Part V - Airworthiness Manual Chapter 529 - Transport Category Rotorcraft

Content last revised: 2009/12/01

Preamble

SUBCHAPTERS 

  • A (529.1-529.20), 
  • B (529.21-529.300), 
  • C (529.301-529.600), 
  • D (529.601-529.900), 
  • E (529.901-529.1300), 
  • F (529.1301-529.1500), 
  • G (529.1501-529.1589)

APPENDICES  

ABCDE

SUBCHAPTER A GENERAL

529.1 Applicability

(a) This Chapter sets out airworthiness standards for the issue of type certificates, and changes to those type certificates, for transport category rotorcraft.

(b) Transport category rotorcraft shall be certificated in accordance with either the Category A or Category B requirements of this Chapter. A multi-engine rotorcraft may be type certificated as both Category A and Category B with appropriate and different operating limitations for each category.

(c) Rotorcraft with a maximum mass (weight) greater than 9 000 kg (20,000 lbs.) and 10 or more passenger seats must be type certificated as Category A rotorcraft.
(amended 2009/12/01; previous version)

(d) Rotorcraft with a maximum mass (weight) greater than 9 000 kg (20,000 lbs.) and nine or less passenger seats may be type certificated as Category B rotorcraft provided the Category A requirements of subchapters C, D, E, and F of this chapter are met.
(amended 2009/12/01; previous version)

(e) Rotorcraft with a maximum mass (weight) of 9 000 kg (20,000 lbs.) or less and 10 or more passenger seats may be type certificated as Category B rotorcraft provided the Category A requirements of sections 529.67(a)(2), 529.87, 529.1517, and of subchapters C, D, E, and F of this Chapter are met.
(amended 2009/12/01; previous version)

(f) Rotorcraft with a maximum mass (weight) of 9000 kg (20,000 lbs.) or less and nine or less passenger seats may be type certificated as Category B rotorcraft.
(amended 2009/12/01; previous version)

(g) Reserved
(amended 2009/12/01; previous version)

Information Note:

The following text is the corresponding FAR to the Canadian text:

FAR 529.1(g) "Each person who applies under Part 21 for a certificate or change described in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section must show compliance with the applicable requirements of this Part."

529.2 Special Retroactive Requirements

For each rotorcraft manufactured after September 16, 1992, each applicant shall demonstrate that each occupant’s seat is equipped with a safety belt and shoulder harness that meets the requirements of (a), (b), and (c) of this section.

(a) each occupant’s seat shall have a combined safety belt and shoulder harness with a single-point release. Each pilot’s combined safety belt and shoulder harness shall allow each pilot, when seated with safety belt and shoulder harness fastened, to perform all functions necessary for flight operations. There shall be a means to secure belts and harnesses, when not in use, to prevent interference with the operation of the rotorcraft and with rapid egress in an emergency;

(b) each occupant shall be protected from serious head injury by a safety belt plus a shoulder harness that will prevent the head from contacting any injurious object;

(c) the safety belt and shoulder harness shall meet the static and dynamic strength requirements, if applicable, specified by the rotorcraft type certification basis.

(d) for purposes of this section, the date of manufacture is either:

(1) the date the statement of conformity or equivalent inspection acceptance records, reflects that the rotorcraft is complete and meets the type design data approved by the Minister; or

Information Note:

The following text is the corresponding FAR to the Canadian text:

FAR 529.2(d)(1) "The date the inspection acceptance records, or equivalent, reflect that the rotorcraft is complete and meets the FAA-Approved Type Design Data; or"

(2) the date that the foreign civil airworthiness authority certifies the rotorcraft is complete and issues an original standard airworthiness certificate, or equivalent, in that country.

Information Note:

The requirements of section 529.2 shall be met in order to comply with section 605.24(4) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations which requires the installation of safety belts and shoulder harnesses on all rotorcraft manufactured after September 16, 1992.

529.3 to 529.20 Reserved

SUBCHAPTER B FLIGHT - GENERAL

529.21 Proof of Compliance

Each requirement of this subchapter shall be met at each appropriate combination of weight and centre of gravity within the range of loading conditions for which certification is requested. This shall be demonstrated:

(a) by tests upon a rotorcraft of the type for which certification is requested, or by calculations based on, and equal in accuracy to, the results of testing; and

(b) by systematic investigation of each required combination of weight and centre of gravity, if compliance cannot be reasonably inferred from combinations investigated.

529.22 to 529.24 Reserved

529.25 Weight Limits

(a) Maximum weight. The maximum weight (the highest weight at which compliance with each applicable requirement of this Chapter is demonstrated) or, at the option of the applicant, the highest weight for each altitude and for each practicably separable operating condition, such as take-off, en route operation, and landing, must be established so that it is not more than:
(amended 2009/05/11; previous version)

(1) the highest weight selected by the applicant;

(2) the design maximum weight (the highest weight at which compliance with each applicable structural loading condition of this Chapter is demonstrated); or

(3) the highest weight at which compliance with each applicable flight requirement of this Chapter is demonstrated.

(4) For Category B rotorcraft with 9 or less passenger seats, the maximum weight, altitude, and temperature at which the rotorcraft can safely operate near the ground with the maximum wind velocity determined under 529.143(c) and may include other demonstrated wind velocities and azimuths. The operating envelopes must be stated in the Limitations section of the Rotorcraft Flight Manual.
(amended 2009/05/11; no previous version)

(b) Minimum weight. The minimum weight (the lowest weight at which compliance with each applicable requirement of this Chapter is demonstrated) shall be established so that it is not less than:

(1) the lowest weight selected by the applicant;

(2) the design minimum weight (the lowest weight at which compliance with each structural loading condition of this Chapter is demonstrated); or

(3) the lowest weight at which compliance with each applicable flight requirement of this Chapter is demonstrated;

(c) Total weight with jettisonable external load. A total weight for the rotorcraft with a jettisonable external load attached that is greater than the maximum weight established under (a) of this section may be established for any rotorcraft-load combination if:
(amended 1999/12/01)

(1) the rotorcraft-load combination does not include human external cargo;

(2) structural component approval for external load operations under either section 529.865 or under equivalent operational standards is obtained;

(3) the portion of the total weight that is greater than the maximum weight established under (a) of this section is made up only of the weight of all or part of the jettisonable external load;

(4) structural components of the rotorcraft are demonstrated to comply with the applicable structural requirements of this chapter under the increased loads and stresses caused by the weight increase over that established under (a) of this section; and

(5) operation of the rotorcraft at a total weight greater than the maximum certificated weight established under (a) of this section is limited by appropriate operating limitations under section 529.865(a) and (d) of this chapter.

529.26 Reserved

529.27 Centre of Gravity Limits

The extreme forward and aft centres of gravity and, where critical, the extreme lateral centres of gravity shall be established for each weight established under section 529.25. Such an extreme shall not lie beyond:

(a) the extremes selected by the applicant;

(b) the extremes within which the structure is proven; or

(c) the extremes within which compliance with the applicable flight requirements is demonstrated.

529.28 Reserved

529.29 Empty Weight and Corresponding Centre of Gravity

(a) The empty weight and corresponding centre of gravity shall be determined by weighing the rotorcraft without the crew and payload, but with:

(1) fixed ballast;

(2) unuseable fuel; and

(3) full operating fluids, including:

(i) oil;

(ii) hydraulic fluid; and

(iii) other fluids required for normal operation of rotorcraft systems, except water intended for injection in the engines.

(b) The condition of the rotorcraft at the time of determining empty weight shall be one that is well defined and can be easily repeated, particularly with respect to the weights of fuel, oil, coolant, and installed equipment.

529.30 Reserved

529.31 Removable Ballast

Removable ballast may be used in demonstrating compliance with the flight requirements of this subchapter.

529.32 Reserved

529.33 Main Rotor Speed and Pitch Limits

(a) Main rotor speed limits. A range of main rotor speeds shall be established that:

(1) with power-on, provides adequate margin to accommodate the variations in rotor speed occurring in any appropriate manoeuvre, and is consistent with the kind of governor or synchronizer used; and

(2) with power-off, allows each appropriate autorotative manoeuvre to be performed throughout the ranges of airspeed and weight for which certification is requested.

(b) Normal main rotor high pitch limits (power-on). For rotorcraft, except helicopters required to have a main rotor low speed warning under (e) of this section, it shall be demonstrated with power-on and without exceeding approved engine maximum limitations, that main rotor speeds substantially less than the minimum approved main rotor speed will not occur under any sustained flight condition. This shall be met by:

(1) appropriate setting of the main rotor high pitch stop;

(2) inherent rotorcraft characteristics that make unsafe low main rotor speeds unlikely; or

(3) adequate means to warn the pilot of unsafe main rotor speeds.

(c) Normal main rotor low pitch limit (power-off). It shall be demonstrated, with power-off, that:

(1) the normal main rotor low pitch limit provides sufficient rotor speed, in any autorotative condition, under the most critical combinations of weight and airspeed; and

(2) it is possible to prevent overspeeding of the rotor without exceptional piloting skill.

(d) Emergency high pitch. If the main rotor high pitch stop is set to meet (b)(1) of this section, and if that stop cannot be exceeded inadvertently, additional pitch may be made available for emergency use.

(e) Main rotor low speed warning for helicopters. For each single engine helicopter, and each multi-engined helicopter that does not have an approved device that automatically increases power-on the operating engines when one engine fails, there shall be a main rotor low speed warning which meets the following requirements:

(1) the warning shall be furnished to the pilot in all flight conditions, including power-on and power-off flight, when the speed of a main rotor approaches a value that can jeopardize safe flight;

(2) the warning may be furnished either through the inherent aerodynamic qualities of the helicopter or by a device;

(3) the warning shall be clear and distinct under all conditions, and shall be clearly distinguishable from all other warnings. A visual device that requires the attention of the crew within the cockpit is not acceptable by itself; and

(4) if a warning device is used, the device shall automatically deactivate and reset when the low-speed condition is corrected. If the device has an audible warning, it shall also be equipped with a means for the pilot to manually silence the audible warning before the low-speed condition is corrected.

529.34 to 529.44 Reserved

Performance

529.45 General

(a) The performance prescribed in this subchapter shall be determined:

(1) with normal piloting skill; and

(2) without exceptionally favourable conditions.

(b) Compliance with the performance requirements of this subchapter shall be demonstrated:

(1) for still air at sea level with a standard atmosphere; and

(2) for the approved range of atmospheric variables.

(c) The available power shall correspond to engine power, not exceeding the approved power, less:

(1) installation losses; and

(2) the power absorbed by the accessories and services at the values for which certification is requested and approved.

(d) For reciprocating engine-powered rotorcraft, the performance, as affected by engine power, shall be based on a relative humidity of 80 percent in a standard atmosphere.

(e) For turbine engine-powered rotorcraft, the performance, as affected by engine power, shall be based on a relative humidity of:

(1) 80 percent, at and below standard temperature; and

(2) 34 percent, at and above standard temperature plus 50 degrees F.

Between these two temperatures, the relative humidity shall vary linearly.

(f) For turbine-engine-powered rotorcraft, a means shall be provided to permit the pilot to determine prior to take-off that each engine is capable of developing the power necessary to achieve the applicable rotorcraft performance prescribed in this subchapter.

529.46 to 529.48 Reserved

529.49 Performance at Minimum Operating Speed
(amended 1997/04/07)

(a) For each Category A helicopter, the hovering performance shall be determined over the ranges of weight, altitude, and temperature for which take-off data are scheduled:
(amended 1997/04/07)

(1) with not more than take-off power;

(2) with the landing gear extended; and

(3) at a height consistent with the procedure used in establishing the take-off, climb-out, and rejected take-off paths.

(b) For each Category B helicopter, the hovering performance shall be determined over the ranges of weight, altitude, and temperature for which certification is requested, with:
(amended 1997/04/07)

(1) take-off power;

(2) the landing gear extended; and

(3) the helicopter in ground effect at a height consistent with normal take-off procedures.

(c) For each helicopter, the out-of-ground effect hovering performance shall be determined over the ranges of weight, altitude, and temperature for which certification is requested with take-off power.
(amended 1997/04/07)

(d) For rotorcraft other than helicopters, the steady rate of climb at the minimum operating speed shall be determined over the ranges of weight, altitude, and temperature for which certification is requested with:
(amended 1997/04/07)

(1) take-off power; and

(2) the landing gear extended.

529.50 Reserved

529.51 Take-off Data: General

(a) The take-off data required by sections 529.53, 529.55, 529.59, 529.60, 529.61, 529.62, 529.63, and 529.67 shall be determined:
(amended 1997/04/07)

(1) at each weight, altitude, and temperature selected by the applicant; and

(2) with the operating engines within approved operating limitations.

(b) Take-off data shall:

(1) be determined on a smooth, dry, hard surface; and

(2) be corrected to assume a level take-off surface.

(c) No take-off made to determine the data required by this section may require exceptional piloting skill or alertness, or exceptionally favourable conditions.

529.52 Reserved

529.53 Take-off: Category A

The take-off performance shall be determined and scheduled so that, if one engine fails at any time after the start of take-off, the rotorcraft can:
(amended 1997/04/07)

(a) return to, and stop safely on, the take-off area; or
(amended 1997/04/07)

(b) continue the take-off and climb-out, and attain a configuration and airspeed allowing compliance with section 529.67(a)(2).
(amended 1997/04/07)

529.54 Reserved

529.55 Take-off Decision Point (TDP): Category A
(amended 1997/04/07)

(a) The TDP is the first point from which a continued take-off capability if assured under section 529.59 and is the last point in the take-off path from which a rejected take-off is assured within the distance determined under section 529.62.
(amended 1997/04/07)

(b) The TDP shall be established in relation to the take-off path using no more than two parameters; e.g., airspeed and height, to designate the TDP.
(amended 1997/04/07)

(c) Determination of the TDP shall include the pilot recognition time interval following failure of the critical engine.
(amended 1997/04/07)

529.56 to 529.58 Reserved

529.59 Take-off Path: Category A

(a) The take-off path extends from the point of commencement of the take-off procedure to a point at which the rotorcraft is 1,000 feet above the take-off surface and compliance with section 529.67(a)(2) is demonstrated. In addition:

(1) the take-off path shall remain clear of the height-velocity envelope established in accordance with section 529.87;

(2) The rotorcraft shall be flown to the engine failure point; at which point, the critical engine shall be made inoperative and remain inoperative for the rest of the take-off;

(3) after the critical engine is made inoperative, the rotorcraft shall continue to the take-off decision point, and then attain VTOSS;

(4) only primary controls may be used while attaining VTOSS and while establishing a positive rate of climb. Secondary controls that are located on the primary controls may be used after a positive rate of climb and VTOSS are established but in no case less than 3 seconds after the critical engine is made inoperative; and

(5) after attaining VTOSS and a positive rate of climb, the landing gear may be retracted.

(b) During the take-off path determination made in accordance with (a) of this section and after attaining VTOSS and a positive rate of climb, the climb shall be continued at a speed as close as practicable to, but not less than, VTOSS until the rotorcraft is 200 feet above the take-off surface. During this interval, the climb performance shall meet or exceed that required by section 529.67 (a)(1).

(c) During the continued take-off, the rotorcraft shall not descend below 15 feet above the take-off surface when the take-off decision point is above 15 feet.

(d) From 200 feet above the take-off surface, the rotorcraft take-off path shall be level or positive until a height 1,000 feet above the take-off surface is attained with not less than the rate of climb required by section 529.67(a)(2). Any secondary or auxiliary control may be used after attaining 200 feet above the take-off surface.

(e) Take-off distance shall be determined in accordance with section 529.61.

529.60 Elevated Heliport Take-off Path: Category A
(amended 1997/04/07)

(a) The elevated heliport take-off path shall extends from the point of commencement of the take-off procedure to a point in the take-off path at which the rotorcraft is 1,000 feet above the take-off surface and compliance with section 529.67 (a)(2) is demonstrated. In addition:
(amended 1997/04/07)

(1) the requirements of section 529.59(a) shall be met;

(2) while attaining VTOSS and a positive rate of climb, the rotorcraft may descend below the level of the take-off surface if, in so doing and when clearing the elevated heliport edge, every part of the rotorcraft clears all obstacles by at least 15 feet;

(3) the vertical magnitude of any descent below the take-off surface shall be determined; and

(4) after attaining VTOSS and a positive rate of climb, the landing gear may be retracted.

(b) The scheduled take-off weight shall be such that the climb requirements of section 529.67 (a)(1) and (a)(2) will be met.
(amended 1997/04/07)

(c) Take-off distance shall be determined in accordance with section 529.61.
(amended 1997/04/07)

529.61 Take-off Distance: Category A
(amended 1997/04/07)

(a) The normal take-off distance shall be the horizontal distance along the take-off path from the start of the take-off to the point at which the rotorcraft attains and remains at least 35 feet above the take-off surface, attains and maintains a speed of at least VTOSS, and establishes a positive rate of climb, assuming the critical engine failure occurs at the engine failure point prior to the take-off decision point.
(amended 1997/04/07)

(b) For elevated heliports, the take-off distance shall be the horizontal distance along the take-off path from the start of the take-off to the point at which the rotorcraft attains and maintains a speed of at least VTOSS and establishes a positive rate of climb, assuming the critical engine failure occurs at the engine failure point prior to the take-off decision point.
(amended 1997/04/07)

529.62 Rejected Take-off: Category A

The rejected take-off distance and procedures for each condition where take-off is approved shall be established with:

(a) the take-off path requirements of sections 529.59 and 529.60 being used up to the TDP where the critical engine failure is recognized and the rotorcraft is landed and brought to a complete stop on the take-off surface;

(b) the remaining engines operating within approved limits;

(c) the landing gear remaining extended throughout the engine rejected take-off; and

(d) the use of only the primary controls until the rotorcraft is on the ground. Secondary controls located on the primary control may not be used until the rotorcraft is on the ground. Means other than wheel brakes may be used to stop the rotorcraft if the means are safe and reliable and consistent results can be expected under normal operating conditions.

529.63 Take-off: Category B

The horizontal distance required to take-off and climb over a 50-foot obstacle shall be established with the most unfavourable centre of gravity. The take-off may be begun in any manner if:

(a) the take-off surface is defined;

(b) adequate safeguards are maintained to ensure proper centre of gravity and control positions; and

(c) a landing can be made safely at any point along the flight path if an engine fails.

529.64 Climb: General
(amended 1997/04/07)

Compliance with the requirements of sections 529.65 and 529.67 shall be demonstrated at each weight, altitude, and temperature within the operational limits established for the rotorcraft and with the most unfavourable centre of gravity for each configuration. Cowl flaps, or other means of controlling the engine-cooling air supply, shall be in the position that provides adequate cooling at the temperatures and altitudes for which certification is requested.
(amended 1997/04/07)

529.65 Climb: All Engines Operating

(a) The steady rate of climb shall be determined:
(amended 1997/04/07)

(1) with maximum continuous power;

(2) with the landing gear retracted; and

(3) at Vy for standard sea level conditions and at speeds selected by the applicant for other conditions.

(b) For each Category B rotorcraft except helicopters, the rate of climb determined under (a) of this section shall provide a steady climb gradient of at least 1:6 under standard sea level conditions.

(c) Removed
(amended 1997/04/07)

529.66 Reserved

529.67 Climb: One Engine Inoperative (OEI)
(amended 1997/04/07)

(a) For Category A rotorcraft, in the critical take-off configuration existing along the take-off path, the following apply:
(amended 1997/04/07)

(1) the steady rate of climb without ground effect, 200 feet above the take-off surface, shall be at least 100 feet per minute for each weight, altitude, and temperature for which take-off data are to be scheduled with:
(amended 1997/04/07)

(i) the critical engine inoperative and the remaining engines within approved operating limitations, except that for rotorcraft for which the use of 30-second/2-minute OEI power is requested, only the 2-minute OEI power may be used in demonstrating compliance with (a)(1)of this section,
(amended 1997/04/07)

(ii) the landing gear extended, and
(amended 1997/04/07)

(iii) the take-off safety speed selected by the applicant; and
(amended 1997/04/07)

(2) the steady rate of climb without ground effect, 1000 feet above the take-off surface, shall be at least 150 feet per minute for each weight, altitude, and temperature for which take-off data are to be scheduled with:
(amended 1997/04/07)

(i) the critical engine inoperative and the remaining engines at maximum continuous power including continuous OEI power, if approved, or at 30-minute OEI power for rotorcraft for which certification for use of 30-minute OEI power is requested,
(amended 1999/12/01)

(ii) the landing gear retracted, and
(amended 2007/07/16; previous version)

(iii) the speed selected by the applicant; and
(amended 2007/07/16; previous version)

(3) the steady rate of climb (or descent) in feet per minute, at each altitude and temperature at which the rotorcraft is expected to operate and at any weight within the range of weights for which certification is requested, shall be determined with:
(amended 1997/04/07)

(i) the critical engine inoperative and the remaining engines at maximum continuous power including continuous OEI power, if approved, and at 30-minute OEI power for rotorcraft for which certification for the use of 30-minute OEI power is requested,
(amended 1999/12/01)

(ii) the landing gear retracted, and
(amended 1997/04/07)

(iii) the speed selected by the applicant.
(amended 1997/04/07)

(b) For multi-engine Category B rotorcraft meeting the Category A engine isolation requirements, the steady rate of climb (or descent) shall be determined at the speed for best rate of climb (or minimum rate of descent) at each altitude, temperature, and weight at which the rotorcraft is expected to operate, with the critical engine inoperative and the remaining engines at maximum continuous power including continuous OEI power, if approved, and at 30-minute OEI power for rotorcraft for which certification for the use of 30-minute OEI power is requested.
(amended 1999/12/01)

529.68 to 529.70 Reserved

529.71 Helicopter Angle of Glide: Category B

For each Category B helicopter, except multi-engine helicopters meeting the requirements of section 529.67 (b) and the powerplant installation requirements of Category A, the steady angle of glide shall be determined in autorotation:

(a) at the forward speed for minimum rate of descent as selected by the applicant;

(b) at the forward speed for best glide angle;

(c) at maximum weight; and

(d) at the rotor speed or speeds selected by the applicant.

529.72 to 529.74 Reserved

Information Note:

Section 529.73 - has been replaced by section 529.49 of this Chapter.
(amended 1997/04/07)

529.75 Landing: General
(amended 1997/04/07)

(a) For each rotorcraft:
(amended 1997/04/07)

(1) the corrected landing data shall be determined for a smooth, dry, hard and level surface;

(2) the approach and landing shall not require exceptional piloting skill or exceptionally favourable conditions; and

(3) the landing shall be made without excessive vertical acceleration or tendency to bounce, nose over, ground loop, porpoise, or water loop.

(b) The landing data required by sections 529.77529.79529.81529.83, and 529.85 shall be determined:
(amended 1997/04/07)

(1) at each weight, altitude, and temperature for which landing data are approved;

(2) with each operating engine within approved operating limitations; and

(3) with the most unfavourable centre of gravity.

529.76 Reserved

529.77 Landing Decision Point (LDP): Category A

(a) The LDP shall be the last point in the approach and landing path from which a balked landing can be accomplished in accordance with section 529.85.

(b) Determination of the LDP shall include the pilot recognition time interval following failure of the critical engine.

529.78 Reserved

529.79 Landing: Category A
(amended 1997/04/07)

(a) For Category A rotorcraft:
(amended 1997/04/07)

(1) the landing performance shall be determined and scheduled so that if the critical engine fails at any point in the approach path, the rotorcraft can either land and stop safely or climb out and attain a rotorcraft configuration and speed allowing compliance with the climb requirements of section 529.67 (a)(2);

(2) the approach and landing paths shall be established with the critical engine inoperative so that the transition between each stage can be made smoothly and safely;

(3) the approach and landing speeds shall be selected by the applicant and shall be appropriate to the type of rotorcraft; and

(4) the approach and landing path shall be established to avoid the critical areas of the height-velocity envelope determined in accordance with section 529.87.

(b) It shall be possible to make a safe landing on a prepared landing surface after complete power failure occurring during normal cruise.
(amended 1997/04/07)

529.80 Reserved

529.81 Landing Distance: Category A

The horizontal distance required to land and come to a complete stop (or to a speed of approximately 3 knots for water landings) from a point 50 feet above the landing surface shall be determined from the approach and landing paths established in accordance with section 529.79.

529.82 Reserved

529.83 Landing: Category B
(amended 1997/04/07)

(a) For each Category B rotorcraft, the horizontal distance required to land and come to a complete stop (or to a speed of approximately 3 knots for water landings) from a point 50 feet above the landing surface shall be determined with:
(amended 1997/04/07)

(1) speeds appropriate to the type of rotorcraft and chosen by the applicant to avoid the critical areas of height-velocity envelope established under section 529.87; and

(2) the approach and landing made with power on and within approved limits;

(b) Each multi-engine Category B rotorcraft that meets the powerplant installation requirements for Category A shall meet the requirements of:
(amended 1997/04/07)

(1) sections 529.79 and 529.81; or

(2) (a) of this section;

(c) It shall be possible to make a safe landing on a prepared landing surface if complete power failure occurs during normal cruise.
(amended 1997/04/07)

529.84 Reserved

529.85 Balked Landing: Category A

For Category A rotorcraft, the balked landing path with the critical engine inoperative shall be established so that:

(a) the transition from each stage of the manoeuvre to the next stage can be made smoothly and safely;

(b) from the LDP on the approach path selected by the applicant, a safe climb-out can be made at speeds allowing compliance with the climb requirements of section 529.67 (a)(1) and (a)(2); and

(c) the rotorcraft does not descend below 15 feet above the landing surface. For elevated heliport operations, descent may be below the level of the landing surface provided the deck edge clearance of section 529.60 is maintained and the descent (loss of height) below the landing surface is determined.

529.86 Reserved

529.87 Height-Velocity Envelope
(amended 1997/04/07)

(a) If there is any combination of height and forward velocity (including hover) under which a safe landing cannot be made after failure of the critical engine and with the remaining engines (where applicable) operating within approved limits, a height-velocity envelope shall be established for:
(amended 1997/04/07)

(1) all combinations of pressure altitude and ambient temperature for which take-off and landing are approved; and

(2) weight from the maximum weight (at sea level) to the highest weight approved for take-off and landing at each altitude. For helicopters, this weight need not exceed the highest weight allowing hovering out-of-ground effect at each altitude.

(b) For single-engine or multi-engine rotorcraft that do not meet the Category A engine isolation requirements, the height-velocity envelope for complete power failure shall be established.
(amended 1997/04/07)

529.88 to 529.140 Reserved

Flight Characteristics

529.141 General

The rotorcraft shall:

(a) except as specifically required in the applicable section, meet the flight characteristics requirements of this subchapter:

(1) at the approved operating altitudes and temperatures;

(2) under any critical loading condition within the range of weights and centres of gravity for which certification is requested;

(3) for power-on operations, under any condition of speed, power, and rotor r.p.m. for which certification is requested; and

(4) for power-off operations, under any condition of speed and rotor r.p.m. for which certification is requested that is attainable with the controls rigged in accordance with the approved rigging instructions and tolerances;

(b) be able to maintain any required flight condition and make a smooth transition from any flight condition to any other flight condition without exceptional piloting skill, alertness, or strength, and without danger of exceeding the limit load factor under any operating condition probable for the type, including:

(1) sudden failure of one engine, for multi-engine rotorcraft meeting transport Category A engine isolation requirements;

(2) sudden, complete power failure, for other rotorcraft;

(3) sudden, complete control system failures specified in section 529.695 of this Chapter; and

(c) have any additional characteristics required for night or instrument operation, if certification for those kinds of operation is requested. Requirements for helicopter instrument flight are contained in Appendix B of this Chapter.

529.142 Reserved

529.143 Controllability and Manoeuvrability

(a) The rotorcraft must be safely controllable and manoeuvrable:
(amended 2009/05/11; previous version)

(1) during steady flight; and

(2) during any manoeuvre appropriate to the type, including:

(i) take-off,

(ii) climb,

(iii) level flight,

(iv) turning flight,

(v) autorotations, and
(amended 2009/05/11; previous version)

(vi) landing (power-on and power-off).

(b) The margin of cyclic control must allow satisfactory roll and pitch control at VNE with:
(amended 2009/05/11; previous version)

(1) critical weight;

(2) critical centre of gravity;

(3) critical rotor r.p.m; and

(4) power-off (except for helicopters demonstrating compliance with paragraph (f) of this section) and power-on.
(amended 2009/05/11; previous version)

(c) Wind velocities from zero to at least 17 knots, from all azimuths, must be established in which the rotorcraft can be operated without loss of control on or near the ground in any manoeuvre appropriate to the type (such as crosswind take-offs, sideward flight, and rearward flight), with:
(amended 2009/05/11; previous version)

(1) critical weight;

(2) critical centre of gravity;

(3) critical rotor r.p.m; and

(4) altitude, from standard sea level conditions to the maximum take-off and landing altitude capability of the rotorcraft.
(amended 2009/05/11; no previous version)

(d) Wind velocities from zero to at least 17 knots, from all azimuths, must be established in which the rotorcraft can be operated without loss of control out-of-ground effect, with:
(amended 2009/05/11; previous version)

(1) Weight selected by the applicant;
(amended 2009/05/11; no previous version)

(2) Critical centre of gravity;
(amended 2009/05/11; no previous version)

(3) Rotor r.p.m. selected by the applicant; and
(amended 2009/05/11; no previous version)

(4) Altitude, from standard sea level conditions to the maximum take-off and landing altitude capability of the rotorcraft.
(amended 2009/05/11; no previous version)

(e) The rotorcraft, after one (1) failure of one engine, in the case of multi-engine rotorcraft that meet transport Category A engine isolation requirements, or two (2) complete power failures in the case of other rotorcraft, must be controllable over the range of speeds and altitudes for which certification is requested when such power failures occurs with maximum continuous power and critical weight. No corrective action time delay for any condition following power failure may be less than:
(amended 2009/05/11; previous version)

(i) for the cruise condition, one second, or normal pilot reaction time (whichever is greater); and

(ii) for any other condition, normal pilot reaction time.

(f) For helicopters for which a VNE (power-off) is established under section 529.1505 (c), compliance must be demonstrated with the following requirements with critical weight, critical centre of gravity, and critical rotor r.p.m.:
(amended 2009/05/11; previous version)

(1) the helicopter must be safely slowed to VNE (power-off), without exceptional pilot skill after the last operating engine is made inoperative at power-on VNE; and
(amended 2009/05/11; previous version)

(2) at a speed of 1.1 VNE (power-off), the margin of cyclic control must allow satisfactory roll and pitch control with power-off.
(amended 2009/05/11; previous version)

529.144 to 529.150 Reserved

529.151 Flight Controls

(a) Longitudinal, lateral, directional, and collective controls shall not exhibit excessive breakout force, friction, or preload.

(b) Control system forces and free play shall not inhibit a smooth, direct rotorcraft response to control system input.

529.152 to 529.160 Reserved

529.161 Trim Control

The trim control:

(a) shall trim any steady longitudinal, lateral, and collective control forces to zero in level flight at any appropriate speed; and

(b) shall not introduce any undesirable discontinuities in control force gradients.

529.162 to 529.170 Reserved

529.171 Stability: General

The rotorcraft shall be able to be flown, without undue pilot fatigue or strain, in any normal manoeuvre for a period of time as long as that expected in normal operation. At least three landings and take-offs shall be made during this demonstration.

529.172 Reserved

529.173 Static Longitudinal Stability

(a) The longitudinal control must be designed so that a rearward movement of the control is necessary to obtain an airspeed less than the trim speed, and a forward movement of the control is necessary to obtain an airspeed more than the trim speed.
(amended 2009/05/11; previous version)

(b) Throughout the full range of altitude for which certification is requested, with the throttle and collective pitch held constant during the manoeuvres specified in section 529.175 (a) through (d), the slope of the control position versus airspeed curve must be positive. However, in limited flight conditions or modes of operation determined by the Minister to be acceptable, the slope of the control position versus airspeed curve may be neutral or negative if the rotorcraft possesses flight characteristics that allow the pilot to maintain airspeed within ±5 knots of the desired trim airspeed without exceptional piloting skill or alertness.
(amended 2009/05/11; previous version)

529.174 Reserved

529.175 Demonstration of Static Longitudinal Stability

(a) Climb. Static longitudinal stability stability must be shown in the climb condition at speeds from VY -10 kt to VY +10 kt with:
(amended 2009/05/11; previous version)

(1) critical weight;

(2) critical centre of gravity;

(3) maximum continuous power;

(4) the landing gear retracted; and

(5) the rotorcraft trimmed at VY.

(b) Cruise. Static longitudinal stability must be shown in the cruise condition at speeds from 0.8 VNE -10 kt to 0.8 VNE +10 kt or, if VH is less than 0.8 VNE, from VH
-10 kt to VH +10 kt, with:
(amended 2009/05/11; previous version)

(1) critical weight;

(2) critical centre of gravity;

(3) power for level flight at 0.8 VH or VH, whichever is less;
(amended 2009/05/11; previous version)

(4) the landing gear retracted; and

(5) the rotorcraft trimmed at 0.8 VNE or VH whichever is less.
(amended 2009/05/11; previous version)

(c) VNE. Static longitudinal stability must be shown at airspeeds from VNE -20 kt to VNE with:
(amended 2009/05/11; previous version)

(1) critical weight;
(amended 2009/05/11; no previous version)

(2) critical centre of gravity;
(amended 2009/05/11; no previous version)

(3) power required for level flight at VNE 10 kt or maximum continuous power, whichever is less;
(amended 2009/05/11; no previous version)

(4) the landing gear retracted; and
(amended 2009/05/11; no previous version)

(5) the rotorcraft trimmed at VNE -10 kt.
(amended 2009/05/11; no previous version)

(d) Autorotation. Static longitudinal stability must be shown in autorotation at:
(amended 2009/05/11; previous version)

(1) Airspeeds from the minimum rate of descent airspeed +10 kt, with:
(amended 2009/05/11; previous version)

(i) Critical weight;

(ii) Critical centre of gravity;

(iii) The landing gear extended; and
(amended 2009/05/11; previous version)

(iv) The rotorcraft trimmed at the minimum rate of descent airspeed.

(2) Airspeeds from the best angle-of-glide airspeed -10 kt to the best angle-of-glide airspeed +10 kt, with:
(amended 2009/05/11; no previous version)

(i) Critical weight;
(amended 2009/05/11; no previous version)

(ii) Critical centre of gravity;
(amended 2009/05/11; no previous version)

(iii) The landing gear retracted; and
(amended 2009/05/11; no previous version)

(iv) The rotorcraft trimmed at the best angle-of-glide airspeed.
(amended 2009/05/11; no previous version)

529.176 Reserved

529.177 Static Directional Stability

(a) The directional controls must operate in such a manner that the sense and direction of motion of the rotorcraft following control displacement are in the direction of the pedal motion with throttle and collective controls held constant at the trim conditions specified in 529.175(a), (b), (c), and (d). Sideslip angles must increase with steadily increasing directional control deflection for sideslip angles up to the lesser of:
(amended 2009/05/11; previous version)

(1) ±25 degrees from trim at a speed of 15 knots less than the speed for minimum rate of descent varying linearly to ±10 degrees from trim at VNE;
(amended 2009/05/11; previous version)

(2) The steady-state sideslip angles established by 529.351;
(amended 2009/05/11; previous version)

(3) A sideslip angle selected by the applicant, which corresponds to a side-force of at least 0.1g; or
(amended 2009/05/11; previous version)

(4) The sideslip angle attained by maximum directional control input.
(amended 2009/05/11; previous version)

(b) Sufficient cues must accompany the sideslip to alert the pilot when approaching sideslip limits.
(amended 2009/05/11; previous version)

(c) During the manoeuvre specified in paragraph (a) of this section, the sideslip angle versus directional control position curve may have a negative slope within a small range of angles around trim, provided the desired heading can be maintained without exceptional piloting skill or alertness.
(amended 2009/05/11; previous version)

529.178 to 529.180 Reserved

529.181 Dynamic Stability: Category A Rotorcraft

Any short-period oscillation occurring at any speed from VY to VNE shall be positively damped with the primary flight controls free and in a fixed position.

529.182 to 529.230 Reserved

Ground and Water Handling Characteristics

529.231 General

The rotorcraft shall have satisfactory ground and water handling characteristics, including freedom from uncontrollable tendencies in any condition expected in operation.

529.232 to 529.234 Reserved

529.235 Taxiing Condition

The rotorcraft shall be designed to withstand the loads that would occur when the rotorcraft is taxied over the roughest ground that may reasonably be expected in normal operation.

529.236 to 529.238 Reserved

529.239 Spray Characteristics

If certification for water operation is requested, no spray characteristics during taxiing, take-off, or landing shall obscure the vision of the pilot or damage the rotors, propellers, or other parts of the rotorcraft.

529.240 Reserved

529.241 Ground Resonance

The rotorcraft shall have no dangerous tendency to oscillate on the ground with the rotor turning.

529.242 to 529.250 Reserved

Miscellaneous Flight Requirements

529.251 Vibration

Each part of the rotorcraft shall be free from excessive vibration under each appropriate speed and power condition.

529.252 to 529.300 Reserved