Part V - Airworthiness Manual Chapter 529 - Transport Category Rotorcraft
- Part I
- Part II
- Part III
- Part IV
- Part V
- Chapter 500
- Standard 501
- Chapter 505
- Standard 507
- Standard 509
- Chapter 511
- Chapter 513
- Chapter 516
- Chapter 522
- Chapter 523 (VLA)
- Chapter 523
- Chapter 525
- Chapter 527
- Chapter 529
- Chapter 531
- Chapter 533
- Chapter 535
- Chapter 537
- Chapter 541
- Chapter 549
- Chapter 551
- Standard 561
- Chapter 563
- Chapter 566
- Standard 571
- Standard 573
- Standard 591
- Standard 593
- Part VI
- Part VII
- Part VIII
- Part IX
Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) 2017-2
Content last revised: 2003/12/01
- A (529.1-529.20),
- B (529.21-529.300),
- C (529.301-529.600),
- D (529.601-529.900),
- E (529.901-529.1300),
- F (529.1301-529.1500),
- G (529.1501-529.1589)
SUBCHAPTER E POWERPLANT - GENERAL
(a) For the purpose of this chapter, the powerplant installation includes each part of the rotorcraft (other than the main and auxiliary rotor structures) that:
- (1) is necessary for propulsion;
- (2) affects the control of the major propulsive units; or
- (3) affects the safety of the major propulsive units between normal inspections or overhauls.
(b) For each powerplant installation:
(1) the installation shall comply with:
- (i) the installation instructions provided under section 533.5 of Chapter 533 of this Manual, and
- (ii) the applicable provisions of this subchapter;
- (2) each component of the installation shall be constructed, arranged, and installed to ensure its continued safe operation between normal inspections or overhauls for the range of temperature and altitude for which approval is requested;
- (3) accessibility shall be provided to allow any inspection and maintenance necessary for continued airworthiness;
- (4) electrical interconnections shall be provided to prevent differences of potential between major components of the installation and the rest of the rotorcraft;
- (5) axial and radial expansion of turbine engines shall not affect the safety of the installation; and
- (6) design precautions shall be taken to minimize the possibility of incorrect assembly of components and equipment essential to safe operation of the rotorcraft, except where operation with the incorrect assembly can be demonstrated to be extremely improbable.
- (1) the installation shall comply with:
(c) For each powerplant or auxiliary power unit installation, it shall be established that no single failure or malfunction or probable combination of failures will jeopardize the safe operation of the rotorcraft except that the failure of structural elements need not be considered if the probability of any such failure is extremely remote.
- (d) Each auxiliary power unit installation shall meet the applicable provisions of this subchapter.
- (a) Engine type certification. Each engine shall have an approved type certificate. Reciprocating engines for use in helicopters shall be qualified in accordance with section 533.49 (d) of this manual or be otherwise approved for the intended usage.
(b) Category A; engine isolation. For each category A rotorcraft, the powerplants shall be arranged and isolated from each other to allow operation, in at least one configuration, so that the failure or malfunction of any engine, or the failure of any system that can affect any engine, will not:
- (1) prevent the continued safe operation of the remaining engines; or
- (2) require immediate action other than normal pilot action with primary flight controls, by any crew member to maintain safe operation.
(c) Category A; control of engine rotation. For each category A rotorcraft, there shall be a means for stopping the rotation of any engine individually in flight, except for turbine engine installations where the means for stopping the engine need to be provided only where necessary for safety. In addition:
- (1) each component of the engine stopping system that is located on the engine side of the firewall, and that might be exposed to fire, shall be at least fire resistant; or
- (2) duplicate means shall be available for stopping the engine and the controls shall be where all are not likely to be damaged at the same time in case of fire.
(d) Turbine engine installation. For turbine engine installations:
- (1) design precautions shall be taken to minimize the hazards to the rotorcraft in the event of an engine rotor failure; and
- (2) the powerplant systems associated with engine control devices, systems, and instrumentation shall be designed to give reasonable assurance that those engine operating limitations that adversely affect engine rotor structural integrity will not be exceeded in service.
(e) Restart capability.
- (1) A means to restart any engine in flight shall be provided;
- (2) Except for the in-flight shutdown of all engines, engine restart capability shall be demonstrated throughout a flight envelope for the rotorcraft;
- (3) Following the in-flight shutdown of all engines, in-flight engine restart capability shall be provided.
529.904 to 529.506 Reserved
529.907 Engine Vibration
- (a) Each engine shall be installed to prevent the harmful vibration of any part of the engine or rotorcraft.
- (b) The addition of the rotor and the rotor drive system to the engine shall not subject the principal rotating parts of the engine to excessive vibration stresses. This shall be demonstrated by a vibration investigation.
529.908 Cooling Fans
For cooling fans that are a part of a powerplant installation the following apply:
- (a) Category A. For cooling fans installed in Category A rotorcraft, it shall be demonstrated that a fan blade failure will not prevent continued safe flight either because of damage caused by the failed blade or loss of cooling air.
(b) Category B. For cooling fans installed in category B rotorcraft, there shall be means to protect the rotorcraft and allow a safe landing if a fan blade fails. It shall be demonstrated that:
- (1) the fan blade would be contained in the case of a failure;
- (2) each fan is located so that a fan blade failure will not jeopardize safety; or
(3) each fan blade can withstand an ultimate load of 1.5 times the centrifugal force expected in service, limited by either:
- (i) the highest rotational speeds achievable under uncontrolled conditions, or
- (ii) an overspeed limiting device.
- (c) Fatigue evaluation. Unless a fatigue evaluation under section 529.571 is conducted, it shall be demonstrated that cooling fan blades are not operating at resonant conditions within the operating limits of the rotorcraft.
529.909 to 529.916 Reserved
Rotor Drive System
- (a) General. The rotor drive system includes any part necessary to transmit power from the engines to the rotor hubs. This includes gear boxes, shafting, universal joints, couplings, rotor brake assemblies, clutches, supporting bearings for shafting, any attendant accessory pads or drives, and any cooling fans that are a part of, attached to, or mounted on the rotor drive system.
(b) Design Assessment. A design assessment shall be performed to ensure that the rotor drive system functions safely over the full range of conditions for which certification is sought. The design assessment shall include a detailed failure analysis to identify all failures that will prevent continued safe flight or safe landing and shall identify the means to minimize the likelihood of their occurrence.
(c) Arrangement. Rotor drive systems shall be arranged as follows:
- (1) each rotor drive system of multi-engine rotorcraft shall be arranged so that each rotor necessary for operation and control will continue to be driven by the remaining engines if any engine fails;
- (2) for single-engine rotorcraft, each rotor drive system shall be so arranged that each rotor necessary for control in autorotation will continue to be driven by the main rotors after disengagement of the engine from the main and auxiliary rotors;
- (3) each rotor drive system shall incorporate a unit for each engine to automatically disengage that engine from the main and auxiliary rotors if that engine fails;
- (4) if a torque limiting device is used in the rotor drive system, it shall be located so as to allow continued control of the rotorcraft when the device is operating;
- (5) if the rotors shall be phased for intermeshing, each system shall provide constant and positive phase relationship under any operating condition; and
- (6) if a rotor dephasing device is incorporated, there shall be means to keep the rotors locked in proper phase before operation.
529.918 to 529.20 Reserved
529.921 Rotor Brake
If there is a means to control the rotation of the rotor drive system independently of the engine, any limitations on the use of that means shall be specified, and the control for that means shall be guarded to prevent inadvertent operation.
529.923 Rotor Drive System and Control Mechanism Tests
(a) Endurance tests, general. Each rotor drive system and rotor control mechanism shall be tested, as prescribed in (b) through (n) and (p) of this section, for at least 200 hours plus the time required to meet the requirements of (b)(2), (b)(3), and (k) of this section. These tests shall be conducted as follows:
- (1) ten-hour test cycles shall be used, except that the test cycle shall be extended to include the OEI test of (b)(2) and (k), of this section, if OEI ratings are requested;
- (2) the tests shall be conducted on the rotorcraft;
(3) the test torque and rotational speed shall be:
- (i) determined by the powerplant limitations, and
- (ii) absorbed by the rotors to be approved for the rotorcraft.
(b) Endurance tests, take-off run. The take-off run shall be conducted as follows:
- (1) except as prescribed in (b)(2) and (b)(3) of this section, the take-off torque run shall consist of 1 hour of alternate runs of 5 minutes at take-off torque and the maximum speed for use with take-off torque and 5 minutes at as low an engine idle speed as practicable. The engine shall be declutched from the rotor drive system, and the rotor brake, if furnished and so intended, shall be applied during the first minute of the idle run. During the remaining 4 minutes of the idle run, the clutch shall be engaged so that the engine drives the rotors at the minimum practical r.p.m. The engine and the rotor drive system shall be accelerated at the maximum rate. When declutching the engine, it shall be decelerated rapidly enough to allow the operation of the overrunning clutch;
- (2) for helicopters for which the use of 2 minute 30 second-OEI rating is requested, the take-off run shall be conducted as prescribed in (b)(1) of this section, except for the third and sixth runs for which the take-off torque and the maximum speed for use with take-off torque are prescribed in (b)(1) of this section. For these runs, the following apply:
- (i) each run shall consist of at least one period of 2 minutes 30 seconds with the take-off torque and the maximum speed for use with take-off torque on all engines, and
- (ii) each run shall consist of at least one period, for each engine in sequence, during which that engine simulates a power failure and the remaining engines are run at the 2 minute 30 second-OEI torque and the maximum speed for use with 2 minute 30 second-OEI torque for 2 minutes 30 seconds; and
- (3) for multi-engine, turbine-powered rotorcraft for which the use of 30 second 2 minute-OEI power is requested, the take-off run shall be conducted as prescribed in (b)(1) of this section except for the following:
- (i) immediately following any one 5 minute power-on run prescribed by (b)(1) of this section, simulate a failure for each power source in turn, and apply the maximum torque and the maximum speed for use with 30 second-OEI power to the remaining affected drive system power inputs for not less than 30 seconds. Each application of 30 second-OEI power shall be followed by two applications of the maximum torque and the maximum speed for use with 2 minute-OEI power for not less than 2 minutes each. The second application shall follow a period at stabilized continuous or 30 minute-OEI power (whichever is requested by the applicant). At least one run sequence shall be conducted from a simulated "flight idle" condition. When conducted on a bench test, the test sequence shall be conducted following stabilization at take-off power,
- (ii) for the purpose of (b)(3) of this section, an affected power input includes all parts of the rotor drive system which can be adversely affected by the application of higher or asymmetric torque and speed prescribed by the test, and
- (iii) this test may be conducted on a representative bench test facility when engine limitations either preclude repeated use of this power or would result in premature engine removals during the test. The loads, the vibration frequency, and the methods of application to the affected rotor drive system components shall be representative of rotorcraft conditions. Test components shall be those used to demonstrate compliance with the remainder of this section.
(c) Endurance tests; maximum continuous run. Three hours of continuous operation at maximum continuous torque and the maximum speed for use with maximum continuous torque shall be conducted as follows:
- (1) the main rotor controls shall be operated at a minimum of 15 times each hour through the main rotor pitch positions of maximum vertical thrust, maximum forward thrust component, maximum aft thrust component, maximum left thrust component, and maximum right thrust component, except that the control movements need not produce loads or blade flapping motion exceeding the maximum loads of motions encountered in flight;
- (2) the directional controls shall be operated at a minimum of 15 times each hour through the control extremes of maximum right turning torque, neutral torque as required by the power applied to the main rotor, and maximum left turning torque; and
- (3) each maximum control position shall be held for at least 10 seconds, and the rate of change of control position shall be at least as rapid as that for normal operation.
- (d) Endurance tests; 90 percent of maximum continuous run. One hour of continuous operation at 90 percent of maximum continuous torque and the maximum speed for use with 90 percent of maximum continuous torque shall be conducted.
- (e) Endurance tests; 80 percent of maximum continuous run. One hour of continuous operation at 80 per cent of maximum continuous torque and the minimum speed for use with 80 percent of maximum continuous torque shall be conducted.
- (f) Endurance tests; 60 percent of maximum continuous run. Two hours or, for helicopters for which the use of either 30 minute-OEI power or continuous OEI power is requested, 1 hour of continuous operation at 60 percent of maximum continuous torque and the minimum speed for use with 60 percent of maximum continuous torque shall be conducted.
- (g) Endurance tests; engine malfunctioning run. It shall be determined whether malfunctioning of components such as the engine fuel or ignition systems, or whether unequal engine power can cause dynamic conditions detrimental to the drive system. If so, a suitable number of hours of operation shall be accomplished under those conditions, 1 hour of which shall be included in each cycle, and the remaining hours of which shall be accomplished at the end of the 20 cycles. If no detrimental condition results, an additional hour of operation in compliance with (b) of this section shall be conducted in accordance with the run schedule of (b)(1) of this section without consideration of (b)(2) of this section.
- (h) Endurance tests; overspeed run. One hour of continuous operation shall be conducted at maximum continuous torque and the maximum power-on overspeed expected in service, assuming that speed and torque limiting devices, if any, function properly.
(i) Endurance tests; rotor control positions. When the rotor controls are not being cycled during the tiedown tests, the rotor shall be operated, using the procedures prescribed in (c) of this section, to produce each of the maximum thrust positions for the following percentages of test time (except that the control positions need not produce loads or blade flapping motion exceeding the maximum loads or motions encountered in flight):
- (1) for full vertical thrust, 20 percent;
- (2) for the forward thrust component, 50 percent;
- (3) for the right thrust component, 10 percent;
- (4) for the left thrust component, 10 percent; and
- (5) for the aft thrust component, 10 percent.
- (j) Endurance tests, clutch and brake engagements. A total of at least 400 clutch and brake engagements, including the engagements of (b) of this section, shall be made during the take-off torque runs and, if necessary, at each change of torque and speed throughout the test. In each clutch engagement, the shaft on the driven side of the clutch shall be accelerated from rest. The clutch engagements shall be accomplished at the speed and by the method prescribed by the applicant. During deceleration after each clutch engagement, the engines shall be stopped rapidly enough to allow the engines to be automatically disengaged from the rotors and rotor drives. If a rotor brake is installed for stopping the rotor, the clutch, during brake engagements, shall be disengaged above 40 percent of maximum continuous rotor speed and the rotors allowed to decelerate to 40 percent of maximum continuous rotor speed, at which time the rotor brake shall be applied. If the clutch design does not allow stopping the rotors with the engine running, or if no clutch is provided, the engine shall be stopped before each application of the rotor brake, and then immediately be started after the rotors stop.
(k) Endurance tests, OEI power run:
- (1) 30 minute-OEI power run. For rotorcraft for which the use of 30 minute-OEI power is requested, a run at 30 minute-OEI torque and the maximum speed for use with 30 minute-OEI torque shall be conducted as follows: for each engine, in sequence, that engine shall be inoperative and the remaining engines shall run for a 30 minute period.
- (2) Continuous OEI power run. For rotorcraft for which the use of continuous OEI power is requested, a run at continuous OEI torque and the maximum speed for use with continuous OEI torque shall be conducted as follows: for each engine, in sequence, that engine shall be inoperative and the remaining engines shall be run for 1 hour.
- (3) The number of periods prescribed in (k)(1) or (k)(2) of this section shall not be less than the number of engines, nor shall it be less than two.
- (1) Reserved
(m) Any components that are affected by manoeuvring and gust loads shall be investigated for the same flight conditions as are the main rotors, and their service lives shall be determined by fatigue tests or by other acceptable methods. In addition, a level of safety equal to that of the main rotors shall be provided for:
- (1) each component in the rotor drive system whose failure would cause an uncontrolled landing;
- (2) each component essential to the phasing of rotors on multi-rotor rotorcraft, or that furnishes a driving link for the essential control of rotors in autorotation; and
- (3) each component common to two or more engines on multi-engine rotorcraft.
- (n) Special tests. Each rotor drive system designed to operate at two or more gear ratios shall be subjected to special testing for durations necessary to substantiate the safety of the rotor drive system.
- (o) Each part tested as prescribed in this section shall be in a serviceable condition at the end of the tests. No intervening disassembly, which might affect test results, shall be conducted.
(p) Endurance tests; operating lubricants. To be approved for use in rotor drive and control systems, lubricants shall meet the specifications of lubricants used during the tests prescribed by this section. Additional or alternate lubricants may be qualified by equivalent testing or by comparative analysis of lubricant specifications and rotor drive and control system characteristics. In addition:
- (1) at least three 10-hour cycles required by this section shall be conducted with transmission and gearbox lubricant temperatures, at the location prescribed for measurement, not lower than the maximum operating temperature for which approval is requested;
- (2) for pressure lubricated systems, at least three 10-hour cycles required by this section shall be conducted with the lubricant pressure, at the location prescribed for measurement, not higher than the minimum operating pressure for which approval is requested; and
- (3) the test conditions prescribed in (p)(1) and (p)(2) of this section shall be applied simultaneously and shall be extended to include operation at any one-engine-inoperative rating for which approval is requested.
529.924 to 529.926 Reserved
529.927 Additional Tests
- (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to determine that the rotor drive mechanism is safe, shall be performed.
(b) If turbine engine torque output to the transmission can exceed the highest engine or transmission torque limit, and that output is not directly controlled by the pilot under normal operating conditions (such as where the primary engine power control is accomplished through the flight control), the following test shall be made:
(1) under conditions associated with all engines operating, make 200 applications, for 10 seconds each, of torque that is at least equal to the lesser of:
- (i) the maximum torque used in meeting section 529.923 plus 10 percent, or
- (ii) the maximum torque attainable under probable operating conditions, assuming that torque limiting devices, if any, function properly;
- (2) for multi-engine rotorcraft under conditions associated with each engine, in turn, becoming inoperative, apply to the remaining transmission torque inputs the maximum torque attainable under probable operating conditions, assuming that torque limiting devices, if any, function properly. Each transmission input shall be tested at this maximum torque for at least fifteen minutes.
- (1) under conditions associated with all engines operating, make 200 applications, for 10 seconds each, of torque that is at least equal to the lesser of:
(c) Lubrication system failure. For lubrication systems required for proper operation of rotor drive systems, the following apply:
- (1) Category A. Unless such failures are extremely remote, it shall be demonstrated by test that any failure which results in loss of lubricant in any normal use lubrication system will not prevent continued safe operation, although not necessarily without damage, at a torque and rotational speed prescribed by the applicant for continued flight, for at least 30 minutes after perception by the flight crew of the lubrication system failure or loss of lubricant;
- (2) Category B. The requirements of Category A apply except that the rotor drive system need only be capable of operating under autorotative conditions for at least 15 minutes.
(d) Overspeed test. The rotor drive system shall be subjected to 50 overspeed runs, each 30± 3 seconds in duration, at not less than either the higher of the rotational speed to be expected from an engine control device failure or 105 percent of the maximum rotational speed, including transients, to be expected in service. If speed and torque limiting devices are installed, are independent of the normal engine control, and are demonstrated to be reliable, their rotational speed limits need not be exceeded. These runs shall be conducted as follows:
- (1) overspeed runs shall be alternated with stabilizing runs of from 1 to 5 minutes duration each at 60 to 80 percent of maximum continuous speed;
- (2) acceleration and deceleration shall be accomplished in a period not longer than 10 seconds (except where maximum engine acceleration rate will require more than 10 seconds), and the time for changing speeds shall not be deducted from the specified time for the overspeed runs; and
- (3) overspeed runs shall be made with the rotors in the flattest pitch for smooth operation.
- (e) The tests prescribed in (b) and (d) of this section shall be conducted on the rotorcraft and the torque shall be absorbed by the rotors to be installed, except that other ground or flight test facilities with other appropriate methods of torque absorption may be used if the conditions of support and vibration closely simulate the conditions that would exist during a test on the rotorcraft.
- (f) Each test prescribed by this section shall be conducted without intervening disassembly and, except for the lubrication system failure test required by (c) of this section, each part tested shall be in a serviceable condition at the conclusion of the test.
529.928 to 529.930 Reserved
529.931 Shafting Critical Speed
- (a) The critical speeds of any shafting shall be determined by demonstration except that analytical methods may be used if reliable methods of analysis are available for the particular design.
- (b) If any critical speed lies within, or close to, the operating ranges for idling, power-on, and autorotative conditions, the stresses occurring at that speed shall be within safe limits. This shall be demonstrated by tests.
- (c) If analytical methods are used and demonstrate that no critical speed lies within the permissible operating ranges, the margins between the calculated critical speeds and the limits of the allowable operating ranges shall be adequate to allow for possible variations between the computed and actual values.
529.932 to 529.934 Reserved
529.935 Shafting Joints.
Each universal joint, slip joint, and other shafting joints whose lubrication is necessary for operation shall have provision for lubrication.
529.936 to 529.938 Reserved
529.939 Turbine Engine Operating Characteristics
- (a) Turbine engine operating characteristics shall be investigated in flight to determine that no adverse characteristics (such as stall, surge, or flameout) are present, to a hazardous degree, during normal and emergency operation within the range of operating limitations of the rotorcraft and of the engine.
- (b) The turbine engine air inlet system shall not, as a result of airflow distortion during normal operation, cause vibration harmful to the engine.
- (c) For governor-controlled engines, it shall be demonstrated that there exists no hazardous torsional instability of the drive system associated with critical combinations of power, rotational speed, and control displacement.
529.940 to 529.950 Reserved
- (a) Each fuel system shall be constructed and arranged to ensure a flow of fuel at a rate and pressure established for proper engine and auxiliary power unit functioning under any likely operating conditions, including the manoeuvres for which certification is requested and during which the engine or auxiliary power unit is permitted to be in operation.
(b) Each fuel system shall be arranged so that:
- (1) no engine or fuel pump can draw fuel from more than one tank at a time; or
- (2) there are means to prevent introducing air into the system.
- (c) Each fuel system for a turbine engine shall be capable of sustained operation throughout its flow and pressure range with fuel initially saturated with water at 80° F. and having 0.75 cc. of free water per gallon added and cooled to the most critical condition for icing likely to be encountered in operation.
529.952 Fuel System Crash Resistance
Unless other means acceptable to the Minister are employed to minimize the hazard of fuel fires to occupants following an otherwise survivable impact (crash landing), the fuel systems shall incorporate the design features of this section. These systems shall be demonstrated to be capable of sustaining the static and dynamic deceleration loads of this section, considered as ultimate loads acting alone, measured at the system component’s centre of gravity, without structural damage to system components, fuel tanks, or their attachments that would leak fuel to an ignition source.
(a) Drop test requirements. Each tank, or the most critical tank, shall be drop-tested as follows:
- (1) the drop height shall be at least 50 feet;
- (2) the drop impact surface shall be non-deforming;
- (3) the tank shall be filled with water to 80 percent of the normal, full capacity;
- (4) the tank shall be enclosed in a surrounding structure representative of the installation unless it can be established that the surrounding structure is free of projections or other design features likely to contribute to rupture of the tank;
- (5) the tank shall drop freely and impact in a horizontal position ±10o;
- (6) after the drop test, there shall be no leakage;
(b) Fuel tank load factors. Except for fuel tanks located so that tank rupture with fuel release to either significant ignition sources, such as engines, heaters, and auxiliary power units, or occupants is extremely remote, each fuel tank shall be designed and installed to retain its contents under the following ultimate inertial load factors, acting alone:
(1) for fuel tanks located in the cabin:
- (i) upward - 4g,
- (ii) forward - 16g,
- (iii) sideward - 8g, and
- (iv) downward - 20g;
(2) for fuel tanks located above or behind the crew or passenger compartment that, if loosened, could injure an occupant in an emergency landing:
- (i) upward - 1.5g,
- (ii) forward - 8g,
- (iii) sideward - 2g, and
- (iv) downward - 4g;
(3) for fuel tanks located in other areas:
- (i) upward - 1.5g,
- (ii) forward - 4g,
- (iii) sideward - 2g,
- (iv) downward - 4g.
- (1) for fuel tanks located in the cabin:
(c) Fuel line self-sealing breakaway couplings. Self-sealing breakaway couplings shall be installed unless hazardous relative motion of fuel system components to each other or to local rotorcraft structure is demonstrated to be extremely improbable or unless other means are provided. The couplings or equivalent devices shall be installed at all fuel tank-to-fuel line connections, tank-to-tank interconnects, and at other points in the fuel system where local structural deformation could lead to the release to fuel. The following shall apply:
(1) the design and construction of self-sealing breakaway couplings shall incorporate the following design features:
- (i) the load necessary to separate a breakaway coupling shall be between 25 to 50 percent of the minimum ultimate failure load (ultimate strength) of the weakest component in the fluid-carrying line. The separation load shall, in no case, be less than 300 pounds, regardless of the size of the fluid line,
- (ii) a breakaway coupling shall separate whenever its ultimate load (as defined in (c)(1)(i) of this section) is applied in the failure modes most likely to occur,
- (iii) all breakaway couplings shall incorporate design provisions to visually ascertain that the coupling is locked together (leak-free) and is open during normal installation and service,
- (iv) all breakaway couplings shall incorporate design provisions to prevent uncoupling or unintended closing due to operational shocks, vibrations, or accelerations, and
- (v) no breakaway coupling design shall allow the release of fuel once the coupling has performed its intended function;
- (2) all individual breakaway couplings, coupling fuel feed systems, or equivalent means shall be designed, tested, installed and maintained so that inadvertent fuel shut-off in flight is improbable in accordance with section 529.955 (a) and shall comply with the fatigue evaluation requirements of section 529.571 without leaking;
- (3) alternate, equivalent means to the use of breakaway couplings shall not create a survivable impact-induced load on the fuel line to which it is installed greater than 25 to 50 percent of the ultimate load (strength) of the weakest component in the line and shall comply with the fatigue requirements of section 529.571 without leaking.
- (1) the design and construction of self-sealing breakaway couplings shall incorporate the following design features:
(d) Frangible or deformable structural attachments. Unless hazardous relative motion of fuel tanks and fuel system components to local rotorcraft structure is demonstrated to be extremely improbable in an otherwise survivable impact, frangible or locally deformable attachments of fuel tanks and fuel system components to local rotorcraft structure shall be used. The attachment of fuel tanks and fuel system components to local rotorcraft structure, whether frangible or locally deformable, shall be designed such that its separation or relative local deformation will occur without rupture or local tear-out of the fuel tank or fuel system components that will cause fuel leakage. The ultimate strength of frangible or deformable attachments shall be as follows:
- (1) the load required to separate a frangible attachment from its support structure, or deform a locally deformable attachment relative to its support structure, shall be between 25 and 50 percent of the minimum ultimate load (ultimate strength) of the weakest component in the attached system. In every case the load shall not be less than 300 pounds;
- (2) a frangible or locally deformable attachment shall separate or locally deform as intended whenever its ultimate load (as defined in (d)(1) of this section) is applied in the modes most likely to occur; and
- (3) all frangible or locally deformable attachments shall comply with the fatigue requirements of section 529.571.
(e) Separation of fuel and ignition sources. To provide maximum crash resistance, fuel shall be located as far as practicable from any area or compartment which can be used by occupants and from all potential ignition sources.
(f) Other basic mechanical design criteria. Fuel tanks, fuel lines, electrical wires and electrical devices shall be designed, constructed and installed as far as practicable, to be crash resistant.
(g) Rigid or semi-rigid fuel tanks. Rigid or semi-rigid fuel tank or bladder walls shall be impact and tear resistant.
529.953 Fuel System Independence
(a) For category A rotorcraft, the following apply:
- (1) the fuel system shall meet the requirements of section 529.903 (b); and
- (2) unless other provisions are made to meet (a)(1) of this section, the fuel system shall allow fuel to be supplied to each engine through a system independent of those parts of each system supplying fuel to other engines.
- (b) Each fuel system for a multi-engine category B rotorcraft shall meet the requirements of (a)(2) of this section. However, separate fuel tanks need not be provided for each engine.
529.954 Fuel System Lightning Protection
The fuel system shall be designed and arranged to prevent the ignition of fuel vapour within the system by:
- (a) direct lightning strikes to areas having a high probability of stroke attachment:
- (b) swept lightning strokes to areas where swept strokes are highly probable; and
- (c) corona and streamering at fuel vent outlets.
529.955 Fuel Flow
(a) General. The fuel system for each engine shall provide the engine with at least 100 percent of the fuel required under all operating and manoeuvring conditions to be approved for the rotorcraft, including, as applicable, the fuel required to operate the engines under the test conditions required by section 529.927. Unless equivalent methods are used, compliance shall be demonstrated by test during which the following provisions shall be met, except those combinations of conditions which are demonstrated to be improbable need not be considered:
- (1) the fuel pressure, corrected for accelerations (load factors), shall be within the limits specified by the engine type certificate data sheet;
- (2) the fuel level in the tank shall not exceed that established as the unuseable fuel supply for that tank under section 529.959, plus that necessary to conduct the test;
- (3) the fuel head between the tank and the engine shall be critical with respect to rotorcraft flight attitudes;
- (4) the fuel flow transmitter, if installed, and the critical fuel pump (for pump-fed systems) shall be installed to produce (by actual or simulated failure) the critical restriction to fuel flow to be expected from component failure;
- (5) critical values of engine rotational speed, electrical power, or other sources of fuel pump motive power shall be applied;
- (6) critical values of fuel properties which adversely affect fuel flow are applied during demonstrations of fuel flow capability; and
- (7) the fuel filter prescribed by section 529.997 is blocked to the degree necessary to simulate the accumulation of fuel contamination required to activate the indicator as prescribed by section 529.1305 (a)(17).
- (b) Fuel transfer system. If normal operation of the fuel system requires fuel to be transferred to another tank, the transfer shall occur automatically via a system, which has been demonstrated to maintain the fuel level in the receiving tank within acceptable limits during flight or surface operation of the rotorcraft.
- (c) Multiple fuel tanks. If an engine can be supplied with fuel from more than one tank, the fuel system, in addition to having appropriate manual switching capability, shall be designed to prevent interruption of fuel flow to that engine, without attention by the flight crew, when any tank supplying fuel to that engine is depleted of useable fuel during normal operation and any other tank that normally supplies fuel to that engine alone contains useable fuel.
529.957 Flow Between Interconnected Tanks
- (a) Where tank outlets are interconnected and allow fuel to flow between them due to gravity or flight accelerations, it shall be impossible for fuel to flow between tanks in quantities great enough to cause overflow from the tank vent in any sustained flight condition.
(b) If fuel can be pumped from one tank to another in flight, the following shall apply:
- (1) the design of the vents and the fuel transfer system shall prevent structural damage to tanks from overfilling; and
- (2) there shall be means to warn the crew before overflow through the vents occurs.
529.959 Unuseable Fuel Supply
The unuseable fuel supply for each tank shall be established as not less than the quantity at which the first evidence of malfunction occurs under the most adverse fuel feed condition occurring under any intended operations and flight manoeuvres involving that tank.
529.961 Fuel System Hot Weather Operation
Each suction lift fuel system and other fuel systems conducive to vapour formation shall be demonstrated to operate satisfactorily (within certification limits) when using fuel at the most critical temperature for vapour formation under critical operating conditions including, if applicable, the engine operating conditions prescribed by section 529.927 (b)(1) and (b)(2).
529.963 Fuel Tanks: General
- (a) Each fuel tank shall be able to withstand, without failure, the vibration, inertia, fluid and structural loads to which it may be subjected in operation.
(b) Each flexible fuel tank bladder or liner shall be approved or demonstrated to be suitable for the particular application and shall be puncture resistant. Puncture resistance shall be demonstrated by meeting the TSO-C80, paragraph 16.0, requirements using a minimum puncture force of 370 pounds.
(c) Each integral fuel tank shall have facilities for inspection and repair of its interior.
(d) The maximum exposed surface temperature of all components in the fuel tank shall be less by a safe margin than the lowest expected auto-ignition temperature of the fuel or fuel vapour in the tank. Compliance with this requirement shall be demonstrated under all operating conditions and under all normal or malfunction conditions of all components inside the tank.
(e) Each fuel tank installed in personnel compartments shall be isolated by fume-proof and fuel-proof enclosures that are drained and vented to the exterior of the rotorcraft. The design and construction of the enclosures shall provide necessary protection for the tank, shall be crash resistant during a survivable impact in accordance with section 529.952 and shall be adequate to withstand loads and abrasions to be expected in personnel compartments.
529.965 Fuel Tank Tests
- (a) Each fuel tank shall be able to withstand the applicable pressure tests prescribed in this section without failure or leakage. If practicable, test pressures may be applied in a manner simulating the pressure distribution in service.
- (b) Each conventional metal tank, each non-metallic tank with walls that are not supported by the rotorcraft structure, and each integral tank shall be subjected to a pressure of 3.5 p.s.i. unless the pressure developed during maximum limit acceleration or emergency deceleration with a full tank exceeds this value, in which case a hydrostatic head, or equivalent test, shall be applied to duplicate the acceleration loads as far as possible. However, the pressure need not exceed 3.5 p.s.i. on surfaces not exposed to the acceleration loading.
(c) Each non-metallic tank with walls supported by the rotorcraft structure shall be subjected to the following tests:
- (1) a pressure test of at least 2.0 p.s.i.. This test may be conducted on the tank alone in conjunction with the test specified in (c)(2) of this section; and
- (2) a pressure test, with the tank mounted in the rotorcraft structure, equal to the load developed by the reaction of the contents, with the tank full, during maximum limit acceleration or emergency deceleration. However, the pressure need not exceed 2.0 p.s.i. on surfaces not exposed to the acceleration loading;
(d) Each tank with large unsupported or unstiffened flat areas, or with other features whose failure or deformation could cause leakage, shall be subjected to the following test or its equivalent:
- (1) each complete tank assembly and its supports shall be vibration tested while mounted to simulate the actual installation;
- (2) the tank assembly shall be vibrated for 25 hours while two thirds full of any suitable fluid. The amplitude of vibration shall not be less than one thirty-second of an inch unless otherwise substantiated;
(3) the test frequency of vibration shall be as follows:
- (i) if no frequency of vibration resulting from any r.p.m. within the normal operating range of engine or rotor system speeds is critical, the test frequency of vibration, in number of cycles per minute, shall, unless a frequency based on a more rational analysis is used, be the number obtained by averaging the maximum and minimum power-on engine speeds (r.p.m.) for reciprocating engine powered rotorcraft or 2,000 c.p.m. for turbine engine powered rotorcraft,
- (ii) if only one frequency of vibration resulting from any r.p.m. within the normal operating range of engine or rotor system speeds is critical, that frequency of vibration shall be the test frequency, and
- (iii) if more than one frequency of vibration resulting from any r.p.m. within the normal operating range of engine or rotor system speeds is critical, the most critical of these frequencies shall be the test frequency;
- (4) under (d)(3) (ii) and (iii) of this section, the time of test shall be adjusted to accomplish the same number of vibration cycles as would be accomplished in 25 hours at the frequency specified in (d)(3)(i) of this section;
- (5) during the test, the tank assembly shall be rocked at the rate of 16 to 20 complete cycles per minute through an angle of 15° on both sides of the horizontal (30° total), about the most critical axis, for 25 hours. If motion about more than one axis is likely to be critical, the tank shall be rocked about each critical axis for 12 hours 30 minutes.
529.967 Fuel Tank Installation
(a) Each fuel tank shall be supported so that tank loads are not concentrated on unsupported tank surfaces. In addition:
- (1) there shall be pads, if necessary, to prevent chafing between each tank and its supports;
- (2) the padding shall be non-absorbent or treated to prevent the absorption of fuel;
- (3) if flexible tank liners are used, they shall be supported so that they are not required to withstand fluid loads; and
(4) each interior surface of tank compartments shall be smooth and free of projections that could cause wear of the liner, unless:
- (i) there are means for protection of the liner at those points, or
- (ii) the construction of the liner itself provides such protection.
- (b) Any spaces adjacent to tank surfaces shall be adequately ventilated to avoid accumulation of fuel or fumes in those spaces due to minor leakage. If the tank is in a sealed compartment, ventilation may be limited to drain holes that prevent clogging and that prevent excessive pressure resulting from altitude changes. If flexible tank liners are installed, the venting arrangement for the spaces between the liner and its container shall maintain the proper relationship to tank vent pressures for any expected flight condition.
- (c) The location of each tank shall meet the requirements of section 529.1185 (b) and (c).
- (d) No rotorcraft skin immediately adjacent to a major air outlet from the engine compartment shall act as the wall of an integral tank.
529.969 Fuel Tank Expansion Space
Each fuel tank or each group of fuel tanks with interconnected vent systems shall have an expansion space of not less than 2 percent of the combined tank capacity. It shall be impossible to fill the fuel tank expansion space inadvertently with the rotorcraft in the normal ground attitude.
529.971 Fuel Tank Sump
(a) Each fuel tank shall have a sump with a capacity of not less than the greater of:
- (1) 0.10 percent of the tank capacity; or
- (2) one-sixteenth gallon.
- (b) The capacity prescribed in (a) of this section shall be effective with the rotorcraft in any normal attitude, and shall be located so that the sump contents cannot escape through the tank outlet opening.
- (c) Each fuel tank shall allow drainage of hazardous quantities of water from each part of the tank to the sump with the rotorcraft in any ground attitude to be expected in service.
- (d) Each fuel tank sump shall have a drain that allows complete drainage of the sump on the ground.
529.973 Fuel Tank Filler Connection
(a) Each fuel tank filler connection shall prevent the entrance of fuel into any part of the rotorcraft other than the tank itself during normal operations and shall be crash resistant during a survivable impact in accordance with section 529.952 (c). In addition, the following apply:
- (1) each filler shall be marked as prescribed in section 529.1557 (c)(1);
- (2) each recessed filler connection that can retain any appreciable quantity of fuel shall have a drain that discharges clear of the entire rotorcraft; and
- (3) each filler cap shall provide a fuel-tight seal under the fluid pressure expected in normal operation and in a survivable impact.
(b) Each filler cap or filler cap cover shall warn when the cap is not fully locked or seated on the filler connection.
529.975 Fuel Tank Vents and Carburetor Vapour Vents
(a) Fuel tank vents. Each fuel tank shall be vented from the top part of the expansion space so that venting is effective under normal flight conditions. In addition:
- (1) the vents shall be arranged to avoid stoppage by dirt or ice formation;
- (2) the vent arrangement shall prevent siphoning of fuel during normal operation;
(3) the venting capacity and vent pressure levels shall maintain acceptable differences of pressure between the interior and exterior of the tank, during:
- (i) normal flight operation,
- (ii) maximum rate of ascent and descent, and
- (iii) refuelling and defuelling (where applicable);
- (4) airspaces of tanks with inter-connected outlets shall be inter-connected;
- (5) there shall be no point in any vent line where moisture can accumulate with the rotorcraft in the ground attitude or the level flight attitude, unless drainage is provided;
(6) no vent or drainage provision shall end at any point:
- (i) where the discharge of fuel from the vent outlet would constitute a fire hazard, or
- (ii) from which fumes could enter personnel compartments; and
(7) The venting system shall be designed to minimize spillage of fuel through the vents to an ignition source in the event of a rollover during landing, ground operations or a survivable impact.
At Change 529-3, (a)(7) contained a variation, which is now superseded. Refer to the information on FAR Amendment 29-35 and 29-42.
(b) Carburetor vapour vents. Each carburetor with vapour elimination connections shall have a line to lead vapours back to one of the fuel tanks. In addition:
- (1) each vent system shall have means to avoid stoppage by ice; and
- (2) if there is more than one fuel tank, and it is necessary to use the tanks in a definite sequence, each vapour vent return line shall lead back to the fuel tank used for take-off and landing.
529.977 Fuel Tank Outlet
(a) There shall be a fuel strainer for the fuel tank outlet or for the booster pump. This strainer shall:
- (1) for reciprocating engine powered aeroplanes, have 8 to 16 meshes per inch;
- (2) for turbine engine powered aeroplanes, prevent the passage of any object that could restrict fuel flow or damage any fuel system component.
- (b) The clear area of each fuel tank outlet strainer shall be at least five times the area of the outlet line.
- (c) The diameter of each strainer shall be at least that of the fuel tank outlet.
- (d) Each finger strainer shall be accessible for inspection and cleaning.
529.979 Pressure Refuelling and Fuelling Provisions Below Fuel Level
- (a) Each fuelling connection below the fuel level in each tank shall have means to prevent the escape of hazardous quantities of fuel from that tank in case of malfunction of the fuel entry valve.
- (b) For systems intended for pressure refuelling, a means in addition to the normal means for limiting the tank content shall be installed to prevent damage to the tank in case of failure of the normal means.
- (c) The rotorcraft pressure fuelling system (not fuel tanks and fuel tank vents) shall withstand an ultimate load that is 2.0 times the load arising from the maximum pressure, including surge, that is likely to occur during fuelling. The maximum surge pressure shall be established with any combination of tank valves being either intentionally or inadvertently closed.
- (d) The rotorcraft defuelling system (not including fuel tanks and fuel tank vents) shall withstand an ultimate load that is 2.0 times the load arising from the maximum permissible defuelling pressure (positive or negative) at the rotorcraft fuelling connection.
529.980 to 529.990 Reserved
Fuel System Components
529.991 Fuel Pumps
(a) Compliance with section 529.955 shall not be jeopardized by failure of:
- (1) any one pump except pumps that are approved and installed as parts of a type certificated engine; or
- (2) any component required for pump operation except the engine served by that pump.
(b) The following fuel pump installation requirements apply:
(1) when necessary to maintain the proper fuel pressure:
- (i) a connection shall be provided to transmit the carburetor air intake static pressure to the proper fuel pump relief valve connection, and
- (ii) the gauge balance lines shall be independently connected to the carburetor inlet pressure to avoid incorrect fuel pressure readings;
- (2) the installation of fuel pumps having seals or diaphragms that may leak shall have means for draining leaking fuel;
- (3) each drain line shall discharge where it will not create a fire hazard.
- (1) when necessary to maintain the proper fuel pressure:
529.993 Fuel System Lines and Fittings
- (a) Each fuel line shall be installed and supported to prevent excessive vibration and to withstand loads due to fuel pressure, valve actuation, and accelerated flight conditions.
- (b) Each fuel line connected to components of the rotorcraft between which relative motion could exist shall have provisions for flexibility.
- (c) Each flexible connection in fuel lines that may be under pressure or subjected to axial loading shall use flexible hose assemblies.
- (d) Flexible hose shall be approved.
- (e) No flexible hose that might be adversely affected by high temperatures shall be used where excessive temperatures will exist during operation or after engine shutdown.
529.995 Fuel Valves
In addition to meeting the requirements of section 529.1189, each fuel valve shall:
- (a) Reserved;
- (b) be supported so that no loads resulting from their operation or from accelerated flight conditions are transmitted to the lines attached to the valve.
529.997 Fuel Strainer or Filter
There shall be a fuel strainer or filter between the fuel tank outlet and the inlet of the first fuel system component which is susceptible to fuel contamination, including but not limited to the fuel metering device or an engine positive displacement pump, whichever is nearer the fuel tank outlet. This fuel strainer or filter shall:
- (a) be accessible for draining and cleaning and shall incorporate a screen or element which is easily removable;
- (b) have a sediment trap and drain, except that it need not have a drain if the strainer or filter is easily removable for drain purpose;
- (c) be mounted so that its weight is not supported by the connecting lines or by the inlet or outlet connections of the strainer or filter itself, unless adequate strength margins under all loading conditions are provided in the lines and connections; and
- (d) provide a means to remove from the fuel any contaminant which would jeopardize the flow of fuel through rotorcraft or engine fuel system components required for proper rotorcraft or engine fuel system operation.
529.999 Fuel System Drains
- (a) There shall be at least one accessible drain at the lowest point in each fuel system to completely drain the system with the rotorcraft in any ground attitude to be expected in service.
(b) Each drain required by (a) of this section including the drains prescribed in section 529.971 shall:
- (1) discharge clear of all parts of the rotorcraft;
- (2) have manual or automatic means to ensure positive closure in the off position; and
(3) have a drain valve:
- (i) that is readily accessible and which can be easily opened and closed, and
- (ii) that is either located or protected to prevent fuel spillage in the event of a landing with landing gear retracted.
529.1001 Fuel Jettisoning
If a fuel jettisoning system is installed, the following apply:
- (a) fuel jettisoning shall be safe during all flight regimes for which jettisoning is to be authorized;
(b) in demonstrating compliance with (a) of this section, it shall be demonstrated that:
- (1) the fuel jettisoning system and its operation are free from fire hazard;
- (2) no hazard results from fuel or fuel vapours which impinge on any part of the rotorcraft during fuel jettisoning; and
- (3) controllability of the rotorcraft remains satisfactory throughout the fuel jettisoning operation;
- (c) means shall be provided to automatically prevent jettisoning fuel below the level required for an all-engine climb at maximum continuous power from sea level to 5,000 feet altitude and cruise thereafter for 30 minutes at maximum range engine power;
- (d) the controls for any fuel jettisoning system shall be designed to allow flight personnel (minimum crew) to safely interrupt fuel jettisoning during any part of the jettisoning operation;
- (e) the fuel jettisoning system shall be designed to comply with the powerplant installation requirements of section 529.901 (c);
- (f) an auxiliary fuel jettisoning system which meets the requirements of (a), (b), (d) and (e) of this section may be installed to jettison additional fuel provided it has separate and independent controls.
529.1002 to 529.1010 Reserved
529.1011 Engines: General
- (a) Each engine shall have an independent oil system that can supply it with an appropriate quantity of oil at a temperature not above that safe for continuous operation.
- (b) The useable oil capacity of each system shall not be less than the product of the endurance of the rotorcraft under critical operating conditions and the maximum allowable oil consumption of the engine under the same conditions, plus a suitable margin to ensure adequate circulation and cooling. Instead of a rational analysis of endurance and consumption, a useable oil capacity of one gallon for each 40 gallons of useable fuel may be used for reciprocating engine installations.
- (c) Oil-fuel ratios lower than those prescribed in (b) of this section may be used if they are substantiated by data on the oil consumption of the engine.
- (d) The ability of the engine oil cooling provisions to maintain the oil temperature at or below the maximum established value shall be demonstrated under the applicable requirements of sections 529.1041 through 529.1049.
529.1013 Oil Tanks
- (a) Installation. Each oil tank installation shall meet the requirements of section 529.967.
(b) Expansion space. Oil tank expansion space shall be provided so that:
- (1) each oil tank used with a reciprocating engine has an expansion space of not less than the greater of 10 percent of the tank capacity or 0.5 gallons, and each oil tank used with a turbine engine has an expansion space of not less than 10 percent of the tank capacity;
- (2) each reserve oil tank not directly connected to any engine has an expansion space of not less than 2 percent of the tank capacity; and
- (3) it is impossible to fill the expansion space inadvertently with the rotorcraft in the normal ground attitude.
(c) Filler connection. Each recessed oil tank filler connection that can retain any appreciable quantity of oil shall have a drain that discharges clear of the entire rotorcraft. In addition:
- (1) each oil tank filler cap shall provide an oil-tight seal under the pressure expected in operation;
- (2) for category A rotorcraft, each oil tank filler cap or filler cap cover shall incorporate features that provide a warning when caps are not fully locked or seated on the filler connection; and
- (3) each oil filler shall be marked under section 529.1557 (c)(2).
(d) Vent. Oil tanks shall be vented as follows:
- (1) each oil tank shall be vented from the top part of the expansion space so that venting is effective under all normal flight conditions;
- (2) oil tank vents shall be arranged so that condensed water vapour that might freeze and obstruct the line cannot accumulate at any point.
- (e) Outlet. There shall be means to prevent entrance into the tank itself, or into the tank outlet, of any object that might obstruct the flow of oil through the system. No oil tank outlet shall be enclosed by a screen or guard that would reduce the flow of oil below a safe value at any operating temperature. There shall be a shut-off valve at the outlet of each oil tank used with a turbine engine unless the external portion of the oil system (including oil tank supports) is fireproof.
- (f) Flexible liners. Each flexible oil tank liner shall be approved or demonstrated to be suitable for the particular installation.
529.1015 Oil Tank Tests
Each oil tank shall be designed and installed so that:
- (a) it can withstand, without failure, any vibration, inertia and fluid loads to which it may be subjected in operation; and
(b) it meets the requirements of section 529.965, except that instead of the pressure specified in section 529.965 (b):
- (1) for pressurized tanks used with a turbine engine, the test pressure shall not be less than 5 p.s.i. plus the maximum operating pressure of the tank;
- (2) for all other tanks, the test pressure shall not be less than 5 p.s.i..
529.1017 Oil Lines and Fittings
- (a) Each oil line shall meet the requirements of section 529.993.
(b) Breather lines shall be arranged so that:
- (1) condensed water vapour that might freeze and obstruct the line cannot accumulate at any point;
- (2) the breather discharge will not constitute a fire hazard if foaming occurs, or cause emitted oil to strike the pilot’s windshield; and
- (3) the breather does not discharge into the engine air induction system.
529.1019 Oil Strainer or Filter
(a) Each turbine engine installation shall incorporate an oil strainer or filter through which all of the engine oil flows and which meets the following requirements:
- (1) each oil strainer or filter that has a bypass shall be constructed and installed so that oil will flow at the normal rate through the rest of the system with the strainer or filter completely blocked;
- (2) the oil strainer or filter shall have the capacity (with respect to operating limitation established for the engine) to ensure that engine oil system functioning is not impaired when the oil is contaminated to a degree (with respect to particle size and density) that is greater than that established for the engine under Chapter 533 of this Manual;
- (3) the oil strainer or filter, unless it is installed at an oil tank outlet, shall incorporate a means to indicate contamination before it reaches the capacity established in accordance with (a)(2) of this section;
- (4) the bypass of a strainer or filter shall be constructed and installed so that the release of collected contaminants is minimized by appropriate location of the bypass to ensure that collected contaminants are not in the bypass flow path; and
- (5) an oil strainer or filter that has no bypass, except one that is installed at an oil tank outlet, shall have a means to connect it to the warning system required in section 529.1305 (a)(18).
- (b) Each oil strainer or filter in a powerplant installation using reciprocating engines shall be constructed and installed so that oil will flow at the normal rate through the rest of the system with the strainer or filter element completely blocked.
529.1021 Oil System Drains
A drain (or drains) shall be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain shall:
- (a) be accessible; and
- (b) have manual or automatic means for positive locking in the closed position.
529.1023 Oil Radiators
- (a) Each oil radiator shall be able to withstand any vibration, inertia, and oil pressure loads to which it would be subjected in operation.
- (b) Each oil radiator air duct shall be located, or equipped, so that, in case of fire, and with the airflow as it would be with and without the engine operating, flames cannot directly strike the radiator.
529.1025 Oil Valves
- (a) Each oil shut-off shall meet the requirements of section 529.1189.
- (b) The closing of oil shut-offs shall not prevent autorotation.
- (c) Each oil valve shall have positive stops or suitable index provisions in the "on" and "off" positions and shall be supported so that no loads resulting from its operation or from accelerated flight conditions are transmitted to the lines attached to the valve.
529.1027 Transmission and Gear Boxes: General
(a) The oil system for components of the rotor drive system that require continuous lubrication shall be sufficiently independent of the lubrication systems of the engines to ensure:
- (1) operation with any engine inoperative; and
- (2) safe autorotation.
(b) Pressure lubrication systems for transmissions and gearboxes shall comply with the requirements of (c), (d) and (f) of section 529.1013, sections 529.1015, 529.1017, 529.1021, 529.1023, and 529.1337(d). In addition, the system shall have:
(1) an oil strainer or filter through which all the lubricant flows, and shall:
- (i) be designed to remove from the lubricant any contaminant which may damage transmission and drive system components or impede the flow of lubricant to a hazardous degree, and
(ii) be equipped with a bypass constructed and installed so that:
- (A) the lubricant will flow at the normal rate through the rest of the system with the strainer or filter completely blocked, and
- (B) the release of collected contaminants is minimized by appropriate location of the bypass to ensure that collected contaminants are not in the bypass flow path,
- (iii) be equipped with a means to indicate collection of contaminants on the filter or strainer at or before opening of the bypass;
- (2) for each lubricant tank or sump outlet supplying lubrication to rotor drive systems and rotor drive system components, a screen to prevent entrance into the lubrication system of any object that might obstruct the flow of lubricant from the outlet to the filter required by (b)(1) of this section. The requirements of (b)(1) of this section do not apply to screens installed at lubricant tank or sump outlets.
- (1) an oil strainer or filter through which all the lubricant flows, and shall:
- (c) Splash type lubrication systems for rotor drive system gearboxes shall comply with sections 529.1021 and 529.1337 (d).
529.1028 to 529.1040 Reserved
- (a) The powerplant and auxiliary power unit cooling provisions shall be able to maintain the temperatures of powerplant components, engine fluids, and auxiliary power unit components and fluids within the temperature limits established for these components and fluids, underground, water, and flight operating conditions for which certification is requested, and after normal engine or auxiliary power shutdown, or both.
- (b) There shall be cooling provisions to maintain the fluid temperatures in any power transmission within safe values under any critical surface (ground or water) and flight operating conditions.
- (c) Except for ground-use-only auxiliary power units, compliance with (a) and (b) of this section shall be demonstrated by flight tests in which the temperatures of selected powerplant component and auxiliary power unit component, engine, and transmission fluids are obtained under the conditions prescribed in (a) and (b) of this section.
529.1043 Cooling Tests
(a) General. For the tests prescribed in section 529.1041 (c), the following apply:
- (1) if the tests are conducted under conditions deviating from the maximum ambient atmospheric temperature specified in (b) of this section, the recorded powerplant temperatures shall be corrected under (c) and (d) of this section, unless a more rational correction method is applicable;
- (2) no corrected temperature determined under (a)(1) of this section shall exceed established limits;
- (3) the fuel used during the cooling tests shall be of the minimum grade approved for the engines, and the mixture settings shall be those used in normal operation;
- (4) the test procedures shall be as prescribed in sections 529.1045 through 529.1049; and
- (5) for the purpose of the cooling tests, a temperature is "stabilized" when its rate of change is less than 2°F per minute.
- (b) Maximum ambient atmospheric temperature. A maximum ambient atmospheric temperature corresponding to sea level conditions of at least 100 degrees F shall be established. The assumed temperature lapse rate is 3.6 degrees F per thousand feet of altitude above sea level until a temperature of -69.7 degrees F is reached, above which altitude the temperature is considered constant at -69.7 degrees F. However, for winterization installations, the applicant may select a maximum ambient atmospheric temperature corresponding to sea level conditions of less than 100 degrees F.
- (c) Correction factor (except cylinder barrels). Unless a more rational correction applies, temperatures of engine fluids and powerplant components (except cylinder barrels) for which temperature limits are established, shall be corrected by adding to them the difference between the maximum ambient atmospheric temperature and the temperature of the ambient air at the time of the first occurrence of the maximum component or fluid temperature recording during the cooling test.
- (d) Correction factor for cylinder barrel temperatures. Cylinder barrel temperatures shall be corrected by adding to them 0.7 times the difference between the maximum ambient atmospheric temperature and the temperature of the ambient air at the time of the first occurrence of the maximum cylinder barrel temperature recorded during the cooling test.
529.1045 Climb Cooling Test Procedures
- (a) Climb cooling tests shall be conducted under this section for:
- (b) The climb or descent cooling tests shall be conducted with the engine inoperative that produces the most adverse cooling conditions for the remaining engines and powerplant components.
(c) Each operating engine shall:
- (1) for helicopters for which the use of 30 minute-OEI power is requested, be at 30 minute-OEI power for 30 minutes, and then at maximum continuous power (or at full throttle, when above the critical altitude);
- (2) for helicopters for which the use of continuous OEI power is requested, be at continuous OEI power (or at full throttle when above the critical altitude); and
- (3) for other rotorcraft, be at maximum continuous power (or at full throttle, when above the critical altitude).
(d) After temperatures have stabilized in flight, the climb shall:
(1) begun from an altitude not greater than the lower of:
- (i) 1,000 feet below the engine critical altitude, and
- (ii) 1,000 feet below the maximum altitude at which the rate of climb is 150 f.p.m; and
- (2) be continued for at least 5 minutes after the occurrence of the highest temperature recorded, or until the rotorcraft reaches the maximum altitude for which certification is requested.
- (1) begun from an altitude not greater than the lower of:
(e) For category B rotorcraft without a positive rate of climb, the descent shall begin at the all-engine-critical altitude and end at the higher of:
- (1) the maximum altitude at which level flight can be maintained with one engine operative; and
- (2) sea level.
- (f) The climb or descent shall be conducted at an airspeed representing a normal operational practice for the configuration being tested. However, if the cooling provisions are sensitive to rotorcraft speed, the most critical airspeed shall be used, but need not exceed the speeds established under section 529.67 (a)(2) or 529.67 (b). The climb cooling test may be conducted in conjunction with the take-off cooling test prescribed at section 529.1047.
529.1047 Take-off Cooling Test Procedures
(a) Category A. For each category A rotorcraft, cooling shall be demonstrated during takeoff and subsequent climb as follows:
(1) each temperature shall be stabilized while hovering in ground effect with:
- (i) the power necessary for hovering,
- (ii) the appropriate cowl flap and shutter settings, and
- (iii) the maximum weight;
- (2) after the temperatures have stabilized, a climb shall be started at the lowest practicable altitude and shall be conducted with one engine inoperative;
- (3) the operating engines shall be at the greatest power for which approval is sought (or at full throttle when above the critical altitude) for the same period as this power is used in determining the take-off climb-out path under section 529.59;
(4) at the end of the time interval prescribed in (a)(3) of this section, the power shall be changed to that used in meeting section 529.67 (a)(2) and the climb shall be continued for:
- (i) thirty minutes, if 30 minute-OEI power is used, or
- (ii) at least 5 minutes after the occurrence of the highest temperature recorded, if continuous OEI power or maximum continuous power is used; and
- (5) the speeds shall be those used in determining the take-off flight path under section 529.59.
- (1) each temperature shall be stabilized while hovering in ground effect with:
(b) Category B. For each category B rotorcraft, cooling shall be demonstrated during takeoff and subsequent climb as follows:
(1) each temperature shall be stabilized while hovering in ground effect with:
- (i) the power necessary for hovering,
- (ii) the appropriate cowl flap and shutter settings, and
- (iii) the maximum weight;
- (2) after the temperatures have stabilized, a climb shall be started at the lowest practicable altitude with take-off power;
- (3) take-off power shall be used for the same time interval as take-off power is used in determining the take-off flight path under section 529.63;
- (4) at the end of the time interval prescribed in (b)(3) of this section, the power shall be reduced to maximum continuous power and the climb shall be continued for at least 5 minutes after the occurrence of the highest temperature recorded; and
- (5) the cooling test shall be conducted at an airspeed corresponding to normal operating practice for the configuration being tested. However, if the cooling provisions are sensitive to rotorcraft speed, the most critical airspeed shall be used, but need not exceed the speed for best rate of climb with maximum continuous power.
- (1) each temperature shall be stabilized while hovering in ground effect with:
529.1049 Hovering Cooling Test Procedures
The hovering cooling provisions shall be demonstrated:
- (a) at maximum weight or at the greatest weight at which the rotorcraft can hover (if less), at sea level, with the power required to hover but not more than maximum continuous power, in the ground effect in still air, until at least 5 minutes after the occurrence of the highest temperature recorded; and
- (b) with maximum continuous power, maximum weight, and at the altitude resulting in zero rate of climb for this configuration, until at least 5 minutes after the occurrence of the highest temperature recorded.
529.1050 to 529.1090 Reserved
529.1091 Air Induction
- (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit shall supply the air required by that engine and auxiliary power unit under the operating conditions for which certification is requested.
- (b) Each engine and auxiliary power unit air induction system shall provide air for proper fuel metering and mixture distribution with the induction system valves in any position.
- (c) No air intake shall open within the engine accessory section or within other areas of any powerplant compartment where emergence of backfire flame would constitute a fire hazard.
- (d) Each reciprocating engine shall have an alternate air source.
- (e) Each alternate air intake shall be located to prevent the entrance of rain, ice, or other foreign matter.
(f) For turbine engine powered rotorcraft and rotorcraft incorporating auxiliary power units:
- (1) there shall be means to prevent hazardous quantities of fuel leakage or overflow from drains, vents, or other components of flammable fluid systems from entering the engine or auxiliary power unit intake system; and
- (2) the air ducts shall be located or protected so as to minimize the ingestion of foreign matter during takeoff, landing, and taxiing.
529.1093 Induction System Icing Protection
(a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating engine air induction system shall have means to prevent and eliminate icing. Unless this is done by other means, the following shall be demonstrated in air free of visible moisture at a temperature of 30°F, and with the engines at 60 percent of maximum continuous power:
- (1) each rotorcraft with sea level engines using conventional venturi carburetors has a preheater that can provide a heat rise of 90°F;
- (2) each rotorcraft with sea level engines using carburetors tending to prevent icing has a preheater that can provide a heat rise of 70°F;
- (3) each rotorcraft with altitude engines using conventional venturi carburetors has a preheater that can provide a heat rise of 120° F; and
- (4) each rotorcraft with altitude engines using carburetors tending to prevent icing has a preheater that can provide a heat rise of 100°F.
(b) Turbine engines.
(1) it shall be demonstrated that each turbine engine and its air inlet system can operate throughout the flight power range of the engine (including idling):
- (i) without accumulating ice on engine or inlet system components that would adversely affect engine operation or cause a serious loss of power under the icing conditions specified in Appendix C of this Chapter, and
(ii) in falling, blowing, and recirculating snow without adverse effect on engine operation, or
FAR: (ii) In snow, both falling and blowing, without adverse effect on engine operation, within the limitations established for the rotorcraft.
(iii) if certification for flight in snow has not been requested, the engine tolerance to snow shall be demonstrated;
There is no equivalent text in the FAR.
- (1) it shall be demonstrated that each turbine engine and its air inlet system can operate throughout the flight power range of the engine (including idling):
- (2) each turbine engine shall idle for 30 minutes on the ground, with the air bleed available for engine icing protection at its critical condition, without adverse effect, in an atmosphere that is at a temperature between 15° and 30°F (between -9° and -1°C) and has a liquid water content not less than 0.3 grams per cubic metre in the form of drops having a mean effective diameter not less than 20 microns, followed by a momentary operation at take-off power or thrust. During the 30 minutes of idle operation, the engine may be run up periodically to a moderate power or thrust setting in a manner acceptable to the Minister.
- (c) Supercharged reciprocating engines. For each engine having a supercharger to pressurize the air before it enters the carburetor, the heat rise in the air caused by that supercharging at any altitude may be utilized in determining compliance with (a) of this section if the heat rise utilized is that which will be available, automatically, for the applicable altitude and operation condition because of supercharging.
529.1094 to 529.1100 Reserved
529.1101 Carburetor Air Preheater Design
Each carburetor air preheater shall be designed and constructed to:
- (a) ensure ventilation of the preheater when the engine is operated in cold air;
- (b) allow inspection of the exhaust manifold parts that it surrounds; and
- (c) allow inspection of critical parts of the preheater itself.
529.1103 Induction Systems Ducts and Air Duct Systems
- (a) Each induction system duct upstream of the first stage of the engine supercharger and of the auxiliary power unit compressor shall have a drain to prevent the hazardous accumulation of fuel and moisture in the ground attitude. No drain shall discharge where it might cause a fire hazard.
- (b) Each duct shall be strong enough to prevent induction system failure from normal backfire conditions.
- (c) Each duct connected to components between which relative motion could exist shall have means for flexibility.
(d) Each duct within any fire zone for which a fire-extinguishing system is required shall be at least:
- (1) fireproof, if it passes through any firewall; or
- (2) fire resistant, for other ducts, except that ducts for auxiliary power units shall be fireproof within the auxiliary power unit fire zone.
- (e) Each auxiliary power unit induction system duct shall be fireproof for a sufficient distance upstream of the auxiliary power unit compartment to prevent hot gas reverse flow from burning through auxiliary power unit ducts and entering any other compartment or area of the rotorcraft in which a hazard would be created resulting from the entry of hot gases. The materials used to form the remainder of the induction system duct and plenum chamber of the auxiliary power unit shall be capable of resisting the maximum heat conditions likely to occur.
- (f) Each auxiliary power unit induction system duct shall be constructed of materials that will not absorb or trap hazardous quantities of flammable fluids that could be ignited in the event of a surge or reverse flow condition.
529.1105 Induction System Screens
If induction system screens are used:
- (a) each screen shall be upstream of the carburetor;
- (b) no screen shall be in any part of the induction system that is the only passage through which air can reach the engine, unless it can be de-iced by heated air;
- (c) no screen shall be de-iced by alcohol alone; and
- (d) it shall be impossible for fuel to strike any screen.
529.1107 Inter-coolers and After-coolers
Each inter-cooler and after-cooler shall be able to withstand the vibration, inertia, and air pressure loads to which it would be subjected in operation.
529.1109 Carburetor Air Cooling
It shall be demonstrated under section 529.1043 that each installation using two-stage superchargers has means to maintain the air temperature, at the carburetor inlet, at or below the maximum established value.
529.1110 to 529.1120 Reserved
For powerplant and auxiliary power unit installations the following apply:
- (a) each exhaust system shall ensure safe disposal of exhaust gases without fire hazard or carbon monoxide contamination in any personnel compartment;
- (b) each exhaust system part with a surface hot enough to ignite flammable fluids or vapours shall be located or shielded so that leakage from any system carrying flammable fluids or vapours will not result in a fire caused by impingement of the fluids or vapours on any part of the exhaust system including shields for the exhaust system;
- (c) each component upon which hot exhaust gases could impinge, or that could be subjected to high temperatures from exhaust system parts, shall be fireproof. Each exhaust system component shall be separated by a fireproof shield from adjacent parts of the rotorcraft that are outside the engine and auxiliary power unit compartments;
- (d) no exhaust gases shall discharge so as to cause a fire hazard with respect to any flammable fluid vent or drain;
- (e) no exhaust gases shall discharge where they will cause a glare seriously affecting pilot vision at night;
- (f) each exhaust system component shall be ventilated to prevent points of excessively high temperature;
- (g) each exhaust shroud shall be ventilated or insulated to avoid, during normal operation, a temperature high enough to ignite any flammable fluids or vapours outside the shroud; and
- (h) if significant traps exist, each turbine engine exhaust system shall have drains discharging clear of the rotorcraft, in any normal ground and flight attitudes, to prevent fuel accumulation after the failure of an attempted engine start.
529.1123 Exhaust Piping
- (a) Exhaust piping shall be heat and corrosion resistant, and shall have provisions to prevent failure due to expansion by operating temperatures.
- (b) Exhaust piping shall be supported to withstand any vibration and inertia loads to which it would be subjected in operation.
- (c) Exhaust piping connected to components between which relative motion could exist shall have provisions for flexibility.
529.1125 Exhaust Heat Exchangers
For reciprocating engine powered rotorcraft the following apply:
(a) each exhaust heat exchanger shall be constructed and installed to withstand the vibration, inertia, and other loads to which it would be subjected in operation. In addition:
- (1) each exchanger shall be suitable for continued operation at high temperatures and resistant to corrosion from exhaust gases;
- (2) there shall be means for inspecting of the critical parts of each exchanger;
- (3) each exchanger shall have cooling provisions wherever it is subject to contact with exhaust gases; and
(4) no exhaust heat exchanger or muff shall have stagnant areas or liquid traps that would increase the probability of ignition of flammable fluids or vapours that might be present in case of the failure or malfunction of components carrying flammable fluids;
(b) if an exhaust heat exchanger is used for heating ventilating air used by personnel:
- (1) there shall be a secondary heat exchanger between the primary exhaust gas heat exchanger and the ventilating air system; or
- (2) other means shall be used to prevent harmful contamination of the ventilating air.
529.1126 to 529.1140 Reserved
Powerplant Controls and Accessories
529.1141 Powerplant Controls: General
- (a) Powerplant controls shall be located and arranged under section 529.777 and marked under section 529.1555.
- (b) Each control shall be located so that it cannot be inadvertently operated by persons entering, leaving, or moving normally in, the cockpit.
- (c) Each flexible powerplant control shall be approved.
(d) Each control shall be able to maintain any set position without:
- (1) constant attention; or
- (2) tendency to creep due to control loads or vibration.
- (e) Each control shall be able to withstand operating loads without excessive deflection.
(f) Controls of powerplant valves required for safety shall have:
- (1) for manual valves, positive steps or in the case of fuel valves suitable index positions, in the open and closed position; and
(2) for power-assisted valves, a means to indicate to the flight crew when the valve:
- (i) is in the fully open or fully closed position, or
- (ii) is moving between the fully open and fully closed position.
529.1142 Auxiliary Power Unit Controls
Means shall be provided on the flight deck for starting, stopping, and emergency shut-down of each installed auxiliary power unit.
529.1143 Engine Controls
- (a) There shall be a separate power control for each engine.
(b) Power controls shall be arranged to allow ready synchronization of all engines by:
- (1) separate control of each engine; and
- (2) simultaneous control of all engines.
- (c) Each power control shall provide a positive and immediately responsive means of controlling its engine.
- (d) Each fluid injection control other than fuel system control shall be in the corresponding power control. However, the injection system pump may have a separate control.
(e) If a power control incorporates a fuel shut-off feature, the control shall have a means to prevent the inadvertent movement of the control into the shut-off position. The means shall:
- (1) have a positive lock or stop at the idle position; and
- (2) require a separate and distinct operation to place the control in the shut-off position.
(f) For rotorcraft to be certificated for a 30 second-OEI power rating, a means shall be provided to automatically activate and control the 30 second-OEI power and prevent any engine from exceeding the installed engine limits associated with the 30 second-OEI power rating approved for the rotorcraft.
529.1145 Ignition Switches
- (a) Ignition switches shall control each ignition circuit on each engine.
- (b) There shall be means to quickly shut off all ignition by the grouping of switches or by a master ignition control.
- (c) Each group of ignition switches, except ignition switches for turbine engines for which continuous ignition is not required, and each master ignition control shall have a means to prevent its inadvertent operation.
529.1147 Mixture Controls
(a) If there are mixture controls, each engine shall have a separate control, and the controls shall be arranged to allow:
- (1) separate control of each engine; and
- (2) simultaneous control of all engines.
- (b) Each intermediate position of the mixture controls that corresponds to a normal operating setting shall be identifiable by feel and sight.
529.1148 to 529.1150 Reserved
529.1151 Rotor Brake Controls
- (a) It shall be impossible to apply the rotor brake inadvertently in flight.
- (b) There shall be means to warn the crew if the rotor brake has not been completely released before takeoff.
529.1152 to 529.1156 Reserved
529.1157 Carburetor Air Temperature Controls
There shall be a separate carburetor air temperature control for each engine.
529.1159 Supercharger Controls
Each supercharger control shall be accessible to:
- (a) the pilots; or
- (b) if there is a separate flight engineer station with a control panel, the flight engineer.
529.1160 to 529.1162 Reserved
529.1163 Powerplant Accessories
(a) Each engine mounted accessory shall:
- (1) be approved for mounting on the engine involved;
- (2) use the provisions on the engine for mounting; and
- (3) be sealed in such a way as to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system.
- (b) Electrical equipment subject to arcing or sparking shall be installed to minimize the probability of igniting flammable fluids or vapours.
- (c) If continued rotation of an engine-driven cabin supercharger or any remote accessory driven by the engine will be a hazard if they malfunction, there shall be means to prevent their hazardous rotation without interfering with the continued operation of the engine.
- (d) Unless other means are provided, torque limiting means shall be provided for accessory drives located on any component of the transmission and rotor drive system to prevent damage to these components from excessive accessory load.
529.1165 Engine Ignition Systems
- (a) Each battery ignition system shall be supplemented with a generator that is automatically available as an alternate source of electrical energy to allow continued engine operation if any battery becomes depleted.
- (b) The capacity of batteries and generators shall be large enough to meet the simultaneous demands of the engine ignition system and the greatest demands of any electrical system components that draw from the same source.
(c) The design of the engine ignition system shall account for:
- (1) the condition of an inoperative generator;
- (2) the condition of a completely depleted battery with the generator running at its normal operating speed; and
- (3) the condition of a completely depleted battery with the generator operating at idling speed, if there is only one battery.
- (d) Magneto ground wiring (for separate ignition circuits) that lies on the engine side of any firewall shall be installed, located or protected to minimize the probability of the simultaneous failure of two or more wires as a result of mechanical damage, electrical fault or other cause.
- (e) No ground wire for any engine shall be routed through a fire zone of another engine unless each part of that wire within that zone is fireproof.
- (f) Each ignition system shall be independent of any electrical circuit that is not used for assisting, controlling, or analysing the operation of that system.
- (g) There shall be means to warn appropriate crew members if the malfunction of any part of the electrical system is causing the continuous discharge of any battery necessary for engine ignition.
529.1166 to 529.1180 Reserved
Powerplant Fire Protection
529.1181 Designated Fire Zones: Regions Included
(a) Designated fire zones are:
- (1) the engine power section of reciprocating engines;
- (2) the engine accessory section of reciprocating engines;
- (3) any complete powerplant compartment in which there is no isolation between the engine power section and the engine accessory section, for reciprocating engines;
- (4) any auxiliary power unit compartment;
- (5) any fuel-burning heater and other combustion equipment installation described in section 529.859;
- (6) the compressor and accessory sections of turbine engines; and
- (7) the combustor, turbine, and tailpipe sections of turbine engine installations except sections that do not contain lines and components carrying flammable fluids or gases and are isolated from the designated fire zone prescribed in (a)(6) of this section by a firewall that meets section 529.1191.
- (b) Each designated fire zone shall meet the requirements of sections 529.1183 through 529.1203.
529.1183 Lines, Fittings, and Components
- (a) Except as provided in (b) of this section, each line, fitting and other component carrying flammable fluid in any area subject to engine fire conditions and each component which conveys or contains flammable fluid in a designated fire zone shall be fire resistant, except that flammable fluid tanks and supports in a designated fire zone shall be fireproof or be enclosed by a fireproof shield unless damage by fire to any non-fireproof part will not cause leakage or spillage of flammable fluid. Components shall be shielded or located so as to safeguard against the ignition of leaking flammable fluid. An integral oil sump of less than 25 quart (23.66 litre) capacity on a reciprocating engine need not be fireproof nor be enclosed by a fireproof shield.
(b) The requirements prescribed in (a) of this section does not apply to:
- (1) lines, fittings and components which are already approved as part of a type certificated engine; and
- (2) vent and drain lines, and their fittings, whose failure will not result in or add to, a fire hazard.
529.1185 Flammable Fluids
- (a) No tank or reservoir that is part of a system containing flammable fluids or gases shall be in a designated fire zone unless the fluid contained, the design of the system, the materials used in the tank and its supports, the shut-off means, and the connections, lines and controls provide a degree of safety equal to that which would exist if the tank or reservoir were outside such a zone.
- (b) Each fuel tank shall be isolated from the engines by a firewall or shroud.
- (c) There shall be at least one-half inch (12.7 mm) of clear airspace between each tank or reservoir and each firewall or shroud isolating a designated fire zone, unless equivalent means are used to prevent heat transfer from the fire zone to the flammable fluid.
- (d) Absorbent materials close to flammable fluid system components that might leak shall be covered or treated to prevent the absorption of hazardous quantities of fluids.
529.1187 Drainage and Ventilation of Fire Zones
(a) There shall be complete drainage of each part of each designated fire zone to minimize the hazards resulting from failure or malfunction of any component containing flammable fluids. The drainage means shall be:
- (1) effective under conditions expected to prevail when drainage is needed; and
- (2) arranged so that no discharged fluid will cause an additional fire hazard.
- (b) Each designated fire zone shall be ventilated to prevent the accumulation of flammable vapours.
- (c) No ventilation opening shall be where it would allow the entry of flammable fluids, vapours or flame from other zones.
- (d) Ventilation means shall be arranged so that no discharged vapours will cause an additional fire hazard.
- (e) For category A rotorcraft, there shall be means to allow the crew to shut off the sources of forced ventilation in any fire zone (other than the engine power section of the powerplant compartment) unless the amount of extinguishing agent and the rate of discharge are based on the maximum airflow through that zone.
529.1189 Shut-off Means
(a) There shall be means to shut-off or otherwise prevent hazardous quantities of fuel, oil, de-icing fluid and other flammable fluids from flowing into, within, or through any designated fire zone, except that this means need not be provided:
- (1) for lines, fittings and components forming an integral part of an engine;
- (2) for oil systems for turbine engine installations in which all components of the system, including oil tanks, are fireproof or located in areas not subject to engine fire conditions; or
- (3) for engine oil systems in category B rotorcraft using reciprocating engines of less than 500 cubic inches (8.2 litres) displacement.
- (b) The closing of any fuel shut-off valve for any engine shall not make fuel unavailable to the remaining engines.
- (c) For category A rotorcraft, no hazardous quantity of flammable fluid shall drain into any designated fire zone after shut-off has been accomplished, nor shall the closing of any fuel shut-off valve for an engine make fuel unavailable to the remaining engines.
- (d) The operation of any shut-off shall not interfere with the later emergency operation of any other equipment, such as the means for declutching the engine from the rotor drive.
- (e) Each shut-off valve and its control shall be designed, located and protected to function properly under any condition likely to result from fire in a designated fire zone.
- (f) Except for ground-use-only auxiliary power unit installations, there shall be means to prevent inadvertent operation of each shut-off and to make it possible to reopen it in flight after it has been closed.
(a) Each engine, including the combustor, turbine and tailpipe sections of turbine engine installations, shall be isolated by a firewall, shroud or equivalent means, from personnel compartments, structures, controls, rotor mechanisms and other parts that are:
- (1) essential to controlled flight and landing; and
- (2) not protected under section 529.861.
- (b) Each auxiliary power unit, combustion heater and other combustion equipment to be used in flight, shall be isolated from the rest of the rotorcraft by firewalls, shrouds or equivalent means.
- (c) Each firewall or shroud shall be constructed so that no hazardous quantity of air, fluid or flame can pass from any engine compartment to other parts of the rotorcraft.
- (d) Each opening in the firewall or shroud shall be sealed with close-fitting fireproof grommets, bushings or firewall fittings.
- (e) Each firewall and shroud shall be fireproof and protected against corrosion.
- (f) In meeting this section, account shall be taken of the probable path of a fire as affected by the airflow in normal flight and in autorotation.
529.1193 Cowling and Engine Compartment Covering
- (a) Each cowling and engine compartment covering shall be constructed and supported so that it can resist the vibration, inertia and air loads to which it may be subjected in operation.
- (b) Cowling shall meet the drainage and ventilation requirements of section 529.1187.
(c) On rotorcraft with a diaphragm isolating the engine power section from the engine accessory section, each part of the accessory section cowling subject to flame in case of fire in the engine power section of the powerplant shall:
- (1) be fireproof; and
- (2) meet the requirements of section 529.1191.
- (d) Each part of the cowling or engine compartment covering subject to high temperatures due to its nearness to exhaust system parts or exhaust gas impingement shall be fireproof.
(e) Each rotorcraft shall:
- (1) be designed and constructed so that no fire originating in any fire zone can enter, either through openings or by burning through external skin, any other zone or region where it would create additional hazards;
- (2) meet the requirements of (e)(1) of this section with the landing gear retracted (if applicable); and
- (3) have fireproof skin in areas subject to flame if a fire starts in or burns out of any designated fire zone.
- (f) A means of retention for each openable or readily removable panel, cowling or engine or rotor drive system covering shall be provided to preclude hazardous damage to rotors or critical control components in the event of:
- (1) structural or mechanical failure of the normal retention means, unless such failure is extremely improbable; or
- (2) fire in a fire zone, if such fire could adversely affect the normal means of retention.
529.1194 Other Surfaces
All surfaces aft of, and near, engine compartments and designated fire zones, other than tail surfaces not subject to heat flames, or sparks emanating from a designated fire zone or engine compartment, shall be at least fire resistant.
529.1195 Fire Extinguishing Systems
- (a) Each turbine engine powered rotorcraft and category A reciprocating engine powered rotorcraft, and each category B reciprocating engine powered rotorcraft with engines of more than 1,500 cubic inches (24.6 litres) shall have a fire extinguishing system for the designated fire zones. The fire extinguishing system for a powerplant shall be able to simultaneously protect all zones of the powerplant compartment for which protection is provided.
(b) For multi-engine powered rotorcraft, the fire extinguishing system, the quantity of extinguishing agent as and the rate of discharge shall:
- (1) for each auxiliary power unit and combustion equipment, provide at least one adequate discharge; and
- (2) for each other designated fire zone, provide two adequate discharges.
- (c) For single engine rotorcraft, the quantity of extinguishing agent and the rate of discharge shall provide at least one adequate discharge for the engine compartment.
- (d) It shall be demonstrated by either actual or simulated flight tests that under critical airflow conditions in flight the discharge of the extinguishing agent in each designated fire zone will provide an agent concentration capable of extinguishing fires in that zone and of minimizing the probability of re-ignition.
529.1197 Fire Extinguishing Agents
(a) Fire extinguishing agents shall:
- (1) be capable of extinguishing flames emanating from any burning of fluids or other combustible materials in the area protected by the fire extinguishing system; and
- (2) have thermal stability over the temperature range likely to be experienced in the compartment in which they are stored.
- (b) If any toxic extinguishing agent is used it shall be demonstrated by test that entry of harmful concentrations of fluid or fluid vapours into any personnel compartment (due to leakage during normal operation of the rotorcraft, or discharge on the ground or in flight) is prevented, even though a defect may exist in the extinguishing system.
- (c) Deleted.
529.1199 Extinguishing Agent Containers
- (a) Each extinguishing agent container shall have a pressure relief to prevent bursting of the container by excessive internal pressures.
- (b) The discharge end of each discharge line from a pressure relief connection shall be located so that discharge of the fire extinguishing agent would not damage the rotorcraft. The line shall also be located or protected to prevent clogging caused by ice or other foreign matter.
- (c) There shall be a means for each fire extinguishing agent container to indicate that the container has discharged or that the charging pressure is below the established minimum necessary for proper functioning.
(d) The temperature of each container shall be maintained, under intended operating conditions, to prevent the pressure in the container from:
- (1) falling below that necessary to provide an adequate rate of discharge; or
- (2) rising high enough to cause premature discharge.
529.1201 Fire Extinguishing System Materials
- (a) No materials in any fire extinguishing system shall react chemically with any extinguishing agent so as to create a hazard.
- (b) Each system component in an engine compartment shall be fireproof.
529.1203 Fire Detector Systems
- (a) For each turbine engine powered rotorcraft and category A reciprocating engine powered rotorcraft, and for each category B reciprocating engine powered rotorcraft with engines of more than 900 cubic inches (14.7 litres) displacement, there shall be approved, quick-acting fire detectors in designated fire zones and in the combustor, turbine and tailpipe sections of turbine installations (whether or not such sections are designated fire zones) in numbers and locations ensuring prompt detection of fire in those zones.
- (b) Each fire detector shall be constructed and installed to withstand any vibration, inertia and other loads to which it would be subjected in operation.
- (c) No fire detector shall be affected by any oil, water, other fluids or fumes that might be present.
- (d) There shall be means to allow crew members to check, in flight, the functioning of each fire detector system electrical circuit.
- (e) The wiring and other components of each fire detector system in an engine compartment shall be at least fire resistant.
(f) No fire detector system component for any fire zone may pass through another fire zone, unless:
- (1) it is protected against the possibility of false warnings resulting from fires in zones through which it passes; or
- (2) the zones involved are simultaneously protected by the same detector and extinguishing systems.
529.1204 to 529.1300 Reserved
- Date modified: