the fuel quantity indicator. Units used on the fuel quantity indicator shall be consistent with (b)(3).

    1. JAR - No corresponding text.

  4. (d) When an emergency exit is provided in compliance with JAR-VLA 807, each operating control shall be red. The placards shall be near each control and shall clearly indicate its method of operation.

  5. (e) The system voltage of each direct current installation shall be clearly marked adjacent to its external power connection.]

(Change 523-VLA-1)

[523-VLA.1559 Operating Limitations Placard]

  1. [(a) There shall be a placard in clear view of the pilot stating:

    1. (1) that the aeroplane shall be operated in accordance with the Aeroplane Flight Manual; and

    2. (2) the certification category of the aeroplane to which the placards apply.

  2. (b) For aeroplanes certificated in more than one category, there shall be a placard in clear view of the pilot stating that other limitations are contained in the Aeroplane Flight Manual.

  3. (c) There shall be a placard in clear view of the pilot that specifies the kind of operations to which the operation of the aeroplane is limited or from which it is prohibited under 523-VLA.1525.

JAR - No corresponding text].

(Change 523-VLA-1)

[523-VLA.1563 Airspeed Placards]

[There shall be an airspeed placard in clear view of the pilot and as close as practicable to the airspeed indicator. This placard shall list:

  1. (a) the operating manoeuvring speed, VO; and

  2. (b) the maximum landing gear operating speed VLO.

    1. JAR: The following placards must be plainly visible to the pilot:

    2. (a) a placard stating the following airspeeds (IAS):

      1. (1) design manoeuvring speed, VA;

      2. (2) the maximum landing gear operating speed, VLO.

    3. (b) a placard stating 'This aeroplane is classified as a very light aeroplane approved for day VFR only, in non-icing conditions. All aerobatic manoeuvres including intentional spinning are prohibited. See Flight Manual for other limitations'.]

(Change 523-VLA-1)

[523-VLA.1567 Flight Manoeuvre Placard]

  1. [(a) For normal category aeroplanes, there shall be a placard in front of and in clear view of the pilot stating: "No aerobatic manoeuvres, including spins, approved".

  2. (b) For utility category aeroplanes, there shall be:

    1. (1) a placard in clear view of the pilot stating: "Aerobatic manoeuvres are limited to the following ... " (list approved manoeuvres and the recommended entry speed for each); and

    2. (2) for those aeroplanes that do not meet the spin requirements of 523-VLA.221(c), an additional placard in clear view of the pilot stating: "Spins Prohibited".

  3. (c) for utility category aeroplanes approved for spinning, there shall be a placard in clear view of the pilot:

    1. (1) listing the control actions for recovery from spinning manoeuvres; and

    2. (2) stating that recovery shall be initiated when spiral characteristics appear, or after not more than six turns or not more than any greater number of turns for which the aeroplane has been certificated.

JAR - No corresponding text].

(Change 523-VLA-1)

[Aeroplane Flight Manual and Approved Manual Material]

[523-VLA.1581 General]

[No variation.]

(Change 523-VLA-1)

[523-VLA.1583 Operating Limitations]

  1. [(a) Airspeed limitations. The following information shall be furnished:

    1. (1) information necessary for the marking of the airspeed limits on the indicator as required in JAR-VLA 1545, and the significance of each of the colour coding used on the indicator; and

    2. (2) the speeds VA, VLE, and VLO where appropriate.

  2. (b) Weights. The following information shall be furnished:

    1. (1) the maximum weight;

    2. (2) any other weight limits, if necessary.

  3. (c) Centre of gravity. The established centre of gravity limits required by JAR-VLA 23.

  4. (d) Manoeuvres. The following authorized manoeuvres, appropriate airspeed limitations, and unauthorized manoeuvres, as prescribed in this section.

    1. (1) Normal category aeroplanes. No aerobatic manoeuvres, including spins, are authorized; and

    2. (2) Utility category aeroplanes. A list of authorized manoeuvres demonstrated in the type flight tests, together with recommended entry speeds and any other associated limitations. No other manoeuvre is authorized.

      1. JAR: Manoeuvres. Authorized manoeuvres established in accordance with JAR-VLA 3.

  5. (e) Flight load factor. Manoeuvring load factors; the following shall be furnished:

    1. (1) the factors corresponding to point A and point C of figure 1 of JAR-VLA 333 (b), stated to be applicable at VA ;

    2. (2) the factors corresponding to point D and point E of figure 1 of JAR-VLA 333(b) to be applicable at VNE ;

    3. (3) the factor with wing flaps extended as specified in JAR-VLA 345.

  6. (f) Kinds of operation. A list of the kinds of operation to which the aeroplane is limited or from which it is prohibited under 523-VLA.1525, and also a list of installed equipment that affects any operating limitation and identification of the required operational status of the equipment for the kinds of operation for which approval has been given.

    1. JAR: Kinds of operation. The kinds of operation (day VFR) in which the aeroplane may be used, must be stated. The minimum equipment required for the operation must be listed.

  7. (g) Systems. Any limitations on the use of aeroplane systems and equipment.

    1. JAR - No corresponding text.

  8. (h) Power plant limitations. The following information shall be furnished:

    1. (1) limitations required by JAR-VLA 1521;

    2. (2) information necessary for marking the instruments required by JAR-VLA 1549 through JAR-VLA 1553;

    3. (3) fuel and oil designation;

    4. (4) for two-stroke engines, fuel/oil ratio.

  9. (i) Placards The placards required by 523-VLA.1541 shall be presented.

JAR: Placards. The placards required by JAR-VLA 1555 to 1561 must be presented.]

(Change 523-VLA-1)

[523-VLA.1585 Operating data and procedures]

[Information concerning normal and emergency procedures and other pertinent information necessary for safe operation shall be furnished, including:

  1. (a) the stall speed in the various configurations;

  2. (b) any loss of altitude more than 30 m or any pitch attitude more than 30° below the horizon occurring during the recovery part of the manoeuvre prescribed in JAR-VLA 201;

  3. (c) any loss of altitude of more than 30 m occurring in the recovery part of the manoeuvre prescribed in JAR-VLA 203;

  4. (d) recommended recovery procedure to recover from an inadvertent spin;

  5. (e) special procedures to start the engine in flight, if necessary;

  6. (f) information on the total quantity of usable fuel, and conditions under which the full amount of usable fuel in each tank can safely be used;

  7. (g) for each aeroplane showing compliance with JAR-VLA 1353(g)(2) or (g)(3), the operating procedures for disconnecting the battery from its charging source shall be furnished.

JAR - No corresponding text.]

(Change 523-VLA-1)

Appendix A
(effective 2014/12/01)

HIRF Environments and Equipment HIRF Test Levels

This appendix specifies the HIRF environments and equipment HIRF test levels for electrical and electronic systems under 523-VLA.1308. The field strength values for the HIRF environments and equipment HIRF test levels are expressed in root-mean-square units measured during the peak of the modulation cycle.

  1. (a) HIRF environment I is specified in the following table:

Table I - HIRF Environment I
FREQUENCY FIELD STRENGTH (volts/meter)
PEAK AVERAGE
10 kHz - 2 MHz 50 50
2 MHz – 30 MHz 100 100
30 MHz – 100 MHz 50 50
100 MHz – 400 MHz 100 100
400 MHz – 700 MHz 700 50
700 MHz – 1 GHz 700 100
1 GHz – 2 GHz 2000 200
2 GHz – 6 GHz 3000 200
6 GHz – 8 GHz 1000 200
8 GHz – 12 GHz 3000 300
12 GHz – 18 GHz 2000 200
18 GHz – 40 GHz 600 200
    1. In this table, the higher field strength applies at the frequency band edges.

  1. (b) HIRF environment II is specified in the following table:

Table II - HIRF Environment II
FREQUENCY FIELD STRENGTH (volts/meter)
PEAK AVERAGE
10 kHz – 500 kHz 20 20
500 kHz – 2 MHz 30 30
2 MHz – 30 MHz 100 100
30 MHz – 100 MHz 10 10
100 MHz – 200 MHz 30 10
200 MHz – 400 MHz 10 10
400 MHz – 1 GHz 700 40
1 GHz – 2 GHz 1300 160
2 GHz – 4 GHz 3000 120
4 GHz – 6 GHz 3000 160
6 GHz – 8 GHz 400 170
8 GHz – 12 GHz 1230 230
12 GHz – 18 GHz 730 190
18 GHz – 40 GHz 600 150
    1. In this table, the higher field strength applies at the frequency band edges.

  1. (c) Equipment HIRF Test Level 1

    1. (1) From 10 kilohertz (kHz) to 400 megahertz (MHz), use conducted susceptibility tests with continuous wave (CW) and 1 kHz square wave modulation with 90 percent depth or greater. The conducted susceptibility current must start at a minimum of 0.6 milliamperes (mA) at 10 kHz, increasing 20 decibels (dB) per frequency decade to a minimum of 30 mA at 500 kHz.

    2. (2) From 500 kHz to 40 MHz, the conducted susceptibility current must be at least 30 mA.

    3. (3) From 40 MHz to 400 MHz, use conducted susceptibility tests, starting at a minimum of 30 mA at 40 MHz, decreasing 20 dB per frequency decade to a minimum of 3 mA at 400 MHz.

    4. (4) From 100 MHz to 400 MHz, use radiated susceptibility tests at a minimum of 20 volts per meter (V/m) peak with CW and 1 kHz square wave modulation with 90 percent depth or greater.

    5. (5) From 400 MHz to 8 gigahertz (GHz), use radiated susceptibility tests at a minimum of 150 V/m peak with pulse modulation of 4 percent duty cycle with a 1 kHz pulse repetition frequency. This signal must be switched on and off at a rate of 1 Hz with a duty cycle of 50 percent.

  2. (d) Equipment HIRF Test Level 2

    1. Equipment HIRF test level 2 is HIRF environment II in table II of this appendix reduced by acceptable aircraft transfer function and attenuation curves. Testing must cover the frequency band of 10 kHz to 8 GHz.

  3. (e) Equipment HIRF Test Level 3

    1. (1) From 10 kHz to 400 MHz, use conducted susceptibility tests, starting at a minimum of 0.15 mA at 10 kHz, increasing 20 dB per frequency decade to a minimum of 7.5 mA at 500 kHz.

    2. (2) From 500 kHz to 40 MHz, use conducted susceptibility tests at a minimum of 7.5 mA.

    3. (3) From 40 MHz to 400 MHz, use conducted susceptibility tests, starting at a minimum of 7.5 mA at 40 MHz, decreasing 20 dB per frequency decade to a minimum of 0.75 mA at 400 MHz.

    4. (4) From 100 MHz to 8 GHz, use radiated susceptibility tests at a minimum of 5 V/m.

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