Part VI - General Operating and Flight Rules

Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) 2017-1

Standard 624.222 – Emergency Features of the General Operating and Flight Rules Standards

(effective 2015/08/01)

624.222 Emergency Features

  1. (a) Each passenger-carrying aeroplane emergency exit (other than over the wing) that is more than 6 feet from the ground with the aeroplane on the ground and the landing gear extended shall have an approved means to assist the occupants in descending to the ground. The assisting means for a floor level emergency exit meets the requirements of paragraph 25.809(f)(1) of Part 25, Title 14, of the Code of Federal Regulations of the United States, in the version in effect on April 30, 1972 or after that date, except that, for any aeroplane for which the application for the type certificate was filed after that date, it meets the requirements under which the aeroplane was type certificated.
  2. (b) Each passenger emergency exit, its means of access and its means of opening are conspicuously marked and meet the following:
    1. (i) the identity and location of each passenger emergency exit is recognizable from a distance equal to the width of the cabin; and
    2. (ii) the location of each passenger emergency exit is indicated by a sign visible to occupants approaching along each main passenger aisle. There shall be:
      1. (A) a passenger emergency exit locator sign above each aisle near each passenger emergency exit, or at another overhead location if it is more practical because of low headroom, except that one sign may serve more than one exit if each exit can be readily seen from the sign;
      2. (B) a passenger emergency exit marking sign next to each passenger emergency exit, except that one sign may serve two such exits if they both can be readily seen from the sign; and
      3. (C) a sign on each bulkhead or divider that prevents fore and aft vision along the passenger cabin to indicate emergency exits beyond and obscured by the bulkhead or divider, except that if this is not possible, the sign may be placed at another appropriate location.
  3. (c) Each passenger emergency exit marking and each locator sign must meet the following:
    1. (i) for an aeroplane for which the application for the type certificate was filed prior to May 1, 1972, each passenger emergency exit marking and each locator sign is manufactured to meet the requirements of subsection 25.812(b) of Part 25, Title 14, of the Code of Federal Regulations of the United States, in the version in effect on April 30, 1972 or after that date. On these aeroplanes, the luminescence (brightness) of each sign must not decrease below 100 micro lamberts. The colours may be reversed if it increases the emergency illumination of the passenger compartment; or
    2. (ii) for an aeroplane for which the application for the type certificate was filed on May 1, 1972 or after that date, each passenger emergency exit marking and each locator sign is manufactured to meet the interior emergency exit marking requirements under which the aeroplane was type certificated. On these aeroplanes, the luminescence (brightness) of each sign must not decrease below 250 micro lamberts.
  4. (d) Each passenger-carrying aeroplane has an emergency lighting system, independent of the main lighting system. However, the sources of general cabin illumination may be common to both the emergency and the main lighting systems if the power supply to the emergency lighting system is independent of the power supply to the main lighting system. The emergency lighting system includes:
    1. (i) illuminated emergency exit marking and locator signs, sources of general cabin illumination and interior lighting in emergency exit areas; and
    2. (ii) general illumination in the passenger cabin is provided so that when measured along the centreline of each main passenger aisle, and any cross aisle between main aisles, at seat armrest height and at 40-inch intervals, the average illumination is not less than 0.05 foot-candle. A main passenger aisle is considered to extend along the fuselage from the most forward passenger emergency exit or cabin occupant seat, whichever is farther forward, to the most rearward passenger emergency exit or cabin occupant seat, whichever is farther aft.
  5. (e) Except for emergency lights provided in accordance with paragraph (i) of this section that serve no more than one assist means, are independent of the aeroplane’s main emergency lighting system, and are automatically activated when the assist means is erected, the requirements of the emergency lighting system are the following:
    1. (i) the lights are operable manually from the flight crew station and from a point in the passenger cabin that is readily accessible to a flight attendant seat;
    2. (ii) the flight deck control device has an “on”, “off”, and “armed” position so that when armed in the flight deck or turned on at either the flight deck or flight attendant seat, the lights will either light or remain lighted upon interruption (except an interruption caused by a transverse vertical separation of the fuselage during crash landing) of the aeroplane’s normal electrical power. There shall be a means to safeguard against inadvertent operation of the control device from the “armed” or “on” positions;
    3. (iii) each light is armed or turned on during taxi, takeoff and landing; and
    4. (iv) the energy supply to each emergency lighting unit provides the required level of illumination for at least 10 minutes at the critical ambient conditions after emergency landing.
  6. (f) The location of the operating handle and instructions for opening emergency exits from the inside of the aeroplane are shown in the following manner:
    1. (i) each passenger emergency exit has, on or near the exit, a marking that is readable from a distance of 30 inches;
    2. (ii) each Type A, Type B, Type C, Type I or Type II passenger emergency exit with a locking mechanism released by a rotary motion of the handle is marked:
      1. (A) with a red arrow, with a shaft at least three-fourths of an inch wide and a head twice the width of the shaft, extending along at least 70 degrees of arc at a radius approximately equal to three-fourths of the handle length; and
      2. (B) with the word “open” in red letters 1 inch high, placed horizontally near the head of the arrow; and
    3. (iii) for an aeroplane for which the application for the type certificate was filed on May 1, 1972 or after that date, the luminescence (brightness) of each operating handle or operating handle cover must not decrease below 100 micro lamberts.
  7. (g) Access to emergency exits for each passenger-carrying aeroplane is provided as follows:
    1. (i) each passageway between individual passenger areas, or leading to a Type I or Type II emergency exit, is unobstructed and at least 20 inches wide;
    2. (ii) each Type I or Type II emergency exit equipped with an assist means has enough space next to the exit to allow a crew member to assist in the evacuation of passengers without reducing the unobstructed width of the passageway below that required in subparagraph (g)(i) of this section;
    3. (iii) each Type III and Type IV emergency exit is accessible from the main aisle. The access from the main aisle to these exits must not be obstructed by seats, berths, or other protrusions in a manner that would reduce the effectiveness of the exit. In addition,
      1. (A) for an aeroplane for which the application for the type certificate was filed prior to May 1, 1972, the access meets the emergency exit access requirements of subsection 25.813(c) of Part 25, Title 14, of the Code of Federal Regulations of the United States, in the version in effect on April 30, 1972 or after that date; or
      2. (B) for an aeroplane for which the application for the type certificate was filed on May 1, 1972 or after that date, the access meets the emergency exit access requirements under which the aeroplane was certificated;
    4. (iv) each assist space has at least one handle located to enable the crew member to steady himself or herself while assisting passengers during an evacuation;
    5. (v) if it is necessary to pass through a passageway between passenger compartments to reach any required emergency exit from any seat in the passenger cabin, the passageway must not be obstructed. However, curtains may be used if they allow free entry through the passageway; and
    6. (vi) if it is necessary to pass through a doorway separating any seat (except those seats on the flight deck), occupiable for takeoff and landing, from an emergency exit, the door has a means to latch it in the open position and the door is latched open prior to movement of the aeroplane on the surface, takeoff and landing. The latching means shall be able to withstand the loads imposed upon it when the door is subjected to the ultimate inertia forces, relative to the surrounding structure, listed in subsection 525.561(b) of the Airworthiness Manual.
  8. (h) Each emergency exit that is required to be openable from the outside, and its means of opening, is marked on the outside of the aeroplane. The marking shall meet the following, as applicable:
    1. (i) the outside marking for each passenger emergency exit on the side of the fuselage includes a 2-inch coloured band outlining the exit;
    2. (ii) each outside marking, including the band, shall have colour contrast to be readily distinguishable from the surrounding fuselage surface. The contrast shall be such that if the reflectance of the darker colour is 15 percent or less, the reflectance of the lighter colour shall be at least 45 percent. “Reflectance” is the ratio of the luminous flux reflected by a body to the luminous flux it receives. When the reflectance of the darker colour is greater than 15 percent, at least a 30 percent difference between its reflectance and the reflectance of the lighter colour shall be provided; and
    3. (iii) for exits other than those on the side of the fuselage, such as ventral or tail cone exits, the external means of opening, including instructions if applicable, is conspicuously marked in red, or bright chrome yellow if the background colour is such that red is inconspicuous. When the opening means is located on only one side of the fuselage, a conspicuous marking to that effect is provided on the other side.
  9. (i) Each passenger-carrying aeroplane is equipped with exterior emergency lighting and a slip resistant escape route that meets the following requirements:
    1. (i) for an aeroplane for which the application for the type certificate was filed prior to May 1, 1972, the requirements of subsections 25.803(e), 25.812(f) and 25.812(g) of Part 25, Title 14, of the Code of Federal Regulations of the United States, in the version in effect on April 30, 1972 or after that date; or
    2. (ii) for an aeroplane for which the application for the type certificate was filed on May 1, 1972 or after that date, the exterior emergency lighting and slip resistant escape route requirements under which the aeroplane was type certificated.
  10. (j) Each floor-level door or exit on the side of the fuselage (other than those leading into a cargo or baggage compartment that is not accessible from the passenger cabin) that is 44 or more inches high and 20 or more inches wide, but not wider than 46 inches, each passenger ventral exit and each tail cone exit meets the requirements of paragraphs (a), (b), (c), (f), and (g) of this section for floor level emergency exits.
  11. (k) Emergency exits in the passenger cabin that are in excess of the minimum number of required emergency exits meet all of the applicable provisions of this section, except subparagraphs (g)(i), (ii), and (iii) of this section, and are readily accessible.
  12. (l) Each ventral exit and tailcone exit for each large passenger-carrying aeroplane is:
    1. (i) designed and constructed so that it cannot be opened during flight; and
    2. (ii) marked with a placard readable from a distance of 30 inches and installed at a conspicuous location near the means of opening the exit, stating that the exit has been designed and constructed so that it cannot be opened during flight.
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