Part V - Airworthiness Manual Chapter 527 - Normal Category Aircraft

Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) 2017-2

Preamble

SUBCHAPTERS

  • A (527.1-527.2), 
  • B (527.21-527.251), 
  • C (527.301-527.571), 
  • D (527.601-527.873), 
  • E (527.901-527.1195), 
  • F (527.1301-527.1461), 
  • G (527.1501-527.1589)

APPENDICES

ABCD

(2002/06/01; no previous version)

SUBCHAPTER C STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS - GENERAL

527.301 Loads

  1. (a) Strength requirements are specified in terms of limit loads (the maximum loads to be expected in service) and ultimate loads (limit loads multiplied by prescribed factors of safety). Unless otherwise provided, prescribed loads are limit loads.
  2. (b) Unless otherwise provided, the specified air, ground, and water loads must be placed in equilibrium with inertia forces, considering each item of mass in the rotorcraft. These loads must be distributed to closely approximate or conservatively represent actual conditions.
  3. (c) If deflections under load would significantly change the distribution of external or internal loads, this redistribution must be taken into account.

527.303 Factor of Safety

Unless otherwise provided, a factor of safety of 1.5 must be used. This factor applies to external and inertia loads unless its application to the resulting internal stresses is more conservative.

527.305 Strength and Deformation

  1. (a) The structure must be able to support limit loads without detrimental or permanent deformation. At any load up to limit loads, the deformation may not interfere with safe operation.
  2. (b) The structure must be able to support ultimate loads without failure. This must be shown by:
    1. (1) Applying ultimate loads to the structure in a static test for at least three seconds; or
    2. (2) Dynamic tests simulating actual load application.

527.307 Proof of Structure

  1. (a) Compliance with the strength and deformation requirements of this subchapter must be shown for each critical loading condition accounting for the environment to which the structure will be exposed in operation. Structural analysis (static or fatigue) may be used only if the structure conforms to those structures, for which experience has shown this method to be reliable. In other cases, substantiating load tests must be made.
  2. (b) Proof of compliance with the strength requirements of this subchapter must include:
    1. (1) Dynamic and endurance tests of rotors, rotor drives, and rotor controls;
    2. (2) Limit load tests of the control system, including control surfaces;
    3. (3) Operation tests of the control system;
    4. (4) Flight stress measurement tests;
    5. (5) Landing gear drop tests; and
    6. (6) Any additional test required for new or unusual design features.

    (Change 527-2 (92-02-01))

    (Change 527-2 (92-02-01))

    (Change 527-2 (92-02-01))

527.309 Design Limitations

The following values and limitations must be established to show compliance with the structural requirements of this subchapter:

  1. (a) The design maximum weight.
  2. (b) The main rotor r.p.m. ranges, power on and power off.
  3. (c) The maximum forward speeds for each main rotor r.p.m. within the ranges determined under paragraph (b) of this section.
  4. (d) The maximum rearward and sideward flight speeds.
  5. (e) The centre of gravity limits corresponding to the limitations determined under paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section.
  6. (f) The rotational speed ratios between each powerplant and each connected rotating component.
  7. (g) The positive and negative limit manoeuvring load factors.

Flight Loads

527.321 General

  1. (a) The flight load factor must be assumed to act normal to the longitudinal axis of the rotorcraft, and to be equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the rotorcraft inertia load factor at the centre of gravity.
  2. (b) Compliance with the flight load requirements of this subchapter must be shown:
    1. (1) At each weight from the design minimum weight to the design maximum weight; and
    2. (2) With any practical distribution of disposable load within the operating limitations in the Rotorcraft Flight Manual.

527.337 Limit Manoeuvring Load Factor

The rotorcraft must be designed for:

  1. (a) A limit manoeuvring load factor ranging from a positive limit of 3.5 to a negative limit of -1.0; or
  2. (b) Any positive limit manoeuvring load factor not less than 2.0, and any negative limit manoeuvring load factor of not less than -0.5 for which:
    1. (1) The probability of being exceeded is shown by analysis and flight tests to be extremely remote; and
    2. (2) The selected values are appropriate to each weight condition between the design maximum and design minimum weights.

    (Change 527-2 (92-02-01))

527.339 Resultant Limit Manoeuvring Loads

The loads resulting from the application of limit manoeuvring load factors are assumed to act at the centre of each rotor hub and at each auxiliary lifting surface, and to act in directions, and with distributions of load among the rotors and auxiliary lifting surfaces, so as to represent each critical manoeuvring condition, including power-on and power-off flight with the maximum design rotor tip speed ratio. The rotor tip speed ratio is the ratio of the rotorcraft flight velocity component in the plane of the rotor disc to the rotational tip speed of the rotor blades, and is expressed as follows:

where:

V = The airspeed along flight path (f.p.s.);

a = The angle between the projection, in the plane of symmetry, of the axis of no feathering and a line perpendicular to the flight path (radians, positive when axis is pointing aft);

 = The angular velocity of rotor (radians per second); and

R = The rotor radius (ft.).

527.341 Gust Loads

The rotorcraft must be designed to withstand, at each critical airspeed including hovering, the loads resulting from a vertical gust of 30 feet per second.

527.351 Yawing Conditions

  1. (a) Each rotorcraft must be designed for the loads resulting from the manoeuvres specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section with:
    1. (1) Unbalanced aerodynamic moments about the centre of gravity which the aircraft reacts to in a rational or conservative manner considering the principal masses furnishing the reacting inertia forces; and
    2. (2) Maximum main rotor speed.
  2. (b) To produce the load required in paragraph (a) of this section, in unaccelerated flight with zero yaw, at forward speeds from zero up to 0.6 VNE:
    1. (1) Displace the cockpit directional control suddenly to the maximum deflection limited by the control stops or by the [maximum pilot force specified in 527.397 (a);]
    2. (2) Attain a resulting sideslip angle or 90°, whichever is less; and
    3. (3) Return the directional control suddenly to neutral.
  3. (c) To produce the load required in paragraph (a) of this section, in unaccelerated flight with zero yaw, at forward speeds from 0.6 VNE up to VNE or VH, whichever is less:
    1. (1) Displace the cockpit directional control suddenly to the maximum deflection limited by the control stops or by the [maximum pilot force specified in 527.397 (a);]
    2. (2) Attain a resulting sideslip angle or 15°, whichever is less, at the lesser speed of VNE or VH;
    3. (3) Vary the sideslip angles of paragraphs (b)(2) and (c)(2) of this section directly with speed; and
    4. (4) Return the directional control suddenly to neutral.

    (Change 527-2 (92-02-01))

    (Change 527-4)

527.361 Engine Torque

  1. (a) For turbine engines, the limit torque may not be less than the highest of:
    1. (1) The mean torque for maximum continuous power multiplied by 1.25;
    2. (2) The torque required by 527.923;
    3. (3) The torque required by 527.927; or
    4. (4) The torque imposed by sudden engine stoppage due to malfunction or structural failure (such as compressor jamming).
  2. (b) For reciprocating engines, the limit torque may not be less than the mean torque for maximum continuous power multiplied by:
    1. (1) 1.33, for engines with five or more cylinders; and
    2. (2) Two, three, and four, for engines with four, three, and two cylinders, respectively.

    (Change 527-1 (89-01-01) )

Control Surface and System Loads

527.391 General

Each auxiliary rotor, each fixed or movable stabilizing or control surface, and each system operating any flight control must meet the requirements of [527.395, 527.397, 527.399, 527.411, and 527.427.]

(Change 527-2 (92-02-01))

(Change 527-4)

527.395 Control System

  1. (a) The part of each control system from the pilot's controls to the control stops must be designed to withstand pilot forces of not less than:
    1. (1) The forces specified in 527.397; or
    2. (2) If the system prevents the pilot from applying the limit pilot forces to the system, the maximum forces that the system allows the pilot to apply, but not less than 0.60 times the forces specified in 527.397.
  2. (b) Each primary control system, including its supporting structure, must be designed as follows:
    1. (1) The system must withstand loads resulting from the limit pilot forces prescribed in 523.397.
    2. (2) Notwithstanding paragraph (b)(3) of this section, when power-operated actuator controls or power boost controls are used, the system must also withstand the loads resulting from the force output of each normally energized power device, including any single power boost or actuator system failure.
    3. (3) If the system design or the normal operating loads are such that a part of the system cannot react to the limit pilot forces prescribed in 527.397, that part of the system must be designed to withstand the maximum loads that can be obtained in normal operation. The minimum design loads must, in any case, provide a rugged system for service use, including consideration of fatigue, jamming, ground gusts, control inertia, and friction loads. In the absence of rational analysis, the design loads resulting from 0.60 of the specified limit pilot forces are acceptable minimum design loads.
    4. (4) If operational loads may be exceeded through jamming, ground gusts, control inertia, or friction, the system must withstand the limit pilot forces specified in 527.397, without yielding.

    (Change 527-2 (92-02-01))

527.397 Limit Pilot Forces and Torques

  1. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the limit pilot forces are as follows:
    1. (1) For foot controls, 130 pounds.
    2. (2) For stick controls, 100 pounds fore and aft, and 67 pounds laterally.
  2. (b) For flap, tab, stabilizer, rotor brake, and landing gear operating controls, the following apply (R = radius in inches):
    1. (1) Crank, wheel, and level controls,  pounds., but not less than 50 pounds nor more than 100 pounds for hand operated controls or 130 pounds for foot operated controls, applied at any angle with 20 degrees of the plane of motion of the control.
    2. (2) Twist controls, 80R inch-pounds.
      (amended 2001/10/24; previous version)

527.399 Dual Control System

Each dual primary flight control system must be designed to withstand the loads that result when pilot forces of 0.75 times those obtained under 527.395 are applied:

  1. (a) In opposition; and
  2. (b) In the same direction.

527.401 (Removed)

(Change 527-2 (92-02-01))

527.403 (Removed)

(Change 527-2 (92-02-01))

527.411 Ground Clearance:Tail Rotor Guard

  1. (a) It must be impossible for the tail rotor to contact the landing surface during a normal landing.
  2. (b) If a tail rotor guard is required to show compliance with paragraph (a) of this section:
    1. (1) Suitable design loads must be established for the guard; and
    2. (2) The guard and its supporting structure must be designed to withstand those loads.

527.413 (Removed)

(Change 527-2 (92-02-01))

527.427 Unsymmetrical Loads

  1. (a) Horizontal tail surfaces and their supporting structure must be designed for unsymmetrical loads arising from yawing and rotor wake effects in combination with the prescribed flight conditions.
  2. (b) To meet the design criteria of paragraph (a) of this section, in the absence of more rational data, both of the following must be met:
    1. (1) One hundred percent of the maximum loading from the symmetrical flight conditions acts on the surface on one side of the plane of symmetry, and no loading acts on the other side.
    2. (2) Fifty percent of the maximum loading from the symmetrical flight conditions acts on the surface on each side of the plane of symmetry but in opposite directions.
  3. (c) For empennage arrangements where the horizontal tail surfaces are supported by the vertical tail surfaces, the vertical tail surfaces and supporting structure must be designed for the combined vertical and horizontal surface loads resulting from each prescribed flight condition, considered separately. The flight conditions must be selected so the maximum design loads are obtained on each surface. In the absence of more rational data, the unsymmetrical horizontal tail surface loading distributions described in this section must be assumed.

    (Change 527-2 (92-02-01))

Ground Loads

527.471 General

  1. (a) Loads and equilibrium. For limit ground loads:
    1. (1) The limit ground loads obtained in the landing conditions in this chapter must be considered to be external loads that would occur in the rotorcraft structure if it were acting as a rigid body; and
    2. (2) In each specified landing condition, the external loads must be placed in equilibrium with linear and angular inertia loads in a rational or conservative manner.
  2. (b) Critical centres of gravity. The critical centres of gravity within the range for which certification is requested must be selected so that the maximum design loads are obtained in each landing gear element.

527.473 Ground Loading Conditions and Assumptions

  1. (a) For specified landing conditions, a design maximum weight must be used that is not less than the maximum weight. A rotor lift may be assumed to act through the centre of gravity throughout the landing impact. This lift may not exceed two-thirds of the design maximum weight.
  2. (b) Unless otherwise prescribed, for each specified landing condition, the rotorcraft must be designed for a limit load factor of not less than the limit inertia load factor substantiated under 527.725.

527.475 Tires and Shock Absorbers

Unless otherwise prescribed, for each specified landing condition, the tires must be assumed to be in their static position and the shock absorbers to be in their most critical position.

527.477 Landing Gear Arrangement

Sections 527.235527.479 through 527.485, and 527.493 apply to landing gear with two wheels aft, and one or more wheels forward, of the centre of gravity.

527.479 Level Landing Conditions

  1. (a) Attitudes. Under each of the loading conditions prescribed in paragraph (b) of this section, the rotorcraft is assumed to be in each of the following level landing attitudes:
    1. (1) An attitude in which all wheels contact the ground simultaneously.
    2. (2) An attitude in which the aft wheels contact the ground with the forward wheels just clear of the ground.
  2. (b) Loading conditions. The rotorcraft must be designed for the following landing and loading conditions:
    1. (1) Vertical loads applied under 527.471.
    2. (2) The loads resulting from a combination of the loads applied under subparagraph (1) of this paragraph with drag loads at each wheel of not less than 25 percent of the vertical load at that wheel.
    3. (3) If there are two wheels forward, a distribution of the loads applied to those wheels under subparagraphs (1) and (2) of this paragraph in a ratio of 40:60.
  3. (c) Pitching moments. Pitching moments are assumed to be resisted by:
    1. (1) In the case of the attitude in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, the forward landing gear; and
    2. (2) In the case of the attitude in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, the angular inertia forces.

527.481 Tail-down Landing Conditions

  1. (a) The rotorcraft is assumed to be in the maximum nose-up attitude allowing ground clearance by each part of the rotorcraft.
  2. (b) In this attitude, ground loads are assumed to act perpendicular to the ground.

527.483 One-wheel Landing Conditions

For the one-wheel landing condition, the rotorcraft is assumed to be in the level attitude and to contact the ground on one aft wheel. In this attitude:

  1. (a) The vertical load must be the same as that obtained on that side under 527.479 (b)(1); and
  2. (b) The unbalanced external loads must be reacted by rotorcraft inertia.

527.485 Lateral Drift Landing Conditions

  1. (a) The rotorcraft is assumed to be in the level landing attitude, with:
    1. (1) Side loads combined with one-half of the maximum ground reactions obtained in the level landing conditions of 527.479 (b)(1); and
    2. (2) The loads obtained under subparagraph (1) of this paragraph applied:
      1. (i) At the ground contact point; or
      2. (ii) For full-swivelling gear, at the centre of the axle.
  2. (b) The rotorcraft must be designed to withstand, at ground contact:
    1. (1) When only the aft wheels contact the ground, side loads of 0.8 times the vertical reaction acting inward on one side, and 0.6 times the vertical reaction acting outward on the other side, all combined with the vertical loads specified in paragraph (a) of this section; and
    2. (2) When all wheels contact the ground simultaneously:
      1. (i) For the aft wheels, the side loads specified in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph; and
      2. (ii) For the forward wheels, a side load 0.8 times the vertical reaction combined with the vertical load specified in paragraph (a) of this section.

527.493 Braked Roll Conditions

Under braked roll conditions with the shock absorbers in their static positions:

  1. (a) The limit vertical load must be based on a load factor of at least:
    1. (1) 1.33, for the attitude specified in 527.479 (a)(1); and
    2. (2) 1.0, for the attitude specified in 527.479 (a)(2); and
  2. (b) The structure must be designed to withstand, at the ground contact point of each wheel with brakes, a drag load at least the lesser of:
    1. (1) The vertical load multiplied by a coefficient of friction of 0.8; and
    2. (2) The maximum value based on limiting brake torque.

527.497 Ground Loading Conditions: Landing Gear with Tail Wheels

  1. (a) General. Rotorcraft with landing gear with two wheels forward, and one wheel aft, of the centre of gravity must be designed for loading conditions as prescribed in this section.
  2. (b) Level landing attitude with only the forward wheels contacting the ground. In this attitude:
    1. (1) The vertical loads must be applied under 527.471 through 527.475;
    2. (2) The vertical load at each axle must be combined with a drag load at that axle of not less than 25 percent of that vertical load; and
    3. (3) Unbalanced pitching moments are assumed to be resisted by angular inertia forces.
  3. (c) Level landing attitude with all wheels contacting the ground simultaneously. In this attitude, the rotorcraft must be designed for landing loading conditions as prescribed in paragraph (b) of this section.
  4. (d) Maximum nose-up attitude with only the rear wheel contacting the ground. The attitude for this condition must be the maximum nose-up attitude expected in normal operation, including autorotative landings. In this attitude:
    1. (1) The appropriate ground loads specified in paragraphs (b)(1) and (2) of this section must be determined and applied, using a rational method to account for the moment arm between the rear wheel ground reaction and the rotorcraft centre of gravity; or
    2. (2) The probability of landing with initial contact on the rear wheel must be shown to be extremely remote.
  5. (e) Level landing attitude with only one forward wheel contacting the ground. In this attitude, the rotorcraft must be designed for ground loads as specified in paragraphs (b)(1) and (3) of this section.
  6. (f) Side loads in the level landing attitude. In the attitudes specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, the following apply:
    1. (1) The side loads must be combined at each wheel with one-half of the maximum vertical ground reactions obtained for that wheel under paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section. In this condition, the side loads must be:
      1. (i) For the forward wheels, 0.8 times the vertical reaction (on one side) acting inward, and 0.6 times the vertical reaction (on the other side) acting outward; and
      2. (ii) For the rear wheel, 0.8 times the vertical reaction.
    2. (2) The loads specified in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph must be applied:
      1. (i) At the ground contact point with the wheel in the trailing position (for non-full swivelling landing gear or for full swivelling landing gear with a lock, steering device, or shimmy damper to keep the wheel in the trailing position); or
      2. (ii) At the centre of the axle (for full swivelling landing gear without a lock, steering device, or shimmy damper).
  7. (g) Braked roll conditions in the level landing attitude. In the attitudes specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, and with the shock absorbers in their static positions, the rotorcraft must be designed for braked roll loads as follows:
    1. (1) The limit vertical load must be based on a limit vertical load factor of not less than:
      1. (i) 1.0, for the attitude specified in paragraph (b) of this section; and
      2. (ii) 1.33, for the attitude specified in paragraph (c) of this section.
    2. (2) For each wheel with brakes, a drag load must be applied, at the ground contact point, of not less than the lesser of:
      1. (i) 0.8 times the vertical load; and
      2. (ii) The maximum based on limiting brake torque.
  8. (h) Rear wheel turning loads in the static ground attitude. In the static ground attitude, and with the shock absorbers and tires in their static positions, the rotorcraft must be designed for rear wheel turning loads as follows:
    1. (1) A vertical ground reaction equal to the static load on the rear wheel must be combined with an equal sideload.
    2. (2) The load specified in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph must be applied to the rear landing gear:
      1. (i) Through the axle, if there is a swivel (the rear wheel being assumed to be swivelled 90 degrees to the longitudinal axis of the rotorcraft); or
      2. (ii) At the ground contact point, if there is a lock, steering device or shimmy damper (the rear wheel being assumed to be in the trailing position).
      3. (iii) Taxiing condition. The rotorcraft and its landing gear must be designed for loads that would occur when the rotorcraft is taxied over the roughest ground that may reasonably be expected in normal operation.

527.501 Ground Loading Conditions: Landing Gear with Skids

  1. (a) General. Rotorcraft with landing gear with skids must be designed for the loading conditions specified in this section. In showing compliance with this section, the following apply:
    1. (1) The design maximum weight, centre of gravity, and load factor must be determined under 527.471 through 527.475.
    2. (2) Structural yielding of elastic spring members under limit loads is acceptable.
    3. (3) Design ultimate loads for elastic spring members need not exceed those obtained in a drop test of the gear with:
      1. (i) A drop height of 1.5 times that specified in 527.725; and
      2. (ii) An assumed rotor lift of not more than 1.5 times that used in the limit drop tests prescribed in 527.725.
    4. (4) Compliance with paragraphs (b) through (e) of this section must be shown with:
      1. (i) The gear in its most critically deflected position for the landing condition being considered; and
      2. (ii) The ground reactions rationally distributed along the bottom of the skid tube.
  2. (b) Vertical reactions in the level landing attitude. In the level attitude, and with the rotorcraft contacting the ground along the bottom of both skids, the vertical reactions must be applied as prescribed in paragraph (a) of this section.
  3. (c) Drag reactions in the level landing attitude. In the level attitude, and with the rotorcraft contacting the ground along the bottom of both skids, the following apply:
    1. (1) The vertical reactions must be combined with horizontal drag reactions of 50 percent of the vertical reaction applied at the ground.
    2. (2) The resultant ground loads must equal the vertical load specified in paragraph (b) of this section.
  4. (d) Sideloads in the level landing attitude. In the level attitude, and with the rotorcraft contacting the ground along the bottom of both skids, the following apply:
    1. (1) The vertical ground reaction must be:
      1. (i) Equal to the vertical loads obtained in the condition specified in paragraph (b) of this section; and
      2. (ii) Divided equally among the skids.
    2. (2) The vertical ground reactions must be combined with a horizontal sideload of 25 percent of their value.
    3. (3) The total sideload must be applied equally between the skids and along the length of the skids.
    4. (4) The unbalanced moments are assumed to be resisted by angular inertia.
    5. (5) The skid gear must be investigated for:
      1. (i) Inward acting sideloads; and
      2. (ii) Outward acting sideloads;
  5. (e) One-skid landing loads in the level attitude. In the level attitude, and with the rotorcraft contacting the ground along the bottom of one skid only, the following apply:
    1. (1) The vertical load on the ground contact side must be the same as that obtained on that side in the condition specified in paragraph (b) of this section.
    2. (2) The unbalanced moments are assumed to be resisted by angular inertia.
  6. (f) Special conditions. In addition to the conditions specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, the rotorcraft must be designed for the following ground reactions:
    1. (1) A ground reaction load acting up and aft at an angle of 45 degrees to the longitudinal axis of the rotorcraft. This load must be:
      1. (i) Equal to 1.33 times the maximum weight;
      2. (ii) Distributed symmetrically among the skids;
      3. (iii) Concentrated at the forward end of the straight part of the skid tube; and
      4. (iv) Applied only to the forward end of the skid tube and its attachment to the rotorcraft.
    2. (2) With the rotorcraft in the level landing attitude, a vertical ground reaction load equal to one-half of the vertical load determined under paragraph (b) of this section. This load must be:
      1. (i) Applied only to the skid tube and its attachment to the rotorcraft; and
      2. (ii) Distributed equally over 33.3 percent of the length between the skid tube attachments and centrally located midway between the skid tube attachments.

    (Change 527-2 (92-02-01) )

527.505 Ski Landing Conditions

If certification for ski operation is requested, the rotorcraft, with skis, must be designed to withstand the following loading conditions (where P is the maximum static weight on each ski with the rotorcraft at design maximum weight, and n is the limit load factor determined under 527.473 (b)).

  1. (a) Up-load conditions in which:
    1. (1) A vertical load of Pn and a horizontal load of Pn/4 are simultaneously applied at the pedestal bearings; and
    2. (2) A vertical load of 1.33 P is applied at the pedestal bearings.
  2. (b) A side-load condition in which a side load of 0.35 Pn is applied at the pedestal bearings in a horizontal plane perpendicular to the centreline of the rotorcraft.
  3. (c) A torque-load condition in which a torque of 1.33 P (in foot pounds) is applied to the ski about the vertical axis through the centreline of the pedestal bearings.

Water Loads

527.521 Float Landing Conditions

If certification for float operations is requested, the rotorcraft, with floats, must be designed to withstand the following loading conditions (where the limit load factor is determined under 527.473 (b) or assumed to be equal to that determined for wheel landing gear):

  1. (a) Up-load conditions in which:
    1. (1) A load is applied so that, with the rotorcraft in the static level attitude, the resultant water reaction passes vertically through the centre of gravity; and
    2. (2) The vertical load prescribed in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph is applied simultaneously with an aft component of 0.25 times the vertical component.
  2. (b) A side-load condition in which:
    1. (1) A vertical load of 0.75 times the total vertical load specified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section is divided equally among the floats; and
    2. (2) For each float, the load share determined under subparagraph (1) of this paragraph, combined with a total side load of 0.25 times the total vertical load specified in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph, is applied to that float only.

Main Component Requirements

527.547 Main Rotor Structure

  1. (a) Each main rotor assembly (including rotor hubs and blades) must be designed as prescribed in this section.
  2. (b) (Reserved)
  3. (c) The main rotor structure must be designed to withstand the following loads prescribed in 527.337 through 527.341:
    1. (1) Critical flight loads.
    2. (2) Limit loads occurring under normal conditions of autorotation. For this condition, the rotor r.p.m. must be selected to include the effects of altitude.
  4. (d) The main rotor structure must be designed to withstand loads simulating:
    1. (1) For the rotor blades, hubs, and flapping hinges, the impact force of each blade against its stop during ground operation; and
    2. (2) Any other critical condition expected in normal operation.
  5. (e) The main rotor structure must be designed to withstand the limit torque at any rotational speed, including zero. In addition:
    1. (1) The limit torque need not be greater than the torque defined by a torque limiting device (where provided), and may not be less than the greater of:
      1. (i) The maximum torque likely to be transmitted to the rotor structure in either direction; and
      2. (ii) The limit engine torque specified in 527.361.
    2. (2) The limit torque must be distributed to the rotor blades in a rational manner.

527.549 Fuselage, Landing Gear, and Rotor Pylon Structures

  1. (a) Each fuselage, landing gear, and rotor pylon structure must be designed as prescribed in this section. Resultant rotor forces may be represented as a single force applied at the rotor hub attachment point.
  2. (b) Each structure must be designed to withstand:
    1. (1) The critical loads prescribed in 527.337 through 527.341;
    2. (2) The applicable ground loads prescribed in 527.235527.471 through 527.485527.493527.497527.501527.505 and 527.521; and
    3. (3) The loads prescribed in 527.547 (d)(2) and (e).
  3. (c) Auxiliary rotor thrust, and the balancing air and inertia loads occurring under accelerated flight conditions, must be considered.
  4. (d) Each engine mount and adjacent fuselage structure must be designed to withstand the loads occurring under accelerated flight and landing conditions, including engine torque.

Emergency Landing Conditions

527.561 General

  1. (a) The rotorcraft, although it may be damaged in emergency landing conditions on land or water, must be designed as prescribed in this section to protect the occupants under those conditions.
  2. (b) The structure must be designed to give each occupant every reasonable chance of escaping serious injury in a crash landing when:
    1. (1) Proper use is made of seats, belts, and other safety design provisions;
    2. (2) The wheels are retracted (where applicable); and
    3. (3) Each occupant and each item of mass inside the cabin that could injure an occupant is restrained when subjected to the following ultimate inertial load factors relative to the surrounding structure:
      1. (i) Upward - 4g.
      2. (ii) Forward - 16g.
      3. (iii) Sideward - 8g.
      4. (iv) Downward - 20g, after intended displacement of the seat device.
      5. [(v) Rearward - 1.5g.]
  3. (c) The supporting structure must be designed to restrain, under any ultimate inertial load up to those specified in this paragraph, any item of mass above and/or behind the crew and passenger compartment that could injure an occupant if it came loose in an emergency landing. Items of mass to be considered include, but are not limited to, rotors, transmissions, and engines. The items of mass must be restrained for the following ultimate inertial load factors:
    1. (1) Upward - 1.5g.
    2. (2) Forward - [12g.]
    3. (3) Sideward - [6g.]
    4. (4) Downward - [12g.]
    5. (5) Rearward - [1.5g.]
  4. [(d) Any fuselage structure in the area of internal fuel tanks below the passenger floor level must be designed to resist the following ultimate inertial factors and loads and to protect the fuel tanks from rupture when those loads are applied to that area:
    1. [(i) Upward - 1.5g.
    2. [(ii) Forward - 4.0g.
    3. [(iii) Sideward - 2.0g.
    4. [(iv) Downward - 4.0g.]

    (Change 527-2 (92-02-01))

    (Change 527-3 (94-01-03))

    (Change 527-4)

527.562 Emergency Landing Dynamic Conditions

  1. (a) The rotorcraft, although it may be damaged in an emergency crash landing, must be designed to reasonably protect each occupant when:
    1. (1) The occupant properly uses the seats, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses provided in the design; and
    2. (2) The occupant is exposed to the loads resulting from the conditions prescribed in this section.
  2. (b) Each seat type design or other seating device approved for crew or passenger occupancy during take-off and landing must successfully complete dynamic tests or be demonstrated by rational analysis based on dynamic tests of a similar type seat in accordance with the following criteria. The tests must be conducted with an occupant, simulated by a 170-pound anthropomorphic test dummy (ATD), as defined by Federal Aviation Regulations , Title 49 CFR 572, Subpart B of the U.S.A., or its equivalent, sitting in the normal upright position.
    1. (1) A change in downward velocity of not less than 30 feet per second when the seat or other seating device is oriented in its nominal position with respect to the rotorcraft's reference system, the rotorcraft's longitudinal axis is canted upward 60° with respect to the impact velocity vector, and the rotorcraft's lateral axis is perpendicular to a vertical plane containing the impact velocity vector and the rotorcraft's longitudinal axis. Peak floor deceleration must occur in not more than 0.031 seconds after impact and must reach a minimum of 30g's.
    2. (2) A change in forward velocity of not less than 42 feet per second when the seat or other seating device is oriented in its nominal position with respect to the rotorcraft's reference system, the rotorcraft's longitudinal axis is yawed 10° either right or left of the impact velocity vector (whichever would cause the greatest load on the shoulder harness), the rotorcraft's lateral axis is contained in a horizontal plane containing the impact velocity vector, and the rotorcraft's vertical axis is perpendicular to a horizontal plane containing the impact velocity vector. Peak floor deceleration must occur in not more than 0.071 seconds after impact and must reach a minimum of 18.4g's.
    3. (3) Where floor rails or floor or sidewall attachment devices are used to attach the seating devices to the airframe structure for the conditions of this section, the rails or devices must be misaligned with respect to each other by at least 10° vertically (i.e., pitch out of parallel) and by at least a 10° lateral roll, with the directions optional, to account for possible floor warp.
  3. (c) Compliance with the following must be shown:
    1. (1) The seating device system must remain intact although it may experience separation intended as part of its design.
    2. (2) The attachment between the seating device and the airframe structure must remain intact, although the structure may have exceeded its limit load.
    3. (3) The ATD's shoulder harness strap or straps must remain on or in the immediate vicinity of the ATD's shoulder during the impact.
    4. (4) The safety belt must remain on the ATD's pelvis during the impact.
    5. (5) The ATD's head either does not contact any portion of the crew or passenger compartment, or if contact is made, the head impact does not exceed a head injury criteria (HIC) of 1,000 as determined by this equation.

      Where: a(t) is the resultant acceleration at the centre of gravity of the head form expressed as a multiple of g (the acceleration of gravity ) and t2 - t1 is the time duration, in seconds, of major head impact, not to exceed 0.05 seconds.

    6. (6) Loads in individual upper torso harness straps must not exceed 1,750 pounds. If dual straps are used for retaining the upper torso, the total harness strap loads must not exceed 2,000 pounds.
    7. (7) The maximum compressive load measured between the pelvis and the lumbar column of the ATD must not exceed 1,500 pounds.
  4. (d) An alternate approach that achieves an equivalent or greater level of occupant protection, as required by this section, must be substantiated on a rational basis.

    (Change 527-2 (92-02-01))

527.563 Structural Ditching Provisions

If certification with ditching provisions is requested, structural strength for ditching must meet the requirements of this section and 527.801(e).

  1. (a) Forward speed landing conditions. The rotorcraft must initially contact the most critical wave for reasonably probable water conditions at forward velocities from zero up to 30 knots in likely pitch, roll, and yaw attitudes. The rotorcraft limit vertical descent velocity may not be less than 5 feet per second relative to the mean water surface. Rotor lift may be used to act through the centre of gravity throughout the landing impact. This lift may not exceed two-thirds of the design maximum weight. A maximum forward velocity of less than 30 knots may be used in design if it can be demonstrated that the forward velocity selected would not be exceeded in a normal one-engine-out touch down.
  2. (b) Auxiliary or emergency float conditions:
    1. (1) Floats fixed or deployed before initial water contact. In addition to the landing loads in paragraph (a) of this section, each auxiliary or emergency float, of its support and attaching structure in the airframe or fuselage, must be designed for the load developed by a fully immersed float unless it can be shown that full immersion is unlikely. If full immersion is unlikely, the highest likely float buoyancy load must be applied. The highest likely buoyancy load must include consideration of a partially immersed float creating restoring moments to compensate the upsetting moments caused by side wind, unsymmetrical rotorcraft loading, water wave action, rotorcraft inertia, and probable structural damage and leakage considered under 527.801(d). Maximum roll and pitch angles determined from compliance with 527.801(d) may be used, if significant, to determine the extent of immersion of each float. If the floats are deployed in flight, appropriate air loads derived from the flight limitations with the floats deployed shall be used in substantiation of the floats and their attachment to the rotorcraft. For this purpose, the design airspeed for limit load is the float deployed airspeed operating limit multiplied by 1.11.
    2. (2) Floats deployed after initial water contact. Each float must be designed for full or partial immersion prescribed in paragraph (b)(1) of this section. In addition, each float must be designed for combined vertical and drag loads using a relative limit speed of 20 knots between the rotorcraft and the water. The vertical load may not be less than the highest likely buoyancy load determined under paragraph (b)(1) of this section.

    (Change 527-2 (92-02-01))

Fatigue Evaluation

527.571 Fatigue Evaluation of Flight Structure

  1. (a) General. Each portion of the flight structure (the flight structure includes rotors, rotor drive systems between the engines and the rotor hubs, controls, fuselage, landing gear, and their related primary attachments), the failure of which could be catastrophic, must be identified and must be evaluated under paragraph (b), (c), (d) or (e) of this section. The following apply to each fatigue evaluation:
    1. (1) The procedure for the evaluation must be approved.
    2. (2) The locations of probable failure must be determined.
    3. (3) In-flight measurement must be included in determining the following:
      1. (i) Loads or stresses in all critical conditions throughout the range of limitations in 527.309, except that manoeuvring load factors need not exceed the maximum values expected in operation.
      2. (ii) The effect of altitude upon these loads or stresses.
    4. (4) The loading spectra must be as severe as those expected in operation including, but not limited to, external cargo operations, if applicable, and ground-air-ground cycles. The loading spectra must be based on loads or stresses determined under paragraph (a)(3) of this section.
  2. (b) Fatigue tolerance evaluation. It must be shown that the fatigue tolerance of the structure ensures that the probability of catastrophic fatigue failure is extremely remote without establishing replacement times, inspection intervals or other procedures under A527.4 of Appendix A.
  3. (c) Replacement time evaluation. It must be shown that the probability of catastrophic fatigue failure is extremely remote within a replacement time furnished under A527.4 of Appendix A.
  4. (d) Fail-safe evaluation. The following apply to fail-safe evaluations:
    1. (1) It must be shown that all partial failures will become readily detectable under inspection procedures furnished under A527.4 of Appendix A.
    2. (2) The interval between the time when any partial failure becomes readily detectable under subparagraph (1), and the time when any such failure is expected to reduce the remaining strength of the structure to limit or maximum attainable loads (whichever is less), must be determined.
    3. (3) It must be shown that the interval determined under subparagraph (2) is long enough, in relation to the inspection intervals and related procedures furnished under A527.4 of Appendix A, to provide a probability of detection great enough to ensure that the probability of catastrophic failure is extremely remote.
  5. (e) Combination of replacement time and fail-safe evaluations. A component may be evaluated under a combination of paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section. For such component it must be shown that the probability of catastrophic failure is extremely remote with an approved combination of replacement time, inspection intervals, and related procedures furnished under A527.4 of Appendix A.

    (Change 527-2 (92-02-01))

527.573 Damage Tolerance and Fatigue Evaluation of Composite Rotorcraft Structures)

(effective 2014/07/08)

  1. (a) Each applicant shall evaluate the composite rotorcraft structure under the damage tolerance standards in (d) of this section unless the applicant establishes that a damage tolerance evaluation is impractical within the limits of geometry, inspectability, and good design practice. If an applicant establishes that it is impractical within the limits of geometry, inspectability, and good design practice, the applicant shall do a fatigue evaluation in accordance with (e) of this section.
  2. (b) The methodology used to establish compliance with this section must be submitted to and approved by the Minister.
  3. (c) Definitions:
    1. (1) Catastrophic failure is an event that could prevent continued safe flight and landing.
    2. (2) Principal Structural Elements (PSEs) are structural elements that contribute significantly to the carrying of flight or ground loads, the failure of which could result in catastrophic failure of the rotorcraft.
    3. (3) Threat Assessment is an assessment that specifies the locations, types, and sizes of damage, considering fatigue, environmental effects, intrinsic and discrete flaws, and impact or other accidental damage (including the discrete source of the accidental damage) that may occur during manufacture or operation.
  4. (d) Damage Tolerance Evaluation:
    1. (1) Each applicant shall show that catastrophic failure due to static and fatigue loads, considering the intrinsic or discrete manufacturing defects or accidental damage, is avoided throughout the operational life or prescribed inspection intervals of the rotorcraft by performing damage tolerance evaluations of the strength of composite PSEs and other parts, detail design points, and fabrication techniques. Each applicant shall account for the effects of material and process variability along with environmental conditions in the strength and fatigue evaluations. Each applicant shall evaluate parts that include PSEs of the airframe, main and tail rotor drive systems, main and tail rotor blades and hubs, rotor controls, fixed and movable control surfaces, engine and transmission mountings, landing gear, other parts, detail design points, and fabrication techniques deemed critical by the Minister. Each damage tolerance evaluation must include:
      1. (i) the identification of all PSEs;
      2. (ii) in-flight and ground measurements for determining the loads or stresses for all PSEs for all critical conditions throughout the range of limits in 527.309 (including altitude effects), except that manoeuvring load factors need not exceed the maximum values expected in service;
      3. (iii) the loading spectra as severe as those expected in service based on loads or stresses determined in (d)(1)(ii) of this section, including external load operations, if applicable, and other operations including high-torque events;
      4. (iv) a threat assessment for all PSEs that specifies the locations, types, and sizes of damage, considering fatigue, environmental effects, intrinsic and discrete flaws, and impact or other accidental damage (including the discrete source of the accidental damage) that may occur during manufacture or operation; and
      5. (v) an assessment of the residual strength and fatigue characteristics of all PSEs that supports the replacement times and inspection intervals established in (d)(2) of this section.
    2. (2) Each applicant shall establish replacement times, inspections, or other procedures for all PSEs to require the repair or replacement of damaged parts before a catastrophic failure. These replacement times, inspections, or other procedures must be included in the Airworthiness Limitations Section of the Instructions for Continued Airworthiness required by section 527.1529.
      1. (i) Replacement times for PSEs must be determined by tests, or by analysis supported by tests, and must show that the structure is able to withstand the repeated loads of variable magnitude expected in service. In establishing these replacement times, the following items must be considered:
        1. (A) damage identified in the threat assessment required by (d)(1)(iv) of this section;
        2. (B) maximum acceptable manufacturing defects and in-service damage (i.e., those that do not lower the residual strength below ultimate design loads and those that can be repaired to restore ultimate strength); and
        3. (C) ultimate load strength capability after applying repeated loads.
      2. (ii) Inspection intervals for PSEs must be established to reveal any damage identified in the threat assessment required by (d)(1)(iv) of this section that may occur from fatigue or other in-service causes before such damage has grown to the extent that the component cannot sustain the required residual strength capability. In establishing these inspection intervals, the following items must be considered:
        1. (A) the growth rate, including no-growth, of the damage under the repeated loads expected in service determined by tests or analysis supported by tests;
        2. (B) the required residual strength for the assumed damage established after considering the damage type, inspection interval, detectability of damage, and the techniques adopted for damage detection. The minimum required residual strength is limit load; and
        3. (C) whether the inspection will detect the damage growth before the minimum residual strength is reached and restored to ultimate load capability, or whether the component will require replacement.
    3. (3) Each applicant shall consider the effects of damage on stiffness, dynamic behaviour, loads, and functional performance on all PSEs when substantiating the maximum assumed damage size and inspection interval.
  5. (e) Fatigue Evaluation:  If an applicant establishes that the damage tolerance evaluation described in (d) of this section is impractical within the limits of geometry, inspectability, or good design practice, the applicant shall do a fatigue evaluation of the particular composite rotorcraft structure and:
    1. (1) identify all PSEs considered in the fatigue evaluation;
    2. (2) identify the types of damage for all PSEs considered in the fatigue evaluation;
    3. (3) establish supplemental procedures to minimize the risk of catastrophic failure associated with the damages identified in (d) of this section; and
    4. (4) include these supplemental procedures in the Airworthiness Limitations Section of the Instructions for Continued Airworthiness required by section 527.1529.
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