Part V - Airworthiness Manual Chapter 527 - Normal Category Aircraft

Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) 2017-2

Content last revised: 2009/06/30

Preamble

SUBCHAPTERS

  • A (527.1-527.2), 
  • B (527.21-527.251), 
  • C (527.301-527.571), 
  • D (527.601-527.873), 
  • E (527.901-527.1195), 
  • F (527.1301-527.1461), 
  • G (527.1501-527.1589)

APPENDICES

ABCD

(2002/06/01; no previous version)

SUBCHAPTER E POWERPLANT - GENERAL

527.901 Installation

  1. (a) For the purpose of this chapter, the powerplant installation includes each part of the rotorcraft (other than the main and auxiliary rotor structures) that:
    1. (1) Is necessary for propulsion;
    2. (2) Affects the control of the major propulsive units; or
    3. (3) Affects the safety of the major propulsive units between normal inspections or overhauls.
  2. (b) For each powerplant installation:
    1. (1) Each component of the installation must be constructed, arranged, and installed to ensure its continued safe operation between normal inspections or overhauls for the range of temperature and altitude for which approval is requested;
    2. (2) Accessibility must be provided to allow any inspection and maintenance necessary for continued airworthiness;
    3. (3) Electrical interconnections must be provided to prevent differences of potential between major components of the installation and the rest of the rotorcraft;
    4. (4) Axial and radial expansion of turbine engines may not affect the safety of the installation; and
    5. (5) Design precautions must be taken to minimize the possibility of incorrect assembly of components and equipment essential to safe operation of the rotorcraft, except where operation with the incorrect assembly can be shown to be extremely improbable.
  3. (c) The installation must comply with:
    1. (1) The installation instructions provided under 533.5 of this manual, and
    2. (2) The applicable provisions of this subchapter.

    (Change 527-1 (89-01-01))

527.903 Engines

  • (a) Engine type certification. Each engine must have an approved type certificate. Reciprocating engines for use in helicopters must be qualified in accordance with 533.49 (d) of this manual or be otherwise approved for the intended usage.
  • (b) Engine or drive system cooling fan blade protection.
    • (1) If an engine or rotor drive system cooling fan is installed, there must be a means to protect the rotorcraft and allow a safe landing if a fan blade fails. This must be shown by showing that:
      • (i) The fan blades are contained in case of failure;
      • (ii) Each fan is located so that a failure will not jeopardize safety; or
      • (iii) Each fan blade can withstand an ultimate load of 1.5 times the centrifugal force resulting from operation limited by the following:
        • (A) For fans driven directly by the engine:
    • (1) The terminal engine r.p.m. under uncontrolled conditions; or
    • (2) An overspeed limiting device.
      • (B) For fans driven by the rotor drive system, the maximum rotor drive system rotational speed to be expected in service, including transients.
    • (2) Unless a fatigue evaluation under 527.571 is conducted, it must be shown that cooling fan blades are not operating at resonant conditions within the operating limits of the rotorcraft.
  • (c) Turbine engine installation. For turbine engine installations, the powerplant systems associated with engine control devices, systems, and instrumentation must be designed to give reasonable assurance that those engine operating limitations that adversely affect turbine rotor structural integrity will not be exceeded in service.

    (Change 527-1 (89-01-01))

  • (d) Restart capability: A means to restart any engine in flight must be provided.
    (amended 2009/05/11; no previous version)
    • (1) Except for the in-flight shutdown of all engines, engine restart capability must be demonstrated throughout a flight envelope for the rotorcraft.
      (amended 2009/05/11; no previous version)
    • (2) Following the in-flight shutdown of all engines, in-flight engine restart capability must be provided.
      (amended 2009/05/11; no previous version)

527.907 Engine Vibration

  1. (a) Each engine must be installed to prevent the harmful vibration of any part of the engine or rotorcraft.
  2. (b) The addition of the rotor and the rotor drive system to the engine may not subject the principal rotating parts of the engine to excessive vibration stresses. This must be shown by a vibration investigation.
  3. (c) No part of the rotor drive system may be subjected to excessive vibration stresses.

Rotor Drive System

527.917 Design

  1. (a) Each rotor drive system must incorporate a unit for each engine to automatically disengage that engine from the main and auxiliary rotors if that engine fails.
  2. (b) Each rotor drive system must be arranged so that each rotor necessary for control in autorotation will continue to be driven by the main rotors after disengagement of the engine from the main and auxiliary rotors.
  3. (c) If a torque limiting device is used in the rotor drive system, it must be located so as to allow continued control of the rotorcraft when the device is operating.
  4. (d) The rotor drive system includes any part necessary to transmit power from the engines to the rotor hubs. This includes gear boxes, shafting, universal joints, couplings, rotor brake assemblies, clutches, supporting bearings for shafting, any attendant accessory pads or drives, and any cooling fans that are a part of, attached to, or mounted on the rotor drive system.

527.921 Rotor Brake

If there is a means to control the rotation of the rotor drive system independently of the engine, any limitations on the use of that means must be specified, and the control for that means must be guarded to prevent inadvertent operation.

527.923 Rotor Drive System and Control Mechanism Tests

  1. (a) Each part tested as prescribed in this section must be in a serviceable condition at the end of the tests. No intervening disassembly which might affect test results may be conducted.
  2. (b) Each rotor drive system and control mechanism must be tested for not less than 100 hours. The test must be conducted on the rotorcraft, and the torque must be absorbed by the rotors to be installed, except that other ground or flight test facilities with other appropriate methods of torque absorption may be used if the conditions of support and vibration closely simulate the conditions that would exist during a test on the rotorcraft.
  3. (c) A 60-hour part of the test prescribed in paragraph (b) of this section must be run at not less than maximum continuous torque and the maximum speed for use with maximum continuous torque. In this test, the main rotor controls must be set in the position that will give maximum longitudinal cyclic pitch change to simulate forward flight. The auxiliary rotor controls must be in the position for normal operation under the conditions of the test.
  4. (d) A 30-hour or, for rotorcraft for which the use of either 30-minute OEI power or continuous OEI power is requested, a 25-hour part of the test prescribed in paragraph (b) of this section must be run at not less than 75 percent of maximum continuous torque and the minimum speed for use with 75 percent of maximum continuous torque. The main and auxiliary rotor controls must be in the position for normal operation under the conditions of the test.
  5. (e) [A 10-hour part of the test prescribed in paragraph (b) of this section must be run at not less than take-off torque and the maximum speed for use with take-off torque. The main and auxiliary rotor controls must be in the normal position for vertical ascent.
    1. (1) [For multi-engine rotorcraft for which the use of 2½ minute OEI power is requested, 12 runs during the 10-hour test must be conducted as follows:
      1. [(i) Each run must consist of at least one period of 2½ minutes with take-off torque and the maximum speed for use with take-off torque on all engines.
      2. [(ii) Each run must consist of at least one period for each engine in sequence, during which that engine simulates a power failure and the remaining engines are run at 2½ minute OEI torque and the maximum speed for use with 2½ minute OEI torque for 2½ minutes.
    2. (2) [For multi-engine turbine-powered rotorcraft for which the use of 30-second and 2-minute OEI power is requested, 10 runs must be conducted as follows:
      1. [(i) Immediately following a take-off run of at least 5 minutes, each power source must simulate a failure, in turn, and apply the maximum torque and the maximum speed for use with 30-second OEI power to the remaining affected drive system power inputs for not less than 30 seconds, followed by application of the maximum torque and the maximum speed for use with 2-minute OEI power for not less than 2 minutes. At least one run sequence must be conducted from a simulated "flight idle" condition. When conducted on a bench test, the test sequence must be conducted following stabilization at takeoff power.
      2. [(ii) For the purpose of this paragraph, an affected power input includes all parts of the rotor drive system which can be adversely affected by the application of higher or asymmetric torque and speed prescribed by the test.
      3. [(iii) This test may be conducted on a representative bench test facility when engine limitations either preclude repeated use of this power or would result in premature engine removal during the test. The loads, the vibration frequency, and the methods of application to the affected rotor drive system components must be representative of rotorcraft conditions. Test components must be those used to show compliance with the remainder of this section.]
  6. (f) The parts of the test prescribed in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section must be conducted in intervals of not less than 30 minutes and may be accomplished either on the ground or in flight. The part of the test prescribed in paragraph (e) of this section must be conducted in intervals of not less than 5 minutes.
  7. (g) At intervals of not more than 5 hours during the tests prescribed in paragraphs (c), (d), and (e) of this section, the engine must be stopped rapidly enough to allow the engine and rotor drive to be automatically disengaged from the rotors.
  8. (h) Under the operating conditions specified in paragraph (c) of this section, 500 complete cycles of lateral control, 500 complete cycles of longitudinal control of the main rotors, and 500 complete cycles of control of each auxiliary rotor must be accomplished. A "complete cycle" involves movement of the controls from the neutral position, through both extreme positions, and back to the neutral position, except that control movements need not produce loads or flapping motions exceeding the maximum loads or motions encountered in flight. The cycling may be accomplished during the testing prescribed in paragraph (c) of this section.
  9. (i) At least 200 start-up clutch engagements must be accomplished:
    1. (1) So that the shaft on the driven side of the clutch is accelerated; and
    2. (2) Using a speed and method selected by the applicant.
  10. (j) For multi-engine rotorcraft for which the use of 30-minute OEI power is requested, five runs must be made at 30-minute OEI torque and the maximum speed for use with 30-minute OEI torque, in which each engine, in sequence, is made inoperative and the remaining engine(s) is run for a 30-minute period.
  11. (k) For multi-engine rotorcraft for which the use of continuous OEI power is requested, five runs must be made at continuous OEI torque and the maximum speed for use with continuous OEI torque, in which each engine, in sequence, is made inoperative and the remaining engine(s) is run for a 1-hour period.

    (Change 527-1 (89-01-01))

    (Change 527-4)

527.927 Additional Tests

  1. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to determine that the rotor drive mechanism is safe, must be performed.
  2. (b) If turbine engine torque output to the transmission can exceed the highest engine or transmission torque rating limit, and that output is not directly controlled by the pilot under normal operating conditions (such as where the primary engine power control is accomplished through the flight control), the following test must be made:
    1. (1) Under conditions associated with all engines operating, make 200 applications, for 10 seconds each, or torque that is at least equal to the lesser of:
      1. (i) The maximum torque used in meeting 527.923 plus 10 percent; or
      2. (ii) The maximum attainable torque output of the engines, assuming that torque limiting devices, if any, function properly.
    2. (2) For multi-engine rotorcraft under conditions associated with each engine, in turn, becoming inoperative, apply to the remaining transmission torque inputs the maximum torque attainable under probable operating conditions, assuming that torque limiting devices, if any, function properly. Each transmission input must be tested at this maximum torque for at least 15 minutes.
    3. (3) The tests prescribed in this paragraph must be conducted on the rotorcraft at the maximum rotational speed intended for the power condition of the test and the torque must be absorbed by the rotors to be installed, except that other ground or flight test facilities with other appropriate methods of torque absorption may be used if the conditions of support and vibration closely simulate the conditions that would exist during a test on the rotorcraft.
  3. (c) It must be shown by tests that the rotor drive system is capable of operating under autorotative conditions for 15 minutes after the loss of pressure in the rotor drive primary oil system.

(Change 527-1 (89-01-01))

527.931 Shafting Critical Speed

  1. (a) The critical speeds of any shafting must be determined by demonstration, except that analytical methods may be used if reliable methods of analysis are available for the particular design.
  2. (b) If any critical speed lies within, or close to, the operating ranges for idling, power on, and autorotative conditions, the stresses occurring at that speed must be within safe limits. This must be shown by tests.
  3. (c) If analytical methods are used and show that no critical speed lies within the permissible operating ranges, the margins between the calculated critical speeds and the limits of the allowable operating ranges must be adequate to allow for possible variations between the computed and actual values.

527.935 Shafting Joints

Each universal joint, slip joint, and other shafting joint whose lubrication is necessary for operation must have provision for lubrication.

527.939 Turbine Engine Operating Characteristics

  1. (a) Turbine engine operating characteristics must be investigated in flight to determine that no adverse characteristics (such as stall, surge, or flame-out) are present, to a hazardous degree, during normal and emergency operation within the range of operating limitations of the rotorcraft and of the engine.
  2. (b) The turbine engine air inlet system may not, as a result of airflow distortion during normal operation, cause vibration harmful to the engine.
  3. (c) For governor-controlled engines, it must be shown that there exists no hazardous torsional instability of the drive system associated with critical combinations of power, rotational speed, and control displacement.

Fuel System

527.951 General

  1. (a) Each fuel system must be constructed and arranged to ensure a flow of fuel at a rate and pressure established for proper engine functioning under any likely operating condition, including the manoeuvres for which certification is requested.
  2. (b) Each fuel system must be arranged so that:
    1. (1) No fuel pump can draw fuel from more than one tank at a time; or
    2. (2) There are means to prevent introducing air into the system.
  3. (c) Each fuel system for a turbine engine must be capable of sustained operation throughout its flow and pressure range with fuel initially saturated with water at 80°F and having 0.75cc of free water per gallon added and cooled to the most critical condition for icing likely to be encountered in operation.

527.952 Fuel System Crash Resistance

[Unless other means acceptable to the Minister are employed to minimize the hazard of fuel fires to occupants following an otherwise survivable impact (crash landing), the fuel systems must incorporate the design features of this section. These systems must be shown to be capable of sustaining the static and dynamic deceleration loads of this section, considered as ultimate loads acting alone, measured at the system component's centre of gravity, without structural damage to system components, fuel tanks, or their attachments that would leak fuel to an ignition source.

  1. (a) [Drop test requirements. Each tank, or the most critical tank, must be drop-tested as follows:
    1. (1) [The drop height must be at least 50 feet.
    2. (2) [The drop impact surface must be non-deforming.
    3. (3) [The tank must be filled with water to 80 percent of the normal, full capacity.
    4. (4) [The tank must be enclosed in a surrounding structure representative of the installation unless it can be established that the surrounding structure is free of projections or other design features likely to contribute to rupture of the tank.
    5. (5) [The tank must drop freely and impact in a horizontal position ±10º.
    6. (6) [After the drop test, there must be no leakage.
  2. (b) [Fuel tank load factors. Except for fuel tanks located so that tank rupture with fuel release to either significant ignition sources, such as engines, heaters, and auxiliary power units, or occupants is extremely remote, each fuel tank must be designed and installed to retain its contents under the following ultimate inertial load factors, acting alone.
    1. (1) [For fuel tanks in the cabin:
      1. (i) [Upward - 4g.
      2. (ii) [Forward - 16g.
      3. (iii) [Sideward - 8g.
      4. (iv) [Downward - 20g.
    2. (2) [For fuel tanks located above or behind the crew or passenger compartment that, if loosened, could injure an occupant in an emergency landing:
      1. (i) [Upward - 1.5g
      2. (ii) [Forward - 8g.
      3. (iii) [Sideward - 2g.
      4. (iv) [Downward - 4g.
      5. (3) [For fuel tanks in other areas:
      6. (i) [Upward - 1.5g
      7. (ii) [Forward - 4g.
      8. (iii) [Sideward - 2g.
      9. (iv) [Downward - 4g.
  3. (c) [Fuel line self-sealing breakaway couplings. Self-sealing breakaway couplings must be installed unless hazardous relative motion of fuel system components to each other or to local rotorcraft structure is demonstrated to be extremely improbable or unless other means are provided. The couplings or equivalent devices must be installed at all fuel tank-to-fuel line connections, tank-to-tank interconnects, and at other points in the fuel system where local structural deformation could lead to release to fuel.
    1. (1) [The design and construction of self-sealing breakaway couplings must incorporate the following design features:
      1. (i) [The load necessary to separate a breakaway coupling must be between 25 to 50 percent of the minimum ultimate failure load (ultimate strength) of the weakest component in the fluid-carrying line. The separation load must in no case be less than 300 pounds, regardless of the size of the fluid line.
      2. (ii) [A breakaway coupling must separate whenever its ultimate load (as defined in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section) is applied in the failure modes most likely to occur.
      3. (iii) [All breakaway couplings must incorporate design provisions to visually ascertain that the coupling is locked together (leak-free) and is open during normal installation and service.
      4. (iv) [All breakaway couplings must incorporate design provisions to prevent uncoupling or unintended closing due to operational shocks, vibrations, or accelerations.
      5. (v) [No breakaway coupling design may allow the release of fuel once the coupling has performed its intended function.
    2. (2) [All individual breakaway couplings, coupling fuel feed systems, or equivalent means must be designed, tested, installed, and maintained so that inadvertent fuel shut-off in flight is improbable in accordance with 527.955 (a) and must comply with the fatigue evaluation requirements of 527.571 without leaking.
    3. (3) [Alternate, equivalent means to the use of breakaway couplings must not create a survivable impact-induced load on the fuel line to which it is installed greater than 25 to 50 percent of the ultimate load (strength) of the weakest component in the line and must comply with the fatigue requirements of 527.571 without leaking.
  4. (d) [Frangible or deformable structural attachments. Unless hazardous relative motion of fuel tanks and fuel system components to local rotorcraft structure is demonstrated to be extremely improbable in an otherwise survivable impact, frangible or locally deformable attachments of fuel tanks and fuel systems components to local rotorcraft structure must be used. The attachment of fuel tanks and fuel system components to local rotorcraft structure, whether frangible or locally deformable, must be designed such that its separation or relative local deformation will occur without rupture of local tear-out of the fuel tank or fuel system components that will cause fuel leakage. The ultimate strength of frangible or deformable attachments must be as follows:
    1. (1) [The load required to separate a frangible attachment from its support structure, or deform a locally deformable attachment relative to its support structure, must be between 25 to 50 percent of the minimum ultimate load (ultimate strength) of the weakest component in the attached system. In no case may the load be less than 300 pounds.
    2. (2) [A frangible or locally deformable attachment must separate or locally deform as intended whenever its ultimate load (as defined in paragraph (d)(1) of this section) is applied in the modes most likely to occur.
    3. (3) [All frangible or locally deformable attachments must comply with the fatigue requirements of 527.571.
  5. (e) [Separation of fuel and ignition sources. To provide maximum crash resistance, fuel must be located as far as practicable from all occupiable areas and from all potential ignition sources.
  6. (f) [Other basic mechanical design criteria. Fuel tanks, fuel lines, electrical wires, and electrical devices must be designed, constructed, and installed, as far as practicable, to be crash resistant.
  7. (g) [Rigid or semi-rigid fuel tanks. Rigid or semi-rigid fuel tank or bladder walls must be impact and tear resistant.]

    (Change 527-3 (94-01-04))

    (Change 527-4)

527.953 Fuel System Independence

  1. (a) Each fuel system for multi-engine rotorcraft must allow fuel to be supplied to each engine through a system independent of those parts of each system supplying fuel to other engines. However, separate fuel tanks need not be provided for each engine.
  2. (b) If a single fuel tank is used on a multi-engine rotorcraft, the following must be provided:
    1. (1) Independent tank outlets for each engine, each incorporating a shut-off valve at the tank. This shut-off valve may also serve as the firewall shut-off valve required by 527.995 if the line between the valve and the engine compartment does not contain a hazardous amount of fuel that can drain into the engine compartment.
    2. (2) At least two vents arranged to minimize the probability of both vents becoming obstructed simultaneously.
    3. (3) Filler caps designed to minimize the probability of incorrect installation or in-flight loss.
    4. (4) A fuel system in which those parts of the system from each tank outlet to any engine are independent of each part of each system supplying fuel to other engines.

527.954 Fuel System Lightning Protection

The fuel system must be designed and arranged to prevent the ignition of fuel vapour within the system by:

  • (a) Direct lightning strikes to areas having a high probability of stroke attachment;
  • (b) Swept lightning strokes to areas where swept strokes are highly probable; or
  • (c) Corona and streamering at fuel vent outlets.

    (Change 527-1 (89-01-01))

527.955 Fuel Flow

  1. (a) General. The fuel system for each engine must be shown to provide the engine with at least 100 percent of the fuel required under each operating and manoeuvring condition to be approved for the rotorcraft including, as applicable, the fuel required to operate the engine(s) under the test conditions required by 527.927. Unless equivalent methods are used, compliance must be shown by test during which the following provisions are met except that combinations of conditions which are shown to be improbable need not be considered.
    1. (1) The fuel pressure, corrected for critical accelerations, must be within the limits specified by the engine type certificate data sheet.
    2. (2) The fuel level in the tank may not exceed that established as the unusable fuel supply for that tank under 527.959, plus the minimum additional fuel necessary to conduct the test.
    3. (3) The fuel head between the tank outlet and the engine inlet must be critical with respect to rotorcraft flight attitudes.
    4. (4) The critical fuel pump (for pump-fed systems) is installed to produce (by actual or simulated failure) the critical restriction to fuel flow to be expected from pump failure.
    5. (5) Critical values of engine rotation speed, electrical power, or other sources of fuel pump motive power must be applied.
    6. (6) Critical values of fuel properties which adversely affect fuel flow must be applied.
    7. (7) The fuel filter required by 527.997 must be blocked to the degree necessary to simulate the accumulation of fuel contamination required to activate the indicator required by 527.1305 (q).
  2. (b) Fuel transfer systems. If normal operation of the fuel system requires fuel to be transferred to an engine feed tank, the transfer must occur automatically via a system which has been shown to maintain the fuel level in the engine feed tank within acceptable limits during flight or surface operation of the rotorcraft.
  3. (c) Multiple fuel tanks. If an engine can be supplied with fuel from more than one tank, the fuel systems must, in addition to having appropriate manual switching capability, be designed to prevent interruption of fuel flow to that engine, without attention by the flight crew, when any tank supplying fuel to that engine is depleted of usable fuel during normal operation, and any other tank that normally supplies fuel to the engine alone contains usable fuel.

    (Change 527-1 (89-01-01))

527.959 Unusable Fuel Supply

The unusable fuel supply for each tank must be established as not less than the quantity at which the first evidence of malfunction occurs under the most adverse fuel feed condition occurring under any intended operations and flight manoeuvres involving that tank.

527.961 Fuel System Hot Weather Operation

Each suction lift fuel system and other fuel systems with features conducive to vapour formation must be shown by test to operate satisfactorily (within certification limits) when using fuel at a temperature of 110°F under critical operating conditions including, if applicable, the engine operating conditions defined by 527.927 (b)(1) and (b)(2).

(Change 527-1 (89-01-01))

527.963 Fuel Tanks:General

  1. (a) Each fuel tank must be able to withstand, without failure, the vibration, inertia, fluid, and structural loads to which it may be subjected in operation.
  2. (b) Each fuel tank of 10 gallons or greater capacity must have internal baffles, or must have external support to resist surging.
  3. (c) Each fuel tank must be separated from the engine compartment by a firewall. At least one-half inch of clear airspace must be provided between the tank and the firewall.
  4. (d) Spaces adjacent to the surfaces of fuel tanks must be ventilated so that fumes cannot accumulate in the tank compartment in case of leakage. If two or more tanks have interconnected outlets, they must be considered as one tank, and the airspaces in those tanks must be interconnected to prevent the flow of fuel from one tank to another as a result of a difference in pressure between those airspaces.
  5. (e) The maximum exposed surface temperature of any component in the fuel tank must be less, by a safe margin as determined by the Minister, than the lowest expected auto-ignition temperature of the fuel or fuel vapour in the tank. Compliance with this requirement must be shown under all operating conditions and under all failure or malfunction conditions of all components inside the tank.
  6. (f) [Each fuel tank installed in personnel compartments must be isolated by fume proof and fuel proof enclosures that are drained and vented to the exterior of the rotorcraft. The design and construction of the enclosures must provide necessary protection for the tank, must be crash resistant during a survivable impact in accordance with 527.952, and must be adequate to withstand loads and abrasions to be expected in personnel compartments.
  7. [(g) Each flexible fuel tank bladder or liner must be approved or shown to be suitable for the particular application and must be puncture resistant. Puncture resistance must be shown by meeting the TSO-C80, paragraph 16.0, requirements using a minimum puncture force of 370 pounds.
  8. [(h) Each integral fuel tank must have provisions for inspection and repair of its interior.]

    (Change 527-1 (89-01-01))

    (Change 527-3 (94-01-03))

    (Change 527-4)

527.965 Fuel Tank Tests

  1. (a) Each fuel tank must be able to withstand the applicable pressure tests in this section without failure or leakage. If practicable, test pressures may be applied in a manner simulating the pressure distribution in service.
  2. (b) Each conventional metal tank, non-metallic tank with walls that are not supported by the rotorcraft structure, and integral tank must be subjected to a pressure of 3.5 p.s.i. unless the pressure developed during maximum limit acceleration or emergency deceleration with a full tank exceeds this value, in which case a hydrostatic head, or equivalent test, must be applied to duplicate the acceleration loads as far as possible. However, the pressure need not exceed 3.5 p.s.i. on surfaces not exposed to the acceleration loading.
  3. (c) Each non-metallic tank with walls supported by the rotorcraft structure must be subjected to the following tests:
    1. (1) A pressure test of at least 2.0 p.s.i. This test may be conducted on the tank alone in conjunction with the test specified in paragraph (c)(2) of this section.
    2. (2) A pressure test, with the tank mounted in the rotorcraft structure, equal to the load developed by the reaction of the contents, with the tank full, during maximum limit acceleration or emergency deceleration. However, the pressure need not exceed 2.0 p.s.i. on surfaces not exposed to the acceleration loading.
  4. (d) Each tank with large unsupported or unstiffened flat areas, or with other features whose failure or deformation could cause leakage, must be subjected to the following test or its equivalent:
    1. (1) Each complete tank assembly and its support must be vibration tested while mounted to simulate the actual installation.
    2. (2) The tank assembly must be vibrated for 25 hours while two-thirds full of any suitable fluid. The amplitude of vibration may not be less than one thirty-second of an inch, unless otherwise substantiated.
    3. (3) The test frequency of vibration must be as follows:
      1. (i) If no frequency of vibration resulting from any r.p.m. within the normal operating range of engine or rotor system speeds is critical, the test frequency of vibration, in number of cycles per minute must, unless a frequency based on a more rational calculation is used, be the number obtained by averaging the maximum and minimum power-on engine speeds (r.p.m.) for reciprocating engine powered rotorcraft or 2,000 c.p.m. for turbine engine powered rotorcraft.
      2. (ii) If only one frequency of vibration resulting from any r.p.m. within the normal operating range of engine or rotor system speeds is critical, that frequency of vibration must be the test frequency.
      3. (iii) If more than one frequency of vibration resulting from any r.p.m. within the normal operating range of engine or rotor system speeds is critical, the most critical of these frequencies must be the test frequency.
    4. (4) Under paragraphs (d)(3)(ii) and (iii) of this section, the time of test must be adjusted to accomplish the same number of vibration cycles as would be accomplished in 25 hours at the frequency specified in paragraph (d)(3)(i) of this section.
    5. (5) During the test, the tank assembly must be rocked at the rate of 16 to 20 complete cycles per minute through an angle of 15 degrees on both sides of the horizontal (30 degrees total), about the most critical axis, for 25 hours. If motion about more than one axis is likely to be critical, the tank must be rocked about each critical axis for 12 ½ hours.

527.967 Fuel Tank Installation

  1. (a) [Each fuel tank must be supported so that tank loads are not concentrated on unsupported tank surfaces. In addition:
    1. (1) [There must be pads, if necessary, to prevent chafing between each tank and its supports;
    2. (2) [The padding must be non-absorbent or treated to prevent the absorption of fuel;
    3. (3) [If flexible tank liners are used, they must be supported so that it is not necessary for them to withstand fluid loads; and
    4. (4) [Each interior surface of tank compartments must be smooth and free of projections that could cause wear of the liner unless:
      1. (i) [There are means for protection of the liner at those points; or
      2. (ii) [The construction of the liner itself provides such protection.
  2. (b) [Any spaces adjacent to tank surfaces must be adequately ventilated to avoid accumulation of fuel or fumes in those spaces due to minor leakage. If the tank is in a sealed compartment, ventilation may be limited to drain holes that prevent clogging and excessive pressure resulting from altitude changes. If flexible tank liners are installed, the venting arrangement for the spaces between the liner and its container must maintain the proper relationship to tank vent pressures for any expected flight condition.
  3. (c) [The location of each tank must meet the requirements of 527.1185 (a) and (c).
  4. (d) [No rotorcraft skin immediately adjacent to a major air outlet from the engine compartment may act as the wall of the integral tank.]

    (Change 527-3 (94-01-03))

    (Change 527-4)

527.969 Fuel Tank Expansion Space

Each fuel tank or each group of fuel tanks with interconnected vent systems must have an expansion space of not less than 2 percent of the tank capacity. It must be impossible to fill the fuel tank expansion space inadvertently with the rotorcraft in the normal ground attitude.

527.971 Fuel Tank Sump

  1. (a) Each fuel tank must have a drainable sump with an effective capacity in any ground attitude to be expected in service of 0.25 percent of the tank capacity or 1/16 gallon, whichever is greater, unless:
    1. (1) The fuel system has a sediment bowl or chamber that is accessible for pre-flight drainage and has a minimum capacity of 1 ounce for every 20 gallons of fuel tank capacity; and
    2. (2) Each fuel tank drain is located so that in any ground attitude to be expected in service, water will drain from all parts of the tank to the sediment bowl or chamber.
  2. (b) Each sump, sediment bowl, and sediment chamber drain required by this section must comply with the drain provisions of 527.999 (b).

    (Change 527-3 (94-01-03))

527.973 Fuel Tank Filler Connection

  1. (a) [Each fuel tank filler connection must prevent the entrance of fuel into any part of the rotorcraft other than the tank itself during normal operations and must be crash resistant during a survivable impact in accordance with 527.952 (c). In addition:
    1. (1) [Each filler must be marked as prescribed in 527.1557 (c)(1);
    2. (2) [Each recessed filler connection that can retain any appreciable quantity of fuel must have a drain that discharges clear of the entire rotorcraft; and
    3. (3) [Each filler cap must provide a fuel-tight seal under the fluid pressure expected in normal operation and in a survivable impact.
  2. (b) [Each filler cap or filler cap cover must warn when the cap is not fully locked or seated on the filler connection.]

    (Change 527-3 (94-01-03))

    (Change 527-4)

527.975 Fuel Tank Vents

  1. (a) Each fuel tank must be vented from the top part of the expansion space so that venting is effective under all normal flight conditions. Each vent must minimize the probability of stoppage by dirt or ice.
  2. (b) [The venting system must be designed to minimize spillage of fuel through the vents to an ignition source in the event of a rollover during landing, ground operation, or a survivable impact.]

Information Note:

At Change 527-3, paragraph (b) contained a variation, which is now superseded. Refer to the information on FAR Amendment 27-30 and 27-35.

(Change 527-3 (94-01-03))

(Change 527-4)

527.977 Fuel Tank Outlet

  1. (a) There must be a fuel strainer for the fuel tank outlet or for the booster pump. This strainer must:
    1. (1) For reciprocating engine powered rotorcraft, have 8 to 16 meshes per inch; and
    2. (2) For turbine engine powered rotorcraft, prevent the passage of any object that could restrict fuel flow or damage any fuel system component.
  2. (b) The clear area of each fuel tank outlet strainer must be at least five times the area of the outlet line.
  3. (c) The diameter of each strainer must be at least that of the fuel tank outlet.
  4. (d) Each finger strainer must be accessible for inspection and cleaning.

Fuel System Components

527.991 Fuel Pumps

Compliance with 527.955 may not be jeopardized by failure of:

  1. (a) Any one pump except pumps that are approved and installed as parts of a type certificated engine; or
  2. (b) Any component required for pump operation except, for engine driven pumps, the engine served by that pump.

(Change 527-1 (89-01-01))

527.993 Fuel System Lines and Fittings

  1. (a) Each fuel line must be installed and supported to prevent excessive vibration and to withstand loads due to fuel pressure and accelerated flight conditions.
  2. (b) Each fuel line connected to components of the rotorcraft between which relative motion could exist must have provisions for flexibility.
  3. (c) Flexible hose must be approved.
  4. (d) Each flexible connection in fuel lines that may be under pressure or subjected to axial loading must use flexible hose assemblies.
  5. (e) No flexible hose that might be adversely affected by high temperatures may be used where excessive temperatures will exist during operation or after engine shut-down.

527.995 Fuel Valves

  1. (a) There must be a positive, quick-acting valve to shut off fuel to each engine individually.
  2. (b) The control for this valve must be within easy reach of appropriately crew members.
  3. (c) Where there is more than one source of fuel supply there must be means for independent feeding from each source.
  4. (d) No shut-off valve may be on the engine side of any firewall.

527.997 Fuel Strainer or Filter

There must be a fuel strainer or filter between the fuel tank outlet and the inlet of the first fuel system component which is susceptible to fuel contamination, including but not limited to the fuel metering device or an engine positive displacement pump, whichever is nearer the fuel tank outlet. This fuel strainer or filter must:

  1. (a) Be accessible for draining and cleaning and must incorporate a screen or element which is easily removable;
  2. (b) Have a sediment trap and drain except that it need not have a drain if the strainer or filter is easily removable for drain purposes;
  3. (c) Be mounted so that its weight is not supported by the connecting lines or by the inlet or outlet connections of the strainer or filter itself, unless adequate strength margins under all loading conditions are provided in the lines and connections; and
  4. (d) Provide a means to remove from the fuel any contaminant which would jeopardize the flow of fuel through rotorcraft or engine fuel system components required for proper rotorcraft fuel system or engine fuel system operation.

    (Change 527-1 (89-01-01))

527.999 Fuel System Drains

  1. (a) There must be at least one accessible drain at the lowest point in each fuel system to completely drain the system with the rotorcraft in any ground attitude to be expected in service.
  2. (b) Each drain required by paragraph (a) of this section must:
    1. (1) Discharge clear of all parts of the rotorcraft;
    2. (2) Have manual or automatic means to assure positive closure in the off position; and
    3. (3) Have a drain valve:
      1. (i) That is readily accessible and which can be easily opened and closed; and
      2. (ii) That is either located or protected to prevent fuel spillage in the event of a landing with landing gear retracted.

    (Change 527-1 (89-01-01))

Oil System

527.1011 Engines: General

  1. (a) Each engine must have an independent oil system that can supply it with an appropriate quantity of oil at a temperature not above that safe for continuous operation.
  2. (b) The usable oil capacity of each system may not be less than the product of the endurance of the rotorcraft under critical operating conditions and the maximum oil consumption of the engine under the same conditions, plus a suitable margin to ensure adequate circulation and cooling. Instead of a rational analysis of endurance and consumption, a usable oil capacity of 1 gallon for each 40 gallons of usable fuel may be used.
  3. (c) The oil cooling provisions for each engine must be able to maintain the oil inlet temperature to that engine at or below the maximum established value. This must be shown by flight tests.

    (Change 527-1 (89-01-01))

527.1013 Oil Tanks

Each oil tank must be designed and installed so that:

  1. (a) It can withstand, without failure, each vibration, inertia, fluid, and structural load expected in operation;
  2. (b) (Reserved)
  3. (c) Where used with a reciprocating engine, it has an expansion space of not less than the greater of 10 percent of the tank capacity or 0.5 gallon, and where used with a turbine engine, it has an expansion space of not less than 10 percent of the tank capacity.
  4. (d) It is impossible to fill the tank expansion space inadvertently with the rotorcraft in the normal ground attitude;
  5. (e) Adequate venting is provided; and
  6. (f) There are means in the filler opening to prevent oil overflow from entering the oil tank compartment.

527.1015 Oil Tank Tests

Each oil tank must be designed and installed so that it can withstand, without leakage, an internal pressure of 5 p.s.i., except that each pressurized oil tank used with a turbine engine must be designed and installed so that it can withstand, without leakage, an internal pressure of 5 p.s.i., plus the maximum operating pressure of the tank.

527.1017 Oil Lines and Fittings

  1. (a) Each oil line must be supported to prevent excessive vibration.
  2. (b) Each oil line connected to components of the rotorcraft between which relative motion could exist must have provisions for flexibility.
  3. (c) Flexible hose must be approved.
  4. (d) Each oil line must have an inside diameter of not less than the inside diameter of the engine inlet or outlet. No line may have splices between connections.

527.1019 Oil Strainer or Filter

  1. (a) Each turbine engine installation must incorporate an oil strainer or filter through which all the engine oil flows and which meets the following requirements:
    1. (1) Each oil strainer or filter that has a bypass must be constructed and installed so that oil will flow at the normal rate through the rest of the system with the strainer or filter completely blocked.
    2. (2) The oil strainer or filter must have the capacity (with respect to operating limitations established for the engine) to ensure that engine oil system functioning is not impaired when the oil is contaminated to a degree (with respect to particle size and density) that is greater than that established for the engine under Chapter 533 of this Manual.
    3. (3) The oil strainer or filter, unless it is installed at an oil tank outlet, must incorporate a means to indicate contamination before it reaches the capacity established in accordance with paragraph (a)(2) of this section.
    4. (4) The bypass of a strainer or filter must be constructed and installed so that the release of collected contaminants is minimized by appropriate location of the bypass to ensure that collected contaminants are not in the bypass flow path.
    5. (5) An oil strainer or filter that has no bypass, except one that is installed at an oil tank outlet, must have a means to connect it to the warning system required in 527.1305 (r).
  2. (b) Each oil strainer or filter in a powerplant installation using reciprocating engines must be constructed and installed so that oil will flow at the normal rate through the rest of the system with the strainer or filter element completely blocked.

    (Change 527-1 (89-01-01))

527.1021 Oil System Drains

A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must:

  1. (a) Be accessible; and
  2. (b) Have manual or automatic means for positive locking in the closed position.

527.1027 Transmissions and Gearboxes: General

  1. (a) [The lubrication system for components of the rotor drive system that require continuous lubrication must be sufficiently independent of the lubrication systems of the engine(s) to ensure lubrication during autorotation.]
  2. [(b)] Pressure lubrication systems for transmissions and gearboxes must comply with the engine oil system requirements of 527.1013 (except paragraph (c)), 527.1015, 527.1017, 527.1021 and 527.1337 (d).
  3. [(c)] Each pressure lubrication system must have an oil strainer or filter through which all of the lubricant flows and must:
    1. (1) Be designed to remove from the lubricant any contaminant which may damage transmission and drive system components or impede the flow of lubricant to a hazardous degree;
    2. (2) Be equipped with a means to indicate collection of contaminants on the filter or strainer at or before opening of the bypass required by paragraph (c)(3) of this section; and
    3. (3) Be equipped with a bypass constructed and installed so that:
      1. (i) The lubricant will flow at the normal rate through the rest of the system with the strainer or filter completely blocked; and
      2. (ii) The release of collected contaminants is minimized by appropriate location of the bypass to ensure that collected contaminants are not in the bypass flow-path.
  4. [(d)] For each lubricant tank or sump outlet supplying lubrication to rotor drive systems and rotor drive system components, a screen must be provided to prevent entrance into the lubrication system of any object that might obstruct the flow of lubricant from the outlet to the filter required by paragraph (c) of this section. The requirements of paragraph (c) do not apply to screens installed at lubricant tank or sump outlets.
  5. [(e)] Splash-type lubrication systems for rotor drive system gear boxes must comply with 527.1021 and 527.1337 (d).

    (Change 527-1 (89-01-01))

    (Change 527-4)

Cooling

527.1041 General

  1. (a) Each powerplant cooling system must be able to maintain the temperatures of powerplant components within the limits established for these components under critical surface (ground or water) and flight operating conditions for which certification is required and after normal shut-down. Powerplant components to be considered include but may not be limited to engines, rotor drive system components, auxiliary power units, and the cooling or lubricating fluids used with these components.
  2. (b) Compliance with paragraph (a) of this section must be shown in tests conducted under the conditions prescribed in that paragraph.

    (Change 527-1 (89-01-01))

527.1043 Cooling Tests

  1. (a) General. For the tests prescribed in 527.1041 (b), the following apply:
    1. (1) If the tests are conducted under conditions deviating from the maximum ambient atmospheric temperature specified in paragraph (b) of this section, the recorded powerplant temperatures must be corrected under paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section unless a more rational correction method is applicable.
    2. (2) No corrected temperature determined under subparagraph (1) of this paragraph may exceed established limits.
    3. (3) For reciprocating engines, the fuel used during the cooling tests must be of the minimum grade approved for the engines, and the mixture settings must be those normally used in the flight stages for which the cooling tests are conducted.
    4. (4) The test procedures must be as prescribed in 527.1045.
  2. (b) Maximum ambient atmospheric temperature. A maximum ambient atmospheric temperature corresponding to sea level conditions of at least 100 degrees F must be established. The assumed temperature lapse rate is 3.6 degrees F per thousand feet of altitude above sea level until a temperature of -69.7 degrees F is reached, above which altitude the temperature is considered constant at -69.7 degrees F. However, for winterization installations, the applicant may select a maximum ambient atmospheric temperature corresponding to sea level conditions of less than 100 degrees F.
  3. (c) Correction factor (except cylinder barrels). Unless a more rational correction applies, temperatures of engine fluids and powerplant components (except cylinder barrels) for which temperature limits are established, must be corrected by adding to them the difference between the maximum ambient atmospheric temperature and the temperature of the ambient air at the time of the first occurrence of the maximum component or fluid temperature recorded during the cooling test.
  4. (d) Correction factor for cylinder barrel temperatures. Cylinder barrel temperatures must be corrected by adding to them 0.7 times the difference between the maximum ambient atmospheric temperature and the temperature of the ambient air at the time of the first occurrence of the maximum cylinder barrel temperature recorded during the cooling test.

527.1045 Cooling Test Procedures

  1. (a) General. For each stage of flight, the cooling tests must be conducted with the rotorcraft:
    1. (1) In the configuration most critical for cooling; and
    2. (2) Under the conditions most critical for cooling.
  2. (b) Temperature stabilization. For the purpose of the cooling tests, a temperature is "stabilized" when its rate of change is less than 2°F per minute. The following component and engine fluid temperature stabilization rules apply:
    1. (1) For each rotorcraft, and for each stage of flight:
      1. (i) The temperatures must be stabilized under the conditions from which entry is made into the stage of flight being investigated; or
      2. (ii) If the entry condition normally does not allow temperatures to stabilize, operation through the fuel entry condition must be conducted before entry into the stage of flight being investigated in order to allow the temperatures to attain their natural levels at the time of entry.
    2. (2) For each helicopter during the take-off stage of flight, the climb at takeoff power must be preceded by a period of hover during which the temperatures are stabilized.
  3. (c) Duration of test. For each stage of flight the tests must be continued until:
    1. (1) The temperatures stabilize or 5 minutes after the occurrence of the highest temperature recorded, as appropriate to the test condition;
    2. (2) That stage of flight is completed; or
    3. (3) An operating limitation is reached.

    (Change 527-1 (89-01-01))

Induction System

527.1091 Air Induction

  1. (a) The air induction system for each engine must supply the air required by that engine under the operating conditions and manoeuvres for which certification is requested.
  2. (b) Each cold air induction system opening must be outside the cowling if backfire flames can emerge.
  3. (c) If fuel can accumulate in any air induction system, that system must have drains that discharge fuel:
    1. (1) Clear of the rotorcraft; and
    2. (2) Out of the path of exhaust flames.
  4. (d) For turbine engine powered rotorcraft:
    1. (1) There must be means to prevent hazardous quantities of fuel leakage or overflow from drains, vents or other components of flammable fluid systems from entering the engine intake system; and
    2. (2) The air inlet ducts must be located or protected so as to minimize the ingestion of foreign matter during takeoff , landing, and taxiing.

    (Change 527-1 (89-01-01))

527.1093 Induction System Icing Protection

  1. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating engine air induction system must have means to prevent and eliminate icing. Unless this is done by other means, it must be shown that, in air free of visible moisture at a temperature of 30°F, and with the engines at 75 percent of maximum continuous power:
    1. (1) Each rotorcraft with sea level engines using conventional venturi carburetors has a preheater that can provide a heat rise of 90°F;
    2. (2) Each rotorcraft with sea level engines using carburetors tending to prevent icing has a sheltered alternate source of air, and that the preheat supplied to the alternate air intake is not less than that provided by the engine cooling air downstream of the cylinders;
    3. (3) Each rotorcraft with altitude engines using conventional venturi carburetors has a preheater capable of providing a heat rise of 120°F; and
    4. (4) Each rotorcraft with altitude engines using carburetors tending to prevent icing has a preheater that can provide a heat rise of:
      1. (i) 100°F; or
      2. (ii) If a fluid de-icing system is used, at least 40°F.
  2. (b) Turbine engines.
    1. (1) It must be shown that each turbine engine and its air inlet system can operate throughout the flight power range of the engine (including idling):
      1. (i) Without accumulating ice on engine or inlet system components that would adversely affect engine operation or cause a serious loss of power under the icing conditions specified in Appendix C of Chapter 529 of this Manual; and
      2. (ii) In falling, blowing, and recirculating snow without adverse effect on engine operation; or
        1. FAR: (ii) In snow, both falling and blowing, without adverse effect on engine operation, within the limitations established for the rotorcraft.
      3. (iii) [If certification for flight in snow has not been requested, the engine tolerance to snow shall be demonstrated.]
        1. FAR: No equivalent text.
    2. (2) Each turbine engine must idle for 30 minutes on the ground, with the air bleed available for engine icing protection at its critical condition, without adverse effect, in an atmosphere that is at a temperature between 15° and 30°F (between -9° and -1°C) and has a liquid water content not less than 0.3 grams per cubic meter in the form of drops having a mean effective diameter of not less than 20 microns, followed by momentary operation at takeoff power or thrust. During the 30 minutes of idle operation, the engine may run up periodically to a moderate power or thrust setting in a manner acceptable to the Minister.
  3. (c) Supercharged reciprocating engines. For each engine having superchargers to pressurize the air before it enters the carburetor, the heat rise in the air caused by that supercharging at any altitude may be utilized in determining compliance with paragraph (a) of this section if the heat rise utilized is that which will be available, automatically, for the applicable altitude and operating condition because of supercharging.

    (Change 527-1 (89-01-01))

    (Change 527-2 (92-02-01))

    (Change 527-4)

Exhaust System

527.1121 General

For each exhaust system:

  1. (a) There must be means for thermal expansion of manifolds and pipes;
  2. (b) There must be means to prevent local hot spots;
  3. (c) Exhaust gases must discharge clear of the engine air intake, fuel system components, and drains;
  4. (d) Each exhaust system part with a surface hot enough to ignite flammable fluids or vapours must be located or shielded so that leakage from any system carrying flammable fluids or vapours will not result in a fire caused by impingement of the fluids or vapours on any part of the exhaust system including shields for the exhaust system;
  5. (e) Exhaust gases may not impair pilot vision at night due to glare;
  6. (f) If significant traps exist, each turbine engine exhaust system must have drains discharging clear of the rotorcraft, in any normal ground and flight attitudes, to prevent fuel accumulation after the failure of an attempted engine start;
  7. (g) Each exhaust heat exchanger must incorporate means to prevent blockage of the exhaust port after any internal heat exchanger failure.

527.1123 Exhaust Piping

  1. (a) Exhaust piping must be heat and corrosion resistant, and must have provisions to prevent failure due to expansion by operating temperatures.
  2. (b) Exhaust piping must be supported to withstand any vibration and inertia loads to which it would be subjected in operations.
  3. (c) Exhaust piping connected to components between which relative motion could exist must have provisions for flexibility.

Powerplant Controls and Accessories

527.1141 Powerplant Controls: General

  1. (a) Powerplant controls must be located and arranged under 527.777 and marked under 527.1555.
  2. (b) Each flexible powerplant control must be approved.
  3. (c) [Each control must be able to maintain any set position without:
    1. (1) [Constant attention; or
    2. (2) [Tendency to creep due to control loads or vibration.
  4. [(d)] Controls of powerplant valves required for safety must have:
    1. (1) For manual valves, positive stops or in the case of fuel valves suitable index provisions, in the open and closed position; and
    2. (2) For power-assisted valves, a means to indicate to the flight crew when the valve:
      1. (i) Is in the fully open or fully closed position; or
      2. (ii) Is moving between the fully open and fully closed position.
  5. [(e)] For turbine engine powered rotorcraft, no single failure or malfunction, or probable combination thereof, in any powerplant control system may cause the failure of any powerplant function necessary for safety.

    (Change 527-1 (89-01-01))

    (Change 527-4)

527.1143 Engine Controls

  1. (a) There must be a separate power control for each engine.
  2. (b) Power controls must be grouped and arranged to allow:
    1. (1) Separate control of each engine; and
    2. (2) Simultaneous control of all engines.
  3. (c) Each power control must provide a positive and immediately responsive means of controlling its engine.
  4. (d) If a power control incorporates a fuel shut-off feature, the control must have a means to prevent the inadvertent movement of the control into the shut-off position. The means must:
    1. (1) Have a positive lock or stop at the idle position; and
    2. (2) Require a separate and distinct operation to place the control in the shut-off position.
  5. [(e) For rotorcraft to be certificated for a 30-second OEI power rating, a means must be provided to automatically activate and control the 30-second OEI power and prevent any engine from exceeding the installed engine limits associated with the 30-second OEI power rating approved for the rotorcraft.]

    (Change 527-1 (89-01-01))

    (Change 527-4)

527.1145 Ignition Switches

  1. (a) There must be means to quickly shut off all ignition by the grouping of switches or by a master ignition control.
  2. (b) Each group of ignition switches, except ignition switches for turbine engines for which continuous ignition is not required, and each master ignition control must have a means to prevent its inadvertent operation.

527.1147 Mixture Controls

If there are mixture controls, each engine must have a separate control and the controls must be arranged to allow:

  1. (a) Separate control of each engine; and
  2. (b) Simultaneous control of all engines.

[527.1151 Rotor Brake Controls

  1. [(a) It must be impossible to apply the rotor brake inadvertently in flight.
  2. [(b) There must be means to warn the crew if the rotor brake has not been completely released before takeoff .]

    (Change 527-4)

527.1163 Powerplant Accessories

  1. (a) Each engine-mounted accessory must:
    1. (1) Be approved for mounting on the engine involved;
    2. (2) Use the provisions on the engine for mounting; and
    3. (3) Be sealed in such a way as to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system.
  2. (b) Unless other means are provided, torque limiting means must be provided for accessory drives located on any component of the transmission and rotor drive system to prevent damage to these components from excessive accessory load.

    (Change 527-1 (89-01-01))

Powerplant Fire Protection

527.1183 Lines, Fittings, and Components

  1. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each line, fitting, and other component carrying flammable fluid in any area subject to engine fire conditions must be fire resistant, except that flammable fluid tanks and supports which are part of and attached to the engine must be fireproof or be enclosed by a fireproof shield unless damage by fire to any non-fireproof part will not cause leakage or spillage of flammable fluid. Components must be shielded or located so as to safeguard against the ignition of leaking flammable fluid. An integral oil sump of less than 25 quart capacity on a reciprocating engine need not be fireproof nor be enclosed by a fireproof shield.
  2. (b) Paragraph (a) does not apply to:
    1. (1) Lines, fittings, and components which are already approved as part of a type certificated engine; and
    2. (2) Vent and drain lines, and their fittings, whose failure will not result in, or add to, a fire hazard.
  3. (c) Each flammable fluid drain and vent must discharge clear of the induction system air inlet.

527.1185 Flammable Fluids

  1. (a) Each fuel tank must be isolated from the engines by a firewall or shroud.
  2. (b) Each tank or reservoir, other than a fuel tank, that is part of a system containing flammable fluids or gases must be isolated from the engine by a firewall or shroud, unless the design of the system, the materials used in the tank and its supports, the shut-off means, and the connections, lines and controls provide a degree of safety equal to that which would exist if the tank or reservoir were isolated from the engines.
  3. (c) There must be at least one-half inch of clear airspace between each tank and each firewall or shroud isolating that tank, unless equivalent means are used to prevent heat transfer from each engine compartment to the flammable fluid.
  4. [(d) Absorbent materials close to flammable fluid system components that might leak must be covered or treated to prevent the absorption of hazardous quantities of fluids.]

    (Change 527-4)

527.1187 Ventilation [and Drainage]

[Each compartment containing any part of the powerplant installation must have provision for ventilation and drainage of flammable fluids. The drainage means must be:

  1. [(a) Effective under conditions expected to prevail when drainage is needed, and
  2. [(b) Arranged so that no discharged fluid will cause an additional fire hazard.]

    (Change 527-4)

527.1189 Shut-off Means

  1. (a) There must be means to shut off each line carrying flammable fluids into the engine compartment, except:
  2. (1) Lines, fittings, and components forming an integral part of an engine;
  3. (2) For oil systems for which all components of the system, including oil tanks, are fireproof or located in areas not subject to engine fire conditions; and
  4. (3) For reciprocating engine installations only, engine oil system lines in installations using engines of less than 500 cu. in. displacement.
  5. (b) There must be means to guard against inadvertent operation of each shut-off, and to make it possible for the crew to reopen it in flight after it has been closed.
  6. (c) Each shut-off valve and its control must be designed, located, and protected to function properly under any condition likely to result from an engine fire.

    (Change 527-1 (89-01-01))

527.1191 Firewalls

  1. (a) Each engine, including the combustor, turbine, and tailpipe sections of turbine engines must be isolated by a firewall, shroud, or equivalent means, from personnel compartments, structures, controls, rotor mechanisms, and other parts that are:
    1. (1) Essential to a controlled landing; and
    2. (2) Not protected under 527.861.
  2. (b) Each auxiliary power unit and combustion heater, and any other combustion equipment to be used in flight, must be isolated from the rest of the rotorcraft by firewalls, shrouds, or equivalent means.
  3. (c) In meeting paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, account must be taken of the probable path of a fire as affected by the airflow in normal flight and in autorotation.
  4. (d) Each firewall and shroud must be constructed so that no hazardous quantity of air, fluids, or flame can pass from any engine compartment to other parts of the rotorcraft.
  5. (e) Each opening in the firewall or shroud must be sealed with close-fitting, fireproof grommets, bushings, or firewall fittings.
  6. (f) Each firewall and shroud must be fireproof and protected against corrosion.

527.1193 Cowling and Engine Compartment Covering

  1. (a) Each cowling and engine compartment covering must be constructed and supported so that it can resist the vibration, inertia, and air loads to which it may be subjected in operation.
  2. (b) There must be means for rapid and complete drainage of each part of the cowling or engine compartment in the normal ground and flight attitudes.
  3. (c) No drain may discharge where it might cause a fire hazard.
  4. (d) Each cowling and engine compartment covering must be at least fire resistant.
  5. (e) Each part of the cowling or engine compartment covering subject to high temperatures due to its nearness to exhaust system parts or exhaust gas impingement must be fireproof.
  6. (f) A means of retaining each openable or readily removable panel, cowling, or engine or rotor drive system covering must be provided to preclude hazardous damage to rotors or critical control components in the event of structural or mechanical failure of the normal retention means, unless such failure is extremely improbable.

    (Change 527-1 (89-01-01))

527.1194 Other Surfaces

All surfaces aft of, and near, powerplant compartments, other than tail surfaces not subject to heat, flames or sparks emanating from a powerplant compartment, must be at least fire resistant.

527.1195 Fire Detector Systems

Each turbine engine power rotorcraft must have approved quick-acting fire detectors in numbers and locations insuring prompt detection of fire in the engine compartment which cannot be readily observed in flight by the pilot in the cockpit.

Date modified: