Part VI - General Operating and Flight Rules

Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) 2015-2

Standard 625 - Aircraft Equipment and Maintenance

Content last revised: 2009/12/01

625.03 Flight Authority

Information Note:

CAR 605.03(2) provides relief from the requirement to carry a ferry flight permit on board an aircraft where that flight is conducted wholly in Canadian airspace. This provision is included because of the difficulty in bringing a flight authority to an aircraft that may be down for maintenance in a remote location. Chapter 507 of the Airworthiness Manual provides the means to make application under these conditions.

625.04 Reserved

625.05 Markings and Placards

  1. (1) The standards of airworthiness applicable to markings and placards are those requirements specified in:

    1. (a) the type certificate or aircraft flight manual;

    2. (b) a supplemental type certificate, repair design approval or any other technical data issued in respect of a modification embodied into the aircraft;
      (amended 2009/12/01)

    3. (c) any applicable Airworthiness Directive; and

    4. (d) in the case of an aircraft operated pursuant to CAR 705, a manual prepared by the air operator, for example, a flight operating manual.

625.06 Reserved

625.07 Minimum Equipment List

Information Note:

The following provisions, although considered advisory in nature, have been included in the main body of these standards due to their importance. They are not standards.

  1. (i) Minimum Equipment Lists (MELs) provide an additional measure of control of defects. MELs are lists of systems and equipment installed in the aircraft, annotated to show the degree to which defects may be allowed for a limited period. In some cases, additional operational procedures or restrictions are applied. Procedures to troubleshoot, inspect or secure items prior to takeoff may also be identified as conditions for operation with the equipment inoperative.

  2. (ii) The recent trend in MEL development is that the MEL should become an exhaustive list. As such, any item not listed in an MEL must be operable at the time of dispatch. Items such as entertainment systems or other items installed for the convenience of passengers are usually listed under the heading of passenger convenience equipment. MELs usually address only the operation or non-operation of systems and equipment, and do not cover degraded system performance, such as unusually slow landing gear retraction, excessive fuel consumption, etc. As such, an MEL does not allow for every possible combination of defects, or for the additional workload which may result from multiple defects.

  3. (iii) Application of the MEL does not eliminate the need for the pilot to make his own assessment of the airworthiness of the aircraft, but it does indicate certain circumstances where operation is definitely not permitted. Once a MEL has been approved for use by a particular operator, compliance with it becomes mandatory. MELs are not transferable between operators.

  4. (iv) Configuration Deviation Lists (CDLs) may be regarded as the structural equivalent of MELs. They permit operation of the aircraft with certain minor structural items missing. Examples of the types of item listed in a CDL include fairings, access panels, vortex generators and static discharge wicks. CDLs may not include primary structure, and like MELs, they address only the presence or absence of the listed items and take no account of degraded quality, such as dents, distortion, cracks or corrosion. In certain cases, they may allow deferral of rectification action for extended periods, such as to the next scheduled check. CDLs usually form an approved appendix to the aircraft flight manual and, as such, require no further approval prior to their use.

625.08 Reserved

625.09 Unserviceable Equipment - Aircraft with a Minimum Equipment List

625.10 Unserviceable Equipment - Aircraft without a Minimum Equipment List

Information Note:

The following provisions, although considered advisory in nature, have been included in the main body of these standards due to their importance. They are not standards.

  1. (i) CAR 605 requires that all equipment listed in the applicable airworthiness standard, and all equipment required for the particular flight or type of operation, must be functioning correctly prior to flight. The requirement for a particular system or component to be operative can be determined by reference to the type certificate data sheet, operating regulations or the applicable equipment list in the aircraft operating manual.

  2. (ii) Although the responsibility for deciding whether an aircraft may be operated with outstanding defects rests with the pilot in command, an error in this determination could result in a contravention under these regulations. It is for this reason that the regulations require that full details of all defects be entered in the journey log. The pilot in command must be fully aware of the condition of the aircraft if he is to make the correct decision regarding the intended flight. The manner in which the pilot makes this decision, however, will vary according to the type of operation of the aircraft. In the following paragraphs, private and commercial aircraft are considered separately.

  3. (iii) Defects (e.g. buckling, cracks, extensive corrosion) of the skin or structure of the aircraft or of the pressure hull of a pressurized aircraft beyond the safe limits established by the manufacturer in his maintenance manual or other approved maintenance instructions will render that aircraft unfit for safe operation.

  4. (iv) In the case of an aeroplane or helicopter not operated pursuant to Part IV, or an aircraft not operated pursuant to Part VII, the pilot must review the log prior to flight and decide whether any of the defects recorded affect the airworthiness of the aircraft. Reference may be made to the type certificate data sheet, the aircraft operating manual, or any list provided by the aircraft manufacturer respecting equipment that must be operational for the intended flight. The Minister may also approve a minimum equipment list for use by an owner. Any or all of these may indicate that particular items of equipment are mandatory.

  5. (v) In the case of an aircraft operated pursuant to CAR 604, specific instructions must be provided in the operations manual to facilitate this assessment.

  6. (vi) Where in doubt, the pilot should obtain the advice of an AME. This is best done by requesting the AME to inspect the defective system or component to determine its effect upon the aircraft's fitness for flight. By following this procedure and obtaining the AME's signature in the log book in the form of a maintenance release, the pilot will be able to demonstrate, if necessary, that he has taken all reasonable steps to ensure the airworthiness of the aircraft. Inspection of defective systems by an AME, although advisable, is not a legal requirment. As stated earlier, it is the pilot's responsibility to determine whether the aircraft is fit for the intended flight.

  7. (vii) In the case of an aeroplane or helicopter operated pursuant to Part IV, or an aircraft operated pursuant to Part VII, it is not always practicable for the pilot to personally undertake all actions required to determine the airworthiness status, because of the high levels of utilization, complexity of the aircraft, and the limited time available for all the various aspects of pre-flight preparation required. A common standard must be applied to all aircraft of a fleet. For these reasons, the flight training unit and the air operator regulations require the establishment of a formal system for the control of defects.

  8. (viii) Such systems provide a greater degree of confidence that the airworthiness effects of defects have been taken into account, and ensure consistency of application of the standards. They also set limits on the periods for which the repair of a defect may be deferred. For aircraft operated in commercial air service, this system is normally based on the use of Minimum Equipment Lists (MEL), thereby providing the pilot with a sound basis on which to make his decision regarding the intended flight.

  9. (ix) The final decision, however, still rests with the pilot. A pilot who accepts an aircraft with defects, the repair of which has been deferred in accordance with an approved system, has a good defence against any possible charge of flying an unairworthy aircraft, whereas a pilot who undertakes a flight with an aircraft that is not in compliance with the approved system to control the deferral of repairs to defects commits an offence.

  10. (x) The complexity of a system used to control the deferral of repairs to defects will vary according to the type of aircraft operated and the size and nature of the operation and may include reference to an approved minimum equipment list and/or configuration deviation list. In all cases the control system must be described in the air operator's maintenance control manual. Once approved, compliance with those procedures is mandatory.

625.11 Reserved

625.12 Reserved

625.13 Reserved

625.16 Power-driven Aircraft - Night VFR

  1. (1) The position lights and anti-collision lights referred to in CAR 605.16(1)(k) shall meet the requirements set out in Schedule 1 of Appendix I of this standard, and shall:

    1. (a) comply with the standards of light distribution, intensity and colour, and the flashing characteristics, where applicable, in accordance with the Airworthiness Manual;

    2. (b) be installed in accordance with the requirements set out in Chapter 551 of the Airworthiness Manual; and

    3. (c) not cause glare or other annoyance to a flight crew member to the extent that the person's ability to perform duties safely is affected.

625.33 Flight Data Recorders and Cockpit Voice Recorders

In this section, a reference to the date on which an aircraft is manufactured is a reference to the date on which the manufacturer has signed the statement of conformity certifying that the aircraft conforms to the approved type design.
(amended 2003/09/01)

I - Flight Data Recorders (FDRs)
  1. (1) Unless otherwise stated in these standards, an FDR installed on board an aircraft pursuant to paragraphs 605.33(1)(a) and (b) of the CARs, shall:
    (amended 2003/09/01)

    1. (a) record and store in a digital manner the parameters
      (amended 2003/09/01)

      1. (i) generally provided for below by way of reference to Schedule 2, 3, 4 or 5, as the case may be, of Appendix I to this standard, within the ranges, accuracies, intervals and resolution referred to therein, or
        (amended 2003/09/01)

      2. (ii) specifically provided for in subsection (3), (4) or (5);
        (amended 2003/09/01)

    2. (b) facilitate the retrieval of the parameters referred to in paragraph (a) from the digital storage medium used in the FDR; and
      (amended 2003/09/01)

    3. (c) be equipped with an underwater locating device to assist in locating the FDR.
      (amended 2003/09/01; no previous version)

  2. (2) An FDR installed on board a multi-engine turbine-powered aeroplane pursuant to paragraph 605.33(1)(a) of the CARs, in respect of which a type certificate has been issued authorizing the transport of 30 or fewer passengers, that is configured for 10 to 19 passenger seats and that has a date of manufacture after October 11, 1991, shall record the parameters specified in Schedule 2 of Appendix I.
    (amended 2003/09/01)

  3. (3) An FDR installed on board a multi-engine turbine-powered aeroplane pursuant to paragraph 605.33(1)(b) of the CARs, in respect of which a type certificate has been issued authorizing the transport of 30 or fewer passengers and that is configured for 20 to 30 passenger seats, shall record, to within the ranges, accuracies, sampling intervals and resolutions specified in Schedule 3 of Appendix I, the parameters listed below:
    (amended 2003/09/01)

    1. (a) subject to paragraph (c), for aeroplanes in respect of which a type certificate has been issued before October 1, 1969, the following parameters:
      (amended 2003/09/01)

      1. (i) time,

      2. (ii) altitude,

      3. (iii) airspeed,

      4. (iv) vertical acceleration,

      5. (v) heading,

      6. (vi) time of each radio transmission to or from air traffic control,

      7. (vii) pitch attitude,

      8. (viii) roll attitude,

      9. (ix) longitudinal acceleration,

      10. (x) control column or pitch control surface position, and

      11. (xi) thrust of each engine;

    2. (b) subject to paragraph (c), for aeroplanes in respect of which a type certificate has been issued after September 30, 1969, the following parameters:
      (amended 2003/09/01)

      1. (i) time,

      2. (ii) altitude,

      3. (iii) airspeed,

      4. (iv) vertical acceleration,

      5. (v) heading,

      6. (vi) time of each radio transmission to, or from, air traffic control,

      7. (vii) pitch attitude,

      8. (viii) roll attitude,

      9. (ix) longitudinal acceleration,

      10. (x) pitch trim position,

      11. (xi) control column or pitch control surface position,

      12. (xii) control wheel or lateral control surface position,

      13. (xiii) rudder pedal or yaw control surface position,

      14. (xiv) thrust of each engine,

      15. (xv) position of each thrust reverser,

      16. (xvi) trailing edge flap or cockpit flap control position, and

      17. (xvii) leading edge flap or cockpit flap control position;

    3. (c) for aeroplanes with a date of manufacture after October 11, 1991, all of the parameters listed in Schedule 3.
      (amended 2003/09/01)

  4. (4) An FDR installed on board a multi-engine turbine-powered aeroplane pursuant to paragraph 605.33(1)(c) of the CARs, in respect of which a type certificate has been issued before October 1, 1969, authorizing the transport of more than 30 passengers and with a date of manufacture before May 26, 1989, shall record to within the ranges, accuracies, sampling intervals and resolutions specified in Schedule 3, the parameters listed below:
    (amended 2003/09/01)

    1. (a) time;

    2. (b) altitude;

    3. (c) airspeed;

    4. (d) vertical acceleration;

    5. (e) heading;

    6. (f) time of each radio transmission to or from air traffic control;

    7. (g) pitch attitude;

    8. (h) roll attitude;

    9. (i) longitudinal acceleration;

    10. (j) control column or pitch control surface position; and

    11. (k) thrust of each engine.

  5. (5) An FDR installed on board a multi-engine turbine-powered aeroplane pursuant to paragraph 605.33(1)(c) of the CARs, in respect of which a type certificate has been issued after September 30, 1969, authorizing the transport of more than 30 passengers, or installed on board an aircraft in respect of which a type certificate has been issued before October 1, 1969, authorizing the transport of more than 30 passengers and with a date of manufacture after May 26, 1989, shall record to within the ranges, accuracies, sampling intervals and resolutions specified in Schedule 3, the parameters listed below:
    (amended 2003/09/01)

    1. (a) time;

    2. (b) altitude;

    3. (c) airspeed;

    4. (d) vertical acceleration;

    5. (e) heading;

    6. (f) time of each radio transmission to or from air traffic control;

    7. (g) pitch attitude;

    8. (h) roll attitude;

    9. (i) longitudinal acceleration;

    10. (j) pitch trim position;

    11. (k) control column or pitch control surface position;

    12. (l) control wheel or lateral control surface position;

    13. (m) rudder pedal or yaw control surface position;

    14. (n) thrust of each engine;

    15. (o) position of each thrust reverser;

    16. (p) trailing edge flap or cockpit flap control position; and

    17. (q) leading edge flap or cockpit flap control position.

  6. (6) Despite subsection (5), an FDR installed on board a multi-engine turbine-powered aeroplane pursuant to paragraph 605.33(1)(c) of the CARs, in respect of which a type certificate has been issued authorizing the transport of more than 30 passengers, and with a date of manufacture after October 11, 1991, shall record the parameters specified in Schedule 3 of Appendix I.
    (amended 2003/09/01)

  7. (7) An FDR installed on board a multi-engine turbine-powered aeroplane pursuant to paragraph 605.33(1)(c) of the CARs, in respect of which a type certificate has been issued authorizing the transport of more than 30 passengers and that is equipped with a digital data bus and Aeronautical Radio Incorporated 717 digital flight data acquisition unit (ARINC 717 DFDAU), or equivalent, shall record the parameters specified in Schedule 3 of Appendix I for those parameters that are available on the digital data bus.
    (amended 2003/09/01)

  8. (8) An FDR installed on board an aeroplane pursuant to paragraph 605.33(1)(d) of the CARs, in respect of which a type certificate has been issued authorizing the transport of cargo only shall comply with the standards in force on the date of issuance of the type certificate or on the date of manufacture of the aeroplane, whichever is the latest, as specified in subsection (4), (5), (6) or (7).
    (amended 2003/09/01)

  9. (9) An FDR installed on board a multi-engine turbine-powered helicopter pursuant to paragraph 605.33(1)(a) of the CARs, that is configured for 10 to 19 passenger seats, and with a date of manufacture after October 11, 1991, shall record the parameters specified in Schedule 4 of Appendix I.
    (amended 2003/09/01)

  10. (10) An FDR installed on board a multi-engine turbine-powered helicopter pursuant to paragraph 605.33(1)(a) or (c) of the CARs, that is configured for 20 or more passenger seats, and with a date of manufacture after October 11, 1991, shall record the parameters specified in Schedule 5 of Appendix I.
    (amended 2003/09/01)

II - Cockpit Voice Recorders (CVRs)
  1. (1) A CVR installed on board an aircraft pursuant to subsection 605.33(2) of the CARs, shall continuously record:
    (amended 2003/09/01)

    1. (a) voice communications transmitted from, or received by, the aircraft concerning the operation of the aircraft;
      (amended 2003/09/01)

    2. (b) the aural environment of the flight deck, including:

      1. (i) the audio signals received from each microphone being used by a flight crew member;

      2. (ii) voice communications of flight crew members using the aircraft's interphone system and the public address system, and
        (amended 2003/09/01)

      3. (iii) voice communications or audio signals identifying navigation or approach aids detected by a headset or speaker.

  2. (2) A CVR installed on board an aircraft with a date of manufacture after October 11, 1991 and brought onto the register after the coming into force date of this section, shall record continuously the information specified in (1) with reference to a time scale.
    (amended 2003/09/01)

  3. (3) A CVR installed on board an aircraft manufactured after December 31, 2002, shall retain all information recorded during the aircraft's operation, or all information recorded during the last two hours of the aircraft's operation, whichever is less.
    (amended 2003/09/01)

  4. (4) A CVR installed on board any aircraft other than one referred to in subsection (3), shall retain all the information recorded during the aircraft's operation, or all the information recorded during the last 30 minutes of the aircraft's operation, whichever is less.
    (amended 2003/09/01)

  5. (5) An aircraft with a date of manufacture after October 11, 1991, or on which a CVR has been installed after the coming into force of this section, shall be equipped to record the uninterrupted audio signals received by a boom or mask microphone.
    (amended 2003/09/01)

  6. (6) Each flight crew member of an aircraft equipped to record the uninterrupted audio signals received by boom or mask microphone in accordance with subsection (5), shall use the boom or mask microphone when operating below 10,000 feet mean sea level.
    (amended 2003/09/01)

  7. (7) An aircraft in respect of which a type certificate has been issued authorizing the transport of more than 30 passengers shall have an approved underwater locating device on or adjacent to the recorder container which is secured in such a manner that they are not likely to be separated during crash impact, unless the FDR and CVR required by this section are installed adjacent to each other in such a manner that they are not likely to be separated during crash impact.
    (amended 2003/09/01)

625.36 Altitude Alerting Systems

  1. (1) Pursuant to CAR 605.36(1), the altitude alerting system, or device, shall:

    1. (a) alert the pilot on approaching a preselected altitude, either in ascent or descent, in sufficient time for level flight to be established at the preselected altitude:

      1. (i) by producing a sequence of aural and visual signals during operations at 3,000 feet or more above ground level; and

      2. (ii) by producing a sequence of aural or visual signals during operations at less than 3,000 feet above ground level; and

    2. (b) produce the signals described in paragraph (a) from sea level to the highest operating altitude approved for the aeroplane.

Information Note:

The altitude alert system or device may be tested without special equipment.

625.41 Standby Attitude Indicator

  1. (1) Pursuant to CAR 605.41, the standby attitude indicator shall:

    1. (a) be powered from a source independent of the electrical generating system;

    2. (b) be operative without selection after total failure of the electrical generating system;

    3. (c) continue reliable operation for a minimum of 30 minutes after total failure of the electrical generating system;

    4. (d) operate independently of any attitude indicator system; and

    5. (e) have the indicating instrument:

      1. (i) located in an position on the instrument panel where it is plainly visible to and usable by any pilot at his pilot station; and

      2. (ii) appropriately illuminated during all phases of operation.

625.84 Aircraft Maintenance - General

Information Note:

  1. (i) Details regarding the approval of maintenance schedules are given in 625.86 of these standards.

  2. (ii) Airworthiness Limitations are those requirements that result when the design analysis of the aircraft shows that certain tasks are required to ensure the aircraft remains in compliance with the design standards contained in the certification basis shown on the type certificate.
    (amended 2009/12/01)

  3. (iii) Airworthiness Limitations may be in the form of:

    1. (A) life-limited parts;

    2. (B) an inspection task required by any supplemental inspection document (SID) which has been published by the manufacturer for that aircraft;

    3. (C) Certification Maintenance Requirements (CMRs), either issued by the manufacturer, or by a person holding the design certification for a modification that has been embodied into an aircraft; and
      (amended 2009/12/01)

    4. (D) any other limitation issued by a manufacturer when set out in the instructions for continued airworthiness, issued pursuant to the basis of certification basis.
      (amended 2009/12/01)

  4. (iv) Canadian Airworthiness Directives (ADs) are issued under Division X of CAR 521, and are applicable to all Canadian registered aircraft, engines, propellers, appliances or parts for which a design approval document has been issued, except for aircraft that are operated under a special certificate of airworthiness in the owner-maintenance classification. A Canadian AD takes precedence over any equivalent foreign notice.
    (amended 2009/12/01)

  5. (v) Where no Canadian AD exists, owners are required to comply with equivalent notices issued by a foreign state, provided that state is responsible for the type design of the aircraft.

 

  1. (a) For this purpose, it is the state responsible for the type design, not necessarily the state of manufacture, whose equivalent notices are mandatory. This might be the case where an aircraft is designed in state X but manufactured in state Z. The equivalent notices issued by country X are mandatory in respect to that aircraft. The equivalent notices issued by state Z need not be followed unless the owner feels it would be appropriate.
    (amended 2009/12/01)

  2. (b) Appendix H of this standard, and Division X of CAR 521, further detail the associated AD information.
    (amended 2009/12/01)

625.85 Maintenance Release and Elementary Work

(1) Pursuant to subsection 605.85(4) of the CARs, no maintenance release is required in respect of the tasks identified as elementary work in Appendix A of this standard.
(amended 2007/12/30; no previous version)

Information Note:

  1. (i) The regulations in Subpart 571 of the CARs provide specific qualifications for personnel who can sign a maintenance release. It is the owner's responsibility to ensure that only personnel meeting those qualifications sign a maintenance release in respect of their aircraft, engines, propeller or other installed components.
    (amended 2007/12/30)

    1. (A) The standards applicable to a maintenance release are set out in Standard 571.
      (amended 2007/12/30)

  2. (ii) Elementary work does not require a maintenance release to be signed by an AME; however, pursuant to section 571.03 of the CARs, any elementary work performed on an aircraft must be detailed in the technical record, and must be accompanied by the signature of the person who performed the work.
    (amended 2007/12/30)

  3. (iii) Owners of amateur-built aircraft or aircraft operated pursuant to a special certificate of airworthiness in the owner-maintenance classification can perform the work and sign the maintenance release with respect to their own aircraft.
    (amended 2002/03/01)

  4. (iv) Appendix A of these standards lists the tasks and conditions associated to elementary work.

625.86 Maintenance Schedules

Information Note:

  1. (i) The phrase "no person shall conduct a takeoff, or permit another person to conduct a take off" is used in the regulations to clearly emphasize an aircraft owner's responsibility to advise any person operating his/her aircraft of any maintenance that the aircraft might require pursuant to the regulations.

  2. (ii) CAR Part I defines "Owner" as the person who has legal custody and control of the aircraft.

 

  1. (1) Pursuant to CAR 605.86, all aircraft, other than ultra-light or hang-gliders, shall be maintained in accordance with a maintenance schedule, approved by the Minister, that meets the requirements of this Aircraft Equipment and Maintenance Standard 625.

  2. (2)

    1. (a) As applicable to the type of aircraft, at intervals not to expire later than the last day of the 12th month, following the preceding inspection, Part I and  Part II of the Maintenance Schedule detailed in Appendix B of these standards are approved by the Minister for use on other than large aircraft, turbine-powered pressurized aeroplanes, airships, any aeroplane or helicopter operated by a flight training unit under  CAR 406, or any aircraft operated by air operators under CAR Part VII.
      (amended 2007/12/30)

    2. (b) Owners of non-commercially operated small aircraft and balloons must also comply with Appendix C with respect to out of phase tasks and equipment maintenance requirements.

    3. (c) Owners of non-commercially operated small aircraft and balloons who choose to comply with Parts I or II of Appendix B as applicable, and Appendix C, need not submit any documents to the Minister for formal approval. The schedule is considered to be approved for their use by the Minister. Owners need only to make an entry in the aircraft technical records that the aircraft is maintained pursuant to the maintenance schedule.

      Information Note:

      1. (i) Part I of Appendix B of these standards applies to small piston engine aircraft and small helicopters not operated in a flight training unit or in a commercial air service, and is performed on an annual basis (i.e. at intervals not exceeding 12 months).

      2. (ii) Part II of Appendix B of these standards applies to balloons not operated in a flight training unit, in special flight operations, or in a commercial air service and is performed on an annual basis (i.e. at intervals not exceeding 12 months).

  3. (3)

    1. (a) As applicable to the type of aircraft, and when performed in accordance with the guidelines specified therein, at intervals not exceeding 100 hours air time, Part I and Part II of Appendix B of these standards are approved by the Minister for use with respect to balloons operated under CAR 603, to aeroplanes and helicopters operated by flight training units under CAR 406, and to aircraft operated by air operators under CAR Part VII, provided the aircraft are not large aircraft or pressurized turbine-powered aeroplanes.

    2. (b) Owners of commercially operated small aircraft must also comply with Appendix C with respect to out of phase tasks and equipment maintenance requirements.

    3. (c) Owners of commercially operated balloons must comply with Part II of Appendix B, and Appendix C, but need not submit any documents to the Minister for formal approval. The schedule is considered to be approved for their use by the Minister. Owners need only to make an entry in the technical records that the balloon is maintained pursuant to the maintenance schedule.

      Information Note:

      1. (i) Part I of Appendix B of these standards applies only to small piston engine aircraft and small helicopters operated in a flight training unit or in a commercial air service, and is performed at intervals not exceeding 100 hours air time.

      2. (ii) Part II of Appendix B of these standards applies to balloons operated in a flight training unit, in special flight operations or in a commercial air service, and is performed at intervals not exceeding 100 hours air time.

    4. (d) Owners of commercially operated small aircraft, other than balloons, who choose comply with Part I of Appendix B, and Appendix C, must submit their maintenance schedule for approval by the Minister, in accordance with Appendix D.

    5. (e) Owners of commercially operated small aircraft, other than balloons, may, on the other hand, choose to comply with Appendices C and D, with respect to their maintenance schedule. The latter must be approved by the Minister.

  4. (4) Large aircraft, aeroplanes and helicopters operated by flight training units under CAR 406, large aircraft operated under CAR Part VII, pressurized turbine-powered aircraft, and airships shall be maintained in accordance with the terms of a maintenance schedule that meets the requirements of Appendices C and D and be approved by the Minister. In the case of an operator bringing into use a type of aircraft which they have not previously operated, the Minister can approve, for a limited period of time, the use of an interim schedule which meets the requirements of Appendices C and D, to allow operation of the aircraft while the complete maintenance schedule is under development or review.

    Information Note:

    Appendix D of these standards applies to: large aircraft; aeroplanes and helicopters operated in a flight training unit; large aircraft operated in a commercial air service; all pressurized turbine-powered aircraft; and airships.

  5. (5) Maintenance schedules, including interim schedules, approved under the provisions of Appendix D pursuant to CAR 605.86(2), shall:

    1. (a) be based upon data obtained from a current, and approved, maintenance review board (MRB)report; or

    2. (b) where no current MRB report exists, be based upon data obtained from:

      1. (i) the current recommendations of the aircraft manufacturer;

      2. (ii) a maintenance schedule approved by the Minister for use by another operator; or

      3. (iii) any other data acceptable to the Minister.

        Information Note:

        The list shown in (5)(b) above is in the usual order of preference (i.e. the current manufacturer's recommendations take priority over third-party programs, or other sources). Where an operator wishes to use data which deviates from the above order of preference, the onus is on the applicant to demonstrate that the proposed program is more appropriate to their operation.

  6. (6) Maintenance schedules approved under this section shall contain inspection requirements for the airframe, engine(s), propeller(s), appliances, survival equipment, emergency equipment and other equipment installed on the aircraft, including the applicable out of phase and equipment maintenance requirements of Appendix C, and shall take into account the requirements of any modifications made to the aircraft.

  7. (7) Maintenance schedules approved under this section are not transferrable to another owner or operator without the prior approval of the Minister.

  8. (8) Prior to the commencement of any tolerance to a task required by the maintenance schedule:
    (amended 2008/12/30)

    1. (a) in the case of an aircraft operated pursuant to Subparts 406, 604 or Part VII, use of the tolerance shall be authorized and controlled in accordance with the operator's approved procedures as set forth in the applicable operations manual maintenance control manual;
      (amended 2008/12/30; no previous version)

    2. (b) in the case of any other aircraft, the aircraft shall be inspected by the holder of an applicable and valid AME license to ensure that it is in satisfactory condition to operate for the period of the tolerance;
      (amended 2008/12/30)

    3. (c) where the inspection or other work required to support use of a tolerance constitutes a maintenance activity, a maintenance release will be required; and
      (amended 2008/12/30; no previous version)

    4. (d) tolerances are not permitted in respect of tasks mandated by airworthiness limitations or airworthiness directives.
      (amended 2008/12/30; no previous version)

      Information Note:
      (amended 2008/12/30; no previous version)

      1. (i) The manufacturer's tolerance recommendations in an operator's maintenance schedule is subject to approval by the Minister. The applicant must demonstrate that the circumstances leading to the application of a tolerance are within the control of the applicant and that the approval of tolerances will not jeopardize the safety of the product or service. Moreover, if the Minister becomes aware that the operator is misusing the tolerances, or that the pertinent procedures set out in the MCM or operations manual are not being followed, the approval of the tolerances may be withdrawn by the Minister.
        (amended 2008/12/30; no previous version)

      2. (ii) Each check set out in a maintenance schedule must be tracked independently. For example, a 1,000 hour check is not the 10th 100 hour check. It is a check due 1000 hours from the last 1,000 hour inspection.
        (amended 2008/12/30; no previous version)

      3. (iii) Each scheduled interval of a task is calculated from the time the task was last carried out, regardless if a tolerance is applied. For example, where the first interval of a 100 hour check is carried out at 110 hours, the next inspection is due at 210 hours.
        (amended 2008/12/30; no previous version)

      4. (iv) The intervals applicable to the tasks forming part of progressive inspections are to be kept in the same order of events. For example, where the manufacturer's recommendation is to accomplish a task each 200 hours, if that task is carried out in the beginning of a first phase of a 200 hour cycle, it must be repeated in the same time frame of the next cycle. Otherwise, if that particular task is carried out at the end of the last phase of the next cycle, it could inappropriately accumulate close to 400 hours between tasks accomplishments.
        (amended 2008/12/30; no previous version)

      5. (v) Prior to the commencement of a tolerance to a component task interval, maintenance action may be required to confirm continued serviceability of the component. For example, before using a tolerance to an engine TBO, filter checks or power runs may be appropriate.
        (amended 2008/12/30; no previous version)

  9. (9) Under the provisions of CAR 605.86(3), the Minister can, on receipt of a fully documented application, authorize an operator to exceed his approved inspection interval. Such authorizations shall be applicable on a case by case basis, and do not constitute a permanent amendment to the operator's approved maintenance schedule. Prior to the commencement of any authorization issued pursuant to this subsection, the aircraft shall be inspected to the degree necessary to ensure that it is airworthy, and in satisfactory condition to operate for the period covered by the authorization.

  10. (10) An owner or operator using a maintenance schedule approved in accordance with this section, shall amend that schedule when so directed by the Minister.

  11. (11) Pursuant to CAR 605.86(3), an owner or operator using a maintenance schedule approved in accordance with this section can also amend the schedule as a result of operating experience, provided that, prior to utilizing the provisions of the amended schedule, the amendment is:

    1. (a) approved by the Minister; or

    2. (b) approved in accordance with a Maintenance Monitoring Program that meets the requirements of Appendix E of these standards.

625.87 Transfer of Aeronautical Products Between Maintenance Schedules

  1. (1) The standards applicable to the permanent transfer of an aeronautical product are contained in Appendix F of these standards. These requirements must be met at any time an aeronautical product is transferred between maintenance schedules, except that, where a part is supplied by an approved overhaul organization as a temporary replacement, it is maintained in accordance with a maintenance schedule approved for that specific purpose.

  2. (2) Provided that their approved maintenance control manual contains procedures for the use of borrowed parts, a flight training unit or an air operator can borrow an aircraft part from another person and can use such part for a maximum of 100 flight hours or 90 days, whichever is greater, without compliance with Appendix F requirements, even though the time in service of such part exceeds the borrower's approved inspection intervals.

  3. (3) The requirements contained in Appendix F of these standards do not apply to products which are subject to airworthiness limitations. The limitations remain unchanged, as per the type certificate.

625.88 Inspections After Abnormal Occurrences

Appendix G of this standard sets out inspection requirements and other guidance related to abnormal occurrences.

625.89 Reserved

625.90 Reserved

625.91 Reserved

625.93 Technical Records - General

  1. (1) Pursuant to Item 4 of Schedule I to subpart 605, persons calculating times between maintenance activities need only consider air time (i.e. the intervals from the moment an aircraft leaves the ground until it touches the ground at the end of the flight); the air time specified must be the actual air time, and not arrived at by calculation from the total flight time.
    (amended 2008/12/30)

  2. (2) Pursuant to CAR 605.93(3), technical records kept as electronic data shall be protected from damage, or loss, to the same extent as that provided to paper records.

  3. (3) Pursuant to CAR 605.93(6), corrections to technical records, kept as electronic data, shall be done in a manner which will ensure that no original entry is deleted.

    Information Notes:

    1. (i) To cater for the correction of errors, electronic record keeping systems may include provision to alter the existing records, provided the record clearly shows that a change has been made and includes all the relevant details, including the identity of the person making the change, the reason for the change, and the content of the original entry prior to the change.
      (amended 2008/12/30)

    2. (ii) Computer systems used to control maintenance and/or record details of maintenance work carried out should have at least one back-up system updated on a regular basis of any maintenance task entered. Each computer terminal and/or computer network should contain program safeguards against the alteration of the database through:
      (amended 2008/12/30)

      1. (a) "accidental" - means by authorized personnel; or,

      2. (b) "intentional" - means by unauthorized individuals.

  4. (4) Pursuant to items 9 and 10 of Schedule I to subpart 605, the only defects that are specifically required to be entered in the aircraft journey log are those defects that arise during flight operations, and those defects that have not been rectified before the next flight of the aircraft. All other defects may be entered directly into the applicable airframe, engine, propeller or component record. Details of the rectification of defects, and the maintenance release for such rectification, shall be entered into the same record that contained the original entry for the defect. Where the details of the defect, and its rectification and release, were first entered into the journey log, they shall be transcribed into the applicable airframe, engine, propeller or component record within 30 days.
    (amended 2008/12/30; no previous version)

    Information Note:
    (amended 2008/12/30; no previous version)
    1. (i) The purpose of the above provision is to recognize that defects are often found and rectified during maintenance, and the volume of such occurrences may make it impractical to enter them all into the journey log. The details may in these cases be entered directly into the applicable airframe, engine, propeller or component record, provided that the maintenance concerned is completed, and the release signed, before further flight of the aircraft. In all cases, details of unrectified defects or other outstanding maintenance must be entered in the aircraft journey log as must the details of the rectification of all defects that were initially recorded in the journey log.
      (amended 2008/12/30; no previous version)

    2. (ii) Pursuant to item 4 of Schedule II to subpart 605, particulars of any maintenance performed must be entered into the applicable airframe, engine, propeller or component record. When maintenance events such as scheduled maintenance, Airworthiness Directive compliance, major modifications or major repairs are accomplished, and only the aircraft journey logbook is available, it is suggested to have the maintenance provider furnish an additional copy of the maintenance release certifications, signed in ink, on paper that can later be permanently bonded into the applicable airframe, engine propeller or component technical log page.
      (amended 2008/12/30; no previous version)

625.96 Technical Records Other Than Journey Logs

  1. (1) Pursuant to CAR 605.96, the owner of an aircraft shall maintain and retain technical records, other than the Journey Log, until such time as the aircraft is no longer registered.

  2. (2) Technical records pertaining to repetitive inspections of aircraft need only be retained until the inspection activity is repeated.

Appendices:

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