Part V - Airworthiness Manual Chapter 529 - Transport Category Rotorcraft

Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) 2017-2

Preamble

SUBCHAPTERS 

  • A (529.1-529.20), 
  • B (529.21-529.300), 
  • C (529.301-529.600), 
  • D (529.601-529.900), 
  • E (529.901-529.1300), 
  • F (529.1301-529.1500), 
  • G (529.1501-529.1589)

APPENDICES  

ABCDE

SUBCHAPTER F EQUIPMENT GENERAL

529.1301 Function and Installation

Each item of installed equipment shall meet the following requirements:

  1. (a) it shall be of a kind and design appropriate to its intended function;
  2. (b) it shall be labelled as to its identification, function, or operating limitations, or any applicable combination of these factors;
  3. (c) it shall be installed according to limitations specified for that equipment; and
  4. (d) it shall function properly when installed.

529.1301-1 Rotorcraft Operations After Ground Cold Soak

Substantiation of satisfactory operation of the rotorcraft as a total system, by cold weather testing or by documented evidence of satisfactory operation at low temperature, is required after the rotorcraft has experienced a prolonged exposure to ground ambient temperatures equal to or less than -35°C unless an alternative minimum ground ambient temperature has been proposed by the applicant and accepted by the Minister.

Information Note:

No equivalent text is in the FAR.

529.1302 Reserved

529.1303 Flight and Navigation Instruments

The following are required flight and navigational instruments:

  1. (a) an airspeed indicator. For Category A rotorcraft with VNE less than a speed at which unmistakable pilot cues provide overspeed warning, a maximum allowable airspeed indicator shall be provided. If maximum allowable airspeed varies with weight, altitude, temperature or r.p.m., the indicator shall demonstrate that variation;
  2. (b) a sensitive altimeter;
  3. (c) a magnetic direction indicator;
  4. (d) a clock displaying hours, minutes and seconds with a sweep second pointer or digital presentation;
  5. (e) a free-air temperature indicator;
  6. (f) a non-tumbling gyroscopic bank and pitch indicator;
  7. (g) a gyroscopic rate-of-turn indicator combined with an integral slip-skid indicator (turn-and-bank indicator) except only a slip-skid indicator is required on rotorcraft with a third attitude instrument system that:
    1. (1) is useable through flight attitudes of ±80 degrees of pitch and ±120 degrees of roll;
    2. (2) is powered from a source independent of the electrical generating system;
    3. (3) continues reliable operation for a minimum of 30 minutes after total failure of the electrical generating system;
    4. (4) operates independently of any other attitude indicating system;
    5. (5) is operative without selection after total failure of the electrical generating system;
    6. (6) is located on the instrument panel in a position acceptable to the Minister that will make it plainly visible to and useable by any pilot at his station; and
    7. (7) is appropriately lighted during all phases of operation;
  8. (h) a gyroscopic direction indicator;
  9. (i) a rate-of-climb (vertical speed) indicator;
  10. (j) for Category A rotorcraft, a speed warning device when VNE is less than the speed at which unmistakable overspeed warning is provided by other pilot cues. The speed warning device shall give effective aural warning (differing distinctively from aural warnings used for other purposes) to the pilots whenever the indicated speed exceeds VNE plus 3 knots and shall operate satisfactorily throughout the approved range of altitudes and temperatures.

529.1304 Reserved

529.1305 Powerplant Instruments

The following are required powerplant instruments:

  1. (a) For each rotorcraft:
    1. (1) a carburetor air temperature indicator for each reciprocating engine;
    2. (2) a cylinder head temperature indicator for each air-cooled reciprocating engine, and a coolant temperature indicator for each liquid-cooled reciprocating engine;
    3. (3) a fuel quantity indicator for each fuel tank;
    4. (4) a low fuel warning device for each fuel tank which feeds an engine. This device shall:
      1. (i) provide a warning to the crew when approximately 10 minutes of useable fuel remains in the tank, and
      2. (ii) be independent of the normal fuel quantity indicating system;
    5. (5) a manifold pressure indicator, for each reciprocating engine of the altitude type;
    6. (6) an oil pressure indicator for each pressure-lubricated gearbox;
    7. (7) an oil pressure warning device for each pressure-lubricated gearbox to indicate when the oil pressure falls below a safe value;
    8. (8) an oil quantity indicator for each oil tank and each rotor drive gearbox, if lubricant is self-contained;
    9. (9) an oil temperature indicator for each engine;
    10. (10) an oil temperature warning device to indicate unsafe oil temperatures in each main rotor drive gearbox, including gearboxes necessary for rotor phasing;
    11. (11) a gas temperature indicator for each turbine engine;
    12. (12) a gas producer rotor tachometer for each turbine engine;
    13. (13) a tachometer for each engine that, if combined with the applicable instrument required by (a)(14) of this section, indicates rotor r.p.m. during autorotation;
    14. (14) at least one tachometer to indicate, as applicable:
      1. (i) the r.p.m. of the single main rotor,
      2. (ii) the common r.p.m. of any main rotors whose speeds cannot vary appreciably with respect to each other, and
      3. (iii) the r.p.m. of each main rotor whose speed can vary appreciably with respect to that of another main rotor;
    15. (15) a free power turbine tachometer for each turbine engine;
    16. (16) a means, for each turbine engine, to indicate power for that engine;
    17. (17) for each turbine engine, an indicator to indicate the functioning of the powerplant ice protection system;
    18. (18) an indicator for the filter required by section 529.997 to indicate the occurrence of contamination of the filter to the degree established in compliance with section 529.955;
    19. (19) for each turbine engine, a warning means for the oil strainer or filter required by section 529.1019, if it has no bypass, to warn the pilot of the occurrence of contamination of the strainer or filter before it reaches the capacity established in accordance with section 529.1019 (a)(2);
    20. (20) an indicator to indicate the functioning of any selectable or controllable heater used to prevent ice clogging of fuel system components;
    21. (21) an individual fuel pressure indicator for each engine, unless the fuel system which supplies that engine does not employ any pumps, filters, or other components subject to degradation or failure which may adversely affect fuel pressure at the engine;
    22. (22) a means to indicate to the flight crew the failure of any fuel pump installed to demonstrate compliance with section 529.955;
    23. (23) warning or caution devices to signal to the flight crew when ferromagnetic particles are detected by the chip detector required by section 529.1337 (e);
    24. (24) for auxiliary power units, an individual indicator, warning or caution device, or other means to advise the flight crew that limits are being exceeded, if exceeding these limits can be hazardous, for:
      1. (i) gas temperature,
      2. (ii) oil pressure, and
      3. (iii) rotor speed;
    25. (25) for rotorcraft for which a 30 second 2 minute-OEI power rating is requested, a means shall be provided to alert the pilot when the engine is at the 30 second and 2 minute-OEI power levels, when the event begins, and when the time interval expires; and
    26. (26) for each turbine engine utilizing 30 second 2 minute-OEI power, a device or system shall be provided for use by ground personnel which:
      1. (i) automatically records each usage and duration of power at the 30 second and 2 minute-OEI levels,
      2. (ii) permits retrieval of the recorded data,
      3. (iii) can be reset only by ground maintenance personnel, and
      4. (iv) has a means to verify proper operation of the system or device;
  2. (b) for Category A rotorcraft, the following are required:
    1. (1) an individual oil pressure indicator for each engine, and either an independent warning device for each engine or a master warning device for the engines with means for isolating the individual warning circuit from the master warning device;
    2. (2) an independent fuel pressure warning device for each engine or a master warning device for all engines with provision for isolating the individual warning device from the master warning device; and
    3. (3) fire warning indicators;
  3. (c) For Category B rotorcraft:
    1. (1) an individual oil pressure indicator for each engine; and
    2. (2) fire warning indicators, when fire detection is required.

529.1306 Reserved

529.1307 Miscellaneous Equipment

The following miscellaneous equipment is required:

  1. (a) an approved seat for each occupant;
  2. (b) a master switch arrangement for electrical circuits other than ignition;
  3. (c) hand fire extinguishers;
  4. (d) a windshield wiper or equivalent device for each pilot station; and
  5. (e) a two-way radio communication system.

529.1308 Reserved

529.1309 Equipment, Systems, and Installations

  1. (a) The equipment, systems, and installations whose functioning is required by this Manual shall be designed and installed to ensure that they perform their intended functions under any foreseeable operating condition.
  2. (b) The rotorcraft systems and associated components, considered separately and in relation to other systems, shall be designed so that:
    1. (1) for Category B rotorcraft, the equipment, systems and installations shall be designed to prevent hazards to the rotorcraft if they malfunction or fail; or
    2. (2) for Category A rotorcraft:
      1. (i) the occurrence of any failure condition which would prevent the continued safe flight and landing of the rotorcraft is extremely improbable, and
      2. (ii) the occurrence of any other failure conditions which would reduce the capability of the rotorcraft or the ability of the crew to cope with adverse operating conditions is improbable.
  3. (c) Warning information shall be provided to alert the crew to unsafe system operating conditions and to enable them to take appropriate corrective action. Systems, controls and associated monitoring and warning means shall be designed to minimize crew errors which could create additional hazards.
  4. (d) Compliance with the requirements of (b)(2) of this section shall be demonstrated by analysis and, where necessary, by appropriate ground, flight or simulator tests. The analysis shall consider:
    1. (1) possible modes of failure, including malfunctions and damage from external sources;
    2. (2) the probability of multiple failures and undetected failures;
    3. (3) the resulting effects on the rotorcraft and occupants, considering the stage of flight and operating conditions; and
    4. (4) the crew warning cues, corrective action required and the capability of detecting faults.
  5. (e) For Category A rotorcraft, each installation whose functioning is required by this Manual and which requires a power supply, is an “essential load” on the power supply. The power sources and the system shall be able to supply the following power loads in probable operating combinations and for probable durations:
    1. (1) loads connected to the system with the system functioning normally;
    2. (2) essential loads, after failure of any one prime mover, power converter, or energy storage device;
    3. (3) essential loads, after failure of:
      1. (i) any one engine, on rotorcraft with two engines, and
      2. (ii) any two engines, on rotorcraft with three or more engines.
  6. (f) In determining compliance with (e)(2) and (3) of this section, the power loads may be assumed to be reduced under a monitoring procedure consistent with safety in the kinds of operations authorized. Loads not required for controlled flight need not be considered for the two-engine- inoperative condition on rotorcraft with three or more engines.
  7. (g) In demonstrating compliance with (a) and (b) of this section with regard to the electrical system and to equipment design and installation, critical environmental conditions shall be considered. For electrical generation, distribution and utilization equipment required by or used in complying with this Manual, except equipment covered by Technical Standard Orders containing environmental test procedures, the ability to provide continuous, safe service under foreseeable environmental conditions may be demonstrated by environmental tests, design analysis or reference to previous comparable service experience on other aircraft.

529.1310 to 529.1315 Reserved

(effective 2014/07/08)

529.1316 Electrical and Electronic System Lightning Protection

(effective 2014/07/08)

  1. (a) Each electrical and electronic system that performs a function, for which failure would prevent the continued safe flight and landing of the rotorcraft, must be designed and installed so that:
    1. (1) the function is not adversely affected during and after the time the rotorcraft is exposed to lightning; and
    2. (2) the system automatically recovers normal operation of that function in a timely manner after the rotorcraft is exposed to lightning.
  2. (b) For rotorcraft approved for instrument flight rules operation, each electrical and electronic system that performs a function, for which failure would reduce the capability of the rotorcraft or the ability of the flight crew members to respond to an adverse operating condition, must be designed and installed so that the function recovers normal operation in a timely manner after the rotorcraft is exposed to lightning.

Instruments Installation

529.1317 High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection

(amended 2008/10/30)

  1. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, each electrical and electronic system that performs a function whose failure would prevent the continued safe flight and landing of the rotorcraft shall be designed and installed so that:
    (amended 2008/10/30)
    1. (1) The function is not adversely affected during and after the time the rotorcraft is exposed to HIRF environment I, as described in Appendix E of this chapter;
      (amended 2008/10/30)
    2. (2) The system automatically recovers normal operation of that function, in a timely manner, after the rotorcraft is exposed to HIRF environment I, as described in Appendix E of this chapter, unless this conflicts with other operational or functional requirements of that system;
      (amended 2008/10/30)
    3. (3) The system is not adversely affected during and after the time the rotorcraft is exposed to HIRF environment II, as described in Appendix E of this chapter; and
      (amended 2008/10/30)
    4. (4) Each function required during operation under visual flight rules is not adversely affected during and after the time the rotorcraft is exposed to HIRF environment III, as described in Appendix E of this chapter.
      (amended 2008/10/30)
  2. (b) Each electrical and electronic system that performs a function whose failure would significantly reduce the capability of the rotorcraft or the ability of the flight crew to respond to an adverse operating condition shall be designed and installed so the system is not adversely affected when the equipment providing these functions is exposed to equipment HIRF test level 1 or 2, as described in Appendix E of this chapter.
    (amended 2008/10/30)
  3. (c) Each electrical and electronic system that performs such a function whose failure would reduce the capability of the rotorcraft or the ability of the flight crew to respond to an adverse operating condition shall be designed and installed so the system is not adversely affected when the equipment providing these functions is exposed to equipment HIRF test level 3, as described in Appendix E of this chapter.
    (amended 2008/10/30)
  4. (d) Before December 1, 2012, an electrical or electronic system that performs a function whose failure would prevent the continued safe flight and landing of a rotorcraft may be designed and installed without meeting the provisions of paragraph (a) provided:
    (amended 2008/10/30)
    1. (1) The system has previously been shown to comply with Special Conditions - Airworthiness for HIRF, specified by the Minister pursuant to Part V of the Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs).
      (amended 2008/10/30)
    2. (2) The HIRF immunity characteristics of the system have not changed since compliance with the special conditions was demonstrated; and
      (amended 2008/10/30)
    3. (3) The data used to demonstrate compliance with the Special Co nditions - Airworthiness for HIRF is provided.
      (amended 2008/10/30)

529.1318 to 529.1320 Reserved

(amended 2008/10/30

529.1321 Arrangement and Visibility

  1. (a) Each flight, navigation and powerplant instrument for use by any pilot shall be easily visible to him from his station with the minimum practicable deviation from his normal position and line of vision when he is looking forward along the flight path.
  2. (b) Each instrument necessary for safe operation, including the airspeed indicator, gyroscopic direction indicator, gyroscopic bank-and-pitch indicator, slip-skid indicator, altimeter, rate-of-climb indicator, rotor tachometers and the indicator most representative of engine power shall be grouped and centred as nearly as practicable about the vertical plane of the pilot’s forward vision. In addition, for rotorcraft approved for IFR flight:
    1. (1) the instrument that most effectively indicates attitude shall be on the panel in the top centre position;
    2. (2) the instrument that most effectively indicates direction of flight shall be adjacent to and directly below the attitude instrument;
    3. (3) the instrument that most effectively indicates airspeed shall be adjacent to and to the left of the attitude instrument; and
    4. (4) the instrument that most effectively indicates altitude or is most frequently utilized in control of altitude shall be adjacent to and to the right of the attitude instrument.
  3. (c) Other required powerplant instruments shall be closely grouped on the instrument panel.
  4. (d) Identical powerplant instruments for the engines shall be located so as to prevent any confusion as to which engine each instrument relates.
  5. (e) Each powerplant instrument vital to safe operation shall be plainly visible to appropriate crew members.
  6. (f) Instrument panel vibration shall not damage or impair the readability or accuracy of any instrument.(g) If a visual indicator is provided to indicate malfunction of an instrument, it shall be effective under all probable cockpit lighting conditions.

529.1322 Warning, Caution, and Advisory Lights

Unless otherwise approved by the Minister, if warning, caution or advisory lights are installed in the cockpit, they shall be:

  1. (a) red, for warning lights (lights indicating a hazard which may require immediate corrective action);
  2. (b) amber, for caution lights (lights indicating the possible need for future corrective action);
  3. (c) green, for safe operation lights; and
  4. (d) any other colour, including white, for lights not described in (a) through (c) of this section, provided the colour differs sufficiently from the colours prescribed in (a) through (c) of this section to avoid possible confusion.

529.1323 Airspeed Indicating System

For each airspeed indicating system, the following apply:

  1. (a) each airspeed indicating instrument shall be calibrated to indicate true airspeed (at sea level with a standard atmosphere) with a minimum practicable instrument calibration error when the corresponding pitot and static pressures are applied;
  2. (b) each system shall be calibrated to determine system error excluding airspeed instrument error. This calibration shall be determined as follow:
    1. (1) in level flight at speeds of 20 knots and greater, and over an appropriate range of speeds for flight conditions of climb and autorotation; and
    2. (2) during takeoff, with repeatable and readable indications that ensure:
      1. (i) consistent realization of the field lengths specified in the Rotorcraft Flight Manual, and
      2. (ii) avoidance of the critical areas of the height-velocity envelope established under section 529.87;
  3. (c) For Category A rotorcraft. The following apply:
    1. (1) the indication shall allow consistent definition of the take-off decision point; and
    2. (2) the system error, excluding the airspeed instrument calibration error, shall not exceed:
      1. (i) three percent or 5 knots, whichever is greater, in level flight at speeds above 80 percent of take-off safety speed, and
      2. (ii) ten knots in climb at speeds from 10 knots below take-off safety speed to 10 knots above VY;
  4. (d) for Category B rotorcraft, the system error, excluding the airspeed instrument calibration error, shall not exceed 3 percent or 5 knots, whichever is greater, in level flight at speeds above 80 percent of the climb-out speed attained at 50 feet (15.24 m) when complying with section 529.63;
  5. (e) each system shall be arranged, so far as practicable, to prevent malfunction or serious error due to the entry of moisture, dirt, or other substances;
  6. (f) each system shall have a heated pitot tube or an equivalent means of preventing malfunction due to icing.

529.1324 Reserved

529.1325 Static Pressure and Pressure Altimeter Systems

  1. (a) Each instrument with static air case connections shall be vented to the outside atmosphere through an appropriate piping system.
  2. (b) Each vent shall be located where its orifices are least affected by airflow variation, moisture or other foreign matter.
  3. (c) Each static pressure port shall be designed and located in such manner that the correlation between air pressure in the static pressure system and true ambient atmospheric static pressure is not altered when the rotorcraft encounters icing conditions. An anti-icing means or an alternate source of static pressure may be used in demonstrating compliance with this requirement. If the reading of the altimeter, when on the alternate static pressure system, differs from the reading of the altimeter when on the primary static system by more than 50 feet (15.24 m), a correction card shall be provided for the alternate static system.
  4. (d) Except for the vent into the atmosphere, each system shall be airtight.
  5. (e) Each pressure altimeter shall be approved and calibrated to indicate pressure altitude in a standard atmosphere with a minimum practicable calibration error when the corresponding static pressures are applied.
  6. (f) Each system shall be designed and installed so that an error in indicated pressure altitude, at sea level, with a standard atmosphere, excluding instrument calibration error, does not result in an error of more than ± 30 feet (9 m) per 100 knots speed. However, the error need not be less than ± 30 feet (9 m).
  7. (g) Except as provided in (h) of this section, if the static pressure system incorporates both a primary and an alternate static pressure source, the means for selecting one or the other source shall be designed so that:
    1. (1) when either source is selected, the other is blocked off; and
    2. (2) both sources cannot be blocked off simultaneously.
  8. (h) For un-pressurized rotorcraft, (g)(1) of this section does not apply if it can be demonstrated that the static pressure system calibration, when either static pressure source is selected, is not changed by the other static pressure source being open or blocked.

529.1326 Reserved

529.1327 Magnetic Direction Indicator

  1. (a) Each magnetic direction indicator shall be installed so that its accuracy is not excessively affected by the rotorcraft’s vibration or magnetic fields.
  2. (b) The compensated installation shall not have a deviation, in level flight, greater than 10° on any heading.

529.1328 Reserved

529.1329 Automatic Pilot System

  1. (a) Each automatic pilot system shall be designed so that the automatic pilot can:
    1. (1) be sufficiently overpowered by one pilot to allow control of the rotorcraft; and
    2. (2) be readily and positively disengaged by each pilot to prevent it from interfering with the control of the rotorcraft.
  2. (b) Unless there is automatic synchronization, each system shall have a means to readily indicate to the pilot the alignment of the actuating device in relation to the control system it operates.
  3. (c) Each manually operated control for the system’s operation shall be readily accessible to the pilots.
  4. (d) The system shall be designed and adjusted so that, within the range of adjustment available to the pilot, it cannot produce hazardous loads on the rotorcraft, or create hazardous deviations in the flight path, under any flight condition appropriate to its use, either during normal operation or in the event of a malfunction, assuming that corrective action begins within a reasonable period of time.
  5. (e) If the automatic pilot integrates signals from auxiliary controls or furnishes signals for operation of other equipment, there shall be positive interlocks and sequencing of engagement to prevent improper operation.
  6. (f) If the automatic pilot system can be coupled to airborne navigation equipment, means shall be provided to indicate to the pilots the current mode of operation. Selector switch position is not acceptable as a means of indication.
    (amended 1998/11/23)

529.1330 Reserved

529.1331 Instruments Using a Power Supply

For Category A rotorcraft:

  1. (a) each required flight instrument using a power supply shall have:
    1. (1) two independent sources of power;
    2. (2) a means of selecting either power source; and
    3. (3) a visual means integral with each instrument to indicate when the power adequate to sustain proper instrument performance is not being supplied. The power shall be measured at or near the point where it enters the instrument. For electrical instruments, the power is considered to be adequate when the voltage is within the approved limits; and
  2. (b) the installation and power supply system shall be such that failure of any flight instrument connected to one source, of the energy supply from one source or a fault in any part of the power distribution system does not interfere with the proper supply of energy from any other source.

529.1332 Reserved

529.1333 Instrument Systems

For systems that operate the required flight instruments which are located at each pilot’s station, the following apply:

  1. (a) only the required flight instruments for the first pilot may be connected to that operating system;
  2. (b) the equipment, systems and installation shall be designed so that one display of the information essential to the safety of flight which is provided by the flight instruments remains available to a pilot, without additional crew member action, after any single failure or combination of failures that are not demonstrated to be extremely improbable; and
  3. (c) additional instruments, systems or equipment shall not be connected to the operating system for a second pilot unless provisions are made to ensure the continued normal functioning of the required flight instruments in the event of any malfunction of the additional instruments, systems or equipment which is not demonstrated to be extremely improbable.

529.1334 Reserved

529.1335 Flight Director Systems

If a flight director system is installed, means shall be provided to indicate to the flight crew its current mode of operation. Selector switch position is not acceptable as a means of indication.

529.1336 Reserved

529.1337 Powerplant Instruments

  1. (a) Instruments and instrument lines.
    1. (1) Each powerplant and auxiliary power unit instrument line shall meet the requirements of sections 529.993 and 529.1183;
    2. (2) Each line carrying flammable fluids under pressure shall:
      1. (i) have restricting orifices or other safety devices at the source of pressure to prevent the escape of excessive fluid if the line fails, and
      2. (ii) be installed and located so that the escape of fluids would not create a hazard;
    3. (3) Each powerplant and auxiliary power unit instrument that utilizes flammable fluids shall be installed and located so that the escape of fluid would not create a hazard.
  2. (b) Fuel quantity indicator. There shall be means to indicate to the flight crew members the quantity, in gallons or equivalent units, of useable fuel in each tank during flight. In addition:
    1. (1) each fuel quantity indicator shall be calibrated to read “zero” during level flight when the quantity of fuel remaining in the tank is equal to the unuseable fuel supply determined under section 529.959;
    2. (2) when two or more tanks are closely interconnected by a gravity feed system and vented, and when it is impossible to feed from each tank separately, at least one fuel quantity indicator shall be installed;
    3. (3) tanks with interconnected outlets and airspaces may be treated as one tank and need not have separate indicators; and
    4. (4) each exposed sight gauge used as a fuel quantity indicator shall be protected against damage.
  3. (c) Fuel flow meter system. If a fuel flow meter system is installed, each metering component shall have a means for bypassing the fuel supply if malfunction of that component severely restricts fuel flow.
  4. (d) Oil quantity indicator. There shall be a stick gauge or equivalent means to indicate the quantity of oil:
    1. (1) in each tank; and
    2. (2) in each transmission gearbox.
  5. (e) Rotor drive system transmissions and gearboxes utilizing ferromagnetic materials shall be equipped with chip detectors designed to indicate the presence of ferromagnetic particles resulting from damage or excessive wear within the transmission or gearbox. Each chip detector shall:
    1. (1) be designed to provide a signal to the indicator required by section 529.1305 (a) (22); and
    2. (2) be provided with a means to allow crew members to check, in flight, the function of each detector electrical circuit and signal.

529.1338 to 529.1350 Reserved

Electrical Systems and Equipment

529.1351 General

  1. (a) Electrical system capacity. The required generating capacity and the number and kind of power sources shall:
    1. (1) be determined by an electrical load analysis; and
    2. (2) meet the requirements of section 529.1309.
  2. (b) Generating system. The generating system includes electrical power sources, main power busses, transmission cables and associated control, regulation and protective devices. It shall be designed so that:
    1. (1) power sources function properly when independent and when connected in combination;
    2. (2) no failure or malfunction of any power source can create a hazard or impair the ability of remaining sources to supply essential loads;
    3. (3) the system voltage and frequency (as applicable) at the terminals of essential load equipment can be maintained within the limits for which the equipment is designed, during any probable operating condition;
    4. (4) system transients due to switching, fault clearing or other causes do not make essential loads inoperative, and do not cause a smoke or fire hazard;
    5. (5) there are means accessible in flight to appropriate crew members for the individual and collective disconnection of the electrical power sources from the main bus; and
    6. (6) there are means to indicate to appropriate crew members the generating system quantities essential for the safe operation of the system, such as the voltage and current supplied by each generator.
  3. (c) External power. If provisions are made for connecting external power to the rotorcraft, and that external power can be electrically connected to equipment other than that used for engine starting, means shall be provided to ensure that no external power supply having a reverse polarity, or a reverse phase sequence, can supply power to the rotorcraft’s electrical system.
  4. (d) Operation with the normal electrical power generating system inoperative.
    1. (1) the applicant shall demonstrate, by analysis or tests, that the rotorcraft can be operated safely in VFR conditions for a period not less than 5 minutes, with the normal electrical power generating system (electrical power sources excluding the battery) inoperative, with critical type fuel (from the standpoint of flameout and restart capability), and with the rotorcraft initially at the maximum certificated altitude. Parts of the electrical system may remain on if:
      1. (i) a single malfunction, including a wire bundle or junction box fire, cannot result in loss of the part turned off and the part turned on, and
      2. (ii) the parts turned on are electrically and mechanically isolated from the parts turned off,
      3. (iii) Removed;
    2. (2) Additional requirements for Category A Rotorcraft are as follow:
      1. (i) unless the applicant can demonstrate that the loss of the normal electrical power generating system is extremely improbable, an emergency electrical power system, independent of the normal electrical power generating system, shall be provided with sufficient capacity to power all systems necessary for continued safe flight and landing,
      2. (ii) failures, including junction box, control panel or wire bundle fires, which would result in the loss of the normal and emergency systems, shall be demonstrated to be extremely improbable, and
      3. (iii) systems necessary for immediate safety shall continue to operate following the loss of the normal electrical power generating system, without the need for flight crew action.
    3. (3) Removed

529.1352 Reserved

529.1353 Electrical Equipment and Installations

  1. (a) Electrical equipment, controls and wiring shall be installed so that operation of any one unit or system of units will not adversely affect the simultaneous operation of any other electrical unit or system essential to safe operation.
  2. (b) Cables shall be grouped, routed and spaced so that damage to essential circuits will be minimized if there are faults in heavy current-carrying cables.
  3. (c) Storage batteries shall be designed and installed as follows:
    1. (1) safe cell temperatures and pressures shall be maintained during any probable charging and discharging condition. No uncontrolled increase in cell temperature shall result when the battery is recharged (after previous complete discharge):
      1. (i) at maximum regulated voltage or power,
      2. (ii) during a flight of maximum duration, and
      3. (iii) under the most adverse cooling condition likely in service;
    2. (2) compliance with (c)(1) of this section, shall be demonstrated by test unless experience with similar batteries and installations has demonstrated that maintaining safe cell temperatures and pressures presents no problem;
    3. (3) no explosive or toxic gases emitted by any battery in normal operation, or as the result of any probable malfunction in the charging system or battery installation, shall accumulate in hazardous quantities within the rotorcraft;
    4. (4) no corrosive fluids or gases that may escape from the battery shall damage surrounding structures or adjacent essential equipment;
    5. (5) each nickel cadmium battery installation capable of being used to start an engine or auxiliary power unit shall have provisions to prevent any hazardous effect on structure or essential systems that may be caused by the maximum amount of heat the battery can generate during a short circuit of the battery or of its individual cells;
    6. (6) nickel cadmium battery installations capable of being used to start an engine or auxiliary power unit shall have:
      1. (i) a system to control the charging rate of the battery automatically so as to prevent battery overheating,
      2. (ii) a battery temperature sensing and over-temperature warning system with a means for disconnecting the battery from its charging source in the event of an over-temperature condition, or
      3. (iii) a battery failure sensing and warning system with a means for disconnecting the battery from its charging source in the event of battery failure.

529.1354 Reserved

529.1355 Distribution System

  1. (a) The distribution system includes the distribution busses, their associated feeders, and each control and protective device.
  2. (b) If two independent sources of electrical power for particular equipment or systems are required by this Manual, in the event of the failure of one power source for such equipment or system, another power source (including its separate feeder) shall be provided automatically or be manually selectable to maintain equipment or system operation.

529.1356 Reserved

529.1357 Circuit Protective Devices

  1. (a) Automatic protective devices shall be used to minimize distress to the electrical system and hazard to the rotorcraft in the event of wiring faults or serious malfunction of the system or connected equipment.
  2. (b) The protective and control devices in the generating system shall be designed to de-energize and disconnect faulty power sources and power transmission equipment from their associated busses with sufficient rapidity to provide protection from hazardous over-voltage and other malfunctioning.
  3. (c) Each resettable circuit protective device shall be designed so that, when an overload or circuit fault exists, it will open the circuit regardless of the position of the operating control.
  4. (d) If the ability to reset a circuit breaker or replace a fuse is essential to safety in flight, that circuit breaker or fuse shall be located and identified so that it can be readily reset or replaced in flight.
  5. (e) Each essential load shall have individual circuit protection. However, individual protection for each circuit in an essential load system (such as each position light circuit in a system) is not required.
  6. (f) If fuses are used, there shall be spare fuses for use in flight equal to at least 50 percent of the number of fuses of each rating required for complete circuit protection.
  7. (g) Automatic reset circuit breakers may be used as integral protectors for electrical equipment provided there is circuit protection for the cable supplying power to the equipment.

529.1358 Reserved

529.1359 Electrical System Fire and Smoke Protection

  1. (a) Components of the electrical system shall meet the applicable fire and smoke protection provisions of sections 529.831 and 529.863.
  2. (b) Electrical cables, terminals and equipment, in designated fire zones, and that are used in emergency procedures, shall be at least fire resistant.
  3. (c) Insulation on electrical wire and cable installed in the rotorcraft shall be self-extinguishing when tested in accordance with Appendix F, Part I(a)(3), of Chapter 525 of this Manual.
    (amended 1998/11/23)

529.1360 to 1362 Reserved

529.1363 Electrical System Tests

  1. (a) When laboratory tests of the electrical system are conducted:
    1. (1) the tests shall be performed on a mock-up using the same generating equipment used in the rotorcraft;
    2. (2) the equipment shall simulate the electrical characteristics of the distribution wiring and connected loads to the extent necessary for valid test results; and
    3. (3) laboratory generator drives shall simulate the prime movers on the rotorcraft with respect to their reaction to generator loading, including loading due to faults.
  2. (b) For each flight condition that cannot be simulated adequately in the laboratory or by ground tests on the rotorcraft, flight tests shall be made.

529.1364 to 529.1380 Reserved

Lights

529.1381 Instrument Lights

The instrument lights shall:

  1. (a) make each instrument, switch and other device for which they are provided easily readable; and
  2. (b) be installed so that:
    1. (1) their direct rays are shielded from the pilot’s eyes; and
    2. (2) no objectionable reflections are visible to the pilot.

529.1382 Reserved

529.1383 Landing Lights

  1. (a) Each required landing or hovering light shall be approved.
  2. (b) Each landing light shall be installed so that:
    1. (1) no objectionable glare is visible to the pilot;
    2. (2) the pilot is not adversely affected by halation; and
    3. (3) it provides enough light for night operation, including hovering and landing.
  3. (c) At least one separate switch shall be provided, as applicable:
    1. (1) for each separately installed landing light; and
    2. (2) for each group of landing lights installed at a common location.

529.1384 Reserved

529.1385 Position Light System Installation

  1. (a) General. Each part of each position light system shall meet the applicable requirements of this section and each system as a whole shall meet the requirements of sections 529.1387 through 529.1397.
  2. (b) Forward position lights. Forward position lights shall consist of a red and a green light spaced laterally as far apart as practicable and installed forward on the rotorcraft so that, with the rotorcraft in the normal flying position, the red light is on the left side, and the green light is on the right side. Each light shall be approved.
  3. (c) Rear position light. The rear position light shall be a white light mounted as far aft as practicable, and shall be approved.
  4. (d) Circuit. The two forward position lights and the rear position light shall make a single circuit.
  5. (e) Light covers and colour filters. Each light cover or colour filter shall be at least flame resistant and shall not change colour or shape or lose any appreciable light transmission during normal use.

529.1386 Reserved

529.1387 Position Light System Dihedral Angles

  1. (a) Except as provided in (e) of this section, each forward and rear position shall, as installed, demonstrate unbroken light within the dihedral angles described in this section.
  2. (b) Dihedral angle L (left) is formed by two intersecting vertical planes, the first parallel to the longitudinal axis of the rotorcraft, and the other at 110° to the left of the first, as viewed when looking forward along the longitudinal axis.
  3. (c) Dihedral angle R (right) is formed by two intersecting vertical planes, the first parallel to the longitudinal axis of the rotorcraft, and the other at 110° to the right of the first, as viewed when looking forward along the longitudinal axis.
  4. (d) Dihedral angle A (aft) is formed by two intersecting vertical planes making angles of 70° to the right and to the left, respectively, to a vertical plane passing through the longitudinal axis, as viewed when looking aft along the longitudinal axis.
  5. (e) If the rear position light, when mounted as far aft as practicable in accordance with section 529.1385 (c), cannot demonstrate unbroken light within dihedral angle A (as defined in (d) of this section), a solid angle or angles of obstructed visibility totalling not more than 0.04 steradians is allowable within that dihedral angle, if such solid angle is within a cone whose apex is at the rear position light and whose elements make an angle of 30° with a vertical line passing through the rear position light.

529.1388 Reserved

529.1389 Position Light Distribution and Intensities

  1. (a) General. The intensities prescribed in this section shall be provided by new equipment with light covers and colour filters in place. Intensities shall be determined with the light source operating at a steady value equal to the average luminous output of the source at the normal operating voltage of the rotorcraft. The light distribution and intensity of each position light shall meet the requirements of (b) of this section.
  2. (b) Forward and rear position lights. The light distribution and intensities of forward and rear position lights shall be expressed in terms of minimum intensities in the horizontal plane, minimum intensities in any vertical plane, and maximum intensities in overlapping beams, within dihedral angles, L, R, and A, and shall meet the following requirements:
    1. (1) Intensities in the horizontal plane. Each intensity in the horizontal plane (the plane containing the longitudinal axis of the rotorcraft and perpendicular to the plane of symmetry of the rotorcraft), shall equal or exceed the values in section 529.1391;
    2. (2) Intensities in any vertical plane. Each intensity in any vertical plane (the plane perpendicular to the horizontal plane) shall equal or exceed the appropriate value in section 529.1393 where I is the minimum intensity prescribed in section 529.1391 for the corresponding angles in the horizontal plane;
    3. (3) Intensities in overlaps between adjacent signals. No intensity in any overlap between adjacent signals shall exceed the values in section 529.1395, except that higher intensities in overlaps may be used with the use of main beam intensities substantially greater than the minima specified in sections 529.1391 and 529.1393 if the overlap intensities in relation to the main beam intensities do not adversely affect signal clarity.

529.1390 Reserved

529.1391 Minimum Intensities in the Horizontal Plane of Forward and Rear Position Lights

Each position light intensity shall equal or exceed the applicable values in the following table:

Dihedral angle (light included) Angle from right or left of longitudinal axis, measured from dead ahead Intensity (candles)
L and R (forward red and green). 0° to 10° 40
  10° to 20° 30
  20° to 110° 5
A (rear white) 110° to 180° 20

529.1392 Reserved

529.1393 Minimum Intensities in Any Vertical Plane of Forward and Rear Position Lights

Each position light intensity shall equal or exceed the applicable values in the following table:

Angle above or below the horizontal plane Intensity (I)
1.00
0° to 5° 0.90
5° to 10° 0.80
10° to 15° 0.70
15° to 20° 0.50
20° to 30° 0.30
30° to 40° 0.10
40° to 90° 0.05

529.1394 Reserved

529.1395 Maximum Intensities in Overlapping Beams of Forward and Rear Position Lights

No position light intensity shall exceed the applicable values in the following table, except as provided in section 529.1389 (b)(3).

Overlaps Maximum intensity
  Area A (candles) Area B (candles)
Green in dihedral angle L 10 1
Red in dihedral angle R 10 1
Green in dihedral angle A 5 1
Red in dihedral angle A 5 1
Rear white in dihedral angle L 5 1
Rear white in dihedral angle R 5 1

Where:

  1. (a) Area A includes all directions in the adjacent dihedral angle that pass through the light source and intersect the common boundary plane at more than 10° but less than 20°;
  2. (b) Area B includes all directions in the adjacent dihedral angle that pass through the light source and intersect the common boundary plane at more than 20°.

529.1396 Reserved

529.1397 Colour Specifications

Each position light colour shall have the applicable International Commission on Illumination chromaticity co-ordinates as follows:

  1. (a) Aviation red

    “y” is not greater than 0.335, and

    “z” is not greater than 0.002;

  2. (b) Aviation green

    “x” is not greater than 0.440-0.320y,

    “x” is not greater than y-0.170, and

    “y” is not less than 0.390-0.170x;

  3. (c) Aviation white

    “x” is not less than 0.300 and not greater than 0.540,

    “y” is not less than “x-0.040”, or

    “yc - 0.010”, whichever is the smaller, and

    “y” is not greater than “x+0.020” nor “0.636-0.400x”.

    Where “ye” is the “y” co-ordinate of the Planckian radiator for the value of “x” considered.

529.1398 Reserved

529.1399 Riding Light

  1. (a) Each riding light required for water operation shall be installed so that it can:
    1. (1) demonstrate a white light for at least two miles at night under clear atmospheric conditions; and
    2. (2) demonstrate a maximum practicable unbroken light with the rotorcraft on the water.
  2. (b) Externally hung lights may be used.

529.1400 Reserved

529.1401 Anticollision Light System

  1. (a) General. If certification for night operation is requested, the rotorcraft shall have an anticollision light system that:
    1. (1) consists of one or more approved anticollision lights located so that their emitted light will not impair the crew’s vision or detract from the conspicuity of the position lights; and
    2. (2) meets the requirements of (b) through (f) of this section.
  2. (b) Field of coverage. The system shall consist of enough lights to illuminate the vital areas around the rotorcraft, considering the physical configuration and flight characteristics of the rotorcraft. The field of coverage shall extend in each direction within at least 30° above and 30° below the horizontal plane of the rotorcraft, except that there may be solid angles of obstructed visibility totalling not more than 0.5 steradians.
  3. (c) Flashing characteristics. The arrangement of the system, that is, the number of light sources, beam width, speed of rotation and other characteristics shall give an effective flash frequency of not less than 40, nor more than 100, cycles per minute. The effective flash frequency is the frequency at which the rotorcraft’s complete anticollision light system is observed from a distance, and applies to each sector of light including any overlaps that exist when the system consists of more than one light source. In overlaps, flash frequencies may exceed 100, but not 180, cycles per minute.
  4. (d) Colour. Each anticollision light shall be aviation red and shall meet the applicable requirements of section 529.1397.
  5. (e) Light intensity. The minimum light intensities in any vertical plane, measured with the red filter (if used) and expressed in terms of “effective” intensities, shall meet the requirements of (f) of this section. The following relation shall be assumed:

    where:

    Ie = effective intensity (candles);

    I(t) = instantaneous intensity as a function of time;

    (t1 - t2) = flash time interval (seconds);

    normally, the maximum value of effective intensity is obtained when t2 and t1 are chosen so that the effective intensity is equal to the instantaneous intensity at t2 and t1.

  6. (f) Minimum effective intensities for anticollision light. Each anticollision light effective intensity shall equal or exceed the applicable values in the following table:
    Angle above or below the horizontal plane Effective Intensity (candles)
    0° to 5° 150
    5° to 10° 90
    10° to 20° 30
    20° to 30° 15

529.1402 to 529.1410 Reserved

Safety Equipment

529.1411 General

  1. (a) Accessibility. Required safety equipment to be used by the crew in an emergency, such as automatic life raft releases, shall be readily accessible.
  2. (b) Stowage provisions. Stowage provisions for required emergency equipment shall be furnished and shall:
    1. (1) be arranged so that the equipment is directly accessible and its location is obvious; and
    2. (2) protect the safety equipment from inadvertent damage.
  3. (c) Emergency exit descent device. The stowage provisions for the emergency exit descent device required by 529.809 (f) shall be at the exits for which they are intended.
  4. (d) Life rafts. Life rafts shall be stowed near exits through which the rafts can be launched during an unplanned ditching. Rafts automatically or remotely released outside the rotorcraft shall be attached to the rotorcraft by the static line prescribed in section 529.1415.
  5. (e) Long-range signalling device. The stowage provisions for the long-range signalling device required by section 529.1415 shall be near an exit available during an unplanned ditching.
  6. (f) Life preservers. Each life preserver shall be within easy reach of each occupant while seated.

529.1412 Reserved

529.1413 Safety Belts: Passenger Warning Device

  1. (a) If there are means to indicate to the passengers when safety belts should be fastened, they shall be installed to be operated from either pilot seat.
  2. (b) Each safety belt shall be equipped with a metal to metal latching device.

529.1414 Reserved

529.1415 Ditching Equipment

  1. (a) Emergency flotation and signalling equipment required by any operating rule shall meet the requirements of this section.
  2. (b) Each life raft and each life preserver shall be approved. In addition:
    1. (1) provide not less than two rafts, of an approximately equal rated capacity and buoyancy to accommodate the occupants of the rotorcraft; and
    2. (2) each raft shall have a trailing line, and shall have a static line designed to hold the raft near the rotorcraft but to release it if the rotorcraft becomes totally submerged.
  3. (c) Approved survival equipment shall be attached to each life raft.
  4. (d) There shall be an approved survival type emergency locator transmitter for use in one life raft.
    (amended 1995/03/25)

529.1416 to 529.1418 Reserved

529.1419 Ice Protection

  1. (a) To obtain certification for flight into icing conditions, compliance with this section shall be demonstrated.
  2. (b) It shall be demonstrated that the rotorcraft can be safely operated in the continuous maximum and intermittent maximum icing conditions determined under Appendix C of this Chapter within the rotorcraft altitude envelope. An analysis shall be performed to establish, on the basis of the rotorcraft’s operational needs, the adequacy of the ice protection system for the various components of the rotorcraft.
  3. (c) In addition to the analysis and physical evaluation prescribed in (b) of this section, the effectiveness of the ice protection system and its components shall be demonstrated by flight tests of the rotorcraft or its components in measured natural atmospheric icing conditions and by one or more of the following tests as found necessary to determine the adequacy of the ice protection system:
    1. (1) laboratory dry air or simulated icing tests, or a combination of both, of the components or models of the components;
    2. (2) flight dry air tests of the ice protection system as a whole, or its individual components;
    3. (3) flight tests of the rotorcraft or its components in measured simulated icing conditions.
  4. (d) The ice protection provisions of this section are considered to be applicable primarily to the airframe. Powerplant installation requirements are contained in Subchapter E of this Chapter.
  5. (e) A means shall be identified or provided for determining the formation of ice on critical parts of the rotorcraft. Unless otherwise restricted, the means shall be available for night-time as well as daytime operation. The Rotorcraft Flight Manual shall describe the means of determining ice formation and shall contain information necessary for safe operation of the rotorcraft in icing conditions.

529.1420 to 529.1430 Reserved

Miscellaneous Equipment

529.1431 Electronic Equipment

  1. (a) Radio communication and navigation installations shall be free from hazards in themselves, in their method or operation, and in their effects on other components, under any critical environmental conditions.
  2. (b) Radio communication and navigation equipment, controls and wiring shall be installed so that operation of any one unit or system of units will not adversely affect the simultaneous operation of any other radio or electronic unit, or system of units, required by this Manual.

529.1432 Reserved

529.1433 Vacuum Systems

  1. (a) There shall be means, in addition to the normal pressure relief, to automatically relieve the pressure in the discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery temperature of the air becomes unsafe.
  2. (b) Each vacuum air system line and fitting on the discharge side of the pump that might contain flammable vapours or fluids shall meet the requirements of section 529.1183 if they are in a designated fire zone.
  3. (c) Other vacuum air system components in designated fire zones shall be at least fire resistant.

529.1434 Reserved

529.1435 Hydraulic Systems

  1. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system shall be designed as follows:
    1. (1) each element of the hydraulic system shall be designed to withstand, without detrimental, permanent deformation, any structural loads that may be imposed simultaneously with the maximum operating hydraulic loads;
    2. (2) each element of the hydraulic system shall be designed to withstand pressures sufficiently greater than those prescribed in (b) of this section to demonstrate that the system will not rupture under service conditions;
    3. (3) there shall be means to indicate the pressure in each main hydraulic power system;
    4. (4) there shall be means to ensure that no pressure in any part of the system will exceed a safe limit above the maximum operating pressure of the system, and to prevent excessive pressures resulting from any fluid volumetric change in lines likely to remain closed long enough for such a change to take place. The possibility of detrimental transient (surge) pressure during operation shall be considered;
    5. (5) each hydraulic line, fitting and component shall be installed and supported to prevent excessive vibration and to withstand inertia loads. Each element of the installation shall be protected from abrasion, corrosion and mechanical damage;
    6. (6) means for providing flexibility shall be used to connect points, in a hydraulic fluid line, between which relative motion or differential vibration exists.
  2. (b) Tests. Each element of the system shall be tested to a proof pressure of 1.5 times the maximum pressure to which that element will be subjected in normal operation, without failure, malfunction, or detrimental deformation, of any part of the system.
  3. (c) Fire protection. Each hydraulic system using flammable hydraulic fluid shall meet the applicable requirements of sections 529.861529.1183529.1185, and 529.1189.

529.1436 to 529.1438 Reserved

529.1439 Protective Breathing Equipment

  1. (a) If one or more cargo or baggage compartments are to be accessible in flight, protective breathing equipment shall be available for an appropriate crew member.
  2. (b) For protective breathing equipment required by (a) of this section or by any operating rule of this Manual:
    1. (1) that equipment shall be designed to protect the crew from smoke, carbon dioxide and other harmful gases while on flight deck duty;
    2. (2) that equipment shall include:
      1. (i) masks covering the eyes, nose and mouth, or
      2. (ii) masks covering the nose and mouth, plus accessory equipment to protect the eyes; and
    3. (3) that equipment shall supply protective oxygen of 10 minutes duration per crew member at a pressure altitude of 8,000 feet (2 400 m) with a respiratory minute volume of 30 litres per minute BTPD.

529.1440 to 529.1456 Reserved

529.1457 Cockpit Voice Recorders

  1. (a) Each cockpit voice recorder required by the applicable operating rules must be approved and installed so that it will record the following:
    (effective 2014/12/23)
    1. (1) voice communications transmitted from or received in the rotorcraft by radio;
    2. (2) voice communications of flight crew members on the flight deck;
    3. (3) voice communications of flight crew members on the flight deck, using the rotorcraft’s interphone system;
    4. (4) voice or audio signals identifying navigation or approach aids introduced into a headset or speaker;
    5. (5) voice communications of flight crew members using the passenger loudspeaker system, if there is such a system, and if the fourth channel is available in accordance with the requirements of (c)(4)(ii) of this section.
    6. (6) If datalink communication equipment is installed, all datalink communications, using an approved data message set. Datalink messages must be recorded as the output signal from the communications unit that translates the signal into usable data.
      (amended 2009/05/11; no previous version)
  2. (b) The recording requirements of (a)(2) of this section may be met:
    1. (1) by installing a cockpit-mounted area microphone, located in the best position for recording voice communications originating at the first and second pilot stations and voice communications of other crew members on the flight deck when directed to those stations; or
    2. (2) by installing a continually energized or voice-actuated lip microphone at the first and second pilot stations. The microphone specified in (b) shall be so located and, if necessary, the preamplifiers and filters of the recorder shall be so adjusted or supplemented, that the recorded communications are intelligible when recorded under flight cockpit noise conditions and played back. The level of intelligibility shall be approved by the Minister. Repeated aural or visual playback of the record may be used in evaluating intelligibility.
  3. (c) Each cockpit voice recorder shall be installed so that the part of the communication or audio signals specified in (a) of this section obtained from each of the following sources is recorded on a separate channel:
  4. (1) for the first channel, from each microphone, headset or speaker used at the first pilot station;
    1. (2) for the second channel, from each microphone, headset or speaker used at the second pilot station;
    2. (3) for the third channel, from the cockpit-mounted area microphone, or the continually energized or voice actuated lip microphones at the first and second pilot stations; and
    3. (4) for the fourth channel, from:
      1. (i) each microphone, headset or speaker used at the stations for the third and fourth crew members,
      2. (ii) if the stations specified in (c)(i) or (c)(ii) of this section are not required or if the signal at such a station is picked up by another channel, each microphone on the flight deck that is used with the passenger loudspeaker system if its signals are not picked up by another channel, or
      3. (iii) each microphone on the flight deck that is used with the rotorcraft’s loudspeaker system if its signals are not picked up by another channel.
  5. (d) Each cockpit voice recorder must be installed so that:
    (effective 2014/12/23)
    1. (1)
      1. (i) it receives its electrical power from the bus that provides the maximum reliability for operation of the cockpit voice recorder without jeopardizing service to essential or emergency loads; and
        (effective 2014/12/23)
      2. (ii) it remains powered for as long as possible without jeopardizing emergency operation of the rotorcraft;
        (effective 2014/12/23)
    2. (2) There is an automatic means to simultaneously stop the recorder and prevent each erasure feature from functioning, within 10 minutes after crash impact;
    3. (3) There is an aural or visual means for pre-flight checking of the recorder for proper operation;
    4. (4) Whether the cockpit voice recorder and digital flight data recorder are installed in separate boxes or in a combination unit, no single electrical failure external to the recorder may disable both the cockpit voice recorder and the digital flight data recorder; and
      (amended 2009/05/11; no previous version)
    5. (5) It has an independent power source:
      (amended 2009/05/11; no previous version)
      1. (i) That provides 10 ± 1 minutes of electrical power to operate both the cockpit voice recorder and cockpit-mounted area microphone;
        (amended 2009/05/11; no previous version)
      2. (ii) That is located as close as practicable to the cockpit voice recorder; and
        (amended 2009/05/11; no previous version)
      3. (iii) To which the cockpit voice recorder and cockpit-mounted area microphone are switched automatically in the event that all other power to the cockpit voice recorder is interrupted either by normal shutdown or by any other loss of power to the electrical power bus.
        (amended 2009/05/11; no previous version)
  6. (e) The record container shall be located and mounted to minimize the probability of rupture of the container as a result of crash impact and consequent heat damage to the record from fire.
  7. (f) If the cockpit voice recorder has a bulk erasure device, the installation shall be designed to minimize the probability of inadvertent operation and actuation of the device during crash impact.
  8. (g) Each recorder container shall be either bright orange or bright yellow.
  9. (h) When both a cockpit voice recorder and a flight data recorder are required by the operating rules, one combination unit may be installed, provided that all other requirements of this section and the requirements for flight data recorders under this chapter are met.
    (amended 2009/05/11; no previous version)

529.1458 Reserved

529.1459 Flight Data Recorders

(amended 2009/05/11)

  1. (a) Each flight data recorder required by the applicable operating rules must be installed so that:
    (effective 2014/12/23)
    1. (1) it is supplied with airspeed, altitude and directional data obtained from sources that meet the accuracy requirements of sections 529.1323529.1325, and 529.1327 of this part, as applicable;
    2. (2) the vertical acceleration sensor is rigidly attached, and located longitudinally within the approved centre of gravity limits of the rotorcraft;
    3. (3)
      1. (i) it receives its electrical power from the bus that provides the maximum reliability for operation of the flight data recorder without jeopardizing service to essential or emergency loads; and
        (effective 2014/12/23)
      2. (ii) it remains powered for as long as possible without jeopardizing emergency operation of the rotorcraft;
        (effective 2014/12/23)
    4. (4) there is an aural or visual means for pre-flight checking of the recorder for proper recording of data in the storage medium;
    5. (5) except for recorders powered solely by the engine-drive electrical generator system, there is an automatic means to simultaneously stop a recorder that has a data erasure feature and prevent each erasure feature from functioning, within 10 minutes after any crash impact; and
    6. (6) Whether the cockpit voice recorder and digital flight data recorder are installed in separate boxes or in a combination unit, no single electrical failure external to the recorder may disable both the cockpit voice recorder and the digital flight data recorder.
      (amended 2009/05/11; no previous version)
  2. (b) Each non-ejectable recorder container shall be located and mounted so as to minimize the probability of container ruptures resulting from crash impact and subsequent damage to the record from fire.
  3. (c) A correlation shall be established between the flight recorder readings of airspeed, altitude, and heading and the corresponding readings (taking into account correction factors) of the first pilot’s instruments. This correlation shall cover the airspeed range over which the aircraft is to be operated, the range of altitude to which the aircraft is limited, and 360 degrees of heading. Correlation may be established on the ground as appropriate.
  4. (d) Each recorder container shall:
    1. (1) be either bright orange or bright yellow;
    2. (2) have a reflective tape affixed to its external surface to facilitate its location under water; and
    3. (3) have an underwater locating device, when required by the applicable operating rules, on or adjacent to the container which is secured in such a manner that it is not likely to be separated during crash impact.
  5. (e) When both a cockpit voice recorder and a flight data recorder are required by the operating rules, one combination unit may be installed, provided that all other requirements of this section and the requirements for cockpit voice recorders under this chapter are met.
    (amended 2009/05/11; no previous version)

529.1460 Reserved

529.1461 Equipment Containing High Energy Rotors

  1. (a) Equipment containing high energy rotors shall meet (b), (c), or (d) of this section.
  2. (b) High energy rotors contained in equipment shall be able to withstand damage caused by malfunctions, vibration, abnormal speeds and abnormal temperatures. In addition:
    1. (1) auxiliary rotor cases shall be able to contain damage caused by the failure of high energy rotor blades; and
    2. (2) equipment control devices, systems and instrumentation shall reasonably ensure that no operating limitations affecting the integrity of high energy rotors will be exceeded in service.
  3. (c) It shall be demonstrated by test that equipment containing high energy rotors can contain any failure of a high energy rotor that occurs at the highest speed obtainable with the normal speed control devices inoperative.
  4. (d) Equipment containing high energy rotors shall be located where rotor failure will neither endanger the occupants nor adversely affect continued safe flight.

529.1462 to 529.1500 Reserved

Date modified: