Part VII - Commercial Air Services

Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) 2015-2

Standard 720 - General

Content last revised: 2000/12/01

Foreword

This Commercial Air Service Standard outlines the requirements for complying with Part VII of the Canadian Aviation Regulations.

For ease of cross reference the divisions and numbers of the standard are assigned to correspond to the regulations, therefore section 720.05 would reflect a standard required by section 700.05 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations.

DIVISION I - GENERAL

720.01 Definitions

The words and expressions used in these Standards have the same meaning as in General Provisions, Section 101.01 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations and in Division I - General, of the Commercial Air Services, Part VII of the Canadian Aviation Regulations with the following additions:
(amended 2000/06/01)

"flight relief facility - seat" - means a comfortable, fully reclining seat, separated and screened from the passengers and flight deck, equipped with a call device, sleep restraint, portable oxygen, and not subject to distraction from noise generated in the cabin. (poste de repos - siège)

"flight relief facility - bunk" - means a bunk that meets the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) 4101/3, Crew Rest Facilities, used in conjunction with ARP 4101, Flight Deck Layout and Facilities. (poste de repos - couchette)

"heli-logging" - means the removal and carriage of logs and shake blocks by helicopter external load means, including water-bucketing performed as part of a contractual arrangement between the logging contractor and the air operator within the contractual logging area. (hélidébardage de billots)
(amended 2000/06/01)

"scheduled air service" - means a publicly available air transport service that provides transportation for passengers between points and serves those points in accordance with a published schedule at a charge per seat. (service aérien régulier)
(amended 1998/03/23)

720.03 Authorization to Operate Specialty Air Services under NAFTA

(1) The standard in an application for authorization to operate specialty air services under the North American Free Trade Agreement in Canada without the requirement for a Canadian operator certificate is as follows:

  1. (a) the legal and trade name of the company and address of the air operator;
  2. (b) if applicable, the date of incorporation and registration number;
  3. (c) a copy of the contract for specialty air services in Canada excluding financial details;
  4. (d) dates of proposed operation, including start and finish;
  5. (e) a copy of the Certificate of Airworthiness for each aircraft to be operated in Canada;
  6. (f) the type of aircraft and registration marks for those aircraft operated in Canada;
  7. (g) the pilot(s) name(s), address(es) and licence number(s);
  8. (h) the proposed type of aerial work;
  9. (i) area of operation, including proposed base;
  10. (j) name of approved maintenance organization and approval number;
  11. (k) operating conditions;
  12. (l) name, address, telephone and telefax number of managerial personnel; and
  13. (m) any other document the Minister deems necessary.

(2) The standard in an application for authorization to operate specialty air services under the North American Free Trade Agreement in Canada with the requirement for a Canadian operator certificate is as follows:

  1. (a) a copy of the contract for specialty air services in Canada excluding financial details;
  2. (b) dates of proposed operation, including start and finish;
  3. (c) a copy of the Certificate of Airworthiness for each aircraft to be operated in Canada if different from those authorized to operate in Canada;
  4. (d) the type of aircraft and registration marks for those aircraft referred to in paragraph (c);
  5. (e) the pilot(s) name(s), address(es) and licence number(s);
  6. (f) the proposed type of aerial work;
  7. (g) if applicable, the number of the Canadian air operator certificate;
  8. (h) if applicable, the date of issue of the Canadian air operator certificate; and
  9. (i) any other document the Minister deems necessary.

720.06 Extended Charter

An air operator shall:

  1. (a) retain operational control of the aircraft;
  2. (b) provide the crew members;
  3. (c) be responsible for the maintenance of the aircraft and its equipment in accordance with the approved Maintenance Control Manual;
  4. (d) have insurance coverage for the aircraft, passengers, baggage and cargo;
  5. (e) where the aircraft is painted in the Charterer's colours, display clearly and legibly near the main cabin door of the aircraft, where passengers are boarding, the words "OPERATED BY (name of air operator which has been issued the operations specification)";
    (amended 2000/12/01)
  6. (f) the Canadian air operator shall ensure that the requirements of Part VII of the Canadian Aviation Regulations relating to flight operations and continuing airworthiness are complied with during the period of the agreement; and
  7. (g) where a foreign Civil Aviation Authority is involved (i.e. extended charter to a foreign air operator) the foreign air operator shall acquire prior to the commencement of operations the following:
    1. (i) a letter stating that the foreign Civil Aviation Authority is aware of and has no objection to the proposed operation; and
    2. (ii) authorization to allow Transport Canada Air Carrier Operations and Airworthiness Inspectors to visit the operations from time to time to conduct necessary inspections of personnel, aircraft maintenance facilities and/or documents as necessary.

720.07 Management Agreement

The standards for an air operator to manage another air operator are:

  1. (a) the managing air operator has an air operator certificate in his own right for the commercial air service and aircraft or similar types of aircraft for which the air operator to be managed holds a valid air operator certificate;
  2. (b) the managing air operator's supervisory personnel are qualified in accordance with the applicable Subpart of this Part to act in supervisory positions for both the managing air operator and the air operator to be managed; and
  3. (c) the managing air operator shall show that the Operational Control System required by this standard is adequate for the proposed operations.

720.08 Operations Between Points Abroad

A Canadian air operator operating between points abroad shall:
(amended 2000/06/01)

  1. (a) ensure that the requirements of Part VII of the Canadian Aviation Regulations relating to flight operations and continuing airworthiness are complied with while operating abroad;
  2. (b) ensure maintenance arrangements are approved by Transport Canada in accordance with Part VII of the Canadian Aviation Regulations;
  3. (c) where the operations are intended to exceed 21 consecutive days, establish a sub-base abroad and have that sub-base added to the air operator certificate; and
    (amended 2000/06/01)
  4. (d) where a foreign Civil Aviation Authority is involved, acquire prior to the commencement of operations abroad the following:
    (amended 2000/06/01)
    1. (i) a letter stating that the foreign Civil Aviation Authority is aware of and has no objection to the proposed operations; and
      (amended 2000/06/01)
    2. (ii) for operations intended to exceed 21 consecutive days, an authorisation allowing Transport Canada Air Carrier Operations and Airworthiness Inspectors to visit the operations from time to time in order to conduct the necessary inspections of personnel, aircraft maintenance facilities and/or related documents.
      (amended 2000/06/01)

DIVISION II - STANDARDS FOR FLIGHT TIME AND FLIGHT DUTY TIME LIMITATIONS AND REST PERIODS

720.15 Flight Time Limitations

The standards for increasing the flight time limitations for flight crew members are:

(1) Where the flight is conducted under Subpart 2 or 3 of Part VII of the Canadian Aviation Regulations or with a deHavilland DHC-6 aircraft not conducting a scheduled passenger service or with a helicopter not conducting a scheduled passenger service or heli-logging, for any 6 non-overlapping periods of 30 consecutive days within a 365 consecutive day period, the maximum flight time in any aircraft shall not exceed:
(amended 1998/03/23)

  1. (a) where the flight crew member conducts single-pilot IFR operations, 8 hours in any 24 consecutive hours;
  2. (b) 60 hours in any 7 consecutive days;
  3. (c) 150 hours in any 30 consecutive days;
  4. (d) 210 hours in any 42 consecutive days;
    (amended 1998/03/23)
  5. (e) 450 hours in any 90 consecutive days;
    (amended 1998/03/23)
  6. (f) 900 hours in any 180 consecutive days;
    (amended 1998/03/23)
  7. (g) the accumulated 30-consecutive day, 42-consecutive day and 90 consecutive day flight times may be reset to zero if the flight crew member is provided with at least 5 consecutive days free from all duty; and
    (amended 1998/03/23)
  8. (h) 1200 hours in any 365 consecutive days.
    (amended 1998/03/23)

(2) For heli-logging operations, the maximum flight time in all flying shall not exceed:

  1. (a) 120 hours in any 30 consecutive days for single-pilot helicopters;
  2. (b) 150 hours in any 30 consecutive days for helicopters operated by two pilots; and
  3. (c) 1,200 hours in any 365 consecutive days.

720.16 Flight Duty Time Limitations and Rest Periods

The standards for increasing the flight duty time limits for flight crew members are:

(1) Where the flight is conducted under Subpart 2 or 3 of Part VII of the Canadian Aviation Regulations or with a deHavilland DHC-6 aircraft not conducting a scheduled passenger service, or with a helicopter not conducting a scheduled passenger service or heli-logging, for the 6 non-overlapping periods of 30 consecutive days referred to in subsection 720.15(1), the maximum flight duty time may be extended to 15 consecutive hours if:
(amended 1998/03/23)

  1. (a) the minimum rest period is increased by 1 hour; or
  2. (b) the maximum flight time does not exceed 8 hours in any 24 consecutive hours.

(2) Where the flight is conducted under Subpart 4 or 5 of Part VII of the Canadian Aviation Regulations using an aircraft other than a helicopter, and the flight crew is augmented by the addition of at least one fully qualified flight crew member, flight duty time may be extended to 15 consecutive hours if:
(amended 1998/03/23)

  1. (a) the additional flight crew member occupies a flight deck observer seat during take-offs and landings unless the observer seat is required by an air carrier inspector, in which case, a passenger seat must be available for the flight crew member; and
    (amended 1998/03/23)
  2. (b) the subsequent minimum rest period is increased by at least 2 hours.
    (amended 1998/03/23)

(3) Where a flight crew is augmented by the addition of at least one flight crew member, the division of duty and rest is balanced between the flight crew members and a flight relief facility is provided, flight duty time may be extended if:

  1. (a) where a flight relief facility - seat is provided, the flight duty time may be extended to 17 consecutive hours, in which case the maximum flight deck duty time for any flight crew member shall be 12 hours;
  2. (b) where a flight relief facility - bunk is provided, the flight duty time may be extended to 20 consecutive hours, in which case the maximum flight deck duty time for any flight crew member shall be 14 hours;
  3. (c) the subsequent minimum rest period shall be at least equal to the length of the preceding flight duty time; and
  4. (d) a maximum of 3 sectors may be completed.

(4) Where a flight crew is augmented by the addition of at least one flight crew member in accordance with subsections (2) or (3), the total flight time accumulated during the flight shall be logged by all flight crew members for the purposes of calculating the maximum flight times in section 700.15 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations.
(amended 1998/09/01)

(5) Where the flight is conducted under Subpart 2 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations in aerial application operations, the maximum flight duty time may be extended for a split flight duty assignment provided that:

  1. (a) the total flight duty time shall not exceed 14 hours in 24 consecutive hours;
    (amended 1998/03/23)
  2. (b) rest periods that allow a total of at least 9 hours opportunity to sleep in 24 consecutive hours shall be taken in suitable accommodation;
    (amended 1998/03/23)
  3. (c) one of these rest periods shall allow at least 5 consecutive hours opportunity to sleep between 20:00 and 06:00 local time; and
    (amended 1998/03/23)
  4. (d) the flight crew member shall receive at least 5 periods of 24 consecutive hours free from duty within each 30 consecutive days.
    (amended 1998/03/23)

720.17 Unforeseen Operational Circumstances

The standards for compliance with this section are:

(1) Flight duty time and flight time limitations may be extended by up to 3 consecutive hours provided that:
(amended 1998/03/23)

  1. (a) where flight duty time is extended, the subsequent minimum rest period shall be increased by an amount at least equal to the extension to the flight duty time;
    (amended 1998/03/23)
  2. (b) the pilot-in-command shall notify the air operator, in accordance with procedures outlined in the company operations manual, of the length of and the reason for the extension;
  3. (c) the air operator shall retain the notifications until the completion of the next Department of Transport audit; and
  4. (d) the air operator shall notify the Minister as soon as practicable.

(2) Flights shall be planned to be completed within the maximum flight time and maximum flight duty time taking into account the time necessary for pre-flight and post-flight duties, the flight or series of flights, forecast weather, turn-around times and the nature of the operation.

720.19 Requirements for Time Free from Duty

The standard for providing a number of rest periods other than as required by subsection 700.19(1) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations is:

(1) Where the flight is conducted under Subpart 2 or 3 of Part VII of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, or with a deHavilland DHC-6 aircraft not conducting a scheduled passenger service or with a helicopter not conducting a scheduled passenger service, or heli-logging, the 24 consecutive hours 3 times within each 30 consecutive days may be replaced by:
(amended 1998/03/23)

  1. (a) following at least 5 consecutive periods of 24 consecutive hours free from duty, a flight crew member may be assigned duty for up to 42 consecutive days; and
    (amended 1998/03/23)
  2. (b) the flight crew member shall receive at least 5 consecutive periods of 24 consecutive hours free from duty following any assignment that exceeds 27 consecutive days.
    (amended 1999/09/01)

720.21 Flight Crew Members on Reserve

The standards for compliance with this section are:

(1) An air operator shall provide each flight crew member with an opportunity to obtain at least 8 consecutive hours sleep in any 24 consecutive hours while on reserve by one of the following methods:

  1. (a) the air operator shall provide the flight crew member with 24 hours notice of the time of commencement and duration of the rest period. The designated rest period cannot shift more than 3 hours earlier or later than the preceding rest period, nor more than a total of 8 hours in any 7 consecutive days;
  2. (b) the flight crew member shall be given a minimum of 10 hours notice of the assignment and shall not be assigned any duty for these 10 hours; or
  3. (c) the air operator shall not assign the flight crew member to flight duty time and shall not interrupt the flight crew member's rest period between 22:00 and 06:00 local time.

(2) Where an air operator is unable to provide a flight crew member with a rest period required by subsection (1) and the flight crew member is notified to report for flight duty or the reporting time occurs between 22:00 and 06:00 local time:

  1. (a) the maximum flight duty time shall be 10 consecutive hours; and
  2. (b) the subsequent minimum rest period shall be increased by at least one-half the length of the preceding flight duty time.

720.23 Controlled Rest on the Flight Deck

The standards for compliance with this section require that the air operator's program is outlined in the company operations manual and contains the following elements:

(1) Training

Every flight crew member who participates in the controlled rest on the flight deck program shall have received training in the program as well as training in the general principles of fatigue and fatigue countermeasures.

(2) Pre-flight Activities

  1. (a) The pilot-in-command shall determine if operational considerations allow or preclude the use of controlled rest on the flight deck based on guidelines developed by the air operator;
  2. (b) the flight crew members' rest periods will be planned at a pre-flight briefing to enable them to anticipate and maximize the sleep opportunity and to manage their alertness. If required, this briefing can occur in flight; and
  3. (c) the briefing shall include:
    1. (i) the choice of rest sequence;
    2. (ii) planned and unplanned wake-up criteria;
    3. (iii) transfer of control procedures; and
    4. (iv) co-ordination with the flight attendants.

(3) Pre-rest Period

Pre-rest period activities should take approximately 5 minutes and shall include:

  1. (a) the transfer of duties;
  2. (b) an operational briefing;
  3. (c) completion of physiological needs;
  4. (d) co-ordination with the flight attendants; and
  5. (e) time for the flight crew member preparing to rest to become comfortable in the flight deck seat.
    (amended 1998/03/23)

(4) Rest Period

  1. (a) Only one flight crew member at a time shall rest and the other flight crew member(s) shall remain alert. An alertness monitor may be considered as a back-up system;
    (amended 1998/03/23)
  2. (b) The resting flight crew member's duties shall be completed by the non-resting flight crew member(s);
    (amended 1998/03/23)
  3. (c) All flight crew members shall remain on the flight deck throughout the rest period;
  4. (d) Each rest period shall be limited to a maximum of 45 minutes to avoid sleep inertia when the flight crew member is awakened;
  5. (e) Rest periods shall occur only during the cruise phase of the flight and shall be completed at least 30 minutes before planned top of descent, workload permitting; and
  6. (f) If required, more than one sleep opportunity may be taken by the flight crew members.

(5) Post-rest Period

  1. (a) Unless required due to an abnormal or emergency situation, at least 15 minutes without any flight duties should be provided to the awakened flight crew member to allow sufficient time to become fully awake before resuming normal duties; and
  2. (b) an operational briefing shall be given to the awakened flight crew member.
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