Part V - Airworthiness Manual Chapter 527 - Normal Category Aircraft
- Part I
- Part II
- Part III
- Part IV
- Part V
- Chapter 500
- Standard 501
- Chapter 505
- Standard 507
- Standard 509
- Chapter 511
- Chapter 513
- Chapter 516
- Chapter 522
- Chapter 523 (VLA)
- Chapter 523
- Chapter 525
- Chapter 527
- Chapter 529
- Chapter 531
- Chapter 533
- Chapter 535
- Chapter 537
- Chapter 541
- Chapter 549
- Chapter 551
- Standard 561
- Chapter 563
- Chapter 566
- Standard 571
- Standard 573
- Standard 591
- Standard 593
- Part VI
- Part VII
- Part VIII
- Part IX
Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) 2017-2
- A (527.1-527.2),
- B (527.21-527.251),
- C (527.301-527.571),
- D (527.601-527.873),
- E (527.901-527.1195),
- F (527.1301-527.1461),
- G (527.1501-527.1589)
(2002/06/01; no previous version)
D DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION - GENERAL
- (a) The rotorcraft may have no design features or details that experience has shown to be hazardous or unreliable.
- (b) The suitability of each questionable design detail and part must be established by tests.
527.602 Critical Parts
(a) Critical part. A critical part is a part, the failure of which could have a catastrophic effect upon the rotorcraft and for which critical characteristics have been identified which, in turn, must be controlled to ensure the required level of integrity.
(amended 2009/12/01; previous version)
(b) If the type design includes critical parts, a critical parts list is established. Procedures are established to define the critical design characteristics, identify processes that affect those characteristics and identify the design change and process change controls necessary for showing compliance with the quality assurance requirements of Part V, Subparts 21, 61, 71 and Part VI, Subpart 5 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations.
(amended 2009/12/01; previous version)
The suitability and durability of materials used for parts, the failure of which could adversely affect safety, must:
- (a) Be established on the basis of experience or tests;
- (b) Meet approved specifications that ensure their having the strength and other properties assumed in the design data; and
- (c) Take into account the effects of environmental conditions, such as temperature and humidity, expected in service.
527.605 Fabrication Methods
- (a) The methods of fabrication used must produce consistently sound structures. If a fabrication process (such as gluing, spot welding, or heat-treating) requires close control to reach this objective, the process must be performed according to an approved process specification.
- (b) Each new aircraft fabrication method must be substantiated by a test program.
- (a) Each removable bolt, screw, nut, pin, or other fastener whose loss could jeopardize the safe operation of the rotorcraft must incorporate two separate locking devices. The fastener and its locking devices may not be adversely affected by the environmental conditions associated with the particular installation.
- (b) No self-locking nut may be used on any bolt subject to rotation in operation unless a non-friction locking device is used in addition to the self-locking device.
527.609 Protection of Structure
Each part of the structure must:
(a) Be suitably protected against deterioration or loss of strength in service due to any cause, including:
- (1) Weathering;
- (2) Corrosion; and
- (3) Abrasion; and
- (b) Have provisions for ventilation and drainage where necessary to prevent the accumulation of corrosive, flammable, or noxious fluids.
527.610 [Lightning and Static Electricity Protection]
- (a) The rotorcraft must be protected against catastrophic effects from lightning.
(b) For metallic components, compliance with paragraph (a) of this section may be shown by:
- (1) Electrically bonding the components properly to the airframe; or
- (2) Designing the components so that a strike will not endanger the rotorcraft.
(c) For non-metallic components, compliance with paragraph (a) of this section may be shown by:
- (1) Designing the components to minimize the effect of a strike; or
- (2) Incorporating acceptable means of diverting the resulting electrical current so as not to endanger the rotorcraft.
[(d) The electrical bonding and protection against lightning and static electricity must:
- [(1) Minimize the accumulation of electrostatic charge;
- [(2) Minimize the risk of electric shock to crew, passengers, and service and maintenance personnel using normal precautions;
- [(3) Provide an electrical return path, under both normal and fault conditions, on rotorcraft having grounded electrical systems; and
[(4) Reduce to an acceptable level the effects of static electricity on the functioning of essential electrical and electronic equipment.
527.611 Inspection Provisions
There must be means to allow the close examination of each part that requires:
- (a) Recurring inspection;
- (b) Adjustment for proper alignment and functioning; or
- (c) Lubrication.
527.613 Material Strength Properties and Design Values
- (a) Material strength properties must be based on enough tests of material meeting specifications to establish design values on a statistical basis.
(b) Design values must be chosen to minimize the probability of structural failure due to material variability. Except as provided in paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section, compliance with this paragraph must be shown by selecting design values that assure material strength with the following probability:
- (1) Where applied loads are eventually distributed through a single member within an assembly, the failure of which would result in loss of structural integrity of the component, 99 percent probability with 95 percent confidence; and
- (2) For redundant structure, those in which the failure of individual elements would result in applied loads being safely distributed to other load-carrying members, 90 percent probability with 95 percent confidence.
- (c) The strength, detail design, and fabrication of the structure must minimize the probability of disastrous fatigue failure, particularly at points of stress concentration.
(d) Design values may be those contained in the following publications (available from the Naval Publications and Forms Centre, 5801 Tabor Avenue, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19120 U.S.A.) or other values approved by the Minister:
(amended 2003/11/19; previous version)
- (1) MIL-HDBK-5, "Metallic Materials and Elements for Flight Vehicle Structure".
- (2) MIL-HDBK-17, "Plastics for Flight Vehicles".
- (3) ANC-18, "Design of Wood Aircraft Structures".
- (4) MIL-HDBK-23, "Composite Construction for Flight Vehicles".
(e) Other design values may be used if a selection of the material is made in which a specimen of each individual item is tested before use and it is determined that the actual strength properties of that particular item will equal or exceed those used in design.
(Change 527-2 (92-02-01))
527.619 Special Factors
(a) The special factors prescribed in 527.621 through 527.625 apply to each part of the structure whose strength is:
- (1) Uncertain;
- (2) Likely to deteriorate in service before normal replacement; or
(3) Subject to appreciable variability due to:
- (i) Uncertainties in manufacturing processes; or
- (ii) Uncertainties in inspection methods.
- (b) For each part to which 527.621 through 527.625 apply, the factor of safety prescribed in 527.303 must be multiplied by a special factor equal to:
527.621 Casting Factors
- (a) General. The factors, tests, and inspections specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section must be applied in addition to those necessary to establish foundry quality control. The inspections must meet approved specifications. Paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section apply to structural castings except castings that are pressure tested as parts of hydraulic or other fluid systems and do not support structural loads.
(b) Bearing stresses and surfaces. The casting factors specified in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section:
- (1) Need not exceed 1.25 with respect to bearing stresses regardless of the method of inspection used; and
- (2) Need not be used with respect to the bearing surfaces of a part whose bearing factor is larger than the applicable casting factor.
(c) Critical castings. For each casting whose failure would preclude continued safe flight and landing of the rotorcraft or result in serious injury to any occupant, the following apply:
(1) Each critical casting must:
- (i) Have a casting factor of not less than 1.25; and
- (ii) [Receive 100 percent inspection by visual, radiographic, and magnetic particle (for ferromagnetic materials) or penetrant (for non-ferromagnetic materials) inspection methods or approved equivalent inspection methods.]
- (2) For each critical casting with a casting factor less that 1.50, three sample castings must be static tested and shown to meet:
- (1) Each critical casting must:
(d) Non-critical castings. For each casting other than those specified in paragraph (c) of this section, the following apply:
- (1) Except as provided in subparagraphs (2) and (3) of this paragraph, the casting factors and corresponding inspections must meet the following table:
Casting Factor Inspection 2.0 or greater 100 % visual. Less than 2.0, greater than 1.5 100 % visual, and magnetic particle (ferromagnetic materials), penetrant (non-ferromagnetic materials), or approved equivalent inspection methods. 1.25 through 1.5 100 % visual, and magnetic particle (ferromagnetic materials), penetrant (non-ferromagnetic materials), and radiographic or approved equivalent inspection methods.
- (2) The percentage of castings inspected by non-visual methods may be reduced below that specified in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph when an approved quality control procedure is established.
(3) For castings procured to a specification that guarantees the mechanical properties of the material in the casting and provides for demonstration of these properties by test of coupons cut from the castings on a sampling basis:
- (i) A casting factor of 1.0 may be used; and
- (ii) The castings must be inspected as provided in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph for casting factors of "1.25 through 1.50" and tested under paragraph (c)(2) of this section.
527.623 Bearing Factors
- (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each part that has clearance (free fit), and that is subject to pounding or vibration, must have a bearing factor large enough to provide for the effects of normal relative motion.
- (b) No bearing factor need be used on a part for which any larger special factor is prescribed.
527.625 Fitting Factors
For each fitting (part or terminal used to join one structural member to another) the following apply:
(a) For each fitting whose strength is not proven by limit and ultimate load tests in which actual stress conditions are simulated in the fitting and surrounding structures, a fitting factor of at least 1.15 must be applied to each part of:
- (1) The fitting;
- (2) The means of attachment; and
- (3) The bearing on the joined members.
(b) No fitting factor need be used:
- (1) For joints made under approved practices and based on comprehensive test data (such as continuous joints in metal plating, welded joints, and scarf joints in wood); and
- (2) With respect to any bearing surface for which a larger special factor is used.
- (c) For each integral fitting, the part must be treated as a fitting up to the point at which the section properties become typical of the member.
[(d) Each seat, berth, litter, safety belt, and harness attachment to the structure must be shown by analysis, tests, or both, to be able to withstand the inertia forces prescribed in 527.561(b)(3) multiplied by a fitting factor of 1.33.]
Each aerodynamic surface of the rotorcraft must be free from flutter under each appropriate speed and power condition.
(Change 527-2 (92-02-01))
527.653 Pressure Venting and Drainage of Rotor Blades
(a) For each rotor blade:
- (1) There must be means for venting the internal pressure of the blade;
- (2) Drainage holes must be provided for the blade; and
- (3) The blade must be designed to prevent water from becoming trapped in it.
- (b) Paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) of this section do not apply to sealed rotor blades capable of withstanding the maximum pressure differentials expected in service.
527.659 Mass Balance
(a) The rotors and blades must be mass balanced as necessary to:
- (1) Prevent excessive vibration; and
- (2) Prevent flutter at any speed up to the maximum forward speed.
- (b) The structural integrity of the mass balance installation must be substantiated.
527.661 Rotor Blade Clearance
There must be enough clearance between the rotor blades and other parts of the structure to prevent the blades from striking any part of the structure during any operating condition.
527.663 Ground Resonance Prevention Means
- (a) The reliability of the means for preventing ground resonance must be shown either by analysis and tests, or reliable service experience, or by showing through analysis or tests that malfunction or failure of a single means will not cause ground resonance.
(b) The probable range of variations, during service, of the damping action of the ground resonance prevention means must be established and must be investigated during the test required by 527.241.
(Change 527-2 (92-02-01))
- (a) Each control and control system must operate with the ease, smoothness, and positiveness appropriate to its function.
- (b) Each element of each flight control system must be designed, or distinctively and permanently marked, to minimize the probability of any incorrect assembly that could result in the malfunction of the system.
527.672 Stability Augmentation, Automatic, and Power-Operated Systems
If the functioning of stability augmentation or other automatic or power-operated systems is necessary to show compliance with the flight characteristics requirements of this chapter, such systems must comply with 527.671 of this chapter and the following:
- (a) A warning which is clearly distinguishable to the pilot under expected flight conditions without requiring the pilot's attention must be provided for any failure in the stability augmentation system or in any other automatic or power-operated system which could result in an unsafe condition if the pilot is unaware of the failure. Warning systems must not activate the control systems.
- (b) The design of the stability augmentation system or of any other automatic or power-operated system must allow initial counteraction of failures without requiring exceptional pilot skill or strength by overriding the failure by movement of the flight controls in the normal sense and deactivating the failed system.
(c) It must be shown that after any single failure of the stability augmentation system or any other automatic or power-operated system:
- (1) The rotorcraft is safely controllable when the failure or malfunction occurs at any speed or altitude within the approved operating limitations;
- (2) The controllability and manoeuvrability requirements of this chapter are met within a practical operational flight envelope (for example, speed, altitude, normal acceleration, and rotorcraft configurations) which is described in the Rotorcraft Flight Manual; and
- (3) The trim and stability characteristics are not impaired below a level needed to permit continued safe flight and landing.
527.673 Primary Flight Control
Primary flight controls are those used by the pilot for immediate control of pitch, roll, yaw, and vertical motion of the rotorcraft.
527.674 Interconnected Controls
Each primary flight control system must provide for safe flight and landing and operate independently after a malfunction, failure, or jam of any auxiliary interconnected control.
(Change 527-2 (92-02-01))
- (a) Each control system must have stops that positively limit the range of motion of the pilot's controls.
(b) Each stop must be located in the system so that the range of travel of its control is not appreciably affected by:
- (1) Wear;
- (2) Slackness; or
- (3) Take-up adjustments.
- (c) Each stop must be able to withstand the loads corresponding to the design conditions for the system.
(d) For each main rotor blade:
- (1) Stops that are appropriate to the blade design must be provided to limit travel of the blade about its hinge points; and
- (2) There must be means to keep the blade from hitting the droop stops during any operation other than starting and stopping the rotor.
527.679 Control System Locks
If there is a device to lock the control system with the rotorcraft on the ground or water, there must be means to:
(a) Give unmistakable warning to the pilot when the lock is engaged; and
(b) Prevent the lock from engaging in flight.
527.681 Limit Load Static Tests
(a) Compliance with the limit load requirements of this chapter must be shown by tests in which:
- (1) The direction of the test loads produces the most severe loading in the control system; and
- (2) Each fitting, pulley, and bracket used in attaching the system to the main structure is included.
- (b) Compliance must be shown (by analyses or individual load tests) with the special factor requirements for control system joints subject to angular motion.
527.683 Operation Tests
It must be shown by operation tests that, when the controls are operated from the pilot compartment with the control system loaded to correspond with loads specified for the system, the system is free from:
- (a) Jamming;
- (b) Excessive friction; and
- (c) Excessive deflection.
527.685 Control System Details
- (a) Each detail of each control system must be designed to prevent jamming, chafing, and interference from cargo, passengers, loose objects, or the freezing of moisture.
- (b) There must be means in the cockpit to prevent the entry of foreign objects into places where they would jam the system.
- (c) There must be means to prevent the slapping of cables or tubes against other parts.
(d) Cable systems must be designed as follows:
- (1) Cables, cable fittings, turnbuckles, splices, and pulleys must be of an acceptable kind.
- (2) The design of the cable systems must prevent any hazardous change in cable tension throughout the range of travel under any operating conditions and temperature variations.
- (3) No cable smaller than three thirty-seconds of an inch diameter may be used in any primary control system.
- (4) Pulley kinds and sizes must correspond to the cables with which they are used. The pulley cable combinations and strength values which must be used are specified in Military Handbook MIL-HDBK-5C, Vol. 1 & Vol. 2, Metallic Materials and Elements for Flight Vehicle Structures, (Sept. 15, 1976, as amended through December 15, 1978). This incorporation by reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 USC Section 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the Naval Publications and Forms Centre, 5801 Tabor Avenue, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 19120. Copies may be inspected at the FAA, Rotorcraft Standards Staff, 4400 Blue Mount Road, Fort Worth, Texas, or at the Office of the Federal Register, 800 North Capitol Street, N.W.; Suite 700, Washington, DC.
- (5) Pulleys must have close fitting guards to prevent the cables from being displaced or fouled.
- (6) Pulleys must lie close enough to the plane passing through the cable to prevent the cable from rubbing against the pulley flange.
- (7) No fairlead may cause a change in cable direction of more than 3°.
- (8) No clevis pin subject to load or motion and retained only by cotter pins may be used in the control system.
- (9) Turnbuckles attached to parts having angular motion must be installed to prevent binding throughout the range of travel.
- (10) There must be means for visual inspection at each fairlead, pulley, terminal, and turnbuckle.
(e) Control system joints subject to angular motion must incorporate the following special factors with respect to the ultimate bearing strength of the softest material used as a bearing:
- (1) 3.33 for push-pull systems other than ball and roller bearing systems.
- (2) 2.0 for cable systems.
(f) For control system joints, the manufacturer's static, non-Brinell rating of ball and roller bearings must not be exceeded.
(Change 527-2 (92-02-01))
527.687 Spring Devices
- (a) Each control system spring device whose failure could cause flutter or other unsafe characteristics must be reliable.
- (b) Compliance with paragraph (a) of this section must be shown by tests simulating service conditions.
527.691 Autorotation Control Mechanism
Each main rotor blade pitch control mechanism must allow rapid entry into autorotation after power failure.
527.695 Power Boost and Power-Operated Control System
(a) If a power boost or power-operated control system is used, an alternate system must be immediately available that allows continued safe flight and landing in the event of:
- (1) Any single failure in the power portion of the system; or
- (2) The failure of all engines.
- (b) Each alternate system may be a duplicate power portion or a manually operated mechanical system. The power portion includes the power source (such as hydraulic pumps), and such items as valves, lines, and actuators.
- (c) The failure of mechanical parts (such as piston rods and links), and the jamming of power cylinders, must be considered unless they are extremely improbable.
527.723 Shock Absorption Tests
The landing inertia load factor and the reserve energy absorption capacity of the landing gear must be substantiated by the tests prescribed in 527.725 and 527.727, respectively. These tests must be conducted on the complete rotorcraft or on units consisting of wheel, tire, and shock absorber in their proper relation.
527.725 Limit Drop Test
The limit drop test must be conducted as follows:
(a) The drop height must be:
- (1) 13 inches from the lowest point of the landing gear to the ground; or
- (2) Any lesser height, not less than 8 inches, resulting in a drop contact velocity equal to the greatest probable sinking speed likely to occur at ground contact in normal power-off landings.
- (b) If considered, the rotor lift specified in 527.473 (a) must be introduced into the drop test by appropriate energy absorbing devices or by the use of an effective mass.
- (c) Each landing gear unit must be tested in the attitude simulating the landing condition that is most critical from the standpoint of the energy to be absorbed by it.
(d) When an effective mass is used in showing compliance with paragraph (b) of this section, the following formula may be used instead of more rational computations:
We = the effective weight to be used in the drop test (lbs.);
W = WM for main gear units (lbs.), equal to the static reaction on the particular unit with the rotorcraft in the most critical attitude. A rational method may be used in computing a main gear static reaction, taking into consideration the moment arm between the main wheel reaction and the rotorcraft centre of gravity.
W = WN for nose gear units (lbs.), equal to the vertical component of the static reaction that would exist at the nose wheel, assuming that the mass of the rotorcraft acts at the centre of gravity and exerts a force of 1.0g downward and 0.25 g forward.
W = WT for tailwheel units (lbs.), equal to whichever of the following is critical:
- (1) The static weight on the tailwheel with the rotorcraft resting on all wheels; or
- (2) The vertical component of the ground reaction that would occur at the tailwheel, assuming that the mass of the rotorcraft acts at the centre of gravity and exerts a force of 1g downward with the rotorcraft in the maximum nose-up attitude considered in the nose-up landing conditions.
h = specified free drop height (inches).
L = ratio of assumed rotor lift to the rotorcraft weight.
d = deflection under impact of the tire (at the proper inflation pressure) plus the vertical component of the axle travels (inches) relative to the drop mass.
n = limit inertia load factor.
nj = the load factor developed, during impact, on the mass used in the drop test (i.e., the acceleration dv/dt in g's recorded in the drop test plus 1.0).
527.727 Reserve Energy Absorption Drop Test
The reserve energy absorption drop test must be conducted as follows:
- (a) The drop height must be 1.5 times that specified in 527.725(a).
- (b) Rotor lift, where considered in a manner similar to that prescribed in 527.725 (b), may not exceed 1.5 times the lift allowed under that paragraph.
(c) The landing gear must withstand this test without collapsing. Collapse of the landing gear occurs when a member of the nose, tail, or main gear will not support the rotorcraft in the proper attitude or allows the rotorcraft structure, other than the landing gear and external accessories, to impact the landing surface.
(Change 527-2 (92-02-01))
527.729 Retracting Mechanism
For rotorcraft with retractable landing gear, the following apply:
(a) Loads. The landing gear, retracting mechanism, wheel-well doors, and supporting structure must be designed for:
- (1) The loads occurring in any manoeuvring condition with the gear retracted;
- (2) The combined friction, inertia, and air loads occurring during retraction and extension at any airspeed up to the design maximum landing gear operating speed; and
- (3) The flight loads, including those in yawed flight, occurring with the gear extended at any airspeed up to the design maximum landing ear extended speed.
- (b) Landing gear lock. A positive means must be provided to keep the gear extended.
(c) Emergency operation. When other than manual power is used to operate the gear, emergency means must be provided for extending the gear in the event of:
- (1) Any reasonably probable failure in the normal retraction system; or
- (2) The failure of any single source of hydraulic, electric, or equivalent energy.
- (d) Operation tests. The proper functioning of the retracting mechanism must be shown by operation tests.
- (e) Position indicator. There must be a means to indicate to the pilot when the gear is secured in the extreme positions.
- (f) Control. The location and operation of the retraction control must meet the requirements of 527.777 and 527.779.
- (g) Landing gear warning. An aural or equally effective landing gear warning device must be provided that functions continuously when the rotorcraft is in a normal landing mode and the landing gear is not fully extended and locked. A manual shut-off capability must be provided for the warning device and the warning system must automatically reset when the rotorcraft is no longer in the landing mode.
- (a) Each landing gear wheel must be approved.
(b) The maximum static load rating of each wheel may not be less than the corresponding static ground reaction with:
- (1) Maximum weight; and
- (2) Critical centre of gravity.
- (c) The maximum limit load rating of each wheel must equal or exceed the maximum radial limit load determined under the applicable ground load requirements of this chapter.
(a) Each landing gear wheel must have a tire:
- (1) That is a proper fit on the rim of the wheel; and
- (2) Of the proper rating.
(b) The maximum static load rating of each tire must equal or exceed the static ground reaction obtained at its wheel, assuming:
- (1) The design maximum weight; and
- (2) The most unfavourable centre of gravity.
- (c) Each tire installed on a retractable landing gear system must, at the maximum size of the tire type expected in service, have a clearance to surrounding structure and systems that is adequate to prevent contact between the tire and any part of the structure or systems.
For rotorcraft with wheel-type landing gear, a braking device must be installed that is:
- (a) Controllable by the pilot;
- (b) Usable during power-off landings; and
(c) Adequate to:
- (1) Counteract any normal unbalanced torque when starting or stopping the rotor; and
- (2) Hold the rotorcraft parked on a 10° slope on a dry, smooth pavement.
The maximum limit load rating of each ski must equal or exceed the maximum limit load determined under the applicable ground load requirements of this chapter.
Floats and Hulls
527.751 Main Float Buoyancy
(a) For main floats, the buoyancy necessary to support the maximum weight of the rotorcraft in fresh water must be exceeded by:
- (1) 50 percent, for single floats; and
- (2) 60 percent, for multiple floats.
- (b) Each main float must have enough water-tight compartments so that, with any single main float compartment flooded, the main floats will provide a margin of positive stability great enough to minimize the probability of capsizing.
527.753 Main Float Design
(a) Bag floats. Each bag float must be designed to withstand:
- (1) The maximum pressure differential that might be developed at the maximum altitude for which certification with that float is requested; and
- (2) The vertical loads prescribed in 527.521 (a), distributed along the length of the bag over three quarters of its projected area.
- (b) Rigid floats. Each rigid float must be able to withstand the vertical, horizontal, and side loads prescribed in 527.521. These loads may be distributed along the length of the float.
For each rotorcraft, with a hull and auxiliary floats, that is to be approved for both taking off from and landing on water, the hull and auxiliary floats must have enough water-tight compartments so that, with any single compartment flooded, the buoyancy of the hull and auxiliary floats (and wheel tires if used) provides a margin of positive stability great enough to minimize the probability of capsizing.
Personnel and Cargo Accommodations
527.771 Pilot Compartment
For each pilot compartment:
- (a) The compartment and its equipment must allow each pilot to perform his duties without unreasonable concentration or fatigue;
- (b) If there is provision for a second pilot, the rotorcraft must be controllable with equal safety from either pilot seat; and
- (c) The vibration and noise characteristics of cockpit appurtenances may not interfere with safe operation.
527.773 Pilot Compartment View
(a) Each pilot compartment must be free from glare and reflections that could interfere with the pilot's view, and designed so that:
- (1) Each pilot's view is sufficiently extensive, clear, and undistorted for safe operation; and
- (2) Each pilot is protected from the elements so that moderate rain conditions do not unduly impair his view of the flight path in normal flight and while landing.
- (b) If certification for night operation is requested, compliance with paragraph (a) of this section must be shown in night flight tests.
527.775 Windshields and Windows
Windshields and windows must be made of material that will not break into dangerous fragments.
(Change 527-2 (92-02-01))
527.777 Cockpit Controls
Cockpit controls must be:
- (a) Located to provide convenient operation and to prevent confusion and inadvertent operation; and
- (b) Located and arranged with respect to the pilots' seats so that there is full and unrestricted movement of each control without interference from the cockpit structure or the pilot's clothing when pilots from 5'2" to 6'0" in height are seated.
527.779 Motion and Effect of Cockpit Controls
Cockpit controls must be designed so that they operate in accordance with the following movement and actuation:
- (a) Flight controls, including the collective pitch control, must operate with a sense of motion which corresponds to the effect on the rotorcraft.
- (b) Twist-grip engine power controls must be designed so that, for left hand operation, the motion of the pilot's hand is clockwise to increase power when the hand is viewed from the edge containing the index finger. Other engine power controls, excluding the collective control, must operate with a forward motion to increase power.
- (c) Normal landing gear controls must operate downward to extend the landing gear.
- (a) Each closed cabin must have at least one adequate and easily accessible external door.
(b) Each external door must be located where persons using it will not be endangered by the rotors, propellers, engine intakes, and exhausts when appropriate operating procedures are used. If opening procedures are required, they must be marked inside, on or adjacent to the door opening device.
(Change 527-2 (92-02-01))
527.785 Seats, Berths,[Litters], Safety Belts, and Harnesses
- (a) Each seat, safety belt, harness, and adjacent part of the rotorcraft, at each station designated for occupancy during takeoff and landing, must be free of potentially injurious objects, sharp edges, protuberances, and hard surfaces, and must be designed so that a person making proper use of these facilities will not suffer serious injury in an emergency landing as a result of the static inertial load factors specified in 527.561 (b) and dynamic conditions specified in 527.562.
- (b) Each occupant must be protected from serious head injury by a safety belt plus a shoulder harness that will prevent the head from contacting any injurious object except as provided for in 527.562 (c)(5). A shoulder harness (upper torso restraint), in combination with the safety belt, constitutes a torso restraint system as described in TSO-C114.
- (c) Each occupant's seat must have a combined safety belt and shoulder harness with a single-point release. Each pilot's combined safety belt and shoulder harness must allow each pilot when seated with safety belt and shoulder harness fastened to perform all functions necessary for flight operations. There must be a means to secure belts and harnesses, when not in use, to prevent interference with the operation of the rotorcraft and with rapid egress in an emergency.
- (d) If seat backs do not have a firm handhold, there must be hand grips or rails along each aisle to enable the occupants to steady themselves while using the aisle in moderately rough air.
- (e) Each projecting object that could injure persons seated or moving about in the rotorcraft in normal flight must be padded.
(f) Each seat and its supporting structure must be designed for an occupant weight of 170 pounds, considering the maximum load factors, inertial forces, and reactions between occupant, seat, and safety belt or harness corresponding with the applicable flight and ground-load conditions, including the emergency landing conditions of 527.561(b). In addition:
- (1) Each pilot seat must be designed for the reactions resulting from the application of the pilot forces prescribed in 527.397; and
(2) The inertial forces prescribed in 527.561 (b) must be multiplied by a factor of 1.33 in determining the strength of the attachment of:
- (i) Each seat to the structure; and
- (ii) Each safety belt or harness to the seat or structure.
- (g) When the safety belt and shoulder harness are combined, the rated strength of the safety belt and shoulder harness may not be less than that corresponding to the inertial forces specified in 527.561 (b), considering the occupant weight of at least 170 pounds, considering the dimensional characteristics of the restraint system installation, and using a distribution of at least 60 percent load to the safety belt and at least a 40 percent load to the shoulder harness. If the safety belt is capable of being used without the shoulder harness, the inertial forces specified must be met by the safety belt alone.
- (h) When a headrest is used, the headrest and its supporting structure must be designed to resist the inertia forces specified in 527.561, with a 1.33 fitting factor and a head weight of at least 13 pounds.
- (i) Each seating device system includes the device such as the seat, the cushions, the occupant restraint system, and attachment devices.
- (j) Each seating device system may use design features such as crushing or separation of certain parts of the seats to reduce occupant loads for the emergency landing dynamic conditions of 527.562; otherwise, the system must remain intact and must not interfere with rapid evacuation of the rotorcraft.
(k) For the purposes of this section, a litter is defined as a device designed to carry a non-ambulatory person, primarily in a recumbent position, into and on the rotorcraft. Each berth or litter must be designed to withstand the load reaction of an occupant weight of at least 170 pounds when the occupant is subjected to the forward inertial factors specified in 527.561 (b). A berth or litter installed within 15° or less of the longitudinal axis of the rotorcraft must be provided with a padded end-board, cloth diaphragm, or equivalent means that can withstand the forward load reaction. A berth or litter oriented greater than 15° with the longitudinal axis of the rotorcraft must be equipped with appropriate restraints, such as straps or safety belts, to withstand the forward load reaction. In addition:
- (1) The berth or litter must have a restraint system and must not have corners or other protuberances likely to cause serious injury to a person occupying it during emergency landing condition; and
- (2) The berth or litter attachment and the occupant restraint system attachments to the structure must be designed to withstand the critical loads resulting from flight and ground load conditions and from the conditions prescribed in 527.561 (b). [The fitting factor required by 527.625 (d) shall be applied.]
(Change 527-2 (92-02-01))
527.787 Cargo and Baggage Compartments
- (a) Each cargo and baggage compartment must be designed for its placarded maximum weight of contents and for the critical load distributions at the appropriate maximum load factors corresponding to the specified flight and ground load conditions, except the emergency landing conditions of 527.561.
- (b) There must be means to prevent the contents of any compartment from becoming a hazard by shifting under the loads specified in paragraph (a) of this section.
(c) Under the emergency landing conditions of 527.561, cargo and baggage compartments must:
- (1) Be positioned so that if the contents break loose they are unlikely to cause injury to the occupants or restrict any of the escape facilities provided for use after an emergency landing; or
- (2) Have sufficient strength to withstand the conditions specified in 527.561 including the means of restraint, and their attachments, required by paragraph (b) of this section. Sufficient strength must be provided for the maximum authorized weight of cargo and baggage at the critical loading distribution.
(d) If cargo compartment lamps are installed, each lamp must be installed so as to prevent contact between lamp bulb and cargo.
(Change 527-2 (92-02-01))
- (a) If certification with ditching provisions is requested, the rotorcraft must meet the requirements of this section and 527.807 (d), 527.1411 and 527.1415.
- (b) Each practicable design measure, compatible with the general characteristics of the rotorcraft, must be taken to minimize the probability that in an emergency landing on water, the behaviour of the rotorcraft would cause immediate injury to the occupants or would make it impossible for them to escape.
- (c) The probable behaviour of the rotorcraft in a water landing must be investigated by model tests or by comparison with rotorcraft of similar configuration for which the ditching characteristics are known. Scoops, flaps, projections, and any other factor likely to affect the hydrodynamic characteristics of the rotorcraft must be considered.
- (d) It must be shown that, under reasonably probable water conditions, the flotation time and trim of the rotorcraft will allow the occupants to leave the rotorcraft and enter the life rafts required by 527.1415. If compliance with this provision is shown by buoyancy and trim computations, appropriate allowances must be made for probable structural damage and leakage. If the rotorcraft has fuel tanks (with fuel jettisoning provisions) that can reasonably be expected to withstand a ditching without leakage, the jettisonable volume of fuel may be considered as buoyancy volume.
- (e) Unless the effects of the collapse of external doors and windows are accounted for in the investigation of the probable behaviour of the rotorcraft in a water landing (as prescribed in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section), the external doors and windows must be designed to withstand the probable maximum local pressures.
[527.805 Flight Crew Emergency Exits
- [(a) For rotorcraft with passenger emergency exits that are not convenient to the flight crew, there must be flight crew emergency exits, on both sides of the rotorcraft or as a top hatch in the flight crew area.
- [(b) Each flight crew emergency exit must be of sufficient size and must be located so as to allow rapid evacuation of the flight crew. This must be shown by test.
[(c) Each flight crew emergency exit must not be obstructed by water or flotation devices after an emergency landing on water. This must be shown by test, demonstration, or analysis.]
527.807 Emergency Exits
(a) [Number and Location.
- [(1) There must be at least one emergency exit on each side of the cabin readily accessible to each passenger. One of these exits must be usable in any probable attitude that may result from a crash;
- [(2) Doors intended for normal use may also serve as emergency exits, provided that they meet the requirements of this section; and
[(3) If emergency flotation devices are installed, there must be an emergency exit accessible to each passenger on each side of the cabin that is shown by test, demonstration, or analysis to:
- [(i) Be above the waterline; and
- [(ii) Open without interference from flotation devices, whether stowed or deployed.
(b) [Type and operation. Each emergency exit prescribed by paragraph (a) of this section must:
- (1) [Consist of a movable window or panel, or additional external door, providing an unobstructed opening that will admit a 19 by 26-inch ellipse;
- (2) [Have simple and obvious methods of opening, from the inside and from the outside, which do not require exceptional effort;
- (3) [Be arranged and marked so as to be readily located and opened even in darkness; and
- (4) Be reasonably protected from jamming by fuselage deformation.
- (c) Tests. The proper functioning of each emergency exit must be shown by test.
(d) [Ditching emergency exits for passengers. If certification with ditching provisions is requested, the markings required by paragraph (b)(3) of this section must be designed to remain visible if the rotorcraft is capsized and the cabin is submerged.]
(Change 527-2 (92-02-01))
- (a) The ventilating system for the pilot and passenger compartments must be designed to prevent the presence of excessive quantities of fuel fumes and carbon monoxide.
- (b) The concentration of carbon monoxide may not exceed one part in 20,000 parts of air during forward flight or hovering in still air. If the concentration exceeds this value under other conditions, there must be suitable operating restrictions.
Each combustion heater must be approved.
(Change 527-1 (89-01-01))
527.853 Compartment Interiors
For each compartment to be used by the crew or passengers:
- (a) The materials must be at least [flame] resistant;
- (b) [Removed and Reserved];
(c) If smoking is to be prohibited, there must be a placard so stating, and if smoking is to be allowed:
- (1) There must be an adequate number of self-contained, removable ashtrays; and
(2) Where the crew compartment is separated from the passenger compartment, there must be at least one illuminated sign (using either letters or symbols) notifying all passengers when smoking is prohibited. Signs which notify when smoking is prohibited must:
- (i) When illuminated, be legible to each passenger seated in the passenger cabin under all probable lighting conditions; and
- (ii) Be so constructed that the crew can turn the illumination on and off.
527.855 Cargo and Baggage Compartments
(a) Each cargo and baggage compartment must be constructed of, or lined with, materials that are at least:
- (1) Flame resistant, in the case of compartments that are readily accessible to a crew member in flight; and
- (2) Fire resistant, in the case of other compartments.
- (b) No compartment may contain any controls, wiring, lines, equipment, or accessories whose damage or failure would affect safe operation, unless those items are protected so that:
- (1) They cannot be damaged by the movement of cargo in the compartment; and
- (2) Their breakage or failure will not create a fire hazard.
527.859 Heating Systems
- (a) General. For each heating system that involves the passage of cabin air over, or close to, the exhaust manifold, there must be means to prevent carbon monoxide from entering any cabin or pilot compartment.
(b) Heat exchangers. Each heat exchanger must be:
- (1) Of suitable materials;
- (2) Adequately cooled under all conditions; and
- (3) Easily disassembled for inspection.
(c) Combustion heater fire protection. Except for heaters which incorporate designs to prevent hazards in the event of fuel leakage in the heater fuel system, fire within the ventilating air passage, or any other heater malfunction, each heater zone must incorporate the fire protection features of the applicable requirements of 527.1183, 527.1185, 527.1189, 527.1191, and be provided with:
- (1) Approved, quick-acting fire detectors in numbers and locations ensuring prompt detection of fire in the heater region.
- (2) Fire extinguisher systems that provide at least one adequate discharge to all areas of the heater region.
(3) Complete drainage of each part of each zone to minimize the hazards resulting from failure or malfunction of any component containing flammable fluids. The drainage means must be:
- (i) Effective under conditions expected to prevail when drainage is needed; and
- (ii) Arranged so that no discharged fluid will cause an additional fire hazard.
- (4) Ventilation, arranged so that no discharged vapours will cause an additional fire hazard.
(d) Ventilating air ducts. Each ventilating air duct passing through any heater region must be fireproof.
- (1) Unless isolation is provided by fireproof valves or by equally effective means, the ventilating air duct downstream of each heater must be fireproof for a distance great enough to ensure that any fire originating in the heater can be contained in the duct.
- (2) Each part of any ventilating duct passing through any region having a flammable fluid system must be so constructed or isolated from that system that the malfunctioning of any component of that system cannot introduce flammable fluids or vapours into the ventilating airstream.
(e) Combustion air ducts. Each combustion air duct must be fireproof for a distance great enough to prevent damage from backfiring or reverse flame propagation.
- (1) No combustion air duct may connect with the ventilating airstream unless flames from backfires or reverse burning cannot enter the ventilating air-stream under any operating condition, including reverse flow or malfunction of the heater or its associated components.
- (2) No combustion air duct may restrict the prompt relief of any backfire that, if so restricted, could cause heater failure.
- (f) Heater control: General. There must be means to prevent the hazardous accumulation of water or ice on or in any heater control component, control system tubing, or safety control.
(g) Heater safety controls. For each combustion heater, safety control means must be provided as follows:
(1) Means independent of the components provided for the normal continuous control of air temperature, airflow, and fuel flow must be provided for each heater to automatically shut off the ignition and fuel supply of that heater at a point remote from that heater when any of the following occurs:
- (i) The heat exchanger temperature exceeds safe limits.
- (ii) The ventilating air temperature exceeds safe limits.
- (iii) The combustion airflow becomes inadequate for safe operation.
- (iv) The ventilating airflow becomes inadequate for safe operation.
(2) The means of complying with paragraph (g)(1) of this section for any individual heater must:
- (i) Be independent of components serving any other heater, the heat output of which is essential for safe operation; and
- (ii) Keep the heater off until restarted by the crew.
- (3) There must be means to warn the crew when any heater, the heat output of which is essential for safe operation, has been shut off by the automatic means prescribed in paragraph (g)(1) of this section.
- (1) Means independent of the components provided for the normal continuous control of air temperature, airflow, and fuel flow must be provided for each heater to automatically shut off the ignition and fuel supply of that heater at a point remote from that heater when any of the following occurs:
(h) Air intakes. Each combustion and ventilating air intake must be located so that no flammable fluids or vapours can enter the heater system:
- (1) During normal operation; or
- (2) As a result of the malfunction of any other component.
- (1) Each exhaust shroud must be sealed so that no flammable fluids or hazardous quantities of vapours can reach the exhaust system through joints.
- (2) No exhaust system may restrict the prompt relief of any backfire that, if so restricted, could cause heater failure.
- (j) Heater fuel systems. Each heater fuel system must meet the powerplant fuel system requirements affecting safe heater operation. Each heater fuel system component in the ventilating airstream must be protected by shrouds so that no leakage from those components can enter the ventilating airstream.
(k) Drains. There must be means for safe drainage of any fuel that might accumulate in the combustion chamber or the heat exchanger.
- (1) Each part of any drain that operates at high temperatures must be protected in the same manner as heater exhausts.
- (2) Each drain must be protected against hazardous ice accumulation under any operating condition.
(Change 527-1 (89-01-01))
527.861 Fire Protection of Structure, Controls, and Other Parts
Each part of the structure, controls, rotor mechanism, and other parts essential to a controlled landing that would be affected by powerplant fires must be fireproof or protected so that they can perform their essential functions for at least 5 minutes under any foreseeable powerplant fire condition.
(Change 527-2 (92-02-01))
527.863 Flammable Fluid Fire Protection
- (a) In each area where flammable fluids or vapours might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of the fluids and vapours, and the resultant hazards if ignition does occur.
(b) Compliance with paragraph (a) of this section must be shown by analysis or tests, and the following factors must be considered:
- (1) Possible sources and paths of fluid leakage, and means of detecting leakage.
- (2) Flammability characteristics of fluids, including effects of any combustible or absorbing materials.
- (3) Possible ignition sources, including electrical faults, overheating of equipment, and malfunctioning of protective devices.
- (4) Means available for controlling or extinguishing a fire, such as stopping flow of fluids, shutting down equipment, fireproof containment, or use of extinguishing agents.
- (5) Ability of rotorcraft components that are critical to safety of flight to withstand fire and heat.
- (c) If action by the flight crew is required to prevent or counteract a fluid fire (e.g. equipment shutdown or actuation of a fire extinguisher) quick acting means must be provided to alert the crew.
- (d) Each area where flammable fluids or vapour might escape by leakage of a fluid system must be identified and defined.
[527.865 External Loads
(a) [It must be shown by analysis, test, or both, that the rotorcraft external load attaching means for rotorcraft-load combinations to be used for non-human external cargo applications can withstand a limit static load equal to 2.5, or some lower load factor approved under 527.337 through 527.341, multiplied by the maximum external load for which authorization is requested. It must be shown by analysis, test, or both that the rotorcraft external load attaching means and corresponding personnel carrying device system for rotorcraft-load combinations to be used for human external cargo applications can withstand a limit static load equal to 3.5 or some lower load factor, not less than 2.5, approved under 527.337 through 527.341, multiplied by the maximum external load for which authorization is requested. The load for any rotorcraft-load combination class, for any external cargo type, must be applied in the vertical direction. For jettisonable external loads of any applicable external cargo type, the load must also be applied in any direction making the maximum angle with the vertical that can be achieved in service but not less than 30º. However, the 30º angle may be reduced to a lesser angle if: ]
- (1) An operating limitation is established limiting external load operations to such angles for which compliance with this paragraph has been shown; or
- (2) It is shown that the lesser angle can not be exceeded in service.
(b) [The external load attaching means, for jettisonable rotorcraft-load combinations, must include a quick-release system to enable the pilot to release the external load quickly during flight. The quick-release system must consist of a primary quick release subsystem and a backup quick release subsystem that are isolated from one another. The quick-release system, and the means by which it is controlled, must comply with the following:
- (1) [A control for the primary quick release subsystem must be installed either on one of the pilot's primary controls or in an equivalently accessible location and must be designed and located so that it may be operated by either the pilot or a crew member without hazardously limiting the ability to control the rotorcraft during an emergency situation.
- (2) [A control for the backup quick release subsystem, readily accessible to either the pilot or another crewmember r, must be provided.
(3) [Both the primary and backup quick release subsystems must:
- [(i) Be reliable, durable, and function properly with all external loads up to and including the maximum external limit load for which authorization is requested.
[(ii) Be protected against electromagnetic interference (EMI) from external and internal sources and against lightning to prevent inadvertent load release.
- [(A) The minimum level of protection required for jettisonable rotorcraft-load combinations used for non-human external cargo is a radio frequency field strength of 20 volts per metre.
- [(B) The minimum level of protection required for jettisonable rotorcraft-load combinations used for human external cargo is a radio frequency field strength of 200 volts per metre.
- [(iii) Be protected against any failure that could be induced by a failure mode of any other electrical or mechanical rotorcraft system.
(c)[ For rotorcraft-load combinations to be used for human external cargo applications, the rotorcraft must:
[(1) For jettisonable external loads, have a quick-release system that meets the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section and that:
- [(i) Provides a dual actuation device for the primary quick release subsystem, and
- [(ii) Provides a separate dual actuation device for the backup quick release subsystem;
- [(2) Have a reliable, approved personnel carrying device system that has the structural capability and personnel safety features essential for external occupant safety;
- [(3) Have placards and markings at all appropriate locations that clearly state the essential system operating instructions and, for the personnel carrying device system, the ingress and egress instructions;
- [(4) Have equipment to allow direct intercommunication among required crew members and external occupants; and
- [(5) Have the appropriate limitations and procedures incorporated in the flight manual for conducting human external cargo operations.
- [(1) For jettisonable external loads, have a quick-release system that meets the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section and that:
- (d) [The critically configured jettisonable external loads must be shown by a combination of analysis, ground tests, and flight tests to be both transportable and releasable throughout the approved operational envelope without hazard to the rotorcraft during normal flight conditions. In addition, these external loads must be shown to be releasable without hazard to the rotorcraft during emergency flight conditions.
- [(e) A placard or marking must be installed next to the external-load attaching means clearly stating any operational limitations and the maximum authorized external load as demonstrated under 527.25 and this section.
[(f) The fatigue evaluation of 527.571 of this chapter does not apply to rotorcraft-load combinations to be used for non-human external cargo except for the failure of critical structural elements that would result in a hazard to the rotorcraft. For rotorcraft-load combinations to be used for human external cargo, the fatigue evaluation of 527.571 of this chapter applies to the entire quick release and personnel carrying device structural systems and their attachments.]
(Change 527-2 (92-02-01))
527.871 Levelling Marks
There must be reference marks for levelling the rotorcraft on the ground.
527.873 Ballast Provisions
Ballast provisions must be designed and constructed to prevent inadvertent shifting of ballast in flight.
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