Part VI - General Operating and Flight Rules

Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) 2017-2

Standard 622.11 - Ground Icing Operations

Content last revised: 2000/09/01

DIVISION I - GENERAL

1.0 Introduction

In order to operate an aircraft under icing conditions in accordance with the requirements of CAR Section 602.11, an operator must have a program as specified in these standards and the dispatch and take-off of the aircraft shall comply with that program. These Ground Icing Operations Standards specify the program elements, for both operations and training, that shall be addressed in an operator's Ground Icing Operations Program and described in the appropriate operator's manuals. As applied to Canadian operators, these Standards outline a Program's minimum requirements, which may be adapted according to the needs of the individual operator. Foreign operators should use this Standard as a guideline for the development of their Ground Icing Operations Program in Canada.

2.0 Definitions

The following are definitions of important terms used in these Standards.

"anti-icing" - is a precautionary procedure that provides protection against the formation of frost or ice and the accumulation of snow on treated surfaces of an aircraft for a period of time.

"contamination" - means any frost, ice or snow that adheres to the critical surfaces of an aircraft.

"critical surfaces" - means the wings, control surfaces, rotors, propellers, upper surface of the fuselage on aircraft that have rear-mounted engines, horizontal stabilizers, vertical stabilizers or any other stabilizing surface of an aircraft.

"critical surface inspection" - is a pre-flight external inspection of critical surfaces conducted by a qualified person as specified in Part VI, subsection 602.11(5), to determine if they are contaminated by frost, ice, or snow. Under ground icing conditions, this inspection is mandatory.

"de-icing" - is a procedure by which frost, ice, or snow is removed from the critical surfaces of an aircraft in order to render them free of contamination.

"ground icing conditions" - With due regard to aircraft skin temperature and weather conditions, ground icing conditions exist when frost, ice, or snow is adhering or may adhere to the critical surfaces of an aircraft.

"ground icing operations program" - consists of a set of procedures, guidelines, and processes, documented in manuals, that ensure that an operator's aircraft does not depart with frost, ice, or snow adhering to critical surfaces.

"holdover time" - is the estimated time that an application of de-icing/anti-icing fluid is effective in preventing frost, ice, or snow from adhering to treated surfaces. Holdover time is calculated as beginning at the start of the final application of de-icing/anti-icing fluid and as expiring when the fluid is no longer effective.

"pre-take-off contamination inspection" - is an inspection conducted by a qualified person, immediately prior to take-off, to determine if an aircraft's critical surfaces are contaminated by frost, ice, or snow. This inspection is mandatory under some circumstances.

3.0 Program Elements

The following elements, which are described in the sections below, will be included in an operator's Ground Icing Operations Program and described in the appropriate manual(s):

  • The Operator's Management Plan;
  • Aircraft De-icing/Anti-icing Procedures;
  • Holdover Timetables;
  • Aircraft Inspection and Reporting Procedures; and
  • Training and Testing.

4.0 The Operator's Management Plan

According to Canadian regulations, the aircraft operator is responsible for the operational control of an aircraft. In order to properly exercise operational control under ground icing conditions, a Management Plan to ensure proper execution of the operator's approved Ground Icing Operations Program must be developed and implemented.

The Management Plan will identify the management position responsible for the overall Program, identify each subordinate position, and describe those functions and responsibilities needed to properly manage the Program. The Plan must also describe operational responsibilities and procedures, delineate the chain of command, define the relationship between its operations and maintenance groups, and ensure that all parties are informed of their responsibilities with regard to the Program. Although the Program is usually an operations responsibility, it may be shared between operations and maintenance. The Program may be the sole responsibility of operations, but never the sole responsibility of maintenance.

4.1 Operations

  1. (1) The Plan must identify the management position responsible for ensuring that:

    1. (a) all the necessary elements of the Program have been developed, properly integrated, and coordinated;

    2. (b) the Program has been disseminated to all personnel who have duties, responsibilities, and functions to perform within the Program;

    3. (c) a detailed description of the Program is incorporated in the appropriate operator's manuals;

    4. (d) sufficient competent personnel and adequate facilities and equipment are available at each airport where the Program may be applied; and

    5. (e) adequate management supervision of the Program is maintained.

  2. (2) The Management Plan must also provide the following information:

    1. (a) at each airport where de-icing/anti-icing operations will be conducted, the position that is responsible for deciding when ground de-icing/anti-icing operations are to begin and when they are to end must be identified and fully described in a position description;

    2. (b) the functions, duties, and responsibilities of flight crew, aircraft dispatchers, and management personnel must be specified, as well as the instructions and procedures to be followed for the safe dispatch or release of aircraft during ground icing conditions; and

    3. (c) the position responsible for authorizing and coordinating the applicable portions of the Program with Air Traffic Control and airport authorities must be identified and described in a position description.

4.2 Maintenance

Where maintenance shares responsibility for the Program, the Management Plan must identify the position responsible for ensuring that sufficient competent personnel and adequate facilities and equipment are available at each airport where the Program may be applied. The functions, duties, and responsibilities of maintenance personnel must also be specified, as well as the instructions and procedures to be followed for the safe dispatch or release of aircraft during ground icing conditions.

DIVISION II - PROCEDURES

5.0 Aircraft De-icing/Anti-icing Procedures

In a well-organized, clearly identified, separate section of the appropriate manual, the operator's de-icing/anti-icing procedures must be described. In particular, the person responsible for a specific procedure must be identified, and procedures particular to a type of aircraft specified. The following minimum information must be covered in the operator's manual:

  1. (a) a detailed description of the weather and aircraft surface conditions under which de-icing/anti-icing operations are required and the method whereby the Program is activated; and

  2. (b) a detailed description of the procedures to be followed in the de-icing/anti-icing treatment process for each aircraft type. These procedures must be organized so as to minimize de-icing/anti-icing fluid application time and must specify the sequence in which critical surfaces are to be treated.

6.0 Holdover Timetables

The use of holdover timetables is not mandatory. Holdover timetables, as approved by the Director, Air Carrier , may be used either as guidelines or decision-making criteria in assessing whether it is safe to take off. When holdover timetables are used as decision-making criteria, only high confidence level times shall be used and the procedures to be followed after holdover time has expired must be clearly documented. Where applicable in a Program, an operator's manual will cover the following areas with regard to holdover timetables:

6.1 Responsibilities and Procedures

The operator's Program must define the following:

  1. (a) the operational responsibilities of flight crew, flight watch system personnel, and maintenance and ground personnel;

  2. (b) the procedures to be followed for the use of holdover timetables and the actions to be taken if holdover time is exceeded; and

  3. (c) the procedures to be followed by ground and flight crew for establishing the start of holdover time.

6.2 Use of Holdover Timetables

Holdover timetables provide an estimate of the length of time de-icing/anti-icing fluids are effective. Because holdover time is influenced by a number of factors, established times may be adjusted by the pilot-in-command according to the weather or other conditions. Operators' manuals must describe the procedures to be followed for using holdover timetables. When the tables are used as decision-making criteria, the procedures to be followed by the pilot-in-command (PIC) for varying the established values must also be specified.

6.3 Take-off after Holdover Times have been Exceeded

When holdover timetables are used as decision-making criteria, take-off after holdover times have been exceeded can occur only if a pre-take-off contamination inspection is conducted or the aircraft is de-iced/anti-iced again. The operator's Program must specify the procedures to be followed when holdover time is exceeded, and these procedures must appear in the appropriate manuals.

7.0 Aircraft Inspection and Reporting

When and where applicable, the operator's Program must document the guidelines and procedures to be followed by flight crew and other personnel for detecting contamination on the critical surfaces of aircraft. Included must be a description of the kinds of inspections permitted by the operator and at what point in the Program they must be conducted. These instructions must be aircraft specific.

The Program shall outline the responsibility of the PIC under CAR Section 602.11 to inform the cabin crew and passengers of the decision to have the aircraft de/anti-iced, when the decision is made. The method by which this information is conveyed may be standardized in the operator's program or left to the discretion of the PIC. It will also be clear that, if the aircraft is de/anti-iced prior to the boarding of passengers, no announcement to that effect is required.

7.1 Inspection Procedures

Two types of inspections, as defined in Section 2.0 of these Standards, meet regulatory requirements. They are the Critical Surface Inspection and the Pre-take-off Contamination Inspection. Under icing conditions, the Critical Surface Inspection is mandatory; however, depending on the requirements of the operator's Program, the Pre-take-off Contamination Inspection may not be required. In its section on inspection procedures, the operator's manual must describe the techniques to be used in contamination recognition and the conduct of the two types of inspection.

7.1.1 Contamination Recognition

Inspection procedures must describe the techniques to be used for detecting frost, ice, and snow and for determining if they are adhering to critical surfaces. These techniques must be specified in the operator's Program and may include the use of holdover timetables, tactile inspection, examination of one or more representative aircraft surfaces, or sensors.

7.1.1.1 Holdover timetables, approved according to the conditions outlined in section 6 of these Standards, may be used to determine, without a tactile or visual Pre-take-off Contamination Inspection, that critical surfaces are not contaminated.

7.1.1.2 Tactile inspection, under certain circumstances, may be the only way of confirming that the critical surfaces of an aircraft are not contaminated. This physical inspection shall be carried out by a qualified person and must include the leading edge and upper surface of the wings.

7.1.1.3 Examination of one or more representative aircraft surfaces may be used for the Pre-take-off Contamination Inspection, which does not require a tactile examination. This technique may be used when the aircraft manufacturer has identified representative aircraft surfaces that can be readily and clearly observed by flight crew during day and night operations and that are suitable for judging whether critical surfaces are contaminated or not.

If no representative aircraft surfaces have been identified by the aircraft manufacturer, an operator may offer one or more representative surfaces for approval by the Regional Manager, Commercial and Business Aviation or Chief, Airline Inspection; such a submission must be accompanied by technical data supporting the use of these surfaces as representative.
(amended 2000/09/01; previous version)

7.1.1.4 Sensors that provide information directly to the pilot-in-command may be used to determine whether critical surfaces are contaminated or not. The installation and use of sensors must meet applicable Transport Canada airworthiness and operational requirements. The procedures for use of sensors must be detailed in the operator's Program.

7.1.2 Critical Surface Inspection

This inspection is mandatory whenever ground icing conditions exist, and if the aircraft is de-iced/anti-iced, must take place immediately after final application of the fluid. After the inspection, an inspection report must be made to the pilot-in-command by a qualified person.

7.1.3 Pre-take-off Contamination Inspection

The operator's Program must describe the methods to be used in this inspection, which may be conducted from the inside or outside of the aircraft, which may be visual or tactile, and which may use representative aircraft surfaces to judge the extent of contamination. Where only a visual inspection is done, the operator's Program must specify the conditions, such as weather, lighting, and visibility of critical surfaces, under which such an inspection can be conducted. Unless other procedures have been specifically approved, a tactile external inspection must be conducted on all aircraft without leading edge devices, such as the DC9-10 and the F-28, and on any other aircraft as designated by the Director, Air Carrier.

7.2 Inspection Reporting

It is the pilot-in-command's responsibility to ensure that aircraft critical surfaces are not contaminated at take-off. When the pilot-in-command does not conduct the inspection, the delegated person must provide an inspection report in clear language to the pilot-in-command who must indicate that the report is complete and understood. A detailed description of the guidelines and procedures to be followed in communications between the inspector and the pilot-in-command, including the use of hand-signals, must be included in the appropriate operator's manual.

For the purposes of these Standards, there are two types of inspection reports, which correspond to the two types of inspections described above.

7.2.1 Critical Surface Inspection Report

This report must be made to the pilot-in-command and, if applicable, state the time at which the last full application of de-icing/anti-icing fluid began, the type of fluid used, the ratio of the fluid mixture, and, if the standard documented method was not used, the sequence in which the critical surfaces were de-iced/anti-iced. In addition, the report must confirm that all critical surfaces are free of contamination.

7.2.2 Pre-take-off Contamination Inspection Report

This report must be made to the pilot-in-command and, when the standard documented inspection method has not been used, must describe how the inspection was conducted and it must also confirm that all critical surfaces are free of contamination.

DIVISION III - TRAINING

8.0 Training and Testing

An operator's Ground Icing Operations Training Program shall include:

  1. (a) initial and annual recurrent training for all operational and ground/maintenance personnel who have responsibilities within the program; and

  2. (b) testing of crew members and other operations and ground/maintenance personnel who have responsibilities within the program.

8.1 Initial De-icing/Anti-icing Operations

Flight crew and other operations personnel who have responsibilities within the operator's Ground Icing Operations Program shall receive training in at least the following subjects, which are further described below:

  • the effects of contamination on critical surfaces;
  • aircraft de-icing/anti-icing procedures;
  • aircraft inspection and reporting procedures; and
  • the use of holdover timetables.

8.1.1 Training on the effects of contamination on critical surfaces, including:

  1. (a) the reporting of contamination on arrival to the person responsible for coordinating the de-icing/anti-icing of aircraft;

  2. (b) the effects of freezing precipitation, frost (including hoar-frost), freezing fog, snow, rain, and high humidity on cold-soaked critical surfaces and under wings;

  3. (c) the identification, by aircraft type, of critical surfaces and, where applicable, representative aircraft surfaces;

  4. (d) the types, purpose, characteristics and uses of de-icing/anti-icing fluids; and

  5. (e) how de-icing/anti-icing fluids influence the performance and handling of aircraft, including their effect on rotation speeds, take-off distance, control pressures, stall margins, reduced thrust take-offs, and climb pitch attitudes, where applicable.

8.1.2 Training in aircraft de-icing/anti-icing procedures, including:

  1. (a) the safety precautions to be observed during fluid application;

  2. (b) the methods for applying de-icing/anti-icing fluid;

  3. (c) the composition and identification of de-icing/anti-icing fluids;

  4. (d) remote de-icing/anti-icing procedures, including aircraft-specific and location-specific procedures, where applicable; and

  5. (e) the supervisory responsibilities of flight crew with regard to contractor services when the operator does not arrange for the training and qualification of contractor personnel. (See 8.5 Contractor Training)

8.1.3 Training in aircraft inspection procedures, which shall be aircraft specific, when necessary, and which shall include:

  1. (a) identification of the critical surfaces and representative aircraft surfaces to be inspected;

  2. (b) techniques for detecting and recognizing contamination on the aircraft;

  3. (c) the different types of inspection techniques as well as when, where, by whom, and under what conditions (such as lighting and weather) they are to be used; and

  4. (d) the communications procedures to be followed by flight crew when contacting ground personnel, Air Traffic Control, or company station personnel to coordinate aircraft inspections.

8.1.4 Training in the Use of Holdover Timetables, both when Used for Guidance and as Decision-making Criteria

For training in the use of holdover timetables as decision-making criteria, all of the following shall be covered. Only the first four items must be taught when holdover timetables are used for guidance. Training in the use of holdover timetables shall include:

  1. (a) the source of holdover timetable data;

  2. (b) instruction in precipitation category, precipitation intensity, and the relationship of a change in precipitation to holdover time;

  3. (c) the relationship between holdover time and different fluid concentrations for all types of fluid used;

  4. (d) the definition of when holdover time begins and ends;

  5. (e) communications procedures, which covers how to inform flight crew of the type of fluid used, start time of final fluid application, and any requirements for coordination with other agencies; and

  6. (f) the procedures to be followed when holdover time is exceeded, including inspection requirements, alternate means for determining whether surfaces are contaminated, and the requirements governing repeat de-icing/anti-icing.

8.2 Recurrent De-icing/Anti-icing Operations Training

Recurrent training must be given on an annual basis and shall include a review of current de-icing/anti-icing operations and inspection procedures. This training must highlight changes in procedures and cover the latest available research and development information on ground de-icing/anti-icing operations. Prior to the commencement of winter operations, the operator should distribute a ground de-icing/anti-icing operations information circular to all affected personnel reviewing procedures and presenting any new information not covered in the annual recurrent training.

8.3 Initial Ground/Maintenance Personnel Training

Ground/maintenance personnel who have responsibilities within the operator's Ground Icing Operations Program shall receive training in at least the following three subjects:

8.3.1 Training on the effects of surface contamination, including:

  1. (a) the items listed in Section 8.1.1 excluding 8.1.1e);

  2. (b) specific information on the effects of contamination on ram-air intakes and instrument pick-up points; and

  3. (c) potential damage to engines by foreign objects.

8.3.2 Training in aircraft de-icing/anti-icing procedures, including:

  1. (a) the items listed in Section 8.1.2 excluding 8.1.2e);

  2. (b) a description of and the qualifications required for the operation of various types of equipment;

  3. (c) instruction in the operation of de-icing/anti-icing equipment; and

  4. (d) the determination of the start of holdover time.

8.3.3 Training in aircraft inspection procedures, which shall be aircraft specific, when necessary, and which shall include:

  1. (a) the items listed in Section 8.1.3 excluding 8.1.3d); and

  2. (b) the inspection techniques for conducting a Critical Surface Inspection.

8.4 Recurrent Ground/Maintenance Personnel Training

Recurrent training must be given on an annual basis and shall include a review of current de-icing/anti-icing operations and inspection procedures. This training must highlight changes in procedures and cover the latest available research and development information on ground de-icing/anti-icing operations. Prior to the commencement of winter operations, the operator should distribute a ground de-icing/anti-icing operations information circular to all affected personnel reviewing procedures and presenting any new information not covered in the annual recurrent training.

8.5 Contractor Training

An operator who contracts de-icing/anti-icing services from another organization is responsible for ensuring that the training program of the contractor and application of de-icing/anti-icing operations standards meet the operator's own Ground Icing Operations Program criteria. Through the operator, the contractor's procedures and training programs shall be documented.

8.6 Testing

After both initial and recurrent training, the operator's Program must ensure that all personnel are tested on all information covered in the training program. Records documenting the initial and annual recurrent training of each person must also be maintained.

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