Part V - Airworthiness Manual Chapter 527 - Normal Category Aircraft

Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) 2017-2

Content last revised: 2009/06/30

Preamble

SUBCHAPTERS

  • A (527.1-527.2), 
  • B (527.21-527.251), 
  • C (527.301-527.571), 
  • D (527.601-527.873), 
  • E (527.901-527.1195), 
  • F (527.1301-527.1461), 
  • G (527.1501-527.1589)

APPENDICES

ABCD

(2002/06/01; no previous version)

SUBCHAPTER G OPERATING LIMITATIONS AND INFORMATION

527.1501 General

  1. (a) Each operating limitation specified in 527.1503 through 527.1525 and other limitations and information necessary for safe operation must be established.
  2. (b) The operating limitations and other information necessary for safe operation must be made available to the crewmembers as prescribed in 527.1541 through 527.1589.

    (Change 527-1 (89-01-01))

Operating Limitations

527.1503 Airspeed Limitations: General

  1. (a) An operating speed range must be established.
  2. (b) When airspeed limitations are a function of weight, weight distribution, altitude, rotor speed power, or other factors, airspeed limitations corresponding with the critical combinations of these factors must be established.

    (Change 527-1 (89-01-01))

527.1505 Never-Exceed Speed

  1. (a) The never-exceed speed, VNE , must be established so that it is:
    1. (1) Not less than 40 knots (CAS); and
    2. (2) Not more than the lesser of:
      1. (i) 0.9 times the maximum forward speeds established under 527.309;
      2. (ii) 0.9 times the maximum speed shown under 527.251 and 527.629; or
      3. (iii) 0.9 times the maximum speed substantiated for advancing blade tip mach number effects.
  2. (b) VNE may vary with altitude, r.p.m., temperature, and weight, if:
    1. (1) No more than two of these variables (or no more than two instruments integrating more than one of these variables) are used at one time; and
    2. (2) The ranges of these variables (or of the indications on instruments integrating more than one of these variables) are large enough to allow an operationally practical and safe variation of VNE.
  3. (c) For helicopters, a stabilized power-off VNE denoted as VNE (power-off) may be established at a speed less than VNE established pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section, if the following conditions are met:
    1. (1) VNE (power-off) is not less than a speed midway between the power-on VNE and the speed used in meeting the requirements of:
      1. (i) 527.65 (b) for single-engine helicopters; and
      2. (ii) 527.67 for multi-engine helicopters.
    2. (2) VNE (power-off) is:
      1. (i) A constant airspeed;
      2. (ii) A constant amount less than power-on VNE; or
      3. (iii) A constant airspeed for a portion of the altitude range for which certification is requested, and a constant amount less than power-on VNE for the remainder of the altitude range.

    (Change 527-1 (89-01-01))

527.1509 Rotor Speed

  1. (a) Maximum power-off (autorotation). The maximum power-off rotor speed must be established so that it does not exceed 95 percent of the lesser of:
    1. (1) The maximum design r.p.m. determined under 527.309 (b); and
    2. (2) The maximum r.p.m. shown during the type tests.
  2. (b) Minimum power-off. The minimum power-off rotor speed must be established so that it is not less than 105 percent of the greater of:
    1. (1) The minimum shown during the type tests; and
    2. (2) The minimum determined by design substantiation.
  3. (c) Minimum power-on. The minimum power-on rotor speed must be established so that it is:
    1. (1) Not less than the greater of:
      1. (i) The minimum shown during the type tests; and
      2. (ii) The minimum determined by design substantiation; and
    2. (2) Not more than a value determined under 527.33 (a)(1) and (b)(1).

527.1519 Weight and Centre of Gravity

The weight and centre of gravity limitations determined under 527.25 and 527.27, respectively, must be established as operating limitations.

527.1521 Powerplant Limitations

  1. (a) General. The powerplant limitations prescribed in this section must be established so that they do not exceed the corresponding limits for which the engines are type certificated.
  2. (b) Take-off operation. The powerplant take-off operation must be limited by:
    1. (1) The maximum rotational speed, which may not be greater than:
      1. (i) The maximum value determined by the rotor design; or
      2. (ii) The maximum value shown during the type tests;
    2. (2) The maximum allowable manifold pressure (for reciprocating engines);
    3. (3) The time limit for the use of the power corresponding to the limitations established in subparagraphs (1) and (2) of this paragraph;
    4. (4) If the time limit in subparagraph (3) of this paragraph exceeds two minutes, the maximum allowable cylinder head, coolant outlet, or oil temperatures;
    5. (5) The gas temperature limits for turbine engines over the range of operating and atmospheric conditions for which certification is requested.
  3. (c) Continuous operation. The continuous operation must be limited by:
    1. (1) The maximum rotational speed, which may not be greater than:
      1. (i) The maximum value determined by the rotor design; or
      2. (ii) The maximum value shown during the type tests;
    2. (2) The minimum rotational speed shown under the rotor speed requirements in 527.1509 (c); and
    3. (3) The gas temperature limits for turbine engines over the range of operating and atmospheric conditions for which certification is requested.
  4. (d) Fuel grade or designation. The minimum fuel grade (for reciprocating engines), or fuel designation (for turbine engines), must be established so that it is not less than that required for the operation of the engines within the limitations in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section.
  5. (e) Turbo shaft engine torque. For rotorcraft with main rotors driven by turbo shaft engines, and that do not have a torque limiting device in the transmission system, the following apply:
    1. (1) A limit engine torque must be established if the maximum torque that the engine can exert is greater than:
      1. (i) The torque that the rotor drive system is designed to transmit; or
      2. (ii) The torque that the main rotor assembly is designed to withstand in showing compliance with 527.547 (e).
    2. (2) The limit engine torque established under subparagraph (1) of this paragraph may not exceed either torque specified in subdivision (1)(i) or (ii) of this paragraph.
  6. (f) Ambient temperature. For turbine engines, ambient temperature limitations (including limitations for winterization installations, if applicable) must be established as the maximum ambient atmospheric temperature at which compliance with the cooling provisions of 527.1041 through 527.1045 is shown.
  7. (g) Two and one-half-minute OEI power operation. Unless otherwise authorized, the use of 2½-minute OEI power must be limited to engine failure operation of multi-engine, turbine-powered rotorcraft for not longer than 2½ minutes after failure of an engine. The use of 2½-minute OEI power must also be limited by:
    1. (1) The maximum rotational speed, which may not be greater than:
      1. (i) The maximum value determined by the rotor design; or
      2. (ii) The maximum demonstrated during the type tests;
    2. (2) The maximum allowable gas temperature; and
    3. (3) The maximum allowable torque.
  8. (h) Thirty-minute OEI power operation. Unless otherwise authorized, the use of 30-minute OEI power must be limited to multi-engine, turbine-powered rotorcraft for not longer than 30 minutes after failure of an engine. The use of 30-minute OEI power must also be limited by:
    1. (1) The maximum rotational speed, which may not be greater than:
      1. (i) The maximum value determined by the rotor design; or
      2. (ii) The maximum value demonstrated during the type tests;
    2. (2) The maximum allowable gas temperature; and
    3. (3) The maximum allowable torque.
  9. (i) Continuous OEI power operation. Unless otherwise authorized, the use of continuous OEI power must be limited to multi-engine, turbine-powered rotorcraft for continued flight after failure of an engine. The use of continuous OEI power must also be limited by:
    1. (1) The maximum rotational speed, which may not be greater than:
      1. (i) The maximum value determined by the rotor design; or
      2. (ii) The maximum value demonstrated during the type tests;
    2. (2) The maximum allowable gas temperature; and
    3. (3) The maximum allowable torque.
  10. [(j) Rated 30-second OEI power operation. Rated 30-second OEI power is permitted only on multi-engine, turbine-powered rotorcraft, also certificated for the use of rated 2-minute OEI power, and can only be used for continued operation of the remaining engine(s) after a failure or precautionary shutdown of an engine. It must be shown that following application of 30-second OEI power, any damage will be readily detectable by the applicable inspections and other related procedures furnished in accordance with Section A527.4 of Appendix A of this chapter and Section A533.4 of Appendix A of Chapter 533. The use of 30-second OEI power must be limited to not more than 30 seconds for any period in which that power is used, and by:
    1. [(1) The maximum rotational speed, which may not be greater than:
      1. [(i) The maximum value determined by the rotor design; or
      2. [(ii) The maximum value demonstrated during the type tests;
    2. [(2) The maximum allowable gas temperature; and
    3. [(3) The maximum allowable torque.
  11. [(k) Rated 2-minute OEI power operation. Rated 2-minute OEI power is permitted only on multi-engine, turbine-powered rotorcraft, also certificated for the use of rated 30-second OEI power, and can only be used for continued operation of the remaining engine(s) after a failure or precautionary shutdown of an engine. It must be shown that following application of 2-minute OEI power, any damage will be readily detectable by the applicable inspections and other related procedures furnished in accordance with Section A527.4 of Appendix A of this chapter and Section A533.4 of Appendix A of Chapter 533. The use of 2-minute OEI power must be limited to not more than 2 minutes for any period in which that power is used, and by:
    1. [(1) The maximum rotational speed, which may not be greater than:
      1. [(i) The maximum value determined by the rotor design; or
      2. [(ii) The maximum value demonstrated during the type tests;
    2. [(2) The maximum allowable gas temperature; and
    3. [(3) The maximum allowable torque.]

    (Change 527-1 (89-01-01))

    (Change 527-4)

527.1523 Minimum Flight Crew

The minimum flight crew must be established so that it is sufficient for safe operation, considering:

  1. (a) The workload on individual crewmembers ;
  2. (b) The accessibility and ease of operation of necessary controls by the appropriate crewmember; and
  3. (c) The kinds of operation authorized under 527.1525.

527.1525 Kinds of Operation

The kinds of operations (such as VFR, IFR, day, night, or icing) for which the rotorcraft is approved are established by demonstrated compliance with the applicable requirements and by the installed equipment.

527.1527 Maximum Operating Altitude

The maximum altitude up to which operation is allowed, as limited by flight, structural, powerplant, functional, or equipment characteristics, must be established.

527.1529 Instructions for Continued Airworthiness

The applicant must prepare Instructions for Continued Airworthiness in accordance with Appendix A to this chapter that are acceptable to the Minister. The instructions may be incomplete at type certification if a program exists to ensure their completion prior to delivery of the first rotorcraft or issuance of a standard certificate of airworthiness, whichever occurs later.

Markings and Placards

527.1541 General

  1. (a) The rotorcraft must contain:
    1. (1) The markings and placards specified in 527.1545 through 527.1565; and
    2. (2) Any additional information, instrument markings, and placards required for the safe operation of rotorcraft with unusual design, operating or handling characteristics.
  2. (b) Each marking and placard prescribed in paragraph (a) of this section:
    1. (1) Must be displayed in a conspicuous place; and
    2. (2) May not be easily erased, disfigured, or obscured.

527.1543 Instrument Markings:General

For each instrument:

  1. (a) When markings are on the cover glass of the instrument, there must be means to maintain the correct alignment of the glass cover with the face of the dial; and
  2. (b) Each arc and line must be wide enough, and located, to be clearly visible to the pilot.

527.1545 Airspeed Indicator

  1. (a) Each airspeed indicator must be marked as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, with the marks located at the corresponding indicated airspeeds.
  2. (b) The following markings must be made:
    1. (1) A red radial line:
      1. (i) For rotorcraft other than helicopters, at VNE; and
      2. (ii) For helicopters, at VNE (power-on).
    2. (2) A red, cross-hatched radial line at VNE (power-off) for helicopters, if VNE (power-off) is less than VNE (power-on).
    3. (3) For the caution range, a yellow arc.
    4. (4) For the safe operating range, a green arc.

527.1547 Magnetic Direction Indicator

  1. (a) A placard meeting the requirements of this section must be installed on or near the magnetic direction indicator.
  2. (b) The placard must show the calibration of the instrument in level flight with the engines operating.
  3. (c) The placard must state whether the calibration was made with radio receivers on or off.
  4. (d) Each calibration reading must be in terms of magnetic heading in not more than 45° increments.
  5. (e) If a magnetic non-stabilized direction indicator can have a deviation of more than 10 degrees caused by the operation of electrical equipment, the placard must state which electrical loads, or combination of loads, would cause a deviation of more than 10 degrees when turned on.

527.1549 Powerplant Instruments

For each required powerplant instrument, as appropriate to the type of instrument:

  1. (a) Each maximum and, if applicable, minimum safe operating limit must be marked with a red radial or a red line;
  2. (b) Each normal operating range must be marked with a green arc or green line, not extending beyond the maximum and minimum safe limits;
  3. (c) Each takeoff and precautionary range must be marked with a yellow arc or yellow line;
  4. (d) Each engine or propeller range that is restricted because of excessive vibration stresses must be marked with red arc or red lines; and
  5. (e) [Each OEI limit or approved operating range must be marked to be clearly differentiated from the markings of paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section except that no marking is normally required for the 30-second OEI limit.]

    (Change 527-1 (89-01-01))

    (Change 527-4)

527.1551 Oil Quantity Indicator

Each oil quantity indicator must be marked with enough increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil.

527.1553 Fuel Quantity Indicator

If the unusable fuel supply for any tank exceeds one gallon , or five percent of the tank capacity, whichever is greater, a red arc must be marked on its indicator extending from the calibrated zero reading to the lowest reading obtainable in level flight.

527.1555 Control Markings

  1. (a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight controls or control whose function is obvious, must be plainly marked as to its function and method of operation.
  2. (b) For powerplant fuel controls:
    1. (1) Each fuel tank selector control must be marked to indicate the position corresponding to each tank and to each existing cross feed position;
    2. (2) If safe operation requires the use of any tanks in a specific sequence, that sequence must be marked on, or adjacent to, the selector for those tanks; and
    3. (3) Each valve control for any engine of a multi-engine rotorcraft must be marked to indicate the position corresponding to each engine controlled.
  3. (c) Usable fuel capacity must be marked as follows:
    1. (1) For fuel systems having no selector controls, the usable fuel capacity of the system must be indicated at the fuel quantity indicator.
    2. (2) For fuel systems having selector controls, the usable fuel capacity available at each selector control position must be indicated near the selector control.
  4. (d) For accessory, auxiliary, and emergency controls:
    1. (1) Each essential visual position indicator, such as those showing rotor pitch or landing gear position, must be marked so that each crew member can determine at any time the position of the unit to which it relates; and
    2. (2) Each emergency control must be red and must be marked as to method of operation.
  5. (e) For rotorcraft incorporating retractable landing gear, the maximum landing gear operating speed must be displayed in clear view of the pilot.

527.1557 Miscellaneous Markings and Placards

  1. (a) Baggage and cargo compartments, and ballast location. Each baggage and cargo compartment, and each ballast location must have a placard stating any limitations on contents, including weight, that are necessary under the loading requirements.
  2. (b) Seats. If the maximum allowable weight to be carried in a seat is less than 170 pounds, a placard stating the lesser weight must be permanently attached to the seat structure.
  3. (c) Fuel and oil filler openings. The following apply:
    1. (1) Fuel filler openings must be marked at or near the filler cover with:
      1. (i) The word "fuel";
      2. (ii) For reciprocating engine powered rotorcraft, the minimum fuel grade;
      3. (iii) For turbine engine powered rotorcraft, the permissible fuel designations; and
      4. (iv) For pressure fuelling systems, the maximum permissible fuelling supply pressure and the maximum permissible defuelling pressure.
    2. (2) Oil filler openings must be marked at or near the filler cover with the word "oil".
    3. (3) If placards and markings at the fuel or oil opening include tank capacity, the capacity must be specified in litres. Imperial or U.S. gallons may be included.
  4. FAR: No equivalent text
  5. (d) Emergency exit placards. Each placard and operating control for each emergency exit must be red. A placard must be near each emergency exit control and must clearly indicate the location of that exit and its method of operation.

527.1559 Limitations Placard

There must be a placard in clear view of the pilot that specifies the kinds of operations (such as VFR, IFR, day, night, or icing) for which the rotorcraft is approved.

527.1561 Safety Equipment

  1. (a) Each safety equipment control to be operated by the crew in emergency, such as controls for automatic life raft releases, must be plainly marked as to its method of operation.
  2. (b) Each location, such as a locker or compartment, that carries any fire extinguishing, signalling, or other life saving equipment, must be so marked.

527.1565 Tail Rotor

Each tail rotor must be marked so that its disc is conspicuous under normal daylight ground conditions.

Rotorcraft Flight Manual and Approved Manual Material

527.1581 General

  1. (a) Furnishing information. A Rotorcraft Flight Manual must be furnished with each rotorcraft, and it must contain the following:
    1. (1) Information required by 527.1583 through 527.1589.
    2. (2) Other information that is necessary for safe operation because of design, operating, or handling characteristics.
  2. (b) Approved information. Each part of the manual listed in 527.1583 through 527.1589, that is appropriate to the rotorcraft, must be furnished, verified, and approved, and must be segregated, identified, and clearly distinguished from each unapproved part of that manual.
  3. (c) (Reserved)
  4. (d) Table of contents. Each Rotorcraft Flight Manual must include a table of contents if the complexity of the manual indicates a need for it.
  5. (e) [Deleted].
    1. (2) [Deleted].
    2. (3) [Deleted].
  6. (f) [Deleted].

    (Change 527-4)

527.1583 Operating Limitations

  1. (a) Airspeed and rotor limitations. Information necessary for the marking of airspeed and rotor limitations on, or near, their respective indicators must be furnished. The significance of each limitation and of the colour coding must be explained.
  2. (b) Powerplant limitations. The following information must be furnished:
    1. (1) Limitations required by 527.1521.
    2. (2) Explanation of the limitations, when appropriate.
    3. (3) Information necessary for marking the instruments required by 527.1549 through 527.1553.
  3. (c) Weight and loading distribution. The weight and centre of gravity limits required by 527.25 and 527.27, respectively, must be furnished. If the variety of possible loading conditions warrants, instructions must be included to allow ready observance of the limitations.
  4. (d) Flight crew. When a flight crew of more than one is required, the number and functions of the minimum flight crew determined under 527.1523 must be furnished.
  5. (e) Kinds of operation. Each kind of operation for which the rotorcraft and its equipment installations are approved must be listed.
  6. (f) (Reserved)
  7. (g) Altitude. The altitude established under 527.1527 and an explanation of the limiting factors must be furnished.
  8. (h) Ambient temperature. Maximum and minimum ambient temperature limitations must be furnished.
  9. FAR: No equivalent text.

527.1585 Operating Procedures

  1. (a) Parts of the manual containing operating procedures must have information concerning any normal and emergency procedures and other information necessary for safe operation, including take-off and landing procedures and associated airspeeds. The manual must contain any pertinent information including:
    1. (1) The kind of take-off surface used in the tests and each appropriate climb-out speed; and
    2. (2) The kind of landing surface used in the tests and appropriate approach and glide airspeeds.
  2. (b) For multi-engine rotorcraft, information identifying each operating condition in which the fuel system independence prescribed in 527.953 is necessary for safety must be furnished, together with instructions for placing the fuel system in a configuration used to show compliance with that section.
  3. (c) For helicopters for which a VNE (power-off) is established under 527.1505 (c), information must be furnished to explain the VNE (power-off) and the procedures for reducing airspeed to not more than the VNE (power-off) following failure of all engines.
  4. (d) For each rotorcraft showing compliance with 527.1353 (g)(2) or (g)(3), the operating procedures for disconnecting the battery from its charging source must be furnished.
  5. (e) If the unusable fuel supply in any tank exceeds five percent of the tank capacity, or one gallon, whichever is greater, information must be furnished which indicates that when the fuel quantity indicator reads "zero" in level flight, any fuel remaining in the fuel tank cannot be used safely in flight.
  6. (f) Information on the total quantity of usable fuel for each fuel tank must be furnished.
  7. (g) The airspeeds and rotor speeds for minimum rate of descent and best glide angle as prescribed in 527.71 must be provided.

527.1587 Performance Information

  1. (a) The Rotorcraft Flight Manual must contain the following information, determined in accordance with 527.49 through 527.87 and 527.143 (c) and (d):
    (amended 2009/05/11; previous version)
    1. (1) Enough information to determine the limiting height-speed envelope.
    2. (2) Information relative to:
      1. (i) The steady rates of climb and descent, in-ground effect and out-of-ground effect hovering ceilings, together with the corresponding airspeeds and other pertinent information including the calculated effects of altitude and temperatures;
        (amended 2009/05/11; previous version)
      2. (ii) The maximum weight for each altitude and temperature condition at which the rotorcraft can safely hover in-ground effect and out-of-ground effect in winds of not less than 17 knots from all azimuths. These data must be clearly referenced to the appropriate hover charts. In addition, if there are other combinations of weight, altitude and temperature for which performance information is provided and at which the rotorcraft cannot land and take off safely with the maximum wind value, those portions of the operating envelope and the appropriate safe wind conditions must be stated in the Rotorcraft Flight Manual;
        (amended 2009/05/11; previous version)
      3. (iii) For reciprocating engine-powered rotorcraft, the maximum atmospheric temperature at which compliance with the cooling provisions of 527.1041 through 527.1045 is shown; and
      4. (iv) Glide distance as a function of altitude when autorotating at the speeds and conditions for minimum rate of descent and best glide as determined in 527.71.
  2. (b) The Rotorcraft Flight Manual must contain:
    1. (1) In its performance information section any pertinent information concerning the take-off weights and altitudes used in compliance with 527.51; and
    2. (2) The horizontal takeoff distance determined in accordance with 527.65 (a)(2)(i).

527.1589 Loading Information

There must be loading instructions for each possible loading condition between the maximum and minimum weights determined under 527.25 that can result in a centre of gravity beyond any extreme prescribed in 527.27, assuming any probable occupant weights.

Date modified: