Part V - Airworthiness Manual Chapter 525 - Transport Category Aeroplanes

Content last revised: 2012/06/01

Preamble

SUBCHAPTERS 

  • A (525.1-525.2), 
  • B (525.21-525.255), 
  • C (525.301-525.581), 
  • D (525.601-525.899), 
  • E (525.901-525.1207), 
  • F (525.1301-525.1461), 
  • G (525.1501-525.1587)
  • H (525.1701-525.1733)

APPENDICES 

A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, L, M, N

(2001/06/01; no previous version)

SUBCHAPTER G OPERATING LIMITATIONS AND INFORMATION

525.1501 General

(a) Each operating limitation specified in 525.1503 through 525.1533 and other limitations and information necessary for safe operation must be established.

(b) The operating limitations and other information necessary for safe operation must be made available to the crewmembers as prescribed in 525.1541 through 525.1587.

Operating Limitations

525.1503 Airspeed Limitations: General

When airspeed limitations are a function of weight, weight distribution, altitude, or Mach number, limitations corresponding to each critical combination of these factors must be established.

525.1505 Maximum Operating Limit Speed

The maximum operating limit speed (VMO/MMO airspeed or Mach number, whichever is critical at a particular altitude) is a speed that may not be deliberately exceeded in any regime of flight (climb, cruise, or descent), unless a higher speed is authorised for flight test or pilot training operations. VMO/MMO must be established so that it is not greater than the design cruising speed VC and so that it is sufficiently below VD/MD or VDF/MDF, to make it highly improbable that the latter speeds will be inadvertently exceeded in operations. The speed margin between VMO/MMO and VD/MD or VDF/MDF may not be less than that determined under 525.335(b) or found necessary during the flight tests conducted under 525.253.

525.1507 Manoeuvring Speed

The manoeuvring speed must be established so that it does not exceed the design manoeuvring speed VA determined under 525.335(c).

525.1511 Flap Extended Speed

The established flap extended speed VFE must be established so that it does not exceed the design flap speed VF chosen under 525.335(e) and 525.345, for the corresponding flap positions and engine powers.

525.1513 Minimum Control Speed

The minimum control speed VMC determined under 525.149 must be established as an operating limitation.

525.1515 Landing Gear Speeds

(a) The established landing gear operating speed or speeds, VLO, may not exceed the speed at which it is safe both to extend and to retract the landing gear, as determined under 525.729 or by flight characteristics. If the extension speed is not the same as the retraction speed, the two speeds must be designated as VLO(EXT) and VLO(RET), respectively.

(b) The established landing gear extended speed VLE may not exceed the speed at which it is safe to fly with the landing gear secured in the fully extended position, and that determined under 525.729.

525.1516 Other Speed Limitations

Any other limitation associated with speed shall be established.
(amended 2001/10/24; no previous version)

525.1517 Rough Air Speed, VRA

A rough air speed, VRA, for use as the recommended turbulence penetration airspeed in 525.1585(a)(8), must be established, which:

(a) Is not greater than the design airspeed for maximum gust intensity, selected for VB; and

(b) Is not less than the minimum value of VB specified in 525.335(d); and

(c) Is sufficiently less than VMO to ensure that likely speed variation during rough air encounters will not cause the overspeed warning to operate too frequently. In the absence of a rational investigation substantiating the use of other values, VRA must be less than VMO- 35 knots (TAS).

(Change 525-8)

525.1519 Weight, Centre of Gravity and Weight Distribution

The aeroplane weight, centre of gravity, and weight distribution limitations determined under 525.23 through 525.27 must be established as operating limitations.

525.1521 Powerplant Limitations

(a) General. The powerplant limitations prescribed in this section must be established so that they do not exceed the corresponding limits for which the engines or propellers are type certificated and do not exceed the values on which compliance with any other requirement of this chapter is based.

(b) Reciprocating engine installations. Operating limitations relating to the following must be established for reciprocating engine installations:

(1) Horsepower or torque, r.p.m., manifold pressure, and time at critical pressure altitude and sea level pressure altitude for:

(i) Maximum continuous power (relating to unsupercharged operation or to operation in each supercharger mode as applicable); and

(ii) Take-off power (relating to unsupercharged operation or to operation in each supercharger mode as applicable).

(2) Fuel grade or specification.

(3) Cylinder head and oil temperatures.

(4) Any other parameter for which a limitation has been established as part of the engine type certificate except that a limitation need not be established for a parameter that cannot be exceeded during normal operation due to the design of the installation or to another established limitation.

(c) Turbine engine installations. Operations limitations relating to the following must be established for turbine engine installation:

(1) Horsepower, torque or thrust, r.p.m., gas temperature, and time for:

(i) Maximum continuous power or thrust (relating to augmented or unaugmented operation as applicable).

(ii) Take-off power or thrust (relating to augmented or unaugmented operation as applicable).

(2) Fuel designation or specification.

(3) Any other parameter for which a limitation has been established as part of the engine type certificate except that a limitation need not be established for a parameter that cannot be exceeded during normal operation due to the design of the installation or to another established limitation.

(d) Ambient temperature. An ambient temperature limitation (including limitations for winterisation installations, if applicable) must be established as the maximum ambient atmospheric temperature established in accordance with 525.1043(b).

(e) Take-off operation. For all engine installations, the power plant take-off operation must be limited by a time limit for conditional use of rated take-off power or thrust in excess of 5 minutes, but not more than 10, in case of one-engine-inoperative climb, if:

(1) The engine has been type approved for such operation; and

(2) The instructions for continued airworthiness contain instructions for mandatory actions shown to be necessary following operation of an engine in excess of 5 minutes at take-off rating.

FAR: No equivalent text

(Change 525-3 (91-11-01))

525.1522 Auxiliary Power Unit Limitations

If an auxiliary power unit is installed in the aeroplane, limitations established for that auxiliary power unit, including the categories of operation, must be specified as operating limitations for the aeroplane.

(Change 525-3 (91-11-01))

525.1523 Minimum Flight Crew

The minimum flight crew must be established so that it is sufficient for safe operation, considering:

(a) The workload on individual crewmembers;

(b) The accessibility and ease of operation of necessary controls by the appropriate crewmember; and

(c) The kind of operation authorised under 525.1525.

The criteria used in making the determinations required by this section are set forth in Appendix D.

525.1525 Kinds of Operation

The kinds of operation to which the aeroplane is limited are established by the category in which it is eligible for certification and by the installed equipment.

525.1527 Ambient Air Temperature and Operating Altitude

The extremes of the ambient air temperature and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited by flight, structural, powerplant, functional, or equipment characteristics, shall be established.
(amended 2001/10/24; previous version)

525.1529 Instructions for Continued Airworthiness

The applicant must prepare Instructions for Continued Airworthiness in accordance with Appendix H to this chapter that are acceptable to the Minister. The instructions may be incomplete at type certification if a program exists to ensure their completion prior to delivery of the first aeroplane or issuance of a standard certificate of airworthiness, whichever occurs later.

525.1531 Manoeuvring Flight Load Factors

Load factor limitations, not exceeding the positive limit load factors determined from the manoeuvring diagram in 525.333(b), must be established.

525.1533 Additional Operating Limitations

(a) Aditional operating limitations must be established as follows:

(1) The maximum take-off weights must be established as the weights at which compliance is shown with the applicable provisions of this chapter (including the take-off climb provisions of 525.121(a) through (c), for altitudes and ambient temperatures).

(2) The maximum landing weights must be established as the weights at which compliance is shown with the applicable provisions of this chapter (including the landing and approach climb provisions of 525.119 and 525.121(d) for altitudes and ambient temperatures).

(3) The minimum take-off distances must be established as the distances at which compliance is shown with the applicable provisions of this chapter (including the provisions of 525.109 and 525.113, for weights, altitudes, temperatures, wind components, runway surface conditions (dry and wet) and runway gradients) for smooth, hard-surfaced runways. Additionally, at the option of the applicant, wet runway take-off distances may be established for runway surfaces that have been grooved and may be approved for use on runways where such surfaces have been designed constructed, and maintained in a manner acceptable to the Minister.

(b) The extremes for variable factors (such as altitude, temperature, wind, and runway gradients) are those at which compliance with the applicable provisions of this chapter is shown.

(Change 525-3 (91-11-01))
(Change 525-8)

Markings and Placards

525.1541 General

(a) The aeroplane must contain:

(1) The specified markings and placards; and

(2) Any additional information, instrument markings, and placards required for the safe operation if there are unusual design, operating, or handling characteristics.

(b) Each marking and placard prescribed in paragraph (a) of this section:

(1) Must be displayed in a conspicuous place; and

(2) May not be easily erased, disfigured, or obscured.

525.1543 Instrument Markings: General

For each instrument:

(a) When markings are on the cover glass of the instrument, there must be means to maintain the correct alignment of the glass cover with the face of the dial; and

(b) Each instrument marking must be clearly visible to the appropriate crewmember.

(Change 525-3 (91-11-01))

525.1545 Airspeed Limitation Information

The airspeed limitations required by 525.1583(a) must be easily read and understood by the flight crew.

525.1547 Magnetic Direction Indicator

(a) A placard meeting the requirements of this section must be installed on, or near, the magnetic direction indicator.

(b) The placard must show the calibration of the instrument in level flight with the engines operating.

(c) The placard must state whether the calibration was made with radio receivers on or off.

(d) Each calibration reading must be in terms of magnetic heading in not more than 45-degree increments.

525.1549 Powerplant and Auxiliary Power Unit Instruments

For each required powerplant and auxiliary power unit instrument, as appropriate to the type of instrument:

(a) Each maximum and, if applicable, minimum safe operating limit must be marked with a red radial or a red line;

(b) Each normal operating range must be marked with a green arc or green line, not extending beyond the maximum and minimum safe limits;

(c) Each take-off and precautionary range must be marked with a yellow arc or a yellow line; and

(d) Each engine, auxiliary power unit, or propeller speed range that is restricted because of excessive vibration stresses must be marked with red arcs or red lines.

525.1551 Oil Quantity Indicator

Each oil quantity indicating means must be marked to indicate the quantity of oil readily and accurately.

(Change 525-3 (91-11-01))

525.1553 Fuel Quantity Indicator

If the unusable fuel supply for any tank exceeds one gallon, or five percent of the tank capacity, whichever is greater, a red arc must be marked on its indicator extending from the calibrated zero reading to the lowest reading obtainable in level flight.

525.1555 Control Markings

(a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight controls and controls whose function is obvious, must be plainly marked as to its function and method of operation.

(b) Each aerodynamic control must be marked under the requirements of 525.677 and 525.699.

(c) For powerplant fuel controls:

(1) Each fuel tank selector control must be marked to indicate the position corresponding to each tank and to each existing cross feed position;

(2) If safe operation requires the use of any tanks in a specific sequence, that sequence must be marked on, or adjacent to, the selector for those tanks; and

(3) Each valve control for each engine must be marked to indicate the position corresponding to each engine controlled.

(d) For accessory, auxiliary, and emergency controls:

(1) Each emergency control (including each fuel jettisoning and fluid shut-off control) must be coloured red; and

(2) Each visual indicator required by 525.729(e) must be marked so that the pilot can determine at any time when the wheels are locked in either extreme position, if retractable landing gear is used.

525.1557 Miscellaneous Markings and Placards

(a) Baggage and cargo compartments and ballast location. Each baggage and cargo compartment, and each ballast location must have a placard stating any limitations on contents, including weight, that are necessary under the loading requirements. However, under seat compartments designed for the storage of carry-on articles weighing not more than 20 pounds need not have a loading limitation placard.

(b) Powerplant fluid filler openings.

(1) Fuel filler openings must be marked at or near the filler cover with:

(i) The word "fuel";

(ii) For reciprocating engine powered aeroplanes, the minimum fuel grade;

(iii) For turbine engine powered aeroplanes, the permissible fuel designations; and

(iv) For pressure fuelling systems, the maximum permissible fuelling supply pressure and the maximum permissible defuelling pressure.

(2) Oil filler openings must be marked at or near the filler cover with the word "oil".

(3) Augmentation fluid filler openings must be marked at or near the filler cover to identify the required fluid.

(4) If placards and markings at the powerplant fluid openings include tank capacity, the capacity must be specified in litres. Imperial or U.S. gallons may also be included.

FAR: No equivalent text

(c) Emergency exit placards. Each emergency exit placard must meet the requirements of 525.811.

(d) Doors. Each door that must be used in order to reach any required emergency exit must have a suitable placard stating that the door is to be latched in the open position during take-off and landing.

(Change 525-3 (91-11-01))

525.1561 Safety Equipment

(a) Each safety equipment control to be operated by the crew in emergency, such as controls for automatic liferaft releases, must be plainly marked as to its method of operation.

(b) Each location, such as a locker or compartment, that carries any fire extinguishing, signalling, or other lifesaving equipment must be marked accordingly.

(c) Stowage provisions for required emergency equipment must be conspicuously marked to identify the contents and facilitate the easy removal of the equipment.

(d) Each liferaft must have obviously marked operating instructions.

(e) Approved survival equipment must be marked for identification and method of operation.

525.1563 Airspeed Placard

A placard showing the maximum airspeeds for flap extension for the take-off, approach, and landing positions must be installed in clear view of each pilot.

Aeroplane Flight Manual

525.1581 General

(a) Furnishing information. An Aeroplane Flight Manual must be furnished with each aeroplane, and it must contain the following:

(1) Information required by 525.1583 through 525.1587.

(2) Other information that is necessary for safe operation because of design, operating, or handling characteristics.

(3) Any limitation, procedure, or other information established as a condition of compliance with the applicable noise standards of Chapter 516, Subchapter A of this manual.
(amended 2007/07/16; previous version)

FAR: (3) Any limitation, procedure, or other information established as a condition of compliance with the applicable noise standards of Part 36 of this chapter.

(b) Approved information. Each part of the manual listed in 525.1583 through 525.1587, that is appropriate to the aeroplane, must be furnished, verified, and approved, and must be segregated, identified, and clearly distinguished from each unapproved part of that manual.

(c) (Reserved)

(d) Each Aeroplane Flight Manual must include a table of contents if the complexity of the manual indicates a need for it.

(e) (Removed)
(amended 2003/06/01; previous version)

(f) (Removed)
(amended 2003/06/01; previous version)

(g) The Aeroplane Flight Manual shall contain information in the form of approved guidance material for supplementary operating procedures and performance information for operating on contaminated runways.

FAR: No equivalent text

(Change 525-3 (91-11-01))
(Change 525-6 (93-12-30))
(Change 525-8)

525.1583 Operating Limitations

(a) Airspeed Limitations. The following airspeed limitations and any other airspeed limitations necessary for safe operation must be furnished:

(1) The maximum operating limit speed VMD/MMO and a statement that this speed limit may not be deliberately exceeded in any regime of flight (climb, cruise, or descent) unless a higher speed is authorised for flight test or pilot training.

(2) If an airspeed limitation is based upon compressibility effects, a statement to this effect and information as to any symptoms, the probable behaviour of the aeroplane, and the recommended recovery procedures.

(3) The manoeuvring speed established under section 525.1507 and statements, as applicable to the particular design, explaining that:
(amended 2012/03/27; previous version)

(i) Full application of pitch, roll or yaw controls should be confined to speeds below the manoeuvring speed; and
(amended 2012/03/27; previous version)

(ii) rapid and large alternating control inputs, especially in combination with large changes in pitch, roll or yaw, and full control inputs in more than one axis at the same time, should be avoided as they may result in structural failures at any speed, including below the manoeuvring speed.
(amended 2012/03/27; previous version)

(4) The flap extended speed VyFE and the pertinent flap positions and engine powers.

(5) The landing gear operating speed or speeds, and a statement explaining the speeds as defined in 525.1515(a).

(6) The landing gear extended speed VyLE, if greater than VyLO, and a statement that this is the maximum speed at which the aeroplane can be safely flown with the landing gear extended.

(b) Powerplant limitations. The following information must be furnished:

(1) Limitations required by 525.1521 and 525.1522.

(2) Explanation of the limitations, when appropriate.

(3) Information necessary for marking the instruments required by 525.1549 through 525.1553.

(c) Weight and loading distribution. The weight and centre of gravity limitations established under section 525.1519 shall be furnished in the Aeroplane Flight Manual. All of the following information, including the weight distribution limitations established under section 525.1519, shall be presented either in the Aeroplane Flight Manual or in a separate weight and balance control and loading document that is incorporated by reference in the Aeroplane Flight Manual:
(amended 2001/10/24; previous version)

(1) The condition of the aeroplane and the items included in the empty weight as defined in accordance with 525.29.

(2) Loading instructions necessary to ensure loading of the aeroplane within the weight and centre of gravity limits, and to maintain the loading within these limits in flight.

(3) If certification for more than one centre of gravity range is requested, the appropriate limitations, with regard to weight and loading procedures, for each separate centre of gravity range.

(d) Flight crew. The number and functions of the minimum flight crew determined under 525.1523 must be furnished.

(e) Kinds of operation. The kinds of operation approved under 525.1525 must be furnished.

(f) Ambient Air Temperatures and Operating Altitudes. The extremes of the ambient air temperatures and operating altitudes established under 525.1527 shall be furnished.
(amended 2001/10/24; previous version)

(g) (Reserved)

(h) Additional operating limitations. The operating limitations established under 525.1533 must be furnished.

(i) Manoeuvring flight load factors. The positive manoeuvring limit load factors for which the structure is proven, described in terms of accelerations, must be furnished.

(Change 525-3 (91-11-01)
(Change 525-6 (93-12-30))

525.1585 Operating Procedures

(a) Operating procedures shall be furnished for:
(amended 2001/10/24; previous version)

(1) normal procedures peculiar to the particular type or model encountered in connection with routine operations;

(2) non-normal procedures for malfunction cases and failure conditions involving the use of special systems or the alternative use of regular systems; and

(3) emergency procedures for foreseeable but unusual situations in which immediate and precise action by the crew may be expected to substantially reduce the risk of catastrophe.

(b) Information or procedures not directly related to airworthiness or not under the control of the crew shall not be included, nor shall any procedure that is accepted as basic airmanship.
(amended 2001/10/24; previous version)

(c) Information identifying each operating condition in which the fuel system independence prescribed in section 525.953 is necessary for safety shall be furnished, together with instructions for placing the fuel system in a configuration used to show compliance with that section.
(amended 2001/10/24; previous version)

(d) The buffet onset envelopes, determined under section 525.251 shall be furnished. The buffet onset envelopes presented may reflect the centre of gravity at which the aeroplane is normally loaded during cruise if corrections for the effect of different centre of gravity locations are furnished.
(amended 2001/10/24; previous version)

(e) Information shall be furnished that indicates that when the fuel quantity indicator reads "zero" in level flight, any fuel remaining in the fuel tank cannot be used safely in flight.
(amended 2001/10/24; previous version)

(f) Information on the total quantity of usable fuel for each fuel tank shall be furnished.
(amended 2001/10/24; previous version)

525.1587 Performance Information

(a) Each Aeroplane Flight Manual must contain information to permit conversion of the indicated temperature to free air temperature if other than a free air temperature indicator is used to comply with the requirements of 525.1303(a)(1).

(b) Each Aeroplane Flight Manual shall contain the performance information computed under the applicable provisions of this chapter (including sections 525.115, 525.123 and 525.125 for the weights, altitudes, temperatures, wind components, and runway gradients, as applicable) within the operational limits of the aeroplane, and shall contain the following:
(amended 2001/10/24; previous version)

(1) in each case, the conditions of power, configuration, and speeds, and the procedures for handling the aeroplane and any system having a significant effect on the performance information;
(amended 2001/10/24; previous version)

(2) VSR determined in accordance with 525.103;
(amended 2003/11/10; previous version)

(3) the following performance information (determined by extrapolation and computed for the range of weights between the maximum landing weight and the maximum take-off weights):
(amended 2001/10/24; previous version)

(i) Climb in the landing configuration.

(ii) Climb in the approach configuration.

(iii) Landing distance.

(4) procedures established under 525.101(f) and (g) that are related to the limitations and information required by 525.1533 and by paragraph (b) in the form of guidance material, including any relevant limitations or information;
(amended 2001/10/24; previous version)

(5) an explanation of significant or unusual flight or ground handling characteristics of the aeroplane;

(6) corrections to indicated values of airspeed, altitude, and outside air temperature;
(amended 2001/10/24; no previous version)

(7) an explanation of operational landing runway length factors included in the presentation of the landing distance, if appropriate.
(amended 2001/10/24; no previous version)

(Change 525-3 (91-11-01))