Part VI - General Operating and Flight Rules

Standard 623 - Special Flight Operations

Content last revised: 2006/06/30

DIVISION I - SPECIAL AVIATION EVENTS
CHAPTER ONE - AIR SHOWS

Foreword

These Special Flight Operations Standards - Special Aviation Events - Air Shows are the standards that have to be met for the issue and continuing validity of a special flight operations certificate issued for an air show as provided for in the Canadian Aviation Regulations (the "CARs"), Subpart 603, Division I.

For ease of reference to the CARs, the divisions and numbers of the standards are in general assigned to correspond to those of the CARs. Therefore, section 623.02 of the standards would reflect a standard required by section 603.02 of the CARs.

In support of the standards and for clarification, additional information may be found in the Information Notes, diagrams and appendices contained in these standards. The diagrams are provided for illustrative purposes only. In case of conflict or inconsistency between the information provided in the diagrams and the standards, the standards take precedence.

The Minister of National Defence has authority over all military performances in air shows. Accordingly, the standards recommend co-ordination procedures with the Department of National Defence for air shows involving military performances.

Additional information on the organization and administration of an air show may be obtained by contacting your local Regional General Aviation Office of Transport Canada Civil Aviation or by writing to:

Transport Canada
Chief, Recreational Aviation and Special Flight Operations (AARRD),
Place de Ville, 330 Sparks St.,
Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0N8

For additional information on suggested procedures and on issues that are not related to the CARs, such as air show planning and organization, publicity, marketing, air show performers and related matters, please contact:

International Council of Air Shows Inc. (ICAS)
751 Miller Drive SE, Suite F-4
Leesburg, Virginia, USA
20175

Phone: 703-779-8510
FAX: 703-779-8511
Email: icas@airshows.org

DIVISION I - SPECIAL AVIATION EVENTS
CHAPTER ONE - AIR SHOWS

(amended 2004/12/01; previous version)

623.00 Interpretation

In these Standards:

"accident" - means a reportable aviation accident as defined in the Transportation Safety Board Regulations; (accident)

"aerobatic box" - means the airspace at an air show where participating aircraft are authorized to perform air show aerobatic manoeuvres; (zone aérienne de voltige)

"air show aerobatic manoeuvre" - means a manoeuvre where a change in the attitude of an aircraft results in a bank angle greater than 75 degrees or in a pitch attitude greater than 60 degrees above or below the horizon, including a roll, loop, spin, hammerhead turn, tail slide, and a lomcevak; (faisant partie d’un spéctacle aérien)

"air show" means, pursuant to section 101.01 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, an aerial display or demonstration before an invited assembly of persons by one or more aircraft; (spectacle aérien)
(amended 2006/06/30; previous version)

"air show demonstration area" - means the total airspace, illustrated in Diagram 1, that is reserved for an air show and identified as such in the NOTAM issued for the air show; (zone de manifestation aérienne)

Information Note:

For an illustration of an air show demonstration area, refer to Diagram 1.

"movement area" means, pursuant to section 101.01 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, a part of an aerodrome that is intended to be used for the surface movement of aircraft, and includes the manoeuvring area and aprons; (aire de mouvement)
(amended 2006/06/30; previous version)

"Category I aircraft" - means an aircraft flown at a true airspeed in excess of 245 knots; (aéronef de catégorie I)

"Category II aircraft" - means an aircraft flown at a true airspeed of 156 knots to 245 knots inclusive; (aéronef de catégorie II)

"Category III aircraft" - means an aircraft flown at a true airspeed less than 156 knots; (aéronef de catégorie III)

"crowd line" - means a physical barrier or a line marked on the ground that serves as a restraining line; ( ligne délimitant l’accès à la foule)

"essential personnel" - means persons who are authorized access by the certificate holder to the flying display area, including the aerobatic box, during an aerobatic performance. Examples of essential personnel include Transport Canada monitors, Crash Fire Rescue personnel, pole-holders, pyro-technicians, essential support crew and Air Traffic Services personnel; ( personnel essentiel)

"flyby" - means a non-aerobatic pass or a series of non-aerobatic passes performed by one or more aircraft at an air show; (défilé aérien)

"fly-in" - means a prearranged meeting of a number of aircraft at a specified aerodrome which will take place before an invited assembly of persons and at which no:

(a) competitive flying; and

(b) aerial demonstration will take place; (rassemblement d’aéronefs)

"fly-past" - means a non-aerobatic pass performed by one or more aircraft as an integral part of an aerobatic routine at an air show; (passage en vol)

"flying display area" - means that airspace at an air show site where participating aircraft perform but excludes ingress and egress routes; (zone d’évolution en vol)

Information Note:

For an illustration of a flying display area, refer to Diagram 1.

"formation flight" - means a flight by aircraft participating in an air show where an aircraft is flown primarily with reference to another aircraft; (vol en formation)

"hover taxi" - means the movement of a helicopter conducted above the surface and in ground effect, at airspeeds less than 20 knots; (circulation près du sol)

"incident" - means a reportable aviation incident as defined in the Transportation Safety Board Regulations; (incident)

"invited assembly of persons" means, pursuant to section 101.01 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, any number of persons who have been invited, by any means, to attend a special aviation event. The term excludes competition judges, the holder of a special flight operations certificate, members of a certificate holder’s staff and members of a participant’s support team; (rassemblement de personnes invitées)
(amended 2006/06/30; previous version)

"key event personnel" - means a person or persons having original or delegated responsibility for the air, ground, safety and emergency operations at an air show; (personnel clé de la manifestation)

"maximum permissible take-off weight" means, pursuant to section 101.01 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the maximum take-off weight for an aircraft as authorized by the state of registry of the aircraft or as provided for in the aircraft type certificate; (masse maximale admissible au décollage)
(amended 2006/06/30; previous version)

"non-demonstration helicopter operations" - means any helicopter operation that takes place in the vicinity of a primary or secondary spectator area at a special aviation event site in respect of which a special flight operations certificate for the air show has been issued. Such non-demonstration operations are not required to be authorized in the special flight operations certificate issued for the air show; (opérations aériennes en hélicoptère ne faisant pas partie des démonstrations du spectacle)

"NOTAM" means, pursuant to section 101.01 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, a notice to airmen concerning the establishment or condition of, or change in, any aeronautical facility, service or procedure, or any hazard affecting aviation safety, the knowledge of which is essential to personnel engaged in flight operations; (NOTAM)
(amended 2006/06/30; previous version)

"participant" - means an air show performer, including any other person involved in the conduct of a performance at an air show, namely a member of a flight crew, flight crew support staff, a parachutist, a ground performer such as a member of a pyrotechnic team, an announcer and, where applicable, Air Traffic Services personnel. The term excludes a member of the management organization of an air show; (participant)

"primary spectator area" - means one or more areas in which an invited assembly of persons will be positioned to view a special aviation event. It is bounded by the crowd line and has lateral limits that are visibly well defined; (zone primaire réservée aux spectateurs)

Information Note:

For an illustration of a primary spectator area, refer to Diagram 1.

"secondary spectator area" - means an area adjacent to the flying display area, where persons may congregate to observe a special aviation event. This includes, but is not limited to, private property or property not under the control of the certificate holder, public roads and rights of way; (zone secondaire de spectateurs)

"show centre" - means a visible reference point along the show line usually denoting the centre of the aerobatic box. (axe du spectacle)

"show line" - means a line on the surface of the ground or water, marked to be clearly visible to pilots from the air, intended to enhance pilot orientation during the performance; (ligne de limite du spectacle aérien)

"true airspeed" - means, for the purposes of the definitions of Category I aircraft, Category II aircraft and Category III aircraft:

(a) in the case of a reciprocating-engine powered aeroplane, the airspeed achieved in straight and level flight at 75 percent power, in standard atmospheric conditions and at maximum permissible take-off weight; and

(b) in the case of a turbine engine powered aeroplane, excluding the BD-5J Microjet, the airspeed achieved at 85 percent of the maximum continuous power, in straight and level flight, in standard atmospheric conditions and at maximum permissible take-off weight; (vitesse vraie)

623.01 Reserved

623.02 Issuance of a Special Flight Operations Certificate - Special Aviation Event

(1) Pursuant to section 603.02 of the CARs, the following information, constitutes an application to conduct an air show:

(a) the name, location and date of the air show;

(b) the expected number of invited spectators, fly-in aircraft and vehicles;

(c) the name, address, telephone and facsimile numbers of the certificate holder;

(d) the names, addresses, telephone and facsimile numbers of the officials forming part, under paragraphs  623.05(1)(b) and (c), of the air show management organization;

(e) a breakdown of the proposed participating aircraft by categories as follows: Canadian civil, Canadian military, foreign civil and foreign military; and

(f) a site diagram of the air show site on a 1:24,000 topographic chart or aerial photograph, and clearly indicating at least the following:

(i) the location and marking of the show lines and show center,

(ii) the location of the boundaries of the air show demonstration area,

(iii) the location of the boundaries of the flying display area or aerobatic box, or both if aerobatics will be conducted at the air show,

(iv) the location of the primary spectator areas and the types of barrier around them, including gates,

(v) the location of the emergency vehicles,

(vi) the location of the medical facilities,

(vii) the location of the emergency access surface routes to and from the air show site;

(viii) the location of the aircraft movement areas,

(ix) the location of the parachuting drop zone, if any,

(x) the location of the static display aircraft parking areas,

(xi) the location of the air show aircraft parking areas,

(xii) the location of the fly-in aircraft parking areas,

(xiii) the location of the refuelling areas,

(xiv) the location of the helipads,

(xv) the location of the air show central control, and

(xvi) the location of the pyrotechnic areas.

Information Note:

For an illustration of an air show site, refer to Diagram 1.

(2) The application is submitted to the appropriate Transport Canada Regional General Aviation office sixty (60) days prior to the proposed date of the air show to allow sufficient time to process the application.

(3) The following information is submitted to the appropriate Transport Canada Regional General Aviation office in support of the application submitted under subsection (1) no later than ten (10) working days prior to the date of the proposed air show to allow sufficient time to process the application:

Information Note:

In cases where unforeseen logistical problems arise and an applicant cannot meet the time requirements pursuant to subsections (2) and (3), an applicant should contact the appropriate regional General Aviation office. Where time allows for a complete evaluation of the application, it may be possible to obtain a certificate, but applicants should be aware that not meeting the 60 day or 10 day requirements could result in the non-issue of a certificate.

(a) a completed Special Aviation Event Flight Program (form 26-0374 set out in Appendix B) identifying all anticipated participants;

Information Note:

An alternate format may be used, providing that it contains all the information required by form 26-0374.

(b) for each foreign pilot, a legible copy of the pilot’s licence and medical certificate;

(c) for each aerobatic performer, a sequential listing of all manoeuvres to be flown by the performer, including:

(i) the distance of each manoeuvre from spectator areas, including, where applicable, the point of entry into and recovery from each manoeuvre,

(ii) the point of entry to, and departure from, the flying display area, where applicable,

(iii) the directions of flight relative to the spectator areas,

(iv) the location of water drops, pyrotechnics, helicopter rappelling and similar operations relative to the spectator areas,

(v) the maximum and minimum speeds for the entire performance, and

(vi) the minimum altitudes for each manoeuvre to be performed;

(d) where applicable, a legible copy of each performer’s:

(i) Transport Canada "Statement of Aerobatic Competency" (form 26-0307),

(ii) FAA (United States) "Statement of Acrobatic Competency" (form 8710-7), or

(iii) aerobatic competency certificate equivalent to (i) and (ii) above and recognized by Transport Canada; and

(iv) favourable assessment referred to in paragraph 623.06(1)(e) of the manoeuvres referred to in paragraph  623.07(14)(c) from either Transport Canada or the FAA (United States).

(e) for foreign aircraft with non-standard flight authorities, a Canadian validation of the aircraft’s foreign flight authority pursuant to section 507.05 of the CARs;

(f) for information purposes, a copy of the emergency plan referred to in section  623.05;

(g) for information purposes, a copy of the air show’s proposed air display traffic control procedures referred to in paragraph 623.05(4)(a); and

(h) where applicable, a completed application to conduct a parachute descent referred to in section 623.38.

623.03 and 623.04 Reserved

623.05 Event Management

Information Note:

(i) The management structure of an air show will vary according to circumstances. A small air show may be organized by a local flying club while a large air show will require the services of a number of persons with expertise in a variety of areas. The scope of any air show will depend on the aviation interests of the community and other local conditions.

(ii) It is most important that a certificate holder be aware that, since the Minister issues the special flight operations certificate - air show to him/her, it is his/her responsibility to ensure that the air show is conducted in such a way that the safety of persons and property on the ground is not jeopardized. In this regard, air show performers are aware of the hazards to themselves, but Transport Canada, by means of the CARs and Special Flight Operations Standards pertaining to Special Aviation Events, establishes standards of safety for the protection of the general public.

(1) Management Organization

The standards to meet, pursuant to section  603.05 of the CARs, for the management of a special aviation event - air show are as follows:

(a) An applicant for a special flight operations certificate issued for an air show may be an individual, a group of individuals or an organization incorporated under the laws of either Canada or a province;

(b) The management organization includes the person clearly identified as having overall responsibility for ensuring compliance with the general and the specific conditions specified in the special flight operations certificate - Special Aviation Event, issued pursuant to section 603.02;

(c) The person having the responsibility outlined in paragraph (b) above is responsible for the safety related activities specified in paragraph (d) below and may assign other persons the necessary authority to exercise duties in respect of the organization of, and supervision and operational control over, aspects of the air show listed in subparagraphs (d)(ii) to (v) below:

Information Note:

At a small air show, one person may be able to coordinate more than one activity, while at a large air show, an activity may be controlled by a committee of persons whose chair has been assigned the appropriate authority.

It is not the intent of these standards to confine a certificate holder to a mandatory management structure. The management structure (position titles) outlined in the following section is not mandatory, but has served as an adequate model to date in Canada. A certificate holder may or may not wish to use these position titles, however the responsibilities are mandatory.

(d) The responsibilities for safety related activities in respect of which a special flight operations certificate issued for an air show are as follows:

(i) the certificate holder is responsible for:

(A) ensuring that the responsibilities in (ii) through (v) have been assigned to appropriately qualified persons,

(B) providing a sufficient number of capable and informed persons to handle the operation of the air show with efficiency and safety, and for their identification as officials, including persons having assigned responsibility for flight and ground operations and air show safety,

(C) appointing a person selected for his or her broad background in aviation operations and ability to coordinate the various air, ground, safety and administrative activities at a special aviation event,

(D) establishing liaison with the aerodrome management and local agencies concerned with the air show,

(E) studying aerodrome facilities and accommodation and preparing a draft plan for the safe handling of spectators, aircraft, automobiles and other vehicles expected on the air show site, on a comprehensive, overall basis, and

(F) making the necessary application to the appropriate Transport Canada Regional General Aviation office within the time limits referred to in section  623.02, in order to complete the administrative and coordination duties required to prepare the special flight operations certificate for the air show,

(ii) the program director is responsible for the overall coordination of activities at the air show, including:

(A) ensuring all air show personnel are properly informed of their duties and responsibilities in detail, well in advance of the air show date,

(B) in consultation with the person in charge of the flight operations at the air show, generally the flight operations director, cancelling or postponing the flight program in the air show in the case of an incident or accident, bad weather, or any other circumstances relating to the safety of the spectators or participants, and

(C) ensuring that prior practice or rehearsals at the air show site that are considered necessary by performers, are included in the special flight operations certificate issued for the air show and that emergency services are available,

Information Note:

Other duties for the program director may include:

- establishing liaison with resident aircraft operators and scheduled air carriers to coordinate the flight program to avoid disruption to commercial service;

- arranging for customs service at airports which are not ports of entry, if sufficient trans-border visitors are expected;

- making prior arrangements with participating pilots and crew arriving by air concerning arrival dates, accommodation, customs, program performance, flight authority, etc.

(iii) the flight operations director is responsible for the conduct of the flight operations at the air show, including:

(A) finalizing the flight program in accordance with the conditions of the special flight operations certificate issued for the air show

(B) obtaining and reviewing flight routines from all participants to ensure that their routines are in conformity with the requirements of these standards and suitable for the air show site,

(C) submitting the information referred to in clause (B) to the appropriate regional Transport Canada Regional General Aviation office as part of the information required to be submitted under section  623.02,

(D) ensuring that each civilian participating in the air show holds the appropriate license, certificate and authorization, and is competent to conduct his or her performances in accordance with the special flight operations standards and the special flight operations certificate issued for the air show. These aviation documents include a pilot license or a certificate endorsed with aircraft type ratings and the medical certificate required under Part IV of the CARs, as well as a Statement of Aerobatic Competency (form 26-0307) and, for a parachutist, an Exhibition Jump Rating issued by the Canadian Sport Parachuting Association, a demo rating issued by the Canadian Associates of Professional Skydivers or a pro rating issued by the United States Parachuting Association,

(E) where applicable, establishing liaison with military participants and the military air display director,

(F) providing a briefing area of adequate size to accommodate the persons being briefed in accordance with section  623.09 of these standards,

(G) liaising with NAV CANADA and Transport Canada with regard to the class, timing and contents of the NOTAM required to be published for the air show, and

Information Note:

Normally, such NOTAM covers at least the horizontal and vertical limits of airspace, and the duration of the air show.

(H) conducting a participants’ briefing in accordance with the requirements of section  623.09, and ensuring that performers who do not attend this briefing do not participate in the air display covered in the briefing,

(I) during an air display, the flight operations director is to:

(I) be stationed so as to have an unrestricted view of the flying display area,

(II) terminate any performance or demonstration that, in his or her opinion, is being conducted in an unsafe manner,

(III ) have ready communication with other air show officials, air traffic control personnel and any other persons having responsibility over the safe and proper conduct of the air show, and

(IV) be readily accessible to all pilots taking part in the flying program and to air show officials,

(iv) the ground operations officer is responsible for crowd control, automobile and aircraft parking, and liaison with his or her airport and local governing counterparts, including:

(A) ensuring that sufficient personnel are available to effectively control the anticipated crowd and providing these persons with complete instructions as to their duties,

(B) arranging for communications facilities, including air to ground and ground control communications and those required by personnel controlling the air display or the spectators, and arranging for the use of special radio frequencies, if required,

(C) arranging for the availability and use of support vehicles such as first response vehicles for responding to emergencies, aircraft "follow me" vehicles, shuttle buses to move spectators from parking to viewing areas,

(D) establishing an operations centre, in conjunction with other key event officials, to coordinate and control the activities he or she is responsible for,

Information Note:

Other duties to assign to the ground operations officer, depending on the circumstances, are:

(i) establishing effective liaison with the airport operator and local police to ensure that adequate facilities can be provided for spectators, and to provide for off-site traffic control; and

(ii) arranging for refuelling of aircraft, both participating and visiting, and establishing liaison with military participants.

(v) the air show safety officer is responsible in cooperation with the ground operations officer for ensuring that the emergency procedures referred to in section  623.05 are developed in concurrence with and approved by the delegated agency having jurisdiction over the air show site, namely,

(A) in the case of an air show conducted at an aerodrome or airport, the aerodrome or airport authority, as the case may be, and

(B) in the case of an air show conducted over water, the Coast Guard, a Harbour Authority or local law enforcement authorities.

Information Note:

The scope of the responsibilities concerning air show safety will vary in accordance with the size of the air show and its location.

As a minimum, air show Emergency Procedures should include:

(i) arranging for the presence of crash/fire/rescue vehicles and personnel appropriate to the size of the air show;

(ii) arranging for the possible reception of accident casualties at local hospitals;

(iii) arranging for the availability of medical personnel and evacuation vehicles appropriate to the size of the air show;

(iv) ensuring that all persons, including crowd control personnel and the public address announcer, who may be required to respond to emergency situations, are briefed and provided with written instructions well in advance of the air show;

(v) establishing a control centre from which activities at the air show can be monitored and emergency activity can be coordinated, if required;

(vi) ensuring, in cooperation with the ground operations officer, the availability of emergency access routes and the personnel to ensure that they remain clear; and

(vii) the production and placement of signs and instructions to the public regarding accident, fire, injuries, lost children, no smoking areas, etc.

(2) Emergency Plan

A certificate holder is responsible for:

(a) developing an emergency plan describing the personnel and equipment available to respond to anticipated emergencies, including incidents and accidents, or a medical emergency involving a spectator;

(b) communicating the plan to air show personnel and, where applicable, the air traffic service provider; and

(c) having the equipment and personnel described in the emergency plan in place for the air show.

Information Note:

(i) Airports have emergency plans and procedures in place. A certificate holder should coordinate with the airport manager or authority to develop an addendum to the existing plans and procedures for the air show. The airport manager/authority and provincial or local governments set the requirements for medical facilities and personnel at public gatherings. Local police and hospitals should be aware of the air show dates and the expected size of the crowd.

(ii) A certificate holder should be aware of the legislation regarding incidents and accidents (see the definitions of these terms in section 623.00) and that the release of names in fatal accidents is at the discretion of the Coroner. A certificate holder should designate a single spokesperson to deal with the media should problems occur.

(3) Crowd Control

Information Note:

(i) Control or lack of control in the handling of spectators can result in either an orderly assembly of people or an undisciplined crowd that is potentially dangerous to itself or to aircraft. A properly controlled crowd can only result from thorough planning and the provision of adequate facilities and personnel.

(ii) The majority of air shows are held at aerodromes and the major factors affecting crowd control are addressed accordingly. For those air shows that are held at other locations, several of these factors may not apply.

Pursuant to subparagraph 603.05(a)(i) of the CARs, this section specifies the supervision and operational control measures necessary to ensure the safety and orderly conduct of persons attending an air show.

(a) Primary Spectator Area

The certificate holder is responsible for ensuring that:

(i) the crowd line and the lateral limits of a primary spectator area are laid out so that no spectator is closer to any aircraft in flight, taking off, landing or performing than the minimum distance specified in section  623.07,

(ii) a primary spectator area is isolated from any aircraft movement area.

Information Note:

Subparagraph (ii) above is predicated on the fact that propeller or jet blast, or rotor downwash can cause injuries to persons or damages to property nearby.

(b) Aircraft and Vehicle Parking

The certificate holder is responsible for ensuring that:

(i) where the certificate holder has arranged for aircraft participating in the air show to be on static display to the public prior to the air show, the static display area is considered as a manoeuvring area and, during the execution of any flight program of the air show, all non-participants are kept out of such area,

(ii) any fly-in aircraft or vehicle parking area that cannot be kept clear of spectators during the execution of a flight program is considered to be a secondary spectator area to which the minimum distance and altitude provisions of these standards apply.

(c) Crowd Control Personnel

The certificate holder is responsible for ensuring that crowd control personnel:

(i) are in sufficient numbers and available at the air show site during the execution of a flight program,

(ii) are briefed on crowd control and emergency procedures, and

(iii) are clearly distinguishable from other officials, from essential personnel and from spectators.

Information Note:

(i) Crowd control personnel should be adults and wear some form of distinctive clothing (e.g. jacket, vest, t-shirt) that clearly identifies them as such. A small coloured nametag or similar device may be difficult for a lost child or disoriented person to identify.

(ii) Properly briefed adults should be employed for crowd control in restricted and spectator enclosure areas. Youth groups, if properly utilized and directed, can be of great public assistance for direction, vehicle parking, etc.

(d) Fencing and Barriers

The certificate holder is responsible for ensuring that adequate separation can be, and is in fact, maintained during the execution of any flight program between spectators and show lines, aircraft movement areas and access routes for emergency vehicles.

Information Note:

There are no specific requirements regarding the type of fence used, but a certificate holder should ensure that if, for example, a rope barrier is used, sufficient crowd control personnel are on duty to ensure that the spectators remain behind it.

(e) Emergency Entrances, Access Lanes and Exits

The certificate holder is responsible for ensuring that:

(i) emergency entrances, access lanes and exits are available to and from the air show site, and

(ii) procedures are in place to keep them clear in an emergency situation.

(f) Public Address System

The certificate holder is responsible for ensuring that:

(i) a public address system or other means of communicating instructions to spectators is in place for use in normal circumstances and in the event of an emergency, and

(ii) the public address announcer is thoroughly briefed on emergency procedures and is prepared to assist in crowd control when required by the certificate holder in the event of an emergency.

(g) Site Cleanliness

Information Note:

(i) Trash discarded by spectators can be a hazard to persons or to aircraft. Cans, cups, or other objects can be turned into projectiles by rotor downwash, propeller or jet blast and can cause severe damage to aircraft engines, if ingested.

(ii) It has been noted that, at air shows where the public address announcer describes the potential hazards and then reminds them from time to time, the spectators have been cooperative in depositing their trash in the receptacles provided. This has the additional benefit of reducing the costs of clean up.

(4) Air Display Traffic Control

The certificate holder is responsible for ensuring that:

(a) where Air Traffic Services are provided at the air show, air display traffic control procedures are developed in co-operation with the affected ATS units;

Information Note:

(i) At aerodromes with established Air Traffic Services, any additional requirements associated with a special aviation event - air show will normally be on hand or readily available. Where temporary control service is required, timely arrangements have to be made to ensure that the required facilities, equipment and manpower can be made available.

(ii) Temporary control service is normally provided from a mobile control tower, van or station wagon equipped with the appropriate facilities. It is essential that the control unit be situated so as to permit the controller an unobstructed view of the approach to the airport and the landing areas.

(b) where the air show takes place at an aerodrome where NORDO aircraft will be operating, a visual means of indicating the runway in use and the landing direction is in place, readily visible from the air and of the variable type that can be realigned to indicate a change in the landing direction; and

(c) a method of communication is established between himself or herself and Air Traffic Services personnel.

Information Note:

(i) The communication requirement specified in paragraph (a) may be met by the use of a portable radio, a field telephone, etc. While not all air shows will require the presence of Air Traffic Services staff, careful attention should be given to providing adequate communication between air show aircraft and the person responsible for flight operations.

(ii) Where a certificate holder wishes to operate a radio station for any purpose, he or she is required under the Radiocommunication Act to select a frequency and apply to Industry Canada, using form DOC 16-16(682), "Application for Licence to Install and Operate a Radio Station in Canada". Selection of the frequency or frequencies is required under the Radiocommunication Act legislation to be mutually arranged between the concerned aeronautical advisory agency, the special flight operations certificate holder and Industry Canada.

(iii) Certificate holders are reminded that any operator of such a station is required under the Radiocommunication Act to be the holder of a radiotelephone operations restricted certificate. To assist air show organizers in arranging for communication control facilities, the following VHF frequency selection guide is available for use. This selection guide includes air show sites at aerodromes and at other locations as follows:

(A) with a flight service station or community aerodrome radio station, the mandatory frequency (MF);

(B) with an ATF, the frequency of the ground station or 123.2 KHz where a ground station does not exist;

(C) with a private advisory station, the UNICOM frequency of the ground station;

(D) where none of the above frequencies is suitable, an air show control station can be established to operate on one of the aviation instruction frequencies: 123.3, 124.4 or 123.5 KHz.

623.06 Participant and Aircraft Eligibility

(1) Participant Eligibility

Pursuant to section 603.06 of the CARs, to be eligible to operate an aircraft in an air show, each flight crew member has to meet the following requirements:

(a) hold a pilot licence and medical certificate appropriate to the aircraft to be operated in the air show;

(b) to conduct solo air show aerobatic manoeuvres, be in possession of one of the following documents:

(i) a Transport Canada "Statement of Aerobatic Competency" (form 26-0307),

(ii) an FAA "Statement of Acrobatic Competency" (form 8710-7), or

(iii) an aerobatic competency certificate equivalent to (i) and (ii) above and recognized by Transport Canada;

(c) to conduct formation air show aerobatic manoeuvres as part of an aerobatic team:

(i) be in possession of one of the following documents on which is annotated "Formation":

(A) a Transport Canada "Statement of Aerobatic Competency" (form 26-0307),

(B) an FAA "Statement of Acrobatic Competency" (form 8710-7), or

(C) an aerobatic competency certificate equivalent to (i) and (ii) above and recognized by Transport Canada, and

(ii) have within the preceding 12 months;

(A) performed with the other members of the formation in 8 aerobatic performances, or

(B) carried out a minimum of 25 aerobatic practice sessions with the other members of the formation;

(d) to conduct formation non-aerobatic manoeuvres:

(i) as pilot-in-command of the aircraft, be experienced in flying in formation in the aircraft intended for the flight,

(ii) in a formation flight of four aircraft or less, have practiced the non-aerobatic manoeuvres with the other members of the formation within the previous 30 days prior to the air show,

(iii) in any formation larger than four aircraft:

(A) have flown the formation’s proposed sequences at an authorized air show in Canada or the U.S., within the 15 days prior to the air show, or

(B) have practiced the proposed sequences within 15 days prior to the air show, and

(iv) have attended, in addition to the briefing referred to in section  623.09, a briefing or review conducted by the formation leader or other designated formation member and attended by a representative of the certificate holder, preferably the person in charge of flight operations, covering at least the following subjects:

(A) designation of formation leader and alternate leaders, and selection of manoeuvres to be performed and their sequence,

(B) formation positions,

(C) alternate positions in case of aborts,

(D) radio procedures and call signs,

(E) visual signals,

(F) expected speeds and power settings,

(G) take-off and turn out,

(H) join up and break, and

(I) emergency procedures; and

(e) to conduct the types of manoeuvres referred to in paragraph  623.07(14)(c) below, each individual performer has received a favourable assessment of the manoeuvres from either Transport Canada or the FAA (United States).

Information Note:

(i) The favourable assessment referred to above indicates that the manoeuvres have undergone a risk analysis process and the associated risks are mitigated by way of conditions contained in the assessment report. An assessment report is valid only for the person named in the report and only for the period specified in the assessment report.

(ii) In Canada, an assessment may be obtained by writing to:

Transport Canada
Chief, Recreational Aviation and Special Flight Operations (AARRD),
Place de Ville,
330 Sparks St.,
Ottawa, Ontario
K1A 0N8

(2) Aircraft Eligibility

For an aircraft to be eligible to participate in an air show, the aircraft owner or operator provides proof to the certificate holder of:

(a) a valid certificate of registration issued in respect of that aircraft by a contracting state;

(b) one of the following valid flight authorities issued in respect of that aircraft:

(i) a Canadian Certificate of Airworthiness, Special Certificate of Airworthiness in the Limited, Amateur-built or Owner Maintenance classification, or flight permit - Specific Purpose issued under section 507 of the CARs,

(ii) standard certificate of airworthiness issued by the state of registry, or

(iii) Canadian validation of a foreign non-standard flight authority issued under section 507.05 of the CARs, a Special Certificate of Airworthiness issued under section 507.03 of the CARs or a flight permit issued under section 507.04 of the CARs;

(c) in the case of a basic ultra-light aeroplane, advanced ultra-light aeroplane or foreign equivalent, or a hang glider, in respect of which a flight authority has not been issued, the fact that the aircraft has been found eligible and authorized to participate in accordance with section 603.06 of the CARs; and

(d) that the aircraft has been approved by the state of registry, to carry out all the manoeuvres to be conducted at the air show, by means of a type certificate, or otherwise approved by the country in which the aircraft is registered.

Information Note:

(i) Operators of foreign civil aircraft with non-standard flight authorities are required under section 507.04 of the CARs to obtain a Canadian validation of a foreign flight authority prior to entering Canadian airspace. A Canadian validation may be obtained by providing the following information to the appropriate Transport Canada Regional office:

(a) a clear and legible copy of the aircraft’s certificate of registration,

(b) a clear and legible copy of the aircraft’s flight authority, including all operating conditions and limitations, and

(c) the planned itinerary for the aircraft while in Canada, including dates and point of entry and departure from Canadian airspace.

(ii) Pursuant to section 104.01 of the CARs, where the Minister has not issued a standardized validation, the application for a validation of a foreign flight authority includes the applicable fees.

(iii) Although the responsibility for applying for a Canadian validation rests with the owner of the foreign aircraft, a certificate holder may coordinate compliance with this requirement in order to avoid confusion, last minute delays, or possible enforcement action against a pilot who flies such an aircraft in Canada without authority. Normally, performers who participate in several air shows across Canada will obtain a validation for the entire season from the Transport Canada office serving the region where the aircraft first participates in a special aviation event.

Military Aircraft

Information Note:

(i) While in Canada, foreign military aircraft operate under the authority of the Minister of National Defence. Permission is obtained from 1 Canadian Air Division/A3 Special Events in order that foreign military aircraft may perform in an air display or be flown to the site for static display. Foreign military aircraft may not participate in an Air Show without such authority. Proof of authority will be sent for information purposes by 1 Canadian Air Division to Transport Canada General Aviation, Special Flight Operations branch in Ottawa, the local regional office and the military Air Display Director (ADD).

(ii) At all Special Aviation Events where military aircraft participate, a Canadian Forces Air Display Director will be in attendance. This Officer is responsible for the supervision of all military participation whether Canadian or foreign. 1 Canadian Air Division is required under National Defence legislation to approve all military aerobatic flight profiles. Requests for Canadian Forces authority for the operation of foreign military aircraft should contain full particulars as follows:

a. FLY: USAF 1 X F15 DEMO
    1 X F16 DEMO
  USN 1 X E6B FLY-BY
b. STATIC: USN 1 X F14
  USCG 1 X CC130
  RAF 1 X TORNADO

(iii) It is recommended that this information should be sent 7 to 10 working days in advance of the air show date, to:

1 Canadian Air Division
P.O. Box 17000 Stn Forces
Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3J 3Y5
Attention: A3 Special Events

Telephone (204) 833-2500 ext 5206

Fax (204) 833-2526

623.07 Minimum Safety Distances and Altitudes

Information Note:

(i) This section provides the minimum safety distances, both horizontal and vertical, which has to be maintained between aircraft in flight and the primary spectator area, secondary spectator areas, built-up areas, and occupied buildings during an air show.

(ii) This section contains the standards for the flying display area, positioning of the show lines required for the aircraft to perform and the standards that are to be met for aircraft operations at air shows in Canada. Outlined are the show line/spectator separation distances that will be specified on all Special Flight Operations Certificates issued to conduct an air show.

Pursuant to section 603.07 of the CARs, the following specifies the minimum distances and altitudes to be maintained at an air show site between a primary spectator area, a secondary spectator area, a built-up area or an occupied building and any aircraft operated in the air show.

(1) Flying Display Area

A flying display area is established at an air show site in accordance with the following requirements, to ensure compliance with the minimum distances and altitudes specified in this section:

(a) the certificate holder has control of the property that underlies the airspace of the flying display area;

(b) the property underlying the flying display area is kept clear of all persons other than essential personnel;

(c) buildings inside a flying display area that are normally occupied by non-essential personnel are kept vacant during the execution of a flight program; and

(d) access roads that lead to property underlying the flying display area are blocked by crowd control personnel.

Information Note:

(i) Refer to Diagram 1 as well as the definition of "flying display area" in section 623.00 of these standards. The flying display area lies within the air show demonstration area, which is the total airspace reserved for the air show and identified as such in the NOTAM issued for the air show, as illustrated in Diagram 1.

(ii) The size of the flying display area required for the air show will vary according to the type of aircraft participating in the air show. As an example, Category III aircraft such as a Pitts require a flying display area 1000 feet wide and, depending upon the length of the crowd and the manoeuvres being performed, 3000 feet long. Category I aircraft such as a F18 performing air show aerobatic manoeuvres, require a standard flying display area a minimum of 3,000 feet wide (there is provision in these standards for this distance to be reduced under specified conditions) and a minimum of 7,000 feet long.

(iii)The inability to keep the flying display area clear of people may limit the types of aircraft and manoeuvres that aircraft may perform at an air show site. It is imperative in the initial planning stages that a certificate holder considers aircraft speed and manoeuvres to ensure that the proposed show lines are located at the distances specified in these standards.

(2) Show Lines

One or more show lines, depending on the participating aircraft’s type, category or intended demonstration, is established at an air show site, in accordance with the following requirements, to ensure compliance with the minimum distances and altitudes specified in this section:

(a) a show line is established at a distance not less than the one specified in Table 1 below, "Minimum Show Line distance from Spectator Areas, Built-up Areas and Occupied Buildings", in relation to the aircraft’s type or category and intended aerobatic or flight demonstration, from any primary spectator area, secondary spectator areas, built-up areas and occupied buildings, and used as a visual reference by the participating pilots or, in the case of a formation flight, by the formation leader;

(b) each show line is clearly marked, with appropriate vertical development for the location, to ensure that pilots can maintain visual reference with the show line throughout their performance;

(c) each show line is appropriately placed and made clearly visible to pilots performing manoeuvres toward the primary spectator area;

(d) each show line used during an air show held at night is lighted so as to be clearly visible and identifiable from the air by the participating pilots; and

(e) the location of all show lines and the method by which each line will be marked is clearly indicated on the site diagram submitted in support of the application required under subsection  623.02(1).

Information Note:

An ideal show line is the centre line or edge of an aerodrome runway and should be used even if it means moving the show line out a short distance further than that specified in section 623.07. However, for sites at which there are no appropriately located runways, alternative marking methods are available, provided that they are clearly visible from the air as required in subsection (2) above. Aside from this requirement, Transport Canada does not have specific requirements as to the type of marking to be used.

TABLE 1 - Minimum Show Line Distance from Spectator Areas, Built-up Areas and Occupied Buildings

Minimum Show Line Distance from Spectator Areas, Built-up Areas and Occupied Buildings Aircraft Category or Aircraft Type Demonstration Manoeuvres Authorized
1,500 feet Category I Aircraft Air show aerobatic manoeuvres
1,000 feet Category II Aircraft Air show aerobatic manoeuvres
1,000 feet Helicopters Air show aerobatic manoeuvres
500 feet Category III Aircraft Air show aerobatic manoeuvres
500 feet Gliders and Hang Gliders Air show aerobatic manoeuvres
500 feet Ultra-light aeroplanes and trikes Air show aerobatic manoeuvres
500 feet Any single-engine, normally aspirated or fuel-injected, reciprocating-engine airplane with a maximum permissible take-off weight of no more than 2,250 lbs. Air show aerobatic manoeuvres
500 feet Helicopters Agility manoeuvres
500 feet Category III Aircraft Non-aerobatic flybys or fly-pasts
500 feet Category II Aircraft Non-aerobatic flybys or fly-pasts
500 feet BD-5J Microjet Air show aerobatic manoeuvres
100 feet Powered Parachute Aircraft Agility manoeuvres
Information Note:

(i) See section 623.00 for a definition of Category I, II and III aircraft.

(ii) The minimum distances in this table are based upon the following criteria:

(a) for reciprocating-engine powered aeroplanes - true airspeed in straight and level flight at 75 percent power at standard temperature and pressure (15°C/sea level), and maximum permissible take-off weight.

(b) for turbine engine powered aeroplanes (does not include the BD-5J Microjet), - 85 percent of the maximum continuous powered, straight and level flight, true airspeed at standard temperature and pressure (15oC/sea level), and maximum permissible take-off weight.

(3) Take-off and Landing Distances from Spectator Areas - No Aerobatic Manoeuvres Conducted

(a) Subject to paragraph (b), the minimum horizontal distance to be maintained from any spectator area, built-up area or occupied building by an aircraft taking off or landing without conducting any air show aerobatic manoeuvre, is not less than the one specified in Table 2 below "Minimum Distance between Spectator Areas, Built-up areas or Occupied Buildings and Take-off/landing Surface" in relation to that aircraft’s performance characteristics.

(b) Helicopters may, following the completion of a landing or coming to a stable hover, no closer than 500 feet from spectators, hover taxi to a clearly marked landing area, no closer than 200 feet from a spectator enclosure.

Information Note:

Refer to Diagram 5 for an illustration of the above requirements.

(c) The minimum distances specified in Table 2 below

(i) for single aircraft operations conducted on the centerline, is measured to the runway centerline, and

(ii) for formation take-off or landing operations, is measured to the runway edge.

TABLE 2 - Minimum Distance between Spectator Areas, Built-up Areas or Occupied Buildings and Take-off/landing Surface

Minimum Distance between Spectator Areas, Built-up areas or Occupied Buildings and Take-off/Landing Surface Aircraft Performance Characteristics
100 feet Powered Parachute Aircraft
200 feet (1) Aeroplanes with Vref of 60kts or less and a certificated gross weight of 2500 lbs or less, including ultra light aeroplanes and trikes
200 feet (2) Gliders and hang gliders (See Diagram 2)
200 feet (3) Helicopters - engine start and shutdown and hover taxi in ground effect (see Diagram 5)
300 feet Aeroplanes with Vref of 100kts or less and certificated gross weight of 50,000 lbs or less
500 feet (1) Aeroplanes with Vref in excess of 100kts
500 feet (2) Aeroplanes with a certificated gross weight in excess of 50,000 lbs
500 feet (3) Aeroplanes conducting excessive, non-aerobatic manoeuvring on take-off or landing (comedy acts) (see Diagram 4)
500 feet (4) Helicopter - take-off and landing
(see Diagram 5)
Information Notes:

(a) The minimum 200 foot distance for gliders includes gliders being towed for launch by either aeroplanes or automobiles.

(b) Vref is 1.3 x Vso


 

(4) Take-off and Landing Distances from Spectator Areas - Air Show Aerobatic Manoeuvres Conducted

Where a take-off runway or area is separated from a primary spectator area or secondary spectator area by less than 500 feet for a Category III aircraft, by less than 1,000 feet for Category II aircraft and by less than 1,500 feet for Category I aircraft:

(a) an air show aerobatic manoeuvre may only be performed if

(i) the aircraft has passed the end of the spectator area, and

(ii) there is no built-up area or spectator underneath the aircraft; or

Information Note:

Refer to Diagram 6 for an illustration of the requirements applicable to Category III aircraft.

(b) an air show aerobatic manoeuvre may be performed after take-off, once the aircraft has turned away from any spectator area and crossed the show line appropriate to that aircraft.

Information Note:

For an illustration of the requirements applicable to Category III aircraft, refer to Diagram 7.

(5) Manoeuvres Along Show Lines

When conducting a display manoeuvre, an aircraft is flown in the flying display area and along the appropriate show line, at a distance from any primary spectator area, secondary spectator area, built-up area and occupied building established as follows:

(a) Category I Aircraft

(i) subject to subparagraph (ii) or (iii) below, the distance from the show line to any primary spectator area, secondary spectator area, built-up area and occupied building for a Category I aircraft is 1,500 feet or more, for a minimum total distance of 3,000 feet from the primary spectator area, secondary spectator area, built-up area or occupied building,

Information Note:

For an illustration of the above requirements, refer to Diagram 8.

(ii) where a prominent terrain feature exists that may be utilized to mark the show line, the distance between the show line and the primary spectator area may, upon application made under section  623.02, be reduced from 1500 feet to 1200 feet,

Information Note:

For an illustration of the above requirements, refer to Diagram 9.

(iii) the distance between the show line and any secondary spectator area, built-up area or occupied building on the reverse side of the show line may, upon application made under section  623.02, be reduced from 1500 feet to 1200 feet, and

Information Note:

For an illustration of the above requirements, refer to Diagram 10. This reduction may be authorized in the special flight operations certificate issued for the air show, if it eliminates the need to move the show line off a prominent terrain feature in order to keep non-essential personnel clear of the flying display area.

(iv) a Category I aircraft may use the 500 foot show line in accordance with subsections (10) and (11) when performing a flyby or fly-past;

Information Note:

(i) For an illustration of the above requirements, refer to Diagrams 11 and 12(a).

(ii) The reduction of the distances outlined in subparagraph (ii) and (iii) above is normally only authorized when flight safety can be enhanced by providing pilots with improved visibility of the show line.

The approved distance reduction applies to one side of the show line only. The optimum distance between the primary spectator area and either of the secondary spectator area, built-up area or occupied buildings, on the reverse side of the show line is 3,000 feet. When a reduction referred to in subparagraph (ii) or (iii) above is authorized, the distance can be reduced to no less than 2,700 feet.

(iii) A request to authorize a reduction for the purpose of allowing an enlargement of a spectator area will not be considered. A reduction of the distances will not be authorized where the primary spectator area may be moved at least 1,500 feet from a prominent feature that could be used as a show line.

(b) Category II Aircraft

(i) subject to subparagraph (ii) or (iii) below, the distance from the show line to any primary spectator area, secondary spectator area, built-up area or occupied building for a Category II aircraft has to be 1,000 feet or more, for a minimum total distance of 2,000 feet from the primary spectator area, secondary spectator area, built-up area or occupied building,

Information Note:

For an illustration of the above requirements, refer to Diagram 13.

(ii) where a prominent terrain feature exists that may be utilized to mark the show line, the distance between the show line and the primary spectator area may, upon application made under section  623.02, be reduced from 1,000 feet to 800 feet,

Information Note:

For an illustration of the above requirements, refer to Diagram 13(a).

(iii) the distance between the show line and any secondary spectator area, built-up area or occupied building on the reverse side of the show line may, upon application made under section  623.02, be reduced from 1,000 feet to 800 feet, provided this reduction eliminates the requirement to move the show line off a prominent terrain feature in order to keep non-essential personnel clear of the flying display area, and

Information Note:

For an illustration of the above requirements, refer to Diagram 14.

(iv) a Category II aircraft may use the 500 foot show line in accordance with subsections 10 and 11, when performing a flyby or fly-past; and

Information Note:

(i) For an illustration of the above requirements, refer to Diagrams 12 and 12(a).

(ii) The reduction of the distances outlined in subparagraph (ii) and (iii) above is normally authorized only when flight safety can be enhanced by providing pilots with improved visibility of the show line.

The approved distance reduction applies to one side of the show line only. The optimum distance from the primary spectator area and either of the secondary spectator area, built-up area, or occupied building on the reverse side of the show line is 2,000 feet minimum. When a reduction referred to in subparagraph (ii) or (iii) above is authorized, the distance can be reduced to no less than 1,800 feet.

(iii) A request to authorize a reduction for the purpose of allowing an enlargement of a spectator area will not be considered. A reduction of the distances will not be authorized where the primary spectator area may be moved at least 1,000 feet from a prominent feature that could be used as a show line.

(c) Category III Aircraft

The distance from the show line to any primary spectator area, secondary spectator area, built-up area or occupied building for a Category III aircraft has to be 500 feet or more, for a total minimum distance of 1,000 feet from the primary spectator area, secondary spectator area, built-up area or occupied building.

Information Note:

(i) For an illustration of the above requirements, refer to Diagrams 12 and 12(a).

(ii) Compliance with paragraph (c) may result in the show line being positioned more than 500 feet from the primary or secondary spectator areas, built-up areas, and occupied buildings. (Refer to Diagram 11).

(6) Helicopter Demonstrations

A helicopter authorized in the special flight operations certificate issued for the air show to perform at an air show for the purposes of aerial demonstrations may perform the following:

(a) agility manoeuvres along a show line at a distance of no less than 500 feet from any spectator area; and

Information Note:

Agility manoeuvres include abrupt pedal turns, sideward and rearward flight manoeuvres, out-of-ground effect hovering, and continued operation in the avoid area of the height velocity diagram.

(b) air show aerobatic manoeuvres, at a distance no less than 1,000 feet from any spectator area, including 90 degree pitch downs, split "S"s, loops and barrel rolls.

(7) Non-Demonstration Helicopter Operations at Air Show Sites

A non-demonstration helicopter operation at an air show site for which a special flight operations certificate special aviation event has been issued, is conducted in accordance with the distance and altitude requirements of this section.

Information Note:

As defined in section 623.00, a non-demonstration helicopter operation at an air show is any helicopter operation taking place in the vicinity of a primary or secondary spectator area, at a site for which a special flight operations certificate for the air show has been issued. Such non-demonstration operations are not required to be authorized in the special flight operations certificate issued for the air show and generally include sight-seeing operations, arrivals and departures of transient helicopters, and helicopter movements for air show medevac duties or crash recovery.

(8) Repositioning Turns

A repositioning turn required for an aircraft to realign with a show line or return to the flying display area may be made as follows:

(a) at a maximum 90 degree bank angle and a maximum 60 degree pitch angle, provided that the pilot of the aircraft holds:

(i) a Transport Canada "Statement of Aerobatic Competency" (form 26-0307),

(ii) an FAA "Statement of Acrobatic Competency" (form 8710-7), or

(iii) an aerobatic competency certificate equivalent to (i) and (ii) above, and recognized by Transport Canada; or

(b) at a maximum 75 degree bank angle and at a maximum 60 degree pitch angle where the pilot does not hold any of the qualifications referred to in paragraph (a).

(9) Minimum Altitudes

(a) The minimum altitudes at which an aircraft participating in an air show may perform, unless otherwise authorized in the special flight operations certificate issued for the air show, are as follows:

(i) 300 feet above ground level, where the aircraft is flown at an indicated airspeed of 156 knots or less, or

(ii) 500 feet above ground level, where the aircraft is flown at an indicated airspeed exceeding 156 knots.

Information Note:

(i) The authorizations may be granted in the special flight operations certificate issued for the air show to individual performers or groups of performers and may be granted for complete routines or individual manoeuvres.

(ii) Possession of a Transport Canada or FAA Statement of Aerobatic Competency, does not, by itself, provide the necessary authority for low altitude flight at a special aviation event - air show. Each performer, the manoeuvres to be performed and the minimum altitude need to be identified in the special flight operations certificate issued for the air show.

(b) To have aerobatic performers authorized in the special flight operations certificate issued for the air show to carry out low level performances,

(i) the application made under section 623.02 outlines the minimum altitude requested and the type of performance to be carried out by the participant or participants, on a Transport Canada form 26-0374 (Flight Program)(refer to Appendix B) or in letter form containing the information found on form 26-0374, and

(ii) the certificate holder ensures, prior to making the application, that each participant meets all applicable requirements and that the related documents specified in section  623.06 have been submitted.

(c) Other flying performances other than those referenced in (b) above, such as water bombing or similar demonstrations by aeroplanes, helicopter demonstrations, flybys or fly-pasts may be conducted at lower altitudes where so authorized in the special flight operations certificate issued for the air show, upon application made under section 623.02.

Information Note:

A certificate holder should review proposed low altitude performances and demonstrations to determine if they are appropriate to the air show site. Factors such as spectator visibility, adverse terrain, etc. have to be considered in this decision. It is then a certificate holder’s responsibility to request low level authorization. Low level performances are to be listed in the special flight operations certificate issued for an air show in order to be flown in the air show.

(10) Flybys

A flyby may be conducted:

(a) along a clearly marked show line, at a minimum distance of not less than 500 feet from any primary spectator area, secondary spectator area, built-up area or occupied building;

(b) in the case of a single aircraft, at an altitude no lower than 200 feet AGL, provided the requirements of section 602.32 of the CARs are complied with and that the following parameters are not exceeded, regardless of the category of aircraft:

(i) bank angle: 75 degrees,

(ii) pitch angle: 45 degrees, and

(iii) indicated airspeed: 250 knots; and

(c) in the case of a formation or a trail flyby, at an altitude no lower than 200 feet AGL, provided the requirements of subsection 602.32(3) of the CARs are complied with and the following parameters are not exceeded, regardless of the category of aircraft:

(i) bank angle: 45 degrees,

(ii) pitch angle: 45 degrees, and

(iii) indicated airspeed: 250 knots.

Information Note:

As defined in 623.00 (Interpretation), a flyby means a non-aerobatic pass or a series of non-aerobatic passes, performed by one or more aircraft at an air show. A flyby can be performed by a single aircraft, by aircraft in formation, or by aircraft in trail.

(11) Fly-pasts

(a) Non-Formation Fly-pasts

A non-formation fly-past may be conducted by:

(i) a Category II aircraft along the 500 foot show line, at an altitude no lower than 200 feet AGL, provided a maximum angle of 75 degrees of bank and 60 degrees of pitch is not exceeded, or

(ii) a Category I aircraft along the 500 foot show line, at an altitude no lower than 200 feet AGL, provided a maximum angle of 60 degrees of bank and 60 degrees of pitch is not exceeded.

(b) Formation Fly-pasts

A formation fly-past may be conducted along a minimum 500 foot show line distance measured from the aircraft that is closest to any primary spectator or secondary spectator area, at the following altitudes:

(i) for Category II aircraft, at an altitude no lower than 100 feet AGL, provided the aircraft are flown straight and level along the 500 foot show line, or

(ii) for Category I aircraft, at an altitude no lower than 200 feet AGL, provided the aircraft are flown straight and level along the 500 foot show line.

Information Note:

As defined in 623.00 (Interpretation), a fly-past is a non-aerobatic pass, performed by one or more aircraft as an integral part of an aerobatic routine, at an air show. A fly-past can be performed by a single aircraft, by aircraft in formation, or by aircraft in trail.

(12) Flight Over Built-up Areas Adjacent to Flying Display Areas

An aircraft participating in an air show may be flown over a built-up area adjacent to the intended flying display area provided:

(a) no air show aerobatic manoeuvre is performed over the built-up area;

(b) Minimum Altitude - an altitude of at least 1000 feet above the highest obstacle is maintained within a radius of 2,000 feet from the aircraft while over the built-up area;

(c) Entering Flying Display Area from Built-up Area - where the aircraft is entering the flying display area from flying over the built-up area, a smooth transition is conducted from the altitude referred to in paragraph (b) above to the aircraft’s performance altitude along the show line. The transition may be conducted at a steep angle of descent, but in no case less than that of the normal approach for the aircraft type; and

Information Note:

Refer to Diagram 16 for an illustration of the above requirement.

(d) Exiting Flying Display Area toward Built-up area - where the aircraft is exiting the show line on a flight path directed toward a built-up area, the aircraft is flown at a climb rate consistent with its safe operation or at the recommended best pitch attitude for the aircraft type. If extended flight over the built-up area is expected, the aircraft is flown at the minimum altitude specified in paragraph (b).

Information Note:

Refer to Diagram 16 for an illustration of the above requirement.

(13) Night Special Aviation Events - Air Shows

An aircraft participating, in an air show, at night has to be operated as follows:

(a) any aerobatic demonstration has to be performed within an area confined to one nautical mile (NM) on either side of the show centre, along a lighted show line that is clearly visible and identifiable by pilots from the air;

(b) any aerobatic demonstration has to be performed between an altitude no lower than 500 feet AGL and no higher than 5,000 feet AGL;

(c) an aerobatic demonstration may only be carried in weather conditions where the ceiling is 2,500 feet or more AGL and ground visibility of three miles or more; and

(d) the aircraft’s position lights are operating except while pyrotechnics on the aircraft are illuminated.

(14) Air Show Manoeuvres Toward the Primary Spectator Area

(a) Flight Manoeuvres that will NOT be approved for inclusion in an Air Show

Air show aerobatic manoeuvres conducted inside the aerobatic box that have a descending recovery with a pull or push and having a flight path which, when extended, would contact the primary spectator area will not be approved for inclusion in an air show.

(b) Flight Manoeuvres requiring no special assessment

The following manoeuvres or flights can be approved, for inclusion in an air show provided that any condition specified in respect of that manoeuvre or flight in subparagraphs (i) through (vi) below is met:

(i) an air show aerobatic manoeuvre in which the aircraft, but not the actual energy vector, is momentarily pointed towards the primary spectator area, such as a hammerhead turn, a spin, an inverted flat spin, a tail slide, torque roll and lomcevak,

(ii) a 360 degree non-aerobatic turn, by a single aircraft, along the show line appropriate to the aircraft category, provided the turn is performed in accordance with the following:

(A) for a Category III aircraft, at a maximum altitude of 250 feet AGL,

(B) for a Category II aircraft, at a maximum altitude of 300 feet AGL, and

(C) for a Category I aircraft, at a maximum altitude of 400 feet AGL,

Information Note:

Refer to Diagram 17 for an illustration of the above requirement.

(iii) a non-aerobatic manoeuvre by a single aircraft, with an energy vector directed towards the primary spectator area, provided

(A) in the case of a powered aircraft flown at an indicated airspeed of 300 knots or less, no part of the manoeuvre is performed at a distance closer than 1500 feet to a primary spectator area,

Information Note:

Refer to Diagram 18 for an illustration of the above requirement.

(B) in the case of a powered aircraft flown at an indicated airspeed greater than 300 knots, no part of the manoeuvre is performed at a distance closer than 3000 feet to a primary spectator area, or

Information Note:

Refer to Diagram 19 for an illustration of the above requirement.

(C) in the case of a glider, no part of the manoeuvre is performed at a distance closer than 500 feet to a primary spectator area,

(iv) flight over the primary spectator area by a single aircraft, an aircraft in a single formation or by multiple aircraft in trail, provided

(A) the minimum altitude of the flight is no lower than 1000 feet above the primary spectator area,

(B) the flight is straight and level or the wings are level in a normal climb,

(C) the flight is in one direction only, that is back to front or front to back,

(D) if the aircraft is circling jumpers, it does so down to an altitude of no lower than 1000 feet above the primary spectator area and complies with the conditions specified in section  623.37 below, and

(E) in airspace where the use of Mode C transponders is required by law, the aircraft’s transponder is turned on and serviceable, at all times, during the flight over the primary spectator area,

(v) flight over the secondary spectator area, provided

(A) the minimum altitude of the flight is no lower than 500 feet above the spectators, and

(B) until the aircraft reaches an altitude of 500 feet AGL, the flight is non-manoeuvring and the wings are level in a normal climb, and

(vi) a repositioning turn provided it is performed in accordance with the requirements of subsection  623.07(8).

(c) Flight Manoeuvres for which Special Assessment IS Required

The following manoeuvres or flights can be approved for inclusion in an air show only with the favourable assessment referred to in paragraph  623.06(1)(e) and, subject to and in accordance, with any conditions specified for those manoeuvres in the letter of assessment:

(a) an air show aerobatic manoeuvre which directs an energy vector toward the primary spectator area at any point of the manoeuvre, other than a manoeuvre described in paragraph (12)(a), or

(b) a non-aerobatic manoeuvre by multiple aircraft or aircraft in formation, including one or more 360 degree turns, with an energy vector directed towards the primary spectator area.

623.08 Weather Conditions

Pursuant to section  603.08 of the CARs, the minimum weather conditions under which an aircraft may be operated, at an air show, are as follows:

(a) subject to paragraph (d), a minimum ceiling of 1,000 feet AGL and a ground visibility of three miles, as specified in the special flight operations certificate issued for the air show;

(b) any flight demonstration, whether aerobatic or not, is conducted clear of cloud and no lower than the minima specified in the special flight operations certificate issued for the air show;

(c) an aerobatic demonstration carried out by an aircraft in weather conditions that are at the minima referred to in paragraph (a) above, is limited to

(i) air show aerobatic manoeuvres conducted by Category III aircraft, within a flying display area having a maximum diameter of 2 statute miles (SM) centred on the air show central control, as indicated on the site diagram submitted with the application; and

(ii) air show aerobatic manoeuvres that have been identified in the application submitted in accordance with section 623.02; and

(d) the Special Flight Operations Certificate issued in respect of the air show may specify a higher ceiling minimum and a higher visibility minimum where justified by the presence of surrounding terrain or other local conditions.

623.09 Participant Briefing

Information Note:

The importance of the participant briefing to the safe and successful conduct of a special aviation event cannot be overemphasized. Although entitled Participant Briefing, it is a safety briefing at which all aspects of the flying, ground, and emergency procedures of the proposed air show should be reviewed. The briefing should be conducted in such a way that every performer and air show personnel in charge of the air, ground and emergency operations, leaves the briefing with a clear understanding of their responsibilities and procedures to be followed in normal or emergency situations that may occur during the course of the air show.

(1) General Requirements

Pursuant to section 603.09 of the CARs, the standards for a participant briefing, held at an air show, are as follows:

(a) a briefing is conducted prior to the commencement of each flight program of an air show;

(b) a briefing is carried out in an area as free of noise and other distractions as possible and attendance has to be limited to flight crews, flight crew support staff, parachutists, ground performers such as pyrotechnic teams, public announcers, key event personnel and other concerned event personnel;

Information Note:

As defined in section 623.00, key event personnel means a person or persons having original or delegated responsibility for the air, ground, safety and emergency operations at an air show.

(c) each participant’s attendance at a briefing is verified by roll call or otherwise, and a record retained for submission to Transport Canada, if requested;

(d) performers who are not briefed are not permitted to participate in the flight program covered in the briefing;

(e) for team performances, only the team leader is required however; the team leader may be represented by a delegate, provided the person is a flight member of the team;

(f) for an aircraft that is to be launched from a remote airfield, the briefing may be given to the aircraft’s pilot by telephone; and

(g) the briefing is conducted at a time as close to the performance time as practicable.

(2) Briefing Contents

The briefing includes the following:

(a) the key air show personnel is introduced and the means of communication with them is described;

(b) a weather briefing covering aspects of the weather that are significant to the conduct of the air show is given such as altimeter setting, cloud cover or ceiling, visibility, winds and temperature, density altitude and other weather data forecast for the period of the air show, including, where a low ceiling program has been approved in the Special Flight Operations Certificate issued in respect of the air show, the revised low show program;

(c) the airport air traffic zone details such as position, dimensions, height above MSL, including the airspace reserved in the NOTAM issued for the air show, including local obstructions, warnings and other pertinent information such as bird activity and other nearby aerial activity;

(d) the method of coordinating air traffic, including the type of coordination, namely control or advisory by FSS, or other type of air traffic coordination. This aspect of the briefing has to include air show frequencies and assignment of radio call signs, if necessary;

(e) the methods of suspending a performance or the flight program, or recalling a performer by both radio and visual signals;

(f) the layout of the air show site, including the position of spectator areas, civilian and military show lines, direction of entry and exit lanes, holding areas and alternate aerodromes is described with the use of aerial photographs, maps, scale diagrams or other means of depiction;

(g) the proposed flight program schedule, including start-up, taxi, take-off, show routine and landing timings, the "on" and "off" stage times and the location of the previous and next performer;

(h) other programmed flying events before, during or after the flying display portion itself such as balloon operations, parachuting, flybys and similar aerial displays;

(i) wake turbulence and associated dangers;

Information Note:

The wake turbulence factor should be considered in preparing the flight program.

(j) the firefighting and emergency services equipment available, including their location and the access routes to be kept clear;

(k) a "time check or "time hack" is carried out to ensure all participants are using the same time for air show coordination;

(l) the flight operations director or other person responsible for flight operations ensures each performer understands the applicable written limits with respect to individual low level authorizations contained in the special flight operations certificate issued for the air show; and

(m) any other subject or action relevant to the specific flight program.

Information Note:

(i) Items in section (l) above need not be discussed during the participant briefing, if personally covered by the person assigned by the certificate holder to brief the participants and the performer earlier at the site.

(ii) Examples of other subjects that have been included in briefings are medical factors affecting pilot performance, e.g. over the counter medication, pilot fatigue, heat stress and factors affecting orientation of flight over water demonstrations or unusual terrain.

(iii) It is suggested that, at the briefing on the final day of an air show, a "Departure Briefing" be included to advise participants of Air Traffic Control procedures, etc. to be followed on leaving the air show site. Pilots should be reminded that their departures are to be normal and that no "ad hoc" demonstrations are to take place during their departures.

(3) Participant’s Statement

Personnel designated by the certificate holder ensures that

(a) each participant is given the opportunity to read the special flight operations certificate issued for the air show;

(b) each civilian participant has signed the participant’s statement attached as "Appendix A" to these standards;

(c) any performer who has not complied with paragraph (b) above is not allowed to participate in the air display;

(d) for a performer who received a telephone briefing, he or she signs the participant’s statement on behalf of the performer and so indicates on the form; and

(e) at the end of the briefing, a copy of each participant’s statement is given to the monitoring Civil Aviation Inspector or, if an inspector is not on site, that the copy is forwarded to the appropriate Transport Canada Regional General Aviation office, no later than on the first business day following the air show.

623.10 to 623.36 Reserved

623.37 Parachuting

Information Note:

(i) Parachuting, when properly organized and conducted by qualified and experienced parachutists, can be an asset to an air show or other aviation event.

(ii) Parachute descents, other than emergency descents, have to be authorized in accordance with the provisions of section 603.37 of the CARs. Where parachuting, by other than military personnel, is to be conducted at a special aviation event, application may be made in accordance with the special flight operations standards - parachute descents, by the certificate holder on behalf of the parachutists.

Pursuant to section 603.38 of the CARs, a parachute descent, at a Canadian special aviation event is made in accordance with a special flight operations certificate - parachuting, issued under section 603.38 of the CARs; and

(a) parachutists may exit the jump aircraft over any primary spectator area, secondary spectator area, built-up area or occupied building, provided the exit is made in conditions such that, in the event of a parachute malfunction, the parachutist or associated equipment will not land within any of these areas;

(b) once under a fully functioning parachute canopy, the parachutist may glide and descend to an altitude no lower than 100 feet above a primary spectator area or secondary spectator area;

Information Note:

The above minimum altitude requirement means 100 feet from the lowest part of any equipment the parachutist is carrying (i.e. flag or smoke canisters).

(c) an aircraft may circle the jumpers as part of the demonstration, subject to the following conditions:

(i) the pilots of the jump aircraft and circling aircraft have determined the procedures to be followed by each pilot in order to ensure that adequate separation is maintained between the aircraft and the parachutists,

(ii) all pilots and parachutists participating in the demonstration have been briefed and understand the procedures to be followed,

(iii) the pilot of the circling aircraft does not begin circling the parachutists until

(A) he or she has been notified that all jumpers have exited the jump aircraft, and

(B) all canopies are open and clearly visible to the pilot, and

(d) a two-way radio communication is maintained between the aircraft involved in the demonstration, air traffic control personnel and the landing zone supervisor or the flight operations director or other person responsible for flight operations until the demonstration is completed.

Diagrams
Diagram 1

Diagram 2

Diagram 3

Diagram 4

Diagram 5

Diagram 6

Diagram 7

Diagram 8

Diagram 9

Diagram 10

Diagram 11
Diagram 12

Diagram 12a

Diagram 13

Diagram 13a

Diagram 14

Diagram 15

Diagram 16

Diagram 17

Diagram 18

Diagram 19


CHAPTER TWO - BALLOON FESTIVALS

(amended 1999/09/01; previous version)

Foreword

These Special Flight Operations Standards and Procedures - Special Aviation Events - Balloon Festivals are the standards and procedures that must be met for the issue and continuing validity of a Special Operations Certificate - Balloon Festivals as provided for in the Canadian Aviation Regulations, Subpart 603, Division I, and the related guidance material.

Additional information on the organisation and administration of Special Aviation Events may be obtained by contacting your local Regional General Aviation Licensing Office of Transport Canada Aviation or by writing to the:

Chief, Recreational Aviation and Special Flight Operations
Transport Canada Aviation Building
Place de Ville
Ottawa, Ontario
K1A 0N8.

For ease of reference to the Regulations, the divisions and numbers of the Standards are assigned to correspond to the Regulations, therefore, Section 623.02 of the Standards would reflect a standard required by Section 603.02 of the Regulations.

In support of the Standards and for clarification, additional information may be found in the Appendices, in relevant Notes inserted throughout the Standards and in the AIP Canada.

623.00 Interpretation

In these Standards,

"air show" means, pursuant to section 101.01 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, an aerial display or demonstration before an invited assembly of persons by one or more aircraft; (spectacle aérien)
(amended 2006/06/30; previous version)

"balloon festival" means an event where one or more manned balloons will launch from or fly in into an area before an invited assembly of persons. (festival de ballons)

designated landing area" means any area identified by a Sponsor where balloons participating in a Balloon Festival will land, that:

(a) lies within a built-up area; or

(b) at which an invited assembly of persons is present. (zone d’atterrissage désignée)

"designated launch area" means any area identified by a Sponsor from which balloons participating in a Balloon Festival will launch, that:

(a) lies within a built-up area; or

(b) at which an invited assembly of persons is present. (zone de décollage désignée)

"designated target area" means any area identified by a Sponsor into which balloons participating in a Balloon Festival will fly as part of a pre-determined task, that:

(a) lies within a built-up area; or

(b) at which an invited assembly of persons is present. (zone cible désignée)

"invited assembly of persons" means, pursuant to section 101.01 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, any number of persons who have been invited, by any means, to attend a special aviation event. The term excludes competition judges, the holder of a special flight operations certificate, members of a certificate holder’s staff and members of a participant’s support team; (rassemblement de personnes invitées)
(amended 2006/06/30; previous version)

"participant" means the balloonists (balloon pilots), the balloon chase crews, balloon task judges, and where other aircraft demonstrations are taking place in conjunction with the balloon launches, the aircraft flight crews, flight crew support staff, parachutists, or other essential personnel. (participant)

"special aviation event" means , pursuant to section 101.01 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, an air show, a lowand#8209;level air race, an aerobatic competition, a fly-in or a balloon festival; (manifestation aéronautique spéciale)
(amended 2006/06/30; previous version)

"sponsor" means the person or agency responsible for the organisation and conduct of a special aviation event. (organisateur )

Information Note:

The popularity of the sport of ballooning in Canada has grown significantly in recent years. Coinciding with the growth in the sport, is the number of Special Aviation Events - Balloon Festivals held each year to showcase and promote the sport. These festivals may be fun events where the public is invited to watch the inflation and launches of balloons, fun events where the balloons attempt to fly into the festival site or they could be sanctioned balloon competitions for national or international honours in the ballooning community.

Regardless of the "raison d’être" for the Balloon Festival, Transport Canada is responsible for ensuring the safety of the public during the event.

623.02 Issuance of a Special Flight Operations Certificate - Special Aviation Event - Balloon Festival

(1) An application to conduct a Special Aviation Event - Balloon Festival shall include:

(a) the name, location and date of the event;

(b) the expected number of spectators;

(c) the name, address, telephone and facsimile numbers of the Sponsor of the event; and

(d) a Balloon Festival Operations Manual for the festival.

(2) The Operations Manual shall contain as a minimum, the following information:

(a) the names, addresses, telephone and facsimile numbers of the key management personnel for the festival (e.g. Sponsor, Balloon Meister, Safety Director);

(b) the duties and responsibilities of each position identified in the festival management organisation;

(c) copies of landowner permission and letters of non-objection from appropriate municipal authorities for the use of all proposed designated launch areas and sites to be designated as target or landing areas;

(d) a copy of the festival site diagram;

(e) a list of all the proposed balloon events, tasks, races, etc. to take place during the festival;

(f) a copy of the procedures to be used to control the flight operations of the balloons including during launches, fly-in tasks landings, flight over built-up areas, etc.;

(g) a copy of the crowd control procedures to be used to ensure the safety of spectators at designated launch areas, designated target areas or designated landing areas. This shall include the method of separating the spectators from the balloons (e.g. snow fence) at the distances outlined in section 623.07 of these standards;

(h) for information purposes, a copy of the event’s proposed Emergency Procedures developed in concurrence with the delegated agency appropriate to the festival site; and

(i) any other information pertinent to the safe conduct of the event as deemed necessary by the Minister.

(3) The festival site diagram shall be a 1:24,000 topographical chart or similar scale aerial photograph and shall clearly indicate, as a minimum, the following:

(a) location and marking of all designated launch areas and, if applicable, all designated target and landing areas;

(b) location and method of separating spectators from designated launch, landing and target areas, including gates;

(c) location of emergency vehicles;

(d) location of medical facilities;

(e) location of emergency access routes to and from the event site;

(f) festival central control;

(g) propane refuelling area (when located on site); and

(h) locations of other flight operations taking place at the festival (e.g. helipad, parachuting landing area).

(4) The application shall be received by the appropriate Regional General Aviation office sixty (60) days prior to the proposed date of the event, or by the date mutually agreed upon between Transport Canada and the Sponsor.

Information Note:

Failure to meet the 60 day or agreed upon date could result in the non-issue of the Special Flight Operations Certificate required for the event.

(5) The following information and/or documentation shall form part of an application and, unless mutually agreed upon between the Sponsor and Transport Canada, shall be submitted to the appropriate Regional General Aviation Licensing office in support of the application to conduct a special aviation event - balloon festival, no later than ten (10) working days prior to the date of the proposed event:

(a) a completed Special Aviation Event Flight Program Form (Form 26-0374 attached as Appendix B) identifying all participants. An alternate format may be used, providing it contains all the information required by Form 26-0374;

(b) for foreign pilots, legible copies of pilot’s licences and, where applicable, medical certificates; and

(c) for foreign registered balloons with non-standard flight authorities, a Canadian Validation of the balloon’s foreign flight authority.

Information Note:

It is suggested this information be forwarded to the appropriate Regional General Aviation Licensing office as soon as it is available.

623.05 Event Management

Information Note:

The sponsorship/management requirements of a balloon festival will vary. At a small event, one person may be able to co-ordinate more than one activity, while at a large event, an activity may be controlled by a committee of persons whose chairperson has been delegated the appropriate authority. The scope of any event will depend on the aviation interests of the community and other local conditions.

It is most important that the sponsor is aware that, since the Special Flight Operations Certificate is issued to him or her by the Minister, it is his or her responsibility to ensure that the event is conducted in such a way that the safety of persons and property on the ground is not jeopardised.

(1) Management Organisation

(a) The sponsor of a Special Aviation Event shall be an individual or an organisation incorporated under the laws of Canada or a Province.

(b) The sponsor of a Special Aviation Event has the overall responsibility for the conduct of the event in a safe manner and in accordance with the conditions contained in the Special Flight Operations Certificate issued for the Balloon Festival.

(c) The sponsor may delegate to other persons the authority to organise and control particular aspects of the Balloon Festival on his or her behalf.

(d) A sponsor shall have a management organisation capable of supervising and maintaining operational control over the Balloon Festival. While other position titles are acceptable, the management team shall collectively assume all of the responsibilities listed for the following sample positions:

(i) The Sponsor is responsible for:

(A) appointing the management organisation for the Balloon Festival to co-ordinate the various air, ground, safety and administrative activities at the Balloon Festival;

(B) establishing liaison with airport management and concerned local agencies;

(C) preparing a draft plan for the safe handling of spectators and the safe handling of aircraft, automobiles and other vehicles; and

(D) making application to the appropriate Regional Transport Canada General Aviation office for a Special Flight Operations Certificate for the Balloon Festival;

(ii) The Balloon Meister shall act as the general manager of the Balloon Festival and is responsible for the overall co-ordination of activities at the Balloon Festival including:

(A) ensuring that all staff members are properly informed of their duties and responsibilities in detail;

(B) cancelling or postponing the balloon launches in the event of an accident, bad weather, or any other circumstances relating to the safety of the spectators or participants; and

(C) the conduct of the flight operations at the Balloon Festival including:

(I) ensuring all balloonists are in possession of the appropriate pilot licences, medical certificates and aircraft documentation;

(II) ensuring balloonists are qualified, competent and have sufficient knowledge of these standards to participate in the Balloon Festival in accordance with the conditions of the Special Flight Operations Certificate issued for the Balloon Festival;

(III) ensuring each pilot participant signs the Participant’s Statement attached to the certificate issued for the Balloon Festival and reproduced in this Chapter as Appendix A, and submitting a legible copy of the statement to the appropriate regional office on the first working day following the Balloon Festival;

(IV) providing a briefing and operations area of adequate size to accommodate the persons being briefed in accordance with section 623.09 of these standards; and

(V) conducting a participant’s briefing in accordance with section 623.09 of these standards, and ensuring that balloonists who have not been briefed in accordance with that section do not participate in the Balloon Festival on that day.

(iii) The Safety Director is responsible for crowd control and ground safety at the Balloon Festival.

Information Note:

It is not the intent of these standards to confine sponsors to any mandatory management organisation. The position titles within the management organisation outlined in sub-paragraphs (d)(i) to (iii) are offered as an example. Balloon Festival organisers may or may not wish to use these position titles, but, under CAR 603.05, must ensure whatever structure they select is capable of maintaining supervision and operational control over the competition and that all responsibilities listed in subparagraphs (d)(i) to (iii) are clearly assigned to responsible persons.

(2) Crowd Control

(a) A sponsor shall ensure that sufficient clearly identified crowd control personnel are available, briefed on crowd control and emergency procedures and are capable of carrying out the duties assigned to them.

(b) The sponsor shall ensure that spectators:

(i) are kept at a safe distance from the balloons during inflation and take-off from designated launch areas; and

Information Note:

This may be done by fencing or roping off the launch area to segregate spectators from the balloons during inflation and take-off. At larger events this may be the only way to provide adequate crowd control to ensure spectator safety. At smaller events a "Fantasy Fence" has been utilised successfully. A "Fantasy Fence" consists of a length of visible rope laid out on the ground around the launch vehicle, basket assembly, etc. of the balloon and patrolled by a member of the balloon crew acting as a security person wearing a vest or other distinguishable guise to keep spectators out of the area marked by the rope. Launch directors assist in crowd control while supervising inflation and launch. Whatever the method and procedures chosen for crowd control, these must, under paragraph  623.02(2)(g) above, be clearly described in the Balloon Festival Operations Manual submitted with the application to conduct the event.

(ii) are separated from designated target and landing areas at the minimum distances stated in the Special Flight Operations Certificate issued for the Balloon Festival.

(3) Emergency Facilities

(a) A sponsor shall ensure that procedures, facilities, equipment and personnel are in place to respond to anticipated emergencies, including balloon accident or medical emergency involving the spectators.

Information Note:

Local police and hospitals should be aware of the festival dates and the expected size of the crowd.

The local Fire Department may be willing to provide equipment and personnel. For very small festivals, a jeep or other vehicle carrying fire fighting equipment may suffice. Appropriate medical facilities and personnel should be provided at all Special Aviation Events. The local St. John Ambulance Association may provide this assistance by prior arrangement. Arrangements should be made to have a local doctor on call.

A station wagon, van or light truck, suitably identified, may be used where full ambulance service is not available.

(b) The sponsor shall ensure that emergency entrances, access lanes and exits are available to and from the festival site and procedures are in place to keep them clear in an emergency situation.

(c) Emergency entrances, access lanes and exits shall be clearly identified on the site diagram submitted in support of the application to conduct the Special Aviation Event.

623.06 Participant and Aircraft Eligibility

(1) Participant Eligibility

To be eligible to operate a balloon as part of a special aviation event, a person shall:

(a) hold a pilot’s licence and medical validation appropriate to the balloon to be operated in the balloon festival;

(b) have a minimum of 50 hours total flying time in balloons;

(c) meet the recency requirements of CAR 401.05;

(d) sign the Participant’s Statement attached to the Special Flight Operations Certificate issued for the Balloon Festival and reproduced in this Chapter as Appendix A; and

(e) attend a Participant’s Briefing as outlined in section 623.09 of these standards.

Information Note:

The purpose of this section is to highlight an anomaly that exists in all segments of aviation but seems more prevalent at balloon festivals.

Reference in this regard should be made to section  401.04 of the CARs reproduced below for information purposes only:

No person shall act as a flight crew member or exercise the privileges of a flight crew licence in Canada in an aircraft registered in a contracting state other than Canada, unless the person holds, and can produce while so acting or while exercising such privileges,

(a) a flight crew licence issued under this Subpart; or

(b) a flight crew licence, or a document equivalent to a foreign licence validation certificate, that is issued under the laws of the contracting state.

This would mean that, in order to fly a balloon registered in a country other than Canada, a balloon pilot is required to hold:

(a) a Canadian Balloon Pilot licence; or

(b) a Balloon Pilot Licence issued or validated by the state in which the balloon is registered.

Example:
An American pilot wishing to fly a British registered balloon in Canada would be required to:
(a) hold a British Balloon Licence;

(b) have his or her American Balloon Licence validated by the British Civil Aviation Authority; or

(c) obtain a Canadian Balloon Pilot Licence.

(2) Aircraft Eligibility

To be eligible to be operated in a Canadian Special Aviation Event, a balloon shall:

(a) be registered in Canada or in a contracting state; and

(b) have a flight authority.

Information Note:

This may be in the form of a Certificate of Airworthiness issued in accordance with Annex 8 of the ICAO Convention of Civil Aviation by the country of registration or a Canadian validation of a foreign non-standard flight authority issued by the country of registration. (e.g. Special Certificate of Airworthiness, Flight Permit, Laissez-passer Exceptionnel, etc.).

Operators of foreign civil aircraft, including balloons with non-standard flight authorities must, under CAR 507.05, obtain a Canadian validation of a Foreign Flight Authority prior to entering Canadian airspace. A Canadian validation may be obtained by providing the following information to Transport Canada Aviation at least 10 working days in advance of the event:

  • a clear and legible copy of the aircraft’s Certificate of Registration;
  • a clear and legible copy of the aircraft’s flight authority including all operating conditions/limitations; and
  • the planned itinerary for the aircraft while in Canada, including dates and point of entry and departure from Canada.

Although the responsibility for applying for a Canadian validation rests with the owner of the foreign aircraft, sponsors may co-ordinate compliance with this requirement in order to avoid confusion, last minute delays, or possible regulatory compliance action against a pilot who flies such an aircraft in Canada without authority.

623.07 Minimum Safety Distances and Altitudes from Spectators , Built-up Areas and Occupied Buildings

(1) Designated Launch Areas

(a) Designated launch areas shall be under the direct control of the sponsor.

(b) The sponsor shall have available at a designated launch area, a public address system or other means of providing directions to spectators and balloonists.

(2) Designated Target Areas

(a) Designated target areas shall be positioned in such a manner that spectators are kept a minimum distance of 200 feet horizontally from the outer boundary of a target area.

(b) Designated target areas shall be kept clear of all persons except those identified as essential personnel by a sponsor.

(c) A sponsor shall have available at a designated target area, a public address system or other means of providing directions to spectators and balloonists.

(3) Designated Landing Areas

(a) Spectators shall be kept a minimum of 200 feet horizontally from the outer boundary of a any designated landing area.

(b) A designated landing area shall be no closer than 500 feet downwind of any designated target area.

(c) Designated landing areas shall be under the direct and complete control of a sponsor.

(d) A sponsor shall have available at a designated landing area a public address system or other means of providing directions to spectators and balloonists.

(e) Designated landing areas shall be kept clear of all persons except those designated as essential personnel by a sponsor, e.g. balloon recovery crews.

(4) Special Conditions of Balloon Operations

(a) Minimum Altitudes and Distances During Flight

Balloons operating in flight elsewhere than over a built-up area, an occupied building, or over an open air assembly of persons may be authorised in the Special Flight Operations Certificate - Balloon Festival to a distance no closer than 200 feet from any person, vessel, vehicle or structure.

Information Note:

The most common request for this authorisation comes when a body of water lies in close proximity downwind of a launch area. At many of these events, large numbers of pleasure boats anchor to observe the balloons. Many balloonists like to take this opportunity to carry out a "splash and dash" (dipping the basket of the balloon into the water). The problem is that this operation tends to attract the boats and makes it virtually impossible to maintain any distance between the boats and the balloons. Therefore, at some sites the reduction in this distance may not be granted. Balloonists should be cognisant of the requirement to begin climbing immediately if it becomes evident that a boat or other vessel is infringing on the required separation distance.

(b) Approaches to Target and Landing Areas

Balloons on approach into an area identified in the Balloon Festival Operations Manual as a designated target area or as a designated landing area, may be authorised in the Special Flight Operations Certificate - Balloon Festival to fly over any spectator area to a minimum altitude of 75 feet above the spectators, provided that:

(i) the spectator area is under the direct control of the sponsor; and

(ii) the balloon has achieved an altitude equilibrium at 75 foot above any spectator prior to reaching the spectator area.

(c) Where the balloon achieves an equilibrium altitude at more than 75 feet over any spectators, further descent is prohibited.

623.08 Weather Conditions

(1) Subject to subsection (2), the Special Flight Operations Certificate issued for a Balloon Festival shall specify a minimum ceiling of 1,000 feet AGL and a minimum ground visibility of 3 miles.

(2) A Special Flight Operations Certificate referred to in subsection (1), may specify a higher ceiling minimum and a higher visibility minimum where justified by the presence of surrounding terrain or other local condition.

623.09 Participant’s Briefing

Information Note:

The importance of the Participant’s Briefing to the safe and successful conduct of a Special Aviation Event cannot be overemphasised. All aspects of the flying, ground, and emergency procedures of the proposed event should be reviewed. The briefing should be conducted in such a way, that every balloonist and all the event personnel in charge of the air, ground and emergency operations leaves the briefing with a clear understanding of their responsibilities and of procedures to be followed in normal or emergency situations that may occur during the course of the event. It is not sufficient to understand one’s own tasks, but also to have a clear picture of how all aspects of the operation complement each other, especially in emergencies.

(1) General

(a) A participant’s briefing shall be conducted prior to the beginning of each balloon launch at a festival, at a time as close to the proposed launch time as practicable.

Information Note:

At events that run for more than one day with early morning and early evening launches each day, it is common to have an in depth "master briefing" prior to the first launch of the festival. This briefing includes all the information outlined in these standards. Briefings for subsequent flights are shorter in duration and include the roll call, weather briefing, problem identification and resolution from previous flights, etc. It is important to note that a balloonist that misses a "master briefing" is precluded from participating in subsequent launches until such time as he or she has received a complete briefing from the Balloon Meister or a person delegated to do so by the Balloon Meister.

b) The briefing shall be carried out in an area as free of noise and other distractions as possible, and attendance shall be limited to flight crews, flight crew support staff, parachutists, and the persons responsible for the air, ground, safety and emergency operations for the event.

(c) Each pilot participant’s attendance at the briefing shall be verified by roll call or otherwise and a record retained for submission to Transport Canada, if requested.

(d) Participants who did not attend a briefing shall not be permitted to participate in the launch associated with the briefing.

(2) Briefing Contents

The briefing shall cover the following basic actions, as a minimum:

(a) introduction of the key festival personnel and description of the means of communication with them;

(b) provision of a weather briefing covering aspects of weather that are relevant the conduct of the event, including cloud cover (ceiling), visibility, winds and temperature, density altitude and other current weather data, and forecast for the period of the event;

(c) ensuring that the weather briefing referred to in (b) above is provided by the most qualified person available such as, but not limited to, a Flight Service Station Specialist, a meteorologist or an experienced pilot;

(d) description of the aerodrome air traffic zone details, i.e. position, dimensions, height above MSL, the airspace and content of the NOTAM issued for the balloon festival, including a description of local obstructions, warnings and other pertinent information, such as other nearby aerial activity;

(e) description of the method of co-ordinating air traffic, including type of co-ordination such as positive control by ATS, advisory by FSS or other type of co-ordination, as well as, if necessary, a description of radio frequencies used at the festival and assignment of radio call signs;

(f) description of the methods of suspending or cancelling a launch;

(g) description of the event site, designated target and landing areas including the position of the spectators, alternate landing areas, prohibited zones, and other relevant items by using aerial photographs, maps, scale diagrams, and other material;

(h) description of the fire fighting and emergency services equipment available, including their location and the access routes to be kept clear; and

(i) any other basic action deemed necessary.

623.16 Carriagare-Pae of Fying Passengers at a Balloon Festival

Information Note:

At Balloon Festivals it is a common practice for either the festival organisers or individual balloonists to offer balloon rides to members of the public for a fee. If a balloonist receives remuneration directly or indirectly for carrying passengers at an event for which a Special Flight Operations Certificate - Balloon Festival has been issued, the requirements of Part VI, Subpart 3, Division II of the Canadian Aviation Regulations must be met.

The authority to carry fare-paying passengers may be obtained in two ways:

(a) Individual balloonists may apply for and obtain a Special Flight Operations Certificate - Balloons with Fare-Paying Passengers:

or

(b) A Sponsor of a Balloon Festival may choose to apply for authorisation to carry fare-paying passengers at a festival. In this scenario, the Sponsor becomes the balloon operator and must meet the requirements of Part VI, Subpart 3, Division II of the Canadian Aviation Regulations. If approved, the authority would be a Special Condition of Balloon Operation in the Special Flight Operations Certificate issued for the festival.

Appendix A - Participant's Statement

Appendix B - Sample Form (26-0374) Special Aviation Event Flight Program
 

CHAPTER THREE - AEROBATIC COMPETITIONS

(amended 1999/09/01; previous version)

Foreword

These Special Flight Operations Standards and Procedures - Special Aviation Events - Aerobatic Competitions are the standards and procedures that must be met for the issue and continuing validity of a Special Flight Operations Certificate - Aerobatic Competition as provided for in the Canadian Aviation Regulations, Part VI, Subpart 3, Division I, and the related guidance material.

Additional information on the organisation or administration of Special Aviation Events may be obtained by contacting your local Regional General Aviation Office of Transport Canada, Civil Aviation, or by writing to the:

Chief, Recreational Aviation and Special Flight Operations
Transport Canada Aviation Building
Place de Ville
Ottawa, Ontario
K1A 0N8

623.00 Interpretation

In these Standards,

"aerobatic competition box" means a block of airspace whose dimensions and location are specified in the certificate issued for the event; (zone de compétition d’acrobaties aériennes)

Information Note:

The International Aerobatic Club and the FAA define the "Aerobatic Contest Box" as a block of airspace 3,300 feet long, 3,300 feet wide with an upper limit of 3,500 feet AGL for powered aircraft and 4,000 feet AGL for gliders. The lower limit of the competition box for powered aircraft is 1,500 feet AGL for Basic and Sportsman Categories, 1,200 feet AGL for Intermediate Category, 800 feet AGL for the Advanced Category and 328 feet AGL for the Unlimited Category. For gliders, the lower limit of the competition box is 1,500 feet AGL for the Sportsman Category, 1,200 feet AGL for Intermediate Category and 600 feet AGL for the Unlimited Category. (see diagrams Aerobatic #1 and #2)

"designated spectator area" or "crowd" means the area identified on the site diagram submitted to Transport Canada with a sponsor’s application to conduct a special aviation event as the area in which an invited assembly of persons will be positioned; (zone réservée aux spectateurs)ou (foule)

"invited assembly of persons" means, pursuant to section 101.01 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, any number of persons who have been invited, by any means, to attend a special aviation event. The term excludes competition judges, the holder of a special flight operations certificate, members of a certificate holder’s staff and members of a participant’s support team; (rassemblement de personnes invitées)
(amended 2006/06/30; previous version)

"participant" means any individual directly involved in or participating in the competition. Participants include, but are not limited to, pilots, competition starters, judges, flight line crews, recorders or other persons designated by the Contest Director to perform duties associated with the competition; (participant)

"sponsor" means the person or agency responsible for the organisation and conduct of a special aviation event; (organisateur)

"technical inspection" means an inspection carried out by the Chief Technical Monitor as outlined in section 2.3 of the Aircraft and Equipment Entrance Requirements published in the International Aerobatic Club Official Contest Rules (inspection technique)

"unofficial spectator area" means an area adjacent to the flying display area where persons have congregated to observe a special aviation event. This includes, but is not limited to, private property or property not under control of the sponsor, public roads and rights of way. (zone non officielle de spectateurs)

623.02 Issuance of a Special Flight Operations Certificate - Special Aviation Event - Aerobatic Competitions

(1) An application to conduct a Special Aviation Event - Aerobatic Competition shall include:

(a) the name, location and date of the event;

(b) when persons have been invited, the expected number of spectators, fly-in aircraft and public vehicles;

Information Note:

Transport Canada recognises that the public is generally not invited to aerobatic competitions. In cases where they have been invited, only an estimate of the number of persons expected and any associated aircraft and vehicles is required.

(c) the name, address, telephone number and, where applicable, the facsimile number of the Sponsor of the event;

(d) the names, addresses, telephone numbers, and where applicable, the facsimile numbers of the key management personnel of the event (e.g. Contest Director, Chief Judge, Chief Technical Monitor, Safety Director

(e) the name of the country of registration (Canada or Foreign Civil) of the proposed participating aircraft; and

(f) a diagram of the event site which shall be on a 1:24,000 topographic chart or a similar scale aerial photograph, and shall clearly indicate as a minimum the following:

(i) the dimensions and the location of the boundaries of the aerobatic competition box;

(ii) the location and type of fencing around the designated spectator area including gates, if applicable;

(iii) the location of emergency access routes to and from the event site;

(iv) aircraft movement areas;

(v) the visiting aircraft parking area; and

(vi) the refuelling area.

(2) The application shall be received by the appropriate Regional General Aviation office at least sixty (60) days prior to the proposed date of the event, or by the date mutually agreed upon between Transport Canada and the sponsor.

623.05 Event Management

(1) Management Organisation

(a) The sponsor of a Special Aviation Event shall be an individual or an organisation incorporated under the laws of Canada or a province.

(b) The sponsor of a Special Aviation Event has the overall responsibility for the conduct of the event in a safe manner and in accordance with the conditions contained in the Special Flight Operations Certificate issued for the competition.

(c) The sponsor may delegate to other persons the authority to organise and control particular aspects of the competition on his or her behalf.

(d) A sponsor shall have a management organisation capable of supervising and maintaining operational control over the competition. While other position titles are acceptable, the management team shall collectively assume all of the responsibilities listed for the following sample positions:

(i) the Sponsor is responsible for:

(A)appointing the management organisation for the competition to co-ordinate the various air, ground, safety and administrative activities at the competition;

(B)establishing liaison with airport management and concerned local agencies;

(C)preparing a draft plan for the safe handling of spectators, aircraft, automobiles and other vehicles; and

(D)making application to the appropriate Regional Transport Canada General Aviation office for a Special Flight Operations Certificate for the competition;

(ii) the Contest Director shall act as the general manager of the competition and is responsible for the overall co-ordination of activities at the competition including:

(A)ensuring that all staff members are properly informed of their duties and responsibilities in detail;

(B)cancelling or postponing the competition in the event of an accident, bad weather, or any other circumstances relating to the safety of the spectators or participants; and

(C)the conduct of the flight operations at the competition including;

(I) ensuring all participants are in possession of the appropriate pilot licences, medical certificates and aircraft documentation;

(II) ensuring participants are qualified, competent and have sufficient knowledge of these standards to compete in the competition in accordance with the conditions of the Special Flight Operations Certificate issued for the competition;

(III) authorising a person to participate in the competition;

(IV) ensuring each pilot participant signs the Participant’s Statement appended as Appendix A and submitting a legible copy of the statement to the appropriate regional office the first working day following the competition; and

(V) providing a briefing and operations area of adequate size to accommodate the persons being briefed in accordance with section 623.09 of these standards; and conducting a participant’s briefing in accordance with section 623.09, and ensuring that pilots who have not been briefed in accordance with that section do not participate in the contest on that day;

(iii) the Safety Director is responsible for flight line control and ground safety at the competition;

(iv) the Chief Technical Monitor is responsible for performing a technical inspection of each aircraft competing in the competition.

Information Note:

The person appointed Chief Technical Monitor should hold an AME licence; but the position may be filled by a person deemed "best qualified" by the Contest Director.

It is not the intent of these standards to confine sponsors to any mandatory management organisation. The management organisation (position titles) outlined in sub-paragraphs(d)(i) to (iv) has served as an adequate model. Competition organisers may or may not wish to use these position titles, but must, under CAR 603.05, ensure whatever structure they select is capable of maintaining supervision and operational control over the competition and that all responsibilities listed in sub-paragraphs (d)(i) to (iv) are clearly assigned to responsible persons.

(2) Crowd Control

(a) A sponsor shall ensure that sufficient clearly identified crowd control personnel are available and briefed on crowd control and emergency procedures.

(b) The designated spectator area shall be positioned so that no spectator is closer than the minimum distance from aircraft in flight, taking off, landing, or performing as specified in section 623.07 of these standards.

(c) The sponsor shall ensure continuous separation between non-participants (spectators) and the aerobatic competition box, aircraft movement areas and access routes for emergency vehicles during the competition.

Information Note:

There are no specific requirements regarding the type of fence used, but the sponsor should ensure that if, for example, a rope barrier is used, sufficient crowd control personnel are on duty to ensure that the spectators remain behind it. Snow fencing has been used successfully as a temporary crowd restraining barrier. It is relatively easy to erect and remove, and requires fewer personnel to monitor than a rope fence. Snow fencing is often available on a loan or rental basis from the airport authority or from Provincial Highways Departments.

(3) Emergency Facilities

(a) A sponsor shall ensure that procedures, facilities, equipment and personnel are in place to respond to anticipated emergencies, including aircraft accident or medical emergency involving the spectators.

Information Note:

Local police and hospitals should be aware of the competition dates and the expected size of the crowd.

Many airports have complete crash/fire/rescue equipment and personnel on the site and available on request. At other localities, the local Fire Department may be willing to provide equipment and personnel. For very small competitions, a jeep or other vehicle carrying fire fighting equipment may suffice. Appropriate medical facilities and personnel should be provided at all Special Aviation Events. At large air competitions, full medical aid facilities should be provided on site, including doctor, nurse, ambulance and medical centre. At small competitions, facilities should be provided for the treatment of minor injuries. The local St. John Ambulance Association may provide this assistance by prior arrangement. Arrangements should be made to have a local doctor on call.

A station wagon, van or light truck, suitably identified, may be used where full ambulance service is not available.

(b) The sponsor shall ensure that emergency entrances, access lanes and exits are available to and from the competition site and procedures are in place to keep them clear in an emergency situation.

(c) Emergency entrances, access lanes and exits shall be clearly identified on the site diagram submitted in support of the application to conduct the Special Aviation Event.

(4) Air Traffic Control

(a) At Special Aviation Events where Air Traffic Control or advisory service is provided:

(i) the sponsor shall ensure that Air Traffic Procedures are developed to conform with procedures established by agencies responsible for the competition site and airspace; and

(ii) a method of communication shall be established between Air Traffic Control staff and the person designated the responsibility for the conduct of the flight operations at the competition.

(b) At Special Aviation Events where Air Traffic Control or advisory service is not provided, the sponsor shall ensure that communication between the person responsible for flight operations and aircraft participating in the competition is provided.

623.06 Participant and Aircraft Eligibility

(1) Participant Eligibility

(a) To be eligible to operate an aircraft in an aerobatic competition, a person shall:

(i) hold a pilot licence and medical certificate appropriate to the aircraft to be operated in the special aviation competition; and

(ii) be authorised by the sponsor.

(b) Prior to authorising a person to operate an aircraft in an aerobatic competition, the sponsor shall confirm that:

(i) the person meets the requirements of subparagraph (a)(i); and

(ii) the aircraft to be operated meets the eligibility requirements of subsection (2).

(c) Passengers shall not be carried on board the aircraft, except that during competition flights in Basic or Sportsman, safety pilots may be carried.

(d) Each pilot participating in the competition shall sign the Participant’s Statement attached to the Special Flight Operations Certificate issued for the competition.

(2) Aircraft Eligibility

To be eligible to be operated in a Canadian Special Aviation Event - Aerobatic Competition, an aircraft shall:

(a) be registered in Canada or in a contracting state;

(b) have a flight authority;

Information Note:

The flight authority may be in the form of a Certificate of Airworthiness issued in accordance with Annex 8 of the ICAO Convention of Civil Aviation by the country of registration or a Canadian validation of a foreign non-standard flight authority issued by the country of registration. (e.g. Special Certificate of Airworthiness, Flight Permit, Laissez-passer Exceptionnel, etc.);

Under CAR 507.05, operators of foreign civil aircraft with non-standard flight authorities must obtain a Canadian validation of a Foreign Flight Authority prior to entering Canadian airspace. A Canadian validation may be obtained by providing the following information to Transport Canada Aviation at least 10 working days in advance of the event:

  • a clear and legible copy of the aircraft’s Certificate of Registration;
  • a clear and legible copy of the aircraft’s flight authority including all operating conditions/limitations; and
  • the planned itinerary for the aircraft while in Canada, including dates and point of entry and departure from Canadian airspace and all Special Aviation Events in which the aircraft intends to participate.

(c) undergo a technical inspection; and

(d) be authorised by the Sponsor.

623.07 Minimum Safety Distances and Altitudes from Spectators, Built-up Areas and Occupied Buildings

(1) The aerobatic competition box shall be positioned in a manner that aircraft operating in the aerobatic competition box can adhere to the provisions of section 602.14 of the CARs, except that:

(a) where the public has been invited to view the competition, a designated spectator area shall be positioned on one side only of the aerobatic competition box; and

(b) the designated spectator area shall be positioned no closer than 500 feet from the outer edge of the competition box.

(2) Aircraft shall take-off or land on a runway or an area no closer than a distance of 200 feet from any spectators.

623.08 Weather Conditions

The minimum weather conditions for the conduct of a Special Aviation Event - Aerobatic Competition shall be a ground visibility of 3 miles and a ceiling 500 feet above the upper limits of the competition box for the category of competition.

Information Note:

As an example, the minimum ceiling for Basic and Sportsman powered aircraft is 4,000 feet AGL.

623.09 Participant’s Briefing

Information Note:

The importance of the Participant’s Briefing to the safe and successful conduct of a Special Aviation Event cannot be overemphasised. It is a safety briefing at which all aspects of the flying, ground, and emergency procedures of the proposed competition should be reviewed. The briefing should be conducted in such a way, that every pilot participant and competition personnel in charge of the air, ground and emergency operations leaves the briefing with a clear understanding of their responsibilities and of procedures to be followed in normal or emergency situations that may occur during the course of the competition.

(1) General

(a) A participant’s briefing shall be conducted prior to the competition at a time as close to the start of the competition as practicable.

(b) The briefing shall be carried out in an area as free of noise and other distractions as possible and attendance shall be limited to pilots participating in the competition and key competition personnel responsible for the air, ground, safety and emergency operations for the competition.

(c) Each pilot participant’s attendance at the briefing shall be verified by roll call or otherwise and a record retained for a minimum of sixty (60) days.

(d) Pilot participants who did not attend the briefing shall not be permitted to participate in the competition on that day.

(2) Briefing Content

The briefing shall cover the following basic actions, as a minimum:

(a) introduction of the key competition personnel and description of the means of communication with them;

(b) provision of a weather briefing covering aspects of weather that are relevant to the conduct of the competition, including cloud cover (ceiling), visibility, winds and temperature, density altitude and other current weather data, and forecast for the period of the competition;

(c) ensuring that the weather briefing referred to in (b) above is given by a Flight Service Station Specialist if one is available, otherwise by an experienced pilot;

(d) description of the aerodrome air traffic zone details, i.e. position, dimensions, height above MSL, and details of the NOTAM issued for the competition, including local obstructions, warnings and other pertinent information, such as bird activity and nearby aerial activity;

(e) description of the method of co-ordinating air traffic, including type of co-ordination such as positive control by ATS, advisory by FSS or other type of co-ordination, as well as, if necessary, a description of frequencies and assignment of radio call signs;

(f) description of the methods of suspending the performance or recalling a pilot participant by both radio and visual signals;

(g) description of the fire fighting and emergency services equipment available, including their location and the access routes to be kept clear; and

(h) any other basic action deemed necessary.

Information Note:

Examples of topics that have been included in briefings are medical factors affecting pilot performance, e.g. over the counter medication, pilot fatigue, heat stress and factors affecting orientation of flight over water demonstrations or unusual terrain.

(3) Participant’s Statement

Personnel designated by the sponsor shall ensure that:

(a) each pilot participant reads the Special Flight Operations Certificate issued for the competition;

(b) each pilot participant has signed the Participant’s Statement reproduced in this Chapter as Appendix A ;

(c) each pilot participant who has not complied with subparagraphs (a) and (b) is not allowed to participate in the competition; and

(d) at the end of a briefing, a copy of the Statement is given to the monitoring Civil Aviation Inspector or, if one is not on site, that a copy of the Statement is forwarded to Transport Canada Aviation, General Aviation, on the first working day following the competition.

Appendix A - Participant's Statement

Diagrams



CHAPTER FOUR - LOW LEVEL AIR RACES

NOTE:

These races are a rare occurrence in Canada. Standards will be developed and published as required in consultation and harmonization where possible with the FAA and race organizations.



CHAPTER FIVE - FLY-INS

Reserved