Part V - Airworthiness Manual Chapter 535 - Propellers

Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) 2017-2

Preamble

General

The content of this chapter is based on the United States Code of Federal Regulations, Title 14, Chapter I, Part 35 entitled Airworthiness Standards, Propellers. These United States airworthiness standards have been used and adapted as the model for the Canadian standards supplemented by additional airworthiness requirements based on Canadian experience and required for Canadian aviation purposes.

The FAR numbering system is used. The Canadian standards bears the same number as the FAR equivalent, prefixed by the number “5”, as this chapter contains the standards for Part V of the Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs).

First Edition

Effective: January 1, 1986

The first edition of this chapter is based on FAR Part 35, up to and including amendment 35-5 published in the Federal Register dated September 11, 1980. Except for administrative changes (e.g., Administrator = Minister; Part = Chapter) and the deletion of references to operating FARs, there are no Canadian variations included in this first edition.

The standards in this chapter are presented in a two column format with the United States FAR in the left column and the Canadian standards in the right column. Chapters, subchapters, sections and subsections numbering and headings are opposite to the equivalent FAR. Where the Canadian standard is identical to the FAR, the words “No Variation” appear; where a variation exists, the affected part of text is printed opposite to the FAR with all changes underlined.

Change 535-1

Effective: August 1, 1991

This change incorporates Amendment 35-6 to the United States Code of Federal Regulations, Title 14, Chapter I, Part 35 published in the Federal Register dated August 18, 1989. This amendment changes a cross reference to Part 91 in Appendix A of Part 35 and as such it is not applicable in Canada. This FAR change is part of a larger reorganization of the general U.S. operating and flight rules to make them more understandable and easier to use.

In addition, section 535.1 has been rewritten to refer to the Air Regulation enabling the type certificate of aeronautical products.

Information Notes:

1. The Enabling authority has been replaced by the reference to the Canadian Aviation Regulations in section 535.1.

2. Changes are identified by [ ] brackets. Editorial changes are not identified.

Second Edition
Change 535-2

Published with Amendment 2000-2
dated June 1, 2000

This amendment introduces a new format such as the removal of the left-hand column containing the FARs. The Canadian standards in this chapter are now presented in a full-page format. The amendment number and date of affected pages has been removed from the bottom of the page. Instead, affected sections will be followed by amendment numbers and dates of current changes as well as any previous changes.

The content of this chapter has in no way been changed and future changes will continue to be identified by [ ] brackets.

Change 535-3

Published: December 30, 2006

Correction to french version

Effective: May 20, 2005

Table of Change Information
Notice of Proposed Amendment Amended Section
  • 2005-010
  • 535.1

This amendment entitled “Applicability” provides a correction to section 1 of the French version. Whereas Airworthiness Manual Chapter 535 sets out the airworthiness standards for propellers, the French version makes an erroneous reference to ballons libres habités (manned free balloons), which is now corrected to read hélices (propellers).

Change 535-4

Published: 1 December 2009

On December 1, 2009, Part V Subpart 21 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations (CAR 521) came into force. CAR 521 replaces the following Regulations in Part V—Airworthiness:

Subpart 11 - Approval of the Type Design of an Aeronautical Product
Subpart 13 - Approval of Modification and Repair Designs
Subpart 16 - Aircraft Emissions
Subpart 22 - Gliders and Powered Gliders
Subpart 23 - Normal, Utility, Aerobatic and Commuter Category Aeroplanes
Subpart 25 - Transport Category Aeroplanes
Subpart 27 - Normal Category Rotorcraft
Subpart 29 - Transport Category Rotorcraft
Subpart 31 - Manned Free Balloons
Subpart 33 - Aircraft Engines
Subpart 35 - Aircraft Propellers
Subpart 37 - Aircraft Appliances and Other Aeronautical Products
Subpart 41 - Airships
Subpart 51 - Aircraft Equipment
Subpart 91 - Service Difficulty Reporting
Subpart 93 - Airworthiness Directives

In addition, with publication of CAR 521, the following Chapters of the Airworthiness Manual have been withdrawn:

Chapter 511 - Approval of the Type Design of an Aeronautical Product
Chapter 513 - Approval of Modification and Repair Designs
Standard 591 - Service Difficulty Reporting
Standard 593 - Airworthiness Directives

This change amends section 535.1 to reflect changes in legal drafting style, in terminology and in references required because of the introduction of CAR 521. In addition, subsection 521.31(1) of the CARs is now used to legally enable this Chapter of the AWM.

Change 535-5

Published: June 1, 2010

This Change incorporates the following amendments to the United States Code of Federal Regulations, Title 14, Chapter I, Part 35:

FAR Amendment 35-8

Effective: January 29, 2010

Table of Change Information
Notice of Proposed Amendment Amended Section
  • 2009-016
  • 535.1
  • 535.2
  • 535.3
  • 535.5
  • 535.7
  • 535.11
  • 535.13
  • 535.15
  • 535.17
  • 535.21
  • 535.22
  • 535.23
  • 535.24
  • 535.31
  • 535.33
  • 535.34
  • 535.35
  • 535.36
  • 535.37
  • 535.38
  • 535.39
  • 535.40
  • 535.41
  • 535.42
  • 535.43
  • 535.45
  • 535.47

This amendment entitled “Airworthiness Standards; Propellers” addresses technological advances of the past twenty years and is harmonized with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) propeller certification requirements, thereby simplifying airworthiness approvals for imports and exports.

Change 535-6

Published: June 30, 2015

This Change incorporates the following amendments to the United States Code of Federal Regulations, Title 14, Chapter I, Part 35:

FAR Amendment 35-9

Effective: December 23, 2014

Table of Change Information
Notice(s) of Proposed Amendment Amended Section(s)
  • 2014-011
  • 535.15
  • 535.16

This amendment revises the design standards of Chapter 535 of the Airworthiness Manual (AWM) by incorporating the requirements of Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Part 35 amendment 35-9 as published in the Federal Register, Volume 78, No. 13, January 18, 2013.

This amendment entitled “Critical Parts for Airplane Propellers” revises the airworthiness standards for propellers and proposes the requirement of a safety analysis to identify a propeller critical part. Manufacturers would identify propeller critical parts, and establish engineering, manufacturing, and maintenance processes for propeller critical parts.

These new requirements provide an added margin of safety for the continued airworthiness of propeller critical parts by requiring a system of processes to identify and manage these parts throughout their service life. This amendment harmonizes the requirements of AWM Chapter 535, FAR Part 35 and European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) CS-P, propellers critical parts requirements, thereby simplifying and harmonizing airworthiness approvals for export of these parts.

Correction to FAR Amendment 35-9A

Effective: March 20, 2015

Table of Change Information
Notice(s) of Proposed Amendment Amended Section(s)
  • 2014-010
  • 535.15

This amendment entitled “Critical Parts for Airplane Propellers; Correction” revises the airworthiness standards for propellers and proposes the requirement of a safety analysis to identify a propeller critical part. Manufacturers would identify propeller critical parts, and establish engineering, manufacturing, and maintenance processes for propeller critical parts.

This amendment corrects an amendment published on January 18, 2013 (78 FR 4038). In that rule, the airworthiness standards for aeroplane propellers were established. That action required a safety analysis to identify a propeller critical part. Manufacturers would identify propeller critical parts, and establish engineering, manufacturing, and maintenance processes for propeller critical parts. An unintentional error was introduced in paragraph 535.15 when paragraph (d) was revised. It was not intended to revise paragraph (d). This correction will add and restore paragraph (d) to the end of paragraph (c) and restore the former paragraph (d).

AIRWORTHINESS MANUAL CHAPTER 535 - PROPELLERS

SUBCHAPTER A GENERAL

535.1 Applicability

(a) This Chapter sets out airworthiness standards for the issue of type certificates and changes to type certificates, for propellers.

(b) Reserved.
(amended 2009/12/01)

(c) An applicant is eligible for a propeller type certificate and changes to those certificates after demonstrating compliance with subchapters A, B and C of this chapter. However, the propeller may not be installed on an aeroplane unless the applicant has shown compliance with either 523.907 or 525.907 of this Manual, as applicable or compliance is not required for installation on that aeroplane.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(d) For the purposes of this chapter, the propeller consists of those components listed in the propeller type design and the propeller system consists of the propeller and all the components necessary for its functioning, but not necessarily included in the propeller type design.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(Change 535-1 (91-08-01))

535.2 Propeller configuration

(amended 2010/01/29)

The applicant must provide a list of all the components, including references to the relevant drawings and software design data that define the type design of the propeller to be approved under Part V of the Canadian Aviation Regulations relating to Approval of the Type Design of an Aeronautical Product.
(amended 2010/01/29)

535.3 Instructions for Propeller Installation and Operation

(amended 2010/01/29)

The applicant must provide instructions that are approved by the Minister. Those approved instructions must contain:
(amended 2010/01/29)

(a) Instructions for installing and operating the propeller., which:
(amended 2010/01/29)

(1) Include a description of the operational modes of the propeller control system and functional interface of the control system with the aeroplane and engine systems;
(amended 2010/01/29)

(2) Specify the physical and functional interfaces with the aeroplane, aeroplane equipment and engine;
(amended 2010/01/29)

(3) Define the limiting conditions on the interfaces from paragraph (a)(2) of this section;
(amended 2010/01/29)

(4) List the limitations established under 535.5;
(amended 2010/01/29)

(5) Define the hydraulic fluids approved for use with the propeller, including grade and specification, related operating pressure and filtration levels; and
(amended 2010/01/29)

(6) State the assumptions made to comply with the requirements of this chapter.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(b) Instructions for operating the propeller which must specify all procedures necessary for operating the propeller within the limitations of the propeller type design.
(amended 2010/01/29)

535.4 Instructions for Continued Airworthiness

The applicant must prepare Instructions for Continued Airworthiness in accordance with Appendix A to this Chapter that are acceptable to the Minister. The instructions may be incomplete at type certification if a program exists to ensure their completion prior to delivery of the first aircraft with the propeller installed, or upon issuance of a standard certificate of airworthiness for an aircraft with the propeller installed, whichever occurs later.

535.5 Propeller Ratings and Operating Limitations

(amended 2010/01/29)

(a) Propeller ratings and operating limitations must:
(amended 2010/01/29)

(1) Be established by the applicant and approved by the Minister,
(amended 2010/01/29)

(2) Be included directly or by reference in the propeller type certificate data sheet, as specified in Part V of the Canadian Aviation Regulations relating to Approval of the Type Design of an Aeronautical Product,
(amended 2010/01/29)

(3) Be based on the operating conditions demonstrated during the tests required by this Chapter as well as any other information the Minister requires as necessary for the safe operation of the propeller.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(b) Propeller ratings and operating limitations must be established for the following, as applicable:
(amended 2010/01/29)

(i) Power and rotational speed:(i) For takeoff;
(amended 2010/01/29)

(ii) For maximum continuous;
(amended 2010/01/29)

(iii) If requested by the applicant, other ratings may also be established.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(2) Overspeed and overtorque limits.
(amended 2010/01/29)

535.7 Features and Characteristics

(amended 2010/01/29)

(a) The propeller must not have features or characteristics, revealed by any test or analysis or known to the applicant that make it unsafe for the uses for which certification is requested.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(b) If a failure occurs during a certification test, the applicant must determine the cause and assess the effect on the airworthiness of the propeller. The applicant must make changes to the design and conduct additional tests that the Minister finds necessary to establish the airworthiness of the propeller.
(amended 2010/01/29)

SUBCHAPTER B DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

535.11 Reserved

(amended 2010/01/29)

535.13 Reserved

(amended 2010/01/29)

535.15 Safety Analysis

(amended 2010/01/29)

(a) (amended 2010/01/29)

(1) The applicant must analyze the propeller system to assess the likely consequences of all failures that can reasonably be expected to occur. This analysis will take into account, if applicable:
(amended 2010/01/29)

(i) The propeller system in a typical installation. When the analysis depends on representative components, assumed interfaces, or assumed installed conditions, the assumptions must be stated in the analysis;
(amended 2010/01/29)

(ii) Consequential secondary failures and dormant failures;
(amended 2010/01/29)

(iii) Multiple failures referred to in paragraph (d) of this section or that result in the hazardous propeller effects defined in paragraph (g)(1) of this section.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(2) The applicant must summarize those failures that could result in major propeller effects or hazardous propeller effects defined in paragraph (g) of this section, and estimate the probability of occurrence of those effects.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(3) The applicant must show that hazardous propeller effects are not predicted to occur at a rate in excess of that defined as extremely remote (probability of 10-7 or less per propeller flight hour). Since the estimated probability for individual failures may be insufficiently precise to enable the applicant to assess the total rate for hazardous propeller effects, compliance may be shown by demonstrating that the probability of a hazardous propeller effect arising from an individual failure can be predicted to be not greater than 10-8 per propeller flight hour. In dealing with probabilities of this low order of magnitude, absolute proof is not possible and reliance must be placed on engineering judgment and previous experience combined with sound design and test philosophies.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(b) If significant doubt exists as to the effects of failures or likely combination of failures, the Minister may require assumptions used in the analysis to be verified by test.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(c) The primary failures of certain single propeller elements (for example, blades) cannot be sensibly estimated in numerical terms. If the failure of such elements is likely to result in hazardous propeller effects, those elements must be identified as propeller critical parts. For propeller critical parts, applicants must meet the prescribed integrity specifications of 535.16. These instances must be stated in the safety analysis.
(effective 2015/03/20)

(d) If reliance is placed on a safety system to prevent a failure progressing to hazardous propeller effects, the possibility of a safety system failure in combination with a basic propeller failure must be included in the analysis. Such a safety system may include safety devices, instrumentation, early warning devices, maintenance checks and other similar equipment or procedures. If items of the safety system are outside the control of the propeller manufacturer, the assumptions of the safety analysis with respect to the reliability of these parts must be clearly stated in the analysis and identified in the propeller installation and operation instructions required under 535.3.
(effective 2015/03/20)

(e) If the safety analysis depends on one or more of the following items, those items must be identified in the analysis and appropriately substantiated.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(1) Maintenance actions being carried out at stated intervals. This includes verifying that items that could fail in a latent manner are functioning properly. When necessary to prevent hazardous propeller effects, these maintenance actions and intervals shall be published in the instructions for continued airworthiness required under 535.4. Additionally, if errors in maintenance of the propeller system could lead to hazardous propeller effects, the appropriate maintenance procedures shall be included in the relevant propeller manuals.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(2) Verification of the satisfactory functioning of safety or other devices at pre-flight or other stated periods. The details of this satisfactory functioning must be published in the appropriate manual.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(3) The provision of specific instrumentation not otherwise required. Such instrumentation must be published in the appropriate documentation.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(4) A fatigue assessment.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(f) If applicable, the safety analysis must include, but not be limited to, assessment of indicating equipment, manual and automatic controls, governors and propeller control systems, synchrophasers, synchronizers and propeller thrust reversal systems.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(g) Unless otherwise approved by the Minister and stated in the safety analysis, the following failure definitions apply to compliance with this part.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(1) The following are regarded as hazardous propeller effects:
(amended 2010/01/29)

(i) The development of excessive drag;
(amended 2010/01/29)

(ii) A significant thrust in the opposite direction to that commanded by the pilot;
(amended 2010/01/29)

(iii) The release of the propeller or any major portion of the propeller;
(amended 2010/01/29)

(iv) A failure that results in excessive unbalance.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(2) The following are regarded as major propeller effects for variable pitch propellers:
(amended 2010/01/29)

(i) An inability to feather the propeller for feathering propellers.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(ii) An inability to change propeller pitch when commanded.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(iii) A significant uncommanded change in pitch.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(iv) A significant uncontrollable torque or speed fluctuation.
(amended 2010/01/29)

535.16 Propeller Critical Parts

(effective 2014/12/23)

The integrity of each propeller critical part identified by the safety analysis required by 535.15 must be established by:

(a) a defined engineering process for ensuring the integrity of the propeller critical part throughout its service life;

(b) a defined manufacturing process that identifies the requirements to consistently produce the propeller critical part as required by the engineering process; and

(c) a defined service management process that identifies the continued airworthiness requirements of the propeller critical part as required by the engineering process.

535.17 Materials and Manufacturing Methods

(amended 2010/01/29)

(a) The suitability and durability of materials used in the propeller must:
(amended 2010/01/29)

(1) Be established on the basis of experience, tests or both;

(2) Account for environmental conditions expected in service.

(b) All materials and manufacturing methods must conform to specifications acceptable to the Minister.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(c) The design values of properties of materials must be suitably related to the most adverse properties stated in the material specification for applicable conditions expected in service.
(amended 2010/01/29)

535.19 Durability

Each part of the propeller must be designed and constructed to minimise the development of any unsafe condition of the propeller between overhaul periods.

535.21 Variable and Reversible Pitch Propellers

(amended 2010/01/29)

(a) No single failure or malfunction in the propeller system will result in unintended travel of the propeller blades to a position below the in-flight low-pitch position. The extent of any intended travel below the in-flight low-pitch position must be documented by the applicant in the appropriate manuals. Failure of structural elements need not be considered if the occurrence of such a failure is shown to be extremely remote under 535.15.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(b) For propellers incorporating a method to select blade pitch below the in-flight low pitch position, provisions must be made to sense and indicate to the flight crew that the propeller blades are below that position by an amount defined in the installation manual. The method for sensing and indicating the propeller blade pitch position shall be such that its failure does not affect the control of the propeller.
(amended 2010/01/29)

535.22 Feathering Propellers

(amended 2010/01/29)

(a) Feathering propellers are intended to feather from all flight conditions, taking into account expected wear and leakage. Any feathering and unfeathering limitations must be documented in the appropriate manuals.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(b) Propeller pitch control systems that use engine oil to feather must incorporate a method to allow the propeller to feather if the engine oil system fails.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(c) Feathering propellers must be designed to be capable of unfeathering after the propeller system has stabilized to the minimum declared outside air temperature.
(amended 2010/01/29)

535.23 Propeller Control System

(amended 2010/01/29)

The requirements of this section apply to any system or component that controls, limits or monitors propeller functions.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(a) The propeller control system must be designed, constructed and validated to show that:
(amended 2010/01/29)

(1) The propeller control system, operating in normal and alternative operating modes and in transition between operating modes, performs the functions defined by the applicant throughout the declared operating conditions and flight envelope;
(amended 2010/01/29)

(2) The propeller control system functionality is not adversely affected by the declared environmental conditions, including temperature, electromagnetic interference (EMI), high intensity radiated fields (HIRF) and lightning. The environmental limits to which the system has been satisfactorily validated must be documented in the appropriate propeller manuals;
(amended 2010/01/29)

(3) A method is provided to indicate that an operating mode change has occurred if flight crew action is required. In such an event, operating instructions must be provided in the appropriate manuals.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(b) The propeller control system must be designed and constructed so that, in addition to compliance with 535.15:
(amended 2010/01/29)

(1) No single failure or malfunction of electrical or electronic components in the control system results in a hazardous propeller effect.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(2) Failures or malfunctions directly affecting the propeller control system in a typical aeroplane, such as structural failures of attachments to the control, fire or overheat do not lead to a hazardous propeller effect.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(3) The loss of normal propeller pitch control does not cause a hazardous propeller effect under the intended operating conditions.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(4) The failure or corruption of data or signals shared across propellers does not cause a hazardous propeller effect.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(c) Electronic propeller control system imbedded software must be designed and implemented by a method approved by the Minister that is consistent with the criticality of the performed functions and that minimizes the existence of software errors.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(d) The propeller control system must be designed and constructed so that the failure or corruption of aeroplane-supplied data does not result in hazardous propeller effects.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(e) The propeller control system must be designed and constructed so that the loss, interruption or abnormal characteristic of aeroplane-supplied electrical power does not result in hazardous propeller effects. The power quality requirements must be described in the appropriate manuals.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(Change 535-1 (91-08-01))

535.24 Strength

(amended 2010/01/29)

The maximum stresses developed in the propeller may not exceed values acceptable to the Minister considering the particular form of construction and the most severe operating conditions.
(amended 2010/01/29)

SUBCHAPTER C TESTS AND INSPECTIONS

535.31 Reserved

(amended 2010/01/29)

This subchapter prescribes the tests and inspections for propellers and their essential accessories.

535.33 General

(a) Each applicant shall furnish test article(s) and suitable testing facilities, including equipment, and competent personnel, and conduct the required tests in accordance with Part V of the Canadian Aviation Regulations relating to Approval of the Type Design of an Aeronautical Product.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(b) All automatic controls and safety systems must be in operation unless it is accepted by the Minister as impossible or not required because of the nature of the test. If needed for substantiation, the applicant may test a different propeller configuration if this does not constitute a less severe test.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(c) Any systems or components that cannot be adequately substantiated by the applicant to the requirements of this part are required to undergo additional tests or analysis to demonstrate that the systems or components are able to perform their intended functions in all declared environmental and operating conditions.
(amended 2010/01/29)

535.34 Inspections, Adjustments and Repairs

(amended 2010/01/29)

(a) Before and after conducting the tests prescribed in this chapter, the test article must be subjected to an inspection and a record must be made of all the relevant parameters, calibrations and settings.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(b) During all tests, only servicing and minor repairs are permitted. If major repairs or part replacement is required, the Minister must approve the repair or part replacement prior to implementation and may require additional testing. Any unscheduled repair or action on the test article must be recorded and reported.
(amended 2010/01/29)

535.35 Centrifugal Load Tests

(amended 2010/01/29)

The applicant must demonstrate that a propeller complies with paragraphs (a), (b) and (c) of this section without evidence of failure, malfunction or permanent deformation that would result in a major or hazardous propeller effect. When the propeller could be sensitive to environmental degradation in service, this must be considered. This section does not apply to fixed-pitch wood or fixed- pitch metal propellers of conventional design.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(a) The hub, blade retention system and countertweights must be tested for a period of one hour to a load equivalent to twice the maximum centrifugal load to which the propeller would be subjected during operations at the maximum rated rotational speed.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(b) Blade features associated with transitions to the retention system (for example, a composite blade bonded to a metallic retention) must be tested either during the test of paragraph (a) of this section or in a separate component test for a period of one hour to a load equivalent to twice the maximum centrifugal load to which the propeller would be subjected during operation at the maximum rated rotational speed.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(c) Components used with or attached to the propeller (for example, spinners, de-icing equipment and blade erosion shields) must be subjected to a load equivalent to 159 percent of the maximum centrifugal load to which the component would be subjected during operation at the maximum rated rotational speed. This must be performed by either:
(amended 2010/01/29)

(1) Testing at the required load for a period of 30 minutes; or
(amended 2010/01/29)

(2) Analysis based on test.
(amended 2010/01/29)

535.36 Bird Impact

(amended 2010/01/29)

The applicant must demonstrate, by tests or analysis based on tests or experience on similar designs that the propeller can withstand the impact of a 4-pound bird at the critical location(s) and critical flight condition(s) of a typical installation without causing a major or hazardous propeller effect. This section does not apply to fixed-pitch wood propellers of conventional design.
(amended 2010/01/29)

535.37 Limits and Evaluation

(amended 2010/01/29)

This section does not apply to fixed-pitch wood propellers of conventional design.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(a) Fatigue limits must be established by tests or analysis based on tests for propeller:
(amended 2010/01/29)

(1) Hubs;
(amended 2010/01/29)

(2) Blades;
(amended 2010/01/29)

(3) Blade retention components.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(4) Components which are affected by fatigue loads and which are shown under 535.15 to have a fatigue failure mode leading to hazardous propeller effects.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(b) The fatigue limits must take into account:
(amended 2010/01/29)

(1) All known and reasonably foreseeable vibration and cyclic load patterns. that are expected in service; and
(amended 2010/01/29)

(2) Expected service deterioration, variations in material properties, manufacturing variations and environmental effects.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(c) A fatigue evaluation of the propeller must be conducted to show that hazardous propeller effects due to fatigue will be avoided throughout the intended operational life of the propeller on either:
(amended 2010/01/29)

(1) The intended aeroplane by complying with 523.907 or 525.907 of this Manual, as applicable; or
(amended 2010/01/29)

(2) A typical aeroplane.
(amended 2010/01/29)

535.38 Lightning Strike

(amended 2010/01/29)

The applicant must demonstrate, by tests, analysis based on tests or experience on similar designs that the propeller can withstand a lightning strike without causing a major or hazardous propeller effect. The limit to which the propeller has been qualified must be documented in the appropriate manuals. This section does not apply to fixed-pitch wood propellers of conventional design.
(amended 2010/01/29)

535.39 Endurance Test

Endurance tests on the propeller system must be made on a representative engine in accordance with paragraph (a) or (b) of this section, as applicable, without evidence of failure or malfunction.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(a) Fixed-pitch and ground adjustable-pitch propellers must be subjected to one of the following tests:
(amended 2010/01/29)

(1) A 50-hour flight test in level flight or in climb. The propeller must be operated at take-off power and rated rotational speed during at least five hours of this flight test and not less than 90 percent of the rated rotational speed for the remainder of the 50 hours.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(2) A 50-hour ground test at take-off power and rated rotational speed
(amended 2010/01/29)

(b) Variable-pitch propellers must be subjected to one of the following tests:
(amended 2010/01/29)

(1) A 100-hour endurance test that must include the following conditions:
(amended 2010/01/29)

(i) Five hours at take-off power and rotational speed and thirty 10-minute cycles composed of:
(amended 2010/01/29)

(A) Acceleration from idle;
(amended 2010/01/29)

(B) Five minutes at take-off power and rotational speed;
(amended 2010/01/29)

(C) Deceleration; and
(amended 2010/01/29)

(D) Five minutes at idle.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(ii) Fifty hours at maximum continuous power and rotational speed;
(amended 2010/01/29)

(iii) Fifty hours, consisting of ten 5-hour cycles composed of:
(amended 2010/01/29)

(A) Five accelerations and decelerations between idle and take-off power and rotational speed;
(amended 2010/01/29)

(B) Four and one half hours at approximately even incremental conditions from idle up to, but not including maximum continuous power and rotational speed; and
(amended 2010/01/29)

(C) Thirty minutes at idle.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(2) Operation of the propeller throughout the engine endurance tests prescribed in Chapter 533 of this Manual.

(c) An analysis based on tests of propellers of similar design may be used in place of the tests of paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section.
(amended 2010/01/29)

535.40 Functional Test

The variable-pitch propeller system must be subjected to the applicable functional tests of this section. The same propeller system used in the endurance test of 535.39 must be used in the functional tests and must be driven by a representative engine on a test stand or on an aeroplane. The propeller must complete these tests without evidence of failure or malfunction. This test may be combined with the endurance test for accumulation of cycles.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(a) Manually-controllable propellers. Five hundred representative flight cycles must be made across the range of pitch and rotational speed.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(b) Governing propellers. Fifteen hundred complete cycles must be made across the range of pitch and rotational speed.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(c) Feathering propellers. Fifty cycles of feather and unfeather operation must be made.

(d) Reversible-pitch propellers. Two hundred complete cycles of control must be made from lowest normal pitch to maximum reverse pitch. During each cycle, the propeller must run for 30 seconds at the maximum power and rotational speed selected by the applicant for maximum reverse pitch.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(e) An analysis based on tests of propellers of similar design may be used in place of the tests of this section.
(amended 2010/01/29)

535.41 Overspeed and Overtorque

(amended 2010/01/29)

(a) When the applicant seeks approval of a transient maximum propeller overspeed, the applicant must demonstrate that the propeller is capable of further operation without maintenance action at the maximum propeller overspeed condition. This may be accomplished by:
(amended 2010/01/29)

(1) Performance of 20 runs, each of 30 seconds duration, at the maximum propeller overspeed condition; or
(amended 2010/01/29)

(2) Analysis based on test or service experience.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(b) When the applicant seeks approval of a transient maximum propeller overtorque, the applicant must demonstrate that the propeller is capable of further operation without maintenance action at the maximum propeller overtorque condition. This may be accomplished by:
(amended 2010/01/29)

(1) Performance of 20 runs, each of 30 seconds duration, at the maximum propeller overtorque condition; or
(amended 2010/01/29)

(2) Analysis based on test or service experience.
(amended 2010/01/29)

535.42 Components of the Propeller Control System

(amended 2010/01/29)

The applicant must demonstrate by tests, analysis based on tests or service experience on similar components that each propeller blade pitch control system component, including governors, pitch change assemblies, pitch locks, mechanical stops, and feathering system components can withstand cyclic operation that simulates the normal load and pitch change travel to which the component would be subjected during the initially declared overhaul period or during a minimum of 1,000 hours of typical operation in service.
(amended 2010/01/29)

535.43 Propeller Hydraulic Components

(amended 2010/01/29)

Applicants must show by test, validated analysis or both that propeller components that contain hydraulic pressure and whose structural failure or leakage from a structural failure could cause a hazardous propeller effect demonstrate structural integrity by:
(amended 2010/01/29)

(a) A proof pressure test to 1.5 times the maximum operating pressure for one minute without permanent deformation or leakage that would prevent performance of the intended function.
(amended 2010/01/29)

(b) A burst pressure test to 2.0 times the maximum operating pressure for one minute without failure. Leakage is permitted and seals may be excluded from the test.
(amended 2010/01/29)

535.45 Reserved

(amended 2010/01/29)

535.47 Reserved

(amended 2010/01/29)

Appendix A - Instructions for Continued Airworthiness

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