Part VII - Commercial Air Services

Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) 2015-2

Standard 722 - Aerial Work

Content last revised: 2006/06/30

Foreword

This Commercial Air Services Standard outlines the requirements for complying with Subpart 702 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations.

For ease of cross reference the divisions and numbers of the standard are assigned to correspond to the regulations, therefore Standard 722.06 would reflect a standard required by Section 702.06 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations.

DIVISION I - GENERAL

722.01

The standards under this subpart apply to every Canadian operator engaged in commercial air services under Subpart 702 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations.

Definitions

The words and expressions used in these standards have the same meaning as in the General Provisions section 100.01 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, with the following additions:

"attaching device" - means the structural components on the aircraft used to attach an external load to an aircraft. (dispositif de fixation)

"disembark" - means to unload, deplane or leave an aircraft. (débarquement)

"embark" - means to load, emplane or enter an aircraft. (embarquement)

"evacuate" - means the egress from an aircraft in an emergency situation using all available exits and assist means. (évacuation)

"external load" - means a load carried externally by an aircraft. (charge externe)

"hoist" - an approved lifting and lowering device attached to the exterior of a helicopter and used for the embarking and disembarking of cargo and persons from/to a helicopter in flight. (treuil)

"operations co-ordination" - means the exercise of authority by an air operator over it's operating activities excluding operational control. (coordination des opérations)

"rappelling" - an approved attaching system to a helicopter used for the quick disembarking from the cabin of a helicopter in flight. (descent en rappel)

"vertical reference operations" - means placement or pick-up of a suspended helicopter external load requiring the pilot to continuously maintain view of the suspended load vertically from the cockpit. Also referred to as long-lining. (manoeuvre à l'aide de repères verticaux)

"wide-body helicopter" - means a helicopter having an interior cabin width of 2m (6'7") or more. (hélicoptère gros porteur)

DIVISION II - CERTIFICATION

722.07 Issuance or Amendment of an Air Operator Certificate

(1) The following constitutes an application for an Aerial Work Air Operator Certificate:
  1. (a) form 26-0440 - information required to determine the type of aerial work being applied for and the suitability of the base of operations, sub-bases, aircraft types to be operated, supervisory personnel and maintenance organization. The operator shall be able to demonstrate that operations are permitted at each base of operations. This will normally be done by providing written permission from the Local Airport Authority (LAA). Where the air operator can not obtain written permission and operations have not been denied in writing by the LAA, access to the aerodrome shall be demonstrated by other means such as facilities provided through a lease, contractual agreement etc. This form is to be signed by the person authorized by the air operator applicant to execute the application and shall be supported by resumes and statements of qualification for each required operations supervisory position;
  2. (b) Maintenance Control Procedures;
  3. (c) Company Operations Manual;
  4. (d) Minimum Equipment List(s) (as applicable);
  5. (e) Nomination for Company Check Pilot (as applicable); and
  6. (f) Written confirmation of liability insurance coverage against risks of public liability, pursuant to subsection 606.02(8) of the CARs.
    (amended 2006/06/30; no previous version)
(2) Qualifications and Responsibilities of Operations Personnel
  1. (a) Operations Manager
    1. (i) Qualifications
      1. (A) hold or have held the appropriate licence and ratings for which a pilot-in-command is required to hold for one of the aircraft operated by the air operator or have acquired not less than 2 years related flight operations experience with an air operator of a commercial air service or equivalent military experience; and
        (amended 2004/12/01)
      2. (B) have demonstrated to the air operator knowledge with respect to the content of the operations manual, Air Operator Certificate and Operations Specifications and the provisions of the regulations and standards necessary to carry out the duties and responsibilities to ensure safety.
    2. (ii) Responsibilities

      The operations manager is responsible for safe flight operations. In particular, the responsibilities of the position include:

      1. (A) control of operations and operational standards of all aircraft operated;
      2. (B) operations co-ordination functions which impact on operational control (eg. maintenance, crew scheduling, load control, equipment scheduling);
      3. (C) contents of the air operator's Company Operations Manual;
      4. (D) the supervision of, and the production and amendment of, the Company Operations Manual;
      5. (E) training and qualifications of flight operations personnel;
      6. (F) liaison with the regulatory authority on matters concerning flight operations including any variation to the Air Operator Certificate;
      7. (G) liaison with any external agencies which may effect air operator operations;
      8. (H) ensuring that the air operator's operations are conducted in accordance with current regulations, standards and the Company Operations Manual;
      9. (I) ensuring that crew scheduling complies with flight and duty time regulations;
      10. (J) ensuring that all crew members are kept informed of any changes to applicable regulations and standards;
      11. (K) the receipt and actioning of any aeronautical information affecting the safety of flight;
      12. (L) dissemination of flight operations safety information;
      13. (M) qualifications of flight crews;
      14. (N) maintenance of a current operations library; and
      15. (O) ensuring that responsibilities for operational control functions are delegated to qualified personnel.
  2. (b) Chief Pilot
    1. (i) Qualifications
      1. (A) If the Air Operator Certificate authorizes:
        1. (I) VFR day only - hold a valid Airline Transport Pilot Licence or Commercial Pilot Licence for the category of aircraft operated;
        2. (II) VFR at Night - hold a valid Airline Transport Pilot Licence or Commercial Pilot Licence valid for night and a valid Instrument Rating for the category of aircraft operated. Where the Air Operator Certificate authorizes VFR at night only without an instrument rating, the chief pilot need not be instrument rated;
        3. (III) IFR - hold a valid Airline Transport Pilot Licence or Commercial Pilot Licence and a Valid Instrument Rating for the category of aircraft operated;
      2. (B) if applicable, hold a type rating for one of the aircraft operated;
      3. (C) have at least 500 hours of flight time, of which 250 hours were acquired within the preceding three years on the category of aircraft operated by the air operator;
        (amended 2000/12/01)
      4. (D) be qualified in accordance with the air operators training program to act as pilot-in-command on one of the types operated by the air operator;
      5. (E) have demonstrated knowledge to the air operator with respect to the content of the operations manual, provisions of the regulations and standards, and if applicable, the company check pilot manual and standard operating procedures.
    2. (ii) Responsibilities

      The chief pilot is responsible for the professional standards of flight crew and in particular:

      1. (A) developing standard operating procedures;
      2. (B) developing or implementing all required crew member approved training programs;
      3. (C) issuing directives and notices to the flight crews as required;
      4. (D) the actioning and distribution of accident, incident, and other occurrence reports;
      5. (E) the processing and actioning of any crew reports;
      6. (F) the supervision of flight crews;
      7. (G) assuming responsibilities delegated by the Operations Manager; and
      8. (H) ensuring that duties are delegated to qualified individuals.
  3. (c) Maintenance Organization

    The person responsible for the maintenance control system shall be qualified in accordance with section 726.03 of the Commercial Air Services Standard.

722.08 Contents of Air Operator Certificate

Navigation System Authorizations (refers to subparagraph 702.08(g)(vii) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations)
(amended 1998/09/01; no previous version)

(1) Minimum Performance Capability for Long Range Area Navigation System

To be authorized for use through operation specifications specified in an Air Operator Certificate, a long range area navigation system shall meet the following minimum performance capability:
(amended 1999/09/01)

  1. (a) have a standard deviation of lateral track deviations of less than 6.3 nautical miles;
  2. (b) have a proportion of the total flight time spent by the aircraft 30 nautical miles or more from cleared track of less than 5.3 x 10-4 ;
  3. (c) have a proportion of the total flight time spent by aircraft at or between 50 and 70 nautical miles from the cleared track of less than 1.3 x 10-4 ; and
  4. (d) in paragraphs 722.08(2)(c) and (d) below, if a GPS receiver(s) provides the only means of long range navigation, then the requirements of FAA Document No. 8110.60, GPS as a Primary Means of Navigation in Oceanic/Remote Operations must be met.
(2) Authorizations
  1. (a) Required Navigation Performance Capability (RNPC) Airspace

    The standard requirements for authorization to flight plan published high level fixed RNAV routes in Required Navigation Performance Capability (RNPC) airspace, or to be accommodated by Air Traffic Control (ATC) on other routes using RNPC separation criteria, are:

    1. (i) aeroplanes equipped with at least two independent navigation systems, one of which being a long range area navigation system; and
    2. (ii) flight crew training on operation of the long range area navigation system in accordance with training pursuant to subsection 722.76(15).
  2. (b) Canadian Minimum Navigation Performance Specification (CMNPS) and RNPC Airspace

    The standard requirements for authorization to operate in Canadian Minimum Navigation Performance Specification (CMNPS) airspace, and to flight plan published high level fixed RNAV routes in Required Navigation Performance Capability (RNPC) airspace, and to be accommodated by Air Traffic Control (ATC) on other routes using RNPC separation criteria are:

  3. (i) aeroplanes with navigation equipment as follows:
    1. (A) for aeroplanes operating only in domestic airspace on high level airways equipment in accordance with paragraph 605.18(j) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations;
    2. (B) for aeroplanes operating only in domestic airspace on company approved routes or direct routes that begin and end within reception range of ground based navaids, at least two independent navigation systems, one of which being a long range area navigation system;
    3. (C) for aeroplanes operating in CMNPS airspace other than on high level airways, company approved routes and direct routings that begin and end within the reception range of ground based navaids, two independent long range navigation systems;
  4. (ii) flight crew training on operation of the long range area navigation system(s) in accordance with training requirements set out in subsection 722.76(15) of these Standards.
  5. (c) North Atlantic Minimum Navigation Performance Specification (NAT MNPS), CMNPS and RNPC Airspace

    The standard requirements for authorization to operate in North Atlantic Minimum Navigation Performance Specification (NAT MNPS) airspace, CMNPS airspace, to flight plan published high level fixed RNAV routes in Required Navigation Performance Capability (RNPC) airspace, and to be accommodated by Air Traffic Control (ATC) on other routes using RNPC separation criteria are:

    1. (i) subject to clauses (A) and (B) aeroplanes shall be equipped with at least two independent long range area navigation systems.
      1. (A) aeroplanes equipped with at least two independent navigation systems, one of which being a long range area navigation system, may be approved for NAT MNPS operations restricted to routes approved for aeroplanes with one long range RNAV system; and
      2. (B) aeroplanes equipped with at least two independent navigation systems based on short range ground transmitters may be approved for NAT MNPS operations restricted to routes approved for aircraft with no long range RNAV capability; and
    2. (ii) flight crew training on operation of long range area navigation systems in accordance with training requirements set out in subsection 722.76(15) of these Standards.
  6. (d) Reduced Vertical Separation Minima (RVSM) Airspace

    The standards for authorization to operate in Reduced Vertical Separation Minima (RVSM) airspace are:
    (amended 2003/03/01)

    ( amended 2003/03/01)
  7. (i) the aircraft shall be certified in accordance with the ICAO/FAA Document 91-RVSM and meet the other applicable technical requirements of ICAO NAT DOC 001,
    (amended 2003/03/01)
  8. (ii) the air operator shall comply with the ICAO/FAA Document 91-RVSM and meet the other applicable requirements of ICAO NAT DOC 001, and
    (amended 2003/03/01; no previous version)
  9. (iii) the flight crew training shall be in accordance with the requirements of subsection 722.76(23).
    (amended 2003/03/01; no previous version)
  10. (e) Pacific Required Navigation Performance 10 (RNP-10) Airspace

    The requirements for authorization to operate in Pacific RNP-10 airspace are as follows:

    ( amended 2002/12/01; no previous version)
  11. (i) the aircraft is equipped with at least two independent long range navigation systems capable of meeting a position accuracy of +/- 10 NM or better for 95% of the flight time in RNP-10 airspace,
    1. (ii) an RNP-10 time limit is established for aircraft equipped with only Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) or Inertial Navigation Units (INU), in order to meet the Pacific RNP-10 accuracy requirements,
    2. (iii) the aircraft meets the technical requirements of the navigation element of FAA Order 8400.12A, Required Navigation Performance 10 (RNP-10) Operational Approval,
    3. (iv) flight crew training is provided on the operation of the long range area navigation systems in accordance with the training requirements set out in subsection 722.76(15), and
    4. (v) flight crew training is provided on operations in Pacific RNP-10 airspace in accordance with the training requirements set out in subsection 722.76(22).
(3) Instrument Approaches - Global Positioning System (GPS)
  1. (a) The standard requirements for authorization to fly instrument approach procedures using only GPS navigation information are:
    1. (i) an operational evaluation in accordance with paragraph 722.08(3)(b) has been completed by the Minister on each aircraft type/GPS/FMS model installation for which approach authorization is sought;
    2. (ii) an air operator has an approved flight crew training and qualifications program for use of the GPS/FMS system that meets the requirements of section 722.76; and
    3. (iii) standard operating procedures have been amended to reflect GPS approach operations and approved by the Minister (where required).
  2. (b) The following items will be assessed in the operational evaluation prior to the approval of the operator's GPS approach standard operating procedures (where applicable) and training program. Identical installations of the same model of GPS in the same type of aircraft with the same operator do not need separate evaluations.
    1. (i) Database

      The geographical coverage area for the database shall be compatible with the type of operations conducted by the company. The air operator shall have procedures in place to ensure that the database will be updated in accordance with the appropriate data revision cycle. This shall include a contract with a database supplier and the inclusion, in the appropriate company manuals, of the person responsible for installing the updates in the aircraft. The company shall have a procedure in place for pilots to report database errors and for information on database errors to be passed on to other company pilots, the avionics manufacturer and the Minister.

    2. (ii) Unit Installation and Operation

      The handling and procedures associated with the GPS avionics shall be such that all operations required for GPS approach can be accomplished without an adverse impact on normal crew duties and responsibilities. GPS related tasks shall not consume the attention of the pilot not flying (PNF) during critical phases of flight (i.e. between the time the aircraft turns inbound on the final approach course and the time the aircraft is established in the climb configuration on a missed approach).

    3. (iii) Control Display Unit (CDU) and Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) / Distance Display

      If the GPS/FMS control unit is not adequately accessible from each pilot position, or if GPS course deviation and distance displays are not within the primary field of view at both pilot stations, air operators shall designate in the standard operating procedures the position that the pilot flying (PF) and pilot not flying (PNF) are required to occupy during GPS approach for that type of installation. Aircraft types that are certified for operation by two crew members shall have GPS course deviation and distance displays at each pilot station. An Operation Specification authorizing GPS approaches shall not be issued unless the PNF has a means acceptable, in the Minister's opinion, of monitoring the PF during an approach.

    4. (iv) Distance Display on the HSI

      Installations where GPS guidance information (course tracking, To/From and NAV flags) are switched onto the HSI for display, but the DME distance information is not switched out (i.e. DME distance rather than GPS distance is displayed continuously on the HSI even when GPS source is selected to HSI), shall require air operators, in their standard operating procedures for GPS approach to deselect other NAV/DME sources to eliminate distance displays in the pilot's primary field of vision not related to the approach procedure being flown.

    5. (v) Annunciation

      Responses to system annunciation (including Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) warnings), the means of selecting GPS track information to the CDI/HSI and the means of coupling GPS steering information to the aircraft automatic flight control system shall be compatible with the safe operation of the aircraft type/category. Standard operating procedures shall specify the procedure whereby the control unit is programmed, approach waypoints are verified against an independent source, approach mode is armed, and cockpit NAV source and AFC guidance source switches are selected and verified. Any switch selection or programming errors that the Minister believes are likely to occur and that could lead to a serious incident shall, if possible, be identified and addressed in training and in the standard operating procedures. Otherwise, the installation shall not be approved for approach use.

    6. (vi) Airborne Evaluation

      The Minister shall observe the pre-flight and in-flight operation of the unit on at least one GPS approach and missed approach. If the PF is allowed to occupy either seat during GPS approaches, then one approach from each pilot position shall be demonstrated. An airborne evaluation in an aircraft must take place under VFR. Emphasis will be on crew co-ordination, pilot workload (PF and PNF), and switch selections.

Special Weather Minima Authorizations

(refers to subparagraph 702.08(g)(v) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations)
(amended 1999/09/01; no previous version)

(4) Takeoff Minima RVR 1,200 feet (1/4 mile) - Turbine Aeroplanes With Certified Engine-Out Take-Off and Climb Performance

(amended 1999/09/01; no previous version)

For the purposes of paragraph 602.126(1)(a) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the operation specifications for the take-off in IMC of a turbine-powered aeroplane with certified engine-out take-off and climb performance, shall be a reported visibility RVR of 1,200 feet (1/4 mile), provided that:
(amended 2001/06/01)

  1. (a) the Company Operations Manual contains detailed guidance on how to determine departure one engine inoperative climb gradient and obstacle clearance;
  2. (b) a take-off alternate which meets the following distance criteria is specified in the flight plan:
    1. (i) within 60 minutes flying time for twin-engined turbine powered, non-ETOPS aeroplanes;
    2. (ii) within 120 minutes flying time for twin-engined ETOPS aeroplanes or as otherwise limited by the air operators ETOPS authority; or
    3. (iii) within 120 minutes flying time for 3 and 4 engined aeroplanes;

      Information Note:

      The distances expressed in terms of flight time in (b) above are based on normal cruising speed in still air with one engine inoperative.

  3. (c) the runway is equipped as detailed in the manual of Aerodrome Standards and Recommended Practices (TP312) with serviceable and functioning high intensity runway lights or runway centre line lights or with runway centre line markings that are plainly visible to the pilot throughout the take-off run;
  4. (d) the pilot-in-command is satisfied that the required RVR 1,200 feet (1/4 mile) visibility exists, before commencing take-off, for the runway to be used;
  5. (e) the pilot-in-command and second-in-command attitude instruments (artificial horizons) on the aeroplane incorporate pitch attitude index lines in appropriate increments above and below the zero pitch reference line to at least 15 degrees, and are capable of ensuring ready depiction of total aeroplane attitude. An approved failure warning system which will immediately detect essential instrument and equipment failures or malfunctions is installed and is operative;

    Information Note:

    For the purpose of reduced visibility take-offs, essential instruments are defined as attitude indicators, directional gyros and HSI's.

  6. (f) the chief pilot has certified in the document certifying qualifications and proficiency that the pilot-in-command is competent to conduct an RVR 1,200 feet (1/4 mile) takeoff; and
  7. (g) the pilot-in-command has at least 100 hours of pilot-in-command experience on the aeroplane type, except that a pilot-in-command converting onto an aeroplane type similar to that on which he/she had been maintaining pilot-in-command qualifications at these weather limits for at least 90 days prior to conversion may be authorized by the air operator to apply these take-off minima.

    Information Note:

    For the purposes of paragraph (f) above, an aeroplane type is 'similar' to another when the conversion is from turbo-propeller to turbo-propeller or from turbo-jet to turbo-jet.

(5) Takeoff Minima RVR 1,200 feet (1/4 mile) - Turbine Aeroplanes without Certified Engine-out Take-off and Climb Performance

(amended 2001/06/01; no previous version)

For the purposes of paragraph 602.126(1)(a) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the operation specifications for the take-off in IMC of a turbine-powered aeroplane without certified engine-out take-off and climb performance, shall be a reported visibility RVR of 1,200 feet (1/4 mile), provided that:

  1. (a) the Company Operations Manual contains detailed guidance on how to determine departure single engine climb gradient and obstacle clearance;
  2. (b) a take-off alternate within 60 minutes flying time based on still air normal cruising speed is specified in the flight plan. The take-off alternate aerodrome weather minima shall meet the alternate requirements set out in the Canada Air Pilot;
  3. (c) the take-off weight of the aeroplane does not exceed the weight determined from the Aircraft Flight Manual that, considering the runway characteristics and ambient weather conditions, meets the following requirements:
    1. (i) the required Accelerate-Stop Distance does not exceed Accelerate-Stop Distance Available (ASDA); and
    2. (ii) the required engine-out take-off distance does not exceed Take-off Distance Available (TODA);

      Information Note:

      Where the manufacturer does not provide data for single-engine take-off distance, but provides data for engine-out climb in the take-off configuration, the aeroplane weight shall permit a positive rate of climb using the configuration and speed at lift-off.

  4. (d) the runway is equipped as detailed in the Manual of Aerodrome Standards and Recommended Practices (TP 312) with serviceable and functioning high intensity runway lights or runway centre line lights or with runway centre line markings that are plainly visible to the pilot throughout the take-off run;
  5. (e) the pilot-in-command is satisfied that the required RVR 1,200 feet (1/4 mile) visibility exists for the runway to be used, before commencing take-off;
  6. (f) the pilot-in-command and first officer attitude instruments (artificial horizons) on the aeroplane incorporate pitch attitude index lines in appropriate increments above and below the zero pitch reference line to at least 15 degrees, and are capable of ensuring ready depiction of total aeroplane attitude. An approved failure warning system which will immediately detect essential instrument and equipment failures or malfunctions is installed and operative. For the purpose of reduced visibility take-offs, essential instruments are defined as attitude indicators, directional gyros and HSI's;
  7. (g) the flight crew members have completed annual training in a simulator for the type, certificated to Level B or higher, during which RVR 1,200 take-offs and rejected take-offs are practiced;
  8. (h) the Chief Pilot has certified in the document certifying qualifications and proficiency that the pilot-in-command is competent to conduct an RVR 1,200 feet (1/4 mile) visibility take-off; and
  9. (i) the pilot-in-command has at least 100 hours of pilot-in-command experience on the aeroplane type.

722.09 General Conditions of Air Operator Certificate

Operational Support Services and Equipment Standard

Operational support services and equipment will be dependent on the Aerial Work Operations being conducted, types of aircraft authorized and scope of operation. Support services and equipment shall include as applicable:

  1. (a) aircraft servicing facilities and ground handling equipment;
  2. (b) aerial work equipment to safely conduct the aerial work operation;
  3. (c) operational control and communications facilities;
  4. (d) flight operations publications including the Aeronautics Act, Canadian Aviation Regulations and applicable standards, Maintenance Control Manual, Canada Flight Supplement, Aeronautical Information Publication and, as applicable, Aircraft Flight Manuals, Aircraft Operating Manuals, Standard Operating Procedures, Minimum Equipment Lists and appropriate maps and charts;
  5. (e) weather availability requirements;
  6. (f) ground de-icing / anti-icing program facilities; and
  7. (g) provisions for handling dangerous goods.

DIVISION III - FLIGHT OPERATIONS

722.12 Operational Control System

Operational Control System Standard

Operations conducted under Subpart 702 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations require a Type D operational control system. Another organization may be contracted to exercise operational control on behalf of an air operator.

(1) General
  1. (a) Application

    For all operations under Aerial Work Operations.

  2. (b) Responsibility and Authority

    Operational control is delegated to the pilot-in-command of a flight by the Operations Manager, who retains responsibility for the day to day conduct of flight operations.

  3. (c) Centres

    Current information on the location of the air operator's aircraft shall be maintained at the main base of operations, sub-base or where appropriate, from the location from which the flight following is being conducted.

  4. (d) Communications

    Each aircraft shall be equipped with serviceable and functioning communications equipment that permits the pilot-in-command to communicate with a ground radio station for the purpose of flight following with the air operator. Such a ground station may be operated by the government, the air operator or a private agency.

  5. (e) On Duty

    A person qualified and knowledgeable in the air operator's flight alerting procedures shall be on duty or available when IFR or VFR at night flight operations are being conducted.

(2) Flight Following

Flight Following for a Type D system is the monitoring of a flight's progress and the notification of appropriate air operator and search and rescue authorities if the flight is overdue or missing.

Flight Following procedures and the standards of qualifications for the individual performing this function shall be described in the air operator's Company Operations Manual.

  1. (a) Each flight shall be conducted under an IFR Flight Plan, VFR Flight Plan or Flight Itinerary as appropriate.
  2. (b) The pilot-in-command is responsible for flight watch but shall be supported by an air operator Flight Following System that shall monitor the progress of each IFR flight or VFR at night flight from its commencement to its termination, including any intermediate stops. The person performing the flight following function, who may be the same as in paragraph 1(e) above, shall be delegated to do so by the operations manager.
  3. (c) The pilot-in-command shall be responsible for passing messages concerning landings and departures from point of origin, at enroute stops and from the final destination in order to satisfy the requirements of paragraph 2(b) above.

722.14 Operational Flight Plan Standard

(1) Application

VFR at night flights operated within an aerial work zone for the purpose of conducting an aerial work operation and day VFR flights are not required to be operated under an operational flight plan.

(2) Minimum Content of an Operational Flight Plan, VFR at Night and IFR
  1. (a) air operator name;
  2. (b) date;
  3. (c) aircraft registration;
  4. (d) aircraft type and model;
  5. (e) type of flight - IFR, VFR at night;
  6. (f) pilot-in-command name;
  7. (g) departure aerodrome;
  8. (h) destination aerodrome;
  9. (i) alternate aerodrome, if applicable;
  10. (j) routing to destination by successive navigational way points with associated tracks for each;
  11. (k) routing to alternate aerodrome;
  12. (l) planned cruise altitudes to destination and alternate, if applicable;
  13. (m) estimated time enroute and, if applicable, to alternate;
  14. (n) fuel burn enroute and from destination to alternate;
  15. (o) fuel as applicable for the type of flight plan:
  16. (i) taxi;
  17. (ii) destination;
  18. (iii) alternate;
  19. (iv) contingency; or
  20. (v) holding reserve;
  21. (p) weights
    1. (i) total fuel on board;
    2. (ii) zero fuel weight;
    3. (iii) planned maximum take-off weight;
  22. (q) number of persons on board as amended by final load figures; and
  23. (r) signature of pilot-in-command or means of certifying acceptance.

The operational flight plan shall permit the flight crew to record the fuel state and the progress of the flight relative to the plan.

The air operator shall specify, in its Company Operations Manual, how formal acceptance of the operational flight plan by the pilot-in-command shall be recorded.

722.16 Carriage of Persons

The standards for authorization to carry persons other than flight crew members and persons essential during flight are:

  1. (a) the person is a flight crew member trainee, is a person undergoing training for essential duties during flight or is an air operator employee aircraft maintenance technician;
  2. (b) the person is a fire fighter or fire control officer being carried within a forest fire area;
  3. (c) the person is being carried to an aerial work site, performs an essential function in connection with the aerial work operation and is necessary to accomplish the aerial work operation;
  4. (d) during helicopter external load operations, persons not essential during flight are carried only in conjunction with a Class D load which complies with subsection 702.21(1) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, except for crew members undergoing training, or fire fighters carried only in conjunction with a Class B load consisting of equipment necessary to fight fires within a forest fire area;
    (amended 1998/09/01)
  5. (e) aircraft equipment requirements comply with Subpart 605 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, Division II - Aircraft Equipment Requirements for aircraft seats, restraint system requirements and shoulder harness requirements, as applicable; and
  6. (f) persons are safety briefed in accordance with section 722.23 of the Aerial Work Standard.

NOTE:
(amended 1998/09/01; no previous version)

Parachutists and jumpmasters are considered to be essential during flight and do not require an Operations Specification under subparagraph 702.08 (g) (iv) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations.

722.17 VFR Flight Minimum Flight Visibility - Uncontrolled Airspace

(1) Aeroplanes

The standard for reduced VFR visibility limits of one mile in uncontrolled airspace for aeroplanes is as follows:

  1. (a) Aeroplane Equipment

    The aeroplane shall be equipped with the following:
    (amended 2000/12/01)

    1. (i) an artificial horizon;
      (amended 1998/09/01)
    2. (ii) a directional gyro or gyro compass; and
      (amended 1998/09/01)
    3. (iii) a Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation receiver.
      (amended 1998/09/01)
  2. (b) Pilot Experience

    Before conducting operations at reduced visibility, pilots shall have achieved at least 500 hours of experience in Part VII or operations in the same category and class of aeroplane for which the authority is sought that, in the opinion of the Minister, are equivalent to such experience.
    (amended 2000/12/01)

  3. (c) Airspeed and Configuration for Operation in Reduced Visibility

    Aeroplanes shall be operated at a speed such that obstacles can be seen and avoided. Aeroplane configuration for operations in reduced visibility shall conform to the Aircraft Flight Manual recommendations.

  4. (d) Pilot Training

    Pilots shall receive training as follows:
    (amended 2000/12/01)

    • (i) initially and every three years thereafter, pilot decision making training which shall include the following topics:
      (amended 2000/12/01)
      • (A) the decision making process, including modules on factors which affect good judgement;
        (amended 2000/12/01)
      • (B) human performance factors, including modules on physical, psychological and, physiological phenomena and limitations; and
        (amended 2000/12/01)
      • (C) human error countermeasures and good airmanship;
        (amended 2000/12/01)
    • (ii) one hour initial flight training and one hour annual recurrent flight training in basic instrument flying manoeuvres and flight at reduced airspeed; and
    • (iii) initial training and annual recurrent training in the use of all equipment specified in subsection (1) above, and in all procedures specified in the Company Operations Manual for low visibility operations.
  5. (e) Company Operations Manual

    The Company Operations Manual shall contain the following information:
    (amended 1998/09/01)

    1. (i) a company established minimum safe operational IAS and configuration for reduced visibility operations for each aeroplane type for which this authority is sought; and
    2. (ii) company low visibility operational procedures and considerations including, but not limited to:
      (amended 1998/09/01)
      1. (A) wind;
      2. (B) gross weight and weather considerations;
      3. (C) route / terrain knowledge and/or restrictions (availability of forced landing areas, potential for white-out, etc.);
      4. (D) time of day restrictions (e.g. no low visibility operations at dawn or twilight); and
      5. (E) communications.
(2) Helicopters

The standard for reduced VFR visibility limits of one half mile in uncontrolled airspace for helicopters is as follows:

  1. (a) Pilot Experience

    Before conducting operations in reduced visibility, pilots shall have achieved at least 500 hours of pilot-in-command experience in helicopters.
    (amended 1998/09/01)

  2. (b) Airspeed for Operation in Reduced Visibility
    (amended 1998/09/01)

    Helicopters shall be operated at a reduced air speed that will provide the pilot-in-command adequate opportunity to see and avoid obstacles.

  3. (c) Pilot Training

    The pilot shall receive training as follows:
    (amended 2000/12/01)

    1. (i) initially and every three years thereafter, pilot decision making training which shall include the following topics:
      (amended 2000/12/01)
      1. (A) the decision making process, including modules on factors which affect good judgement;
        (amended 2000/12/01)
      2. (B) human performance factors, including modules on physical, psychological and, physiological phenomena and limitations; and
        (amended 2000/12/01)
      3. (C) human error countermeasures and good airmanship;
        (amended 2000/12/01)
    2. (ii) initial and annual recurrent flight training in procedures specified in the Company Operations Manual for operations in reduced visibility.
      (amended 1998/09/01)
  4. (d) Company Operations Manual
    (amended 1998/09/01)

    The Company Operations Manual shall contain low visibility operational procedures and pilot decision making considerations for operation in visibility conditions of less than one mile which shall include, but not be limited to:

    1. (i) gross weight;
    2. (ii) wind;
    3. (iii) weather;
    4. (iv) route / terrain;
    5. (v) time of day;
    6. (vi) communications; and
    7. (vii) the potential for white-out.

722.18 Night, VFR OTT and IFR Operations

(1) Towing operations VFR at night are subject to the following standards:
  1. (a) operations are conducted in compliance with section 602.14 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations over built-up areas unless otherwise authorized, taking account of any hazards to persons or property on the surface in event of an inadvertent release of the tow;
  2. (b) the tow is jettisonable;
  3. (c) the tow pick-up and drop-off aerodrome departure and approach flight paths do not require overflight of a built-up area;
  4. (d) the tow is lighted so as to be visible to other air traffic at night;
  5. (e) only flight crew members and persons with essential in-flight duties are carried;
  6. (f) the pilot-in-command has at least 10 hours experience in towing operations within the previous 6 months;
  7. (g) the tow has been flown previously under day VFR and shown to have no hazardous flight characteristics;
  8. (h) the object being towed is not a glider unless otherwise specifically authorized, taking into account proximity to a lighted glider recovery aerodrome;
  9. (i) flight operations are coordinated with the appropriate ATC unit; and
  10. (j) operational restrictions and procedures are included in the air operator's Company Operations Manual.
(2) Towing operations VFR OTT are subject to the following standards:
  1. (a) flights are conducted in compliance with section 602.15 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations for VFR OTT flight;
  2. (b) the tow is jettisonable;
  3. (c) VFR OTT towing is conducted only on pre-planned routes or within pre-planned areas established by the air operator which ensure that no hazard is created for persons or property on the surface;
  4. (d) the tow has been flown previously under day VFR and shown to have no hazardous flight characteristics;
  5. (e) flights are operated under conditions which will permit a descent under VMC in event of an aircraft or tow malfunction;
  6. (f) flight operations are coordinated with the appropriate ATC unit; and
  7. (g) operational restrictions and procedures are included in the air operator's Company Operations Manual.
(3) Towing operations under IFR are not authorized.
(4) Helicopter Class B or Class C external load operations at night are subject to the following standards:
  1. (a) the helicopter is equipped with a landing/search light capable of being controlled by the pilot and controllable through 45 degrees either side of the forward longitudinal axis of the helicopter;
  2. (b) the external load work zone, load pick-up site and load drop site is sufficiently lighted to permit the pilot to clearly discern the load on the ground, ground workers, surface obstructions and the perimeter of the external load work zone;
  3. (c) the load attaching hook is fluorescent-painted or otherwise marked to make it discernible to ground workers in the external load work zone;
  4. (d) the external load work area approach routes, departure routes and transit routes between work zones are pre-planned to ensure safe obstacle clearance;
  5. (e) safe VMC transit altitudes and routes are established;
  6. (f) the air operator has coordinated the external load operation with the appropriate ATC unit; and
  7. (g) the air operator's Company Operations Manual content includes operational restrictions and procedures.
(5) Helicopter Class D external load operations at night are subject to the following standards:
  1. (a) the helicopter is equipped with a landing/search light capable of being controlled by the flight crew and controllable through 45 degrees either side of the forward longitudinal axis of the helicopter;
  2. (b) the operation complies with the requirements of section 702.21(1) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations;
  3. (c) the helicopter is equipped with a radio altimeter having an altitude alert function;
  4. (d) the load pick-up site and load delivery site, as applicable, are illuminated such that the flight crew and essential persons on board the helicopter can clearly discern the perimeter of the site and obstructions;
  5. (e) flight crew members and essential persons have been trained in accordance with section 722.76 of the Commercial Air Services Standards;
  6. (f) persons are not transported externally between points at night; and
  7. (g) the air operator's Company Operations Manual content includes operational requirements.
(6) Helicopter Class B external load VFR OTT is subject to the following standards:
  1. (a) the helicopter is a multi-engine helicopter operated in day VFR OTT conditions at a combined aircraft and external cargo weight to permit either:
    1. (i) continuation of the flight at the required enroute altitude with the external load attached with one engine inoperative; or
    2. (ii) descent with one engine inoperative under VMC from OTT flight with the external load attached to permit safe jettisoning of the external load;
  2. (b) flights are not operated over built-up or populated areas where loss of the external load would create a hazard to persons or property on the surface; and
  3. (c) flights are coordinated with the appropriate ATC unit and advised that the helicopter will be carrying an external load.
(7) Helicopter external load under IFR is subject to the following standards:
  1. (a) the helicopter is certified as a Transport Category A Rotorcraft;
  2. (b) the helicopter and external load combination is airworthiness approved for IFR;
  3. (c) only flight crew members and persons essential during flight are carried;
  4. (d) no persons are carried externally;
  5. (e) flights are coordinated with the appropriate ATC unit and advised that the helicopter will be carrying an external load; and
  6. (f) the air operator's Company Operations Manual content includes operational restrictions and procedures.
(8) Dispersing of products VFR at night is subject to the following standards:
  1. (a) operations are conducted in VFR conditions which provide for a discernable natural horizon;
  2. (b) the dispersing area has been surveyed under day conditions and obstructions marked in a manner to ensure their recognition at night;
  3. (c) the pilot is familiar with the dispersing flight path and obstructions prior to conducting night operations;
  4. (d) the aircraft is equipped with an approved light system capable of illuminating obstacles on the flight path at a distance where the aircraft could avoid the obstacle; and
  5. (e) the air operator's Company Operations Manual content includes operational requirements.
(9) Dispersing of products in VFR OTT or in IFR flight for the purpose of aerial weather altering shall be conducted in accordance with the following standards:
  1. (a) the air operator coordinates the operation with the applicable ATC unit;
  2. (b) no hazard is created to persons or property on the surface; and
  3. (c) the air operator's Company Operations Manual content includes operational requirements.
(10) Single-engine aircraft VFR OTT is subject to the following standards:
  1. (a) the flight is operated under conditions allowing descent in VMC if its engine fails; and
  2. (b) flights are conducted in accordance with the requirements of section 602.116 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations.
(11) Single-engine (SE) aircraft operation VFR at night or in IFR is subject to the following standards:
  1. (a) VFR at night SE aircraft
    (amended 1998/09/01)
    1. (i) no persons other than flight crew members, persons essential during flight and parachutists, where the Air Operator Certificate authorizes parachuting, are carried unless the operation complies with paragraph (c) below; and
    2. (ii) aircraft equipment requirements, pilot qualifications and restrictions are included in the Company Operations Manual.
  2. (b) IFR SE Aircraft
    1. (i) no persons other than flight crew members are carried unless the operation complies with paragraph (c) below ;
      (amended 1998/09/01)
    2. (ii) flights are not conducted over Designated Mountainous Regions as defined in the Designated Airspace Handbook (TP 1820); and
    3. (iii) aircraft equipment requirements, pilot qualifications and restrictions are included in the Company Operations Manual.
  3. (c) Persons other than flight crew members and persons essential during flight may be carried VFR at night or in IFR where the aircraft is an aeroplane and the operation complies with the following standards:
    1. (i) General
      1. (A) only factory built, turbine-powered aeroplanes are permitted;
      2. (B) the turbine engine of the aeroplane type must have a proven Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) of 0.01/1000 or less established over 100,000 hours in service;
      3. (C) no flight may include sectors over Designated Mountainous Regions 1 and 5 as defined in the Designated Airspace Handbook (TP 1820); and
      4. (D) pilot training in accordance with section 722.76.
    2. (ii) Aeroplane Equipment Requirements
      1. (A) two attitude indicators which are powered separately and independently from each other;
      2. (B) two independent power generating sources, either of which is capable of sustaining essential flight instruments and electrical equipment;
      3. (C) an auto-ignition system or, alternately, the Company Operations Manual must specify that continuous ignition must be selected "ON" for take-off, landing and flight in heavy precipitation;
      4. (D) a chip detector system to warn the pilot of excessive ferrous material in the engine lubrication system;
      5. (E) a radar altimeter; and
      6. (F) a manual throttle which bypasses the governing section of the fuel control unit and permits continued unrestricted operation of the engine in the event of a fuel control unit failure.
(12) Operation of aircraft VFR at night with persons other than flight crew members on board where the pilot-in-command does not have an appropriate instrument rating is subject to the following standards:
  1. (a) no persons other than flight crew members and persons essential during flight are carried;
  2. (b) the area overflown is illuminated by lights on the surface to ensure visual surface reference and conditions provide for a discernable horizon;
  3. (c) flights are operated on pre-planned plotted routes and the pilot-in-command is familiar with navigation procedures; and
  4. (d) aircraft equipment requirements, pilot qualifications and restrictions are included in the Company Operations Manual.

722.19 Entering or Leaving a Helicopter in Flight

Authorization to permit a person to enter or leave a helicopter in flight other than by external load attaching means is subject to the following standards:

  1. (a) operations are conducted under day VFR conditions while the helicopter maintains a stabilized hover;
  2. (b) the longitudinal and lateral centre of gravity shall be calculated for embarking and disembarking operations and shall not exceed the limitations of the applicable flight manual. The operating weight shall be calculated and shall not exceed the applicable weight/attitude/temperature (WAT) hover performance charts for the helicopter type and configuration at the operating altitude;
  3. (c) persons to be embarked or disembarked have been instructed on related hazards and techniques;
  4. (d) crew members shall be trained in accordance with section 722.76 of the Commercial Air Services Standards;
  5. (e) any equipment or cargo to be loaded or unloaded shall be secured to prevent shifting in flight except during loading and unloading. Cargo or equipment shall not be loaded or unloaded from a baggage compartment remote from the main cabin unless the applicable centre of gravity calculation is completed and cargo handlers have been instructed on procedures; and
  6. (f) the air operator's Company Operations Manual content includes embarking and disembarking operational procedures, briefing procedures and crew member training requirements.

722.20 Aircraft Operating Over Water

Authorization to operate a land aircraft over water beyond a point where the land aircraft could reach shore in event of an engine failure pursuant to section 702.20 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations is available for helicopters only.

(1) The standards for authorization to operate a helicopter configured as a land aircraft over water are:
  1. (a) the helicopter is equipped with an approved emergency flotation kit and operated in accordance with the Emergency Flotation Kit Flight Manual Supplement;
  2. (b) when enroute over water, the helicopter is operated at an altitude that will provide adequate time for full inflation of the flotation devices prior to water contact in event of an engine failure;
  3. (c) life preservers are carried for each person on board and stowed within reach of each person carried when seated with his or her seat belt fastened.
  4. (d) flights conducted over water more than 15 minutes at normal cruising speed from shore or from a suitable aerodrome when carrying persons other than flight crew members shall be capable of direct air-ground flight following communications; and
  5. (e) the air operator's Company Operations Manual content includes equipment requirements, procedures and restrictions.
(2) A helicopter may be operated over water configured as a land aircraft without the helicopter being equipped with an emergency flotation kit provided:
  1. (a) the helicopter is being operated for the purpose of fire suppression, fish stocking or power line inspection and surveillance;
    (amended 2000/06/01)
  2. (b) only persons essential during flight are carried and have been instructed in water ditching procedures and evacuation;
  3. (c) life preservers are carried for each person on board and stowed within reach of each person carried when seated with his or her seat belt fastened; and
  4. (d) the air operator's Company Operations Manual content includes procedures and restrictions.

722.21 Helicopter Class D External Loads

(1) The standards for authorization to operate a helicopter to carry a Class D helicopter external load are:
  1. (a) the helicopter is equipped to permit direct radio intercommunication among crew members;
  2. (b) the personnel carrying device is airworthiness approved for the carriage of human external loads;
  3. (c) the load is jettisonable if it extends below the landing gear;
  4. (d) the air operator has applicable one engine inoperative performance charts for the operating weight and density altitude at which the Class D external load operation is to be conducted. Performance charts may take account of windspeed providing windspeed is 10 knots or more;
  5. (e) the air operator's Company Operations Manual includes operational requirements, operational procedures and air operator employee qualification and training requirements.
(2) The standards for authorization to operate a helicopter to carry a Class D helicopter external load using a single-engine helicopter or a multi-engine helicopter unable to comply with one engine inoperative requirements are:
  1. (a) where the load does not extend below the landing gear:
    1. (i) the helicopter is equipped to permit direct electronic or visual communication among crew members;
      (amended 1998/09/01)
    2. (ii) the personnel carrying device is airworthiness approved for the carriage of human external loads;
    3. (iii) the helicopter is turbine powered and equipped, where approved for the type, with an auto-ignition system and a detector system to warn flight crew members of excessive ferrous material in the engine(s);
    4. (iv) only flight crew members and persons essential during flight are carried; and
    5. (v) the air operator's Company Operations Manual includes operational requirements, operational procedures and air operator employee qualification and training requirements;
  2. (b) where the load extends below the landing gear:
    1. (i) the helicopter is equipped to permit direct radio intercommunication among crew members;
    2. (ii) the personnel carrying device is airworthiness approved for the carriage of human external loads;
    3. (iii) the load is jettisonable;
    4. (iv) the helicopter is turbine powered and equipped, where approved for the type, with an auto-ignition system and a detector system to warn flight crew members of excessive ferrous material in the engine(s);
    5. (v) only flight crew members and persons essential during flight are carried;
    6. (vi) persons are transported externally between geographical points only to the nearest suitable landing site;
    7. (vii) the authorization is for the purpose of law enforcement operations, forest fire suppression operations, urban fire fighting operations or rescue operations;
    8. (viii) the air operator has a formal written agreement from the user of the service and the agreement stipulates that only suitably trained and qualified persons will be assigned; and
    9. (ix) the air operator's Company Operations Manual includes operational requirements, operational procedures and air operator employee qualification and training requirements.
(3) Authorization may be granted for deviation from the standards of 722.21(1) and (2) for the Production of Commercial Motion Pictures and Television filming provided:
  1. (a) the aircraft is operated within approved limitations;
  2. (b) a co-ordinated plan for each complete operation is developed;
  3. (c) all persons involved are knowledgeable of equipment to be used and pre-flight briefed; and
  4. (d) only flight crew members and persons essential during flight are carried.
(4) Where helicopter Class D External Load Operations are to be conducted for the purpose of providing a rescue service the following standards shall apply.
  1. (a) Pilot Experience

    Pilots-in-command for rescue service operations shall have achieved:

    1. (i) at least 2,000 hours total helicopter pilot flight time;
    2. (ii) at least 200 hours on the aircraft type which the pilot is to fly on initial assignment to rescue operations and at least 25 hours on types to be used thereafter;
    3. (iii) at least 1,000 hours experience in the operational area if rescue services are to be conducted in Designated Mountainous Areas 1 or 2 as defined in the Designated Airspace Handbook (TP 1820); and
    4. (iv) have completed training for Class D load operations in accordance with section 722.76.
  2. (b) Rescue Service Operations Control

    A close working relationship is required between the air operator and the emergency response user organization to ensure coordinated proficiency and mission safety. Terms of reference shall be documented in a written agreement and will define the following:

    1. (i) responsibility of pilot-in-command and rescue specialist(s);
    2. (ii) required operational capabilities and scope of operation;
    3. (iii) coordinated rescue mission standard operating procedures;
    4. (iv) mission authorization and control process, including communication procedures; and
    5. (v) coordinated air operator and emergency response user agency training program on at least an annual basis.

722.22 Built up Area and Aerial Work Zone

(1) For air operator authority to operate an aircraft over a built up area at altitudes and distances less than those specified in Section 602.14 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, or to conduct a take-off, approach or landing within the built-up area of a city or town, an aerial work zone plan shall be submitted to the Transport Canada Aviation Regional Office in the region in which the flights are to take place at least five working days in advance of the operation and include:
(amended 2005/06/01 -->)

  1. (a) certification that the governing municipality has been informed of the proposed operation;
    (amended 1998/09/01)
  2. (b) purpose of the flights;
  3. (c) dates, alternate dates and proposed time of day of the operation;
  4. (d) location of the operation;
  5. (e) type of aircraft to be used;
  6. (f) altitudes and routes to be used depicted on a map of the area;
  7. (g) procedures and precautions to be taken to ensure that no hazard is created to persons or property on the surface including locations of forced landing areas in the event of an emergency; and
    (amended 1998/09/01; no previous version)
  8. (h) name of the responsible air operator person to contact.

(2) For air operator authority to operate a helicopter carrying a jettisonable external load over a built-up area or to establish an aerial work zone within a built-up area, an aerial work zone plan shall be submitted to the Transport Canada Aviation Regional Office in the region in which the operation is to take place at least five working days in advance of the operation and include:

  1. (a) certification that the governing municipality has been informed of the proposed operation;
    (amended 1998/09/01)
  2. (b) purpose of the operation;
  3. (c) dates, alternate dates and proposed time of day of the operation;
  4. (d) location of the operation;
  5. (e) type of helicopter to be used, description of loads to be carried and approximate number of loads;
  6. (f) altitudes and routes to be used, location and size of the proposed work zone depicted on a map of the area;
  7. (g) aerial work zone security arrangements and security arrangements for areas to be overflown to ensure that no hazard is created to persons or property;
  8. (h) if external load operations are to be conducted to roof tops, safety precautions to be taken in event of a forced landing onto the roof or load penetration through the roof; and
  9. (i) name of contact person designated by the air operator.
    (amended 1998/09/01)

(3) For operating certificate authority, the air operator shall submit an application providing the above information as applicable, show a requirement for operating certificate authority and amend its Company Operations Manual to include the routes and conditions for their use.

722.23 Briefing of Persons Other Than Flight Crew Members

(1) The standard for a safety briefing is:

  1. (a) the safety briefing shall consist of an oral briefing provided by a flight crew member or by audio or audiovisual means and include the following information as applicable to the aircraft, aircraft configuration, equipment and operation:
    1. (i) prior to boarding, procedures for embarking and disembarking when engines are running and when rotors are running;
    2. (ii) when and how carry-on baggage and cargo is to be loaded, secured and unloaded;
    3. (iii) fastening, unfastening and use of safety belts and safety harnesses, specifying when they must be fastened;
    4. (iv) the proper positioning of seats for take-off and landing;
    5. (v) the location of normal and emergency exits, how they are marked and how they operate;
    6. (vi) the requirement to obey flight crew instructions;
    7. (vii) the location, access to and use of emergency equipment, including the emergency locator transmitter, fire extinguisher, life preservers, liferafts, survival equipment and first aid kit; and
    8. (viii) aircraft evacuation procedures, water ditching procedures, procedures if the aircraft is configured with external fixtures and, where applicable to wide-body helicopters, the method of egress in event of a roll over accident by use of the under seat frame of the transverse cabin seats as a ladder for egress.

(2) Where no additional persons have embarked for subsequent take-offs on the same day, the take-off briefing may be omitted provided a crew member has verified that all carry-on baggage and cargo is properly stowed, safety belts and harnesses are properly fastened and seats properly positioned.

(3) The safety briefing need not be provided if the pilot-in-command has ensured that the person has completed a currently valid training program covering the safety briefing requirements for the aircraft.

DIVISION IV - AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE - OPERATING LIMITATIONS

Reserved

DIVISION V - AIRCRAFT EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS

Reserved

DIVISION VI - EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT

Reserved

DIVISION VII - PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS

722.65 Flight Crew Member Qualifications

(1) Pilot Proficiency Check
  1. (a) The pilot proficiency check shall be conducted in accordance with Schedule I for aeroplanes or with Schedule II for helicopters as applicable.
  2. (b) A pilot proficiency check shall be conducted in a manner that enables the pilot to demonstrate the knowledge and the skill respecting:
    1. (i) the aircraft, its systems and components;
    2. (ii) proper control of airspeed, direction, altitude, attitude and configuration of the aircraft, in accordance with the procedures and limitations set out in the aircraft operating manual where applicable, the Aircraft Flight Manual, the air operator's Company Operations Manual, the air operator's standard operating procedures, the check list, and any other information relating to the operation of the aircraft type;
    3. (iii) departure, enroute and arrival instrument procedures, if applicable; and
    4. (iv) adherence to approved procedures.
  3. (c) Each manoeuvre or procedure within a phase of flight specified in the applicable pilot proficiency check schedule shall be performed in the aircraft or approved synthetic flight training device (FTD).
  4. (d) A pilot-in-command check shall be completed in the seat normally occupied by the pilot-in-command and a second-in-command check shall be completed in the seat normally occupied by the second-in-command.
  5. (e) A Transport Canada inspector or an approved company check pilot shall determine whether a person has demonstrated the knowledge and the skill in accordance with the following factors:
    1. (i) the pilot's adherence to approved procedures; and
    2. (ii) the pilot's qualities of airmanship in selecting a course of action.
  6. (f) During the pilot proficiency check, the person conducting the check may request any manoeuvre or procedure, from the applicable Schedule, required to determine the proficiency of the candidate.
  7. (g) Where a pilot successfully completes the full pilot proficiency check set forth, the pilot successfully completes the flight check for the initial issue or renewal of the applicable instrument rating.
  8. (h) Where the pilot requires an instrument rating, the PPC shall include the instrument procedures section of the Schedule, except for helicopters where the PPC is to be completed only on one of the aircraft types for which an instrument rating is required.
    (amended 1998/09/01)
  9. (i) The synthetic flight training device level of training and checking credits shall be approved by Transport Canada in the training program approval process for each aircraft type. Training and checking procedures not approved for the synthetic flight training device shall be completed in the aircraft.
(2) Competency Check Standard

(amended 2005/06/01)

The standard for the pilot competency check for Aerial Work Operations is:

Except for single-seat pilot-only aircraft, the chief pilot, or a pilot delegated by the chief pilot, shall:

  1. (a) certify in company records the competency of each pilot on at least one of the aircraft to which a pilot is assigned and for which a type rating is not required;
  2. (b) certify in company records the competency of each pilot on each aircraft to which the pilot is assigned and for which a type rating is required;
  3. (c) pilots shall be certified competent in the performance of those check items contained in the applicable Schedule I - Aeroplane Pilot Proficiency Check or Schedule II - Helicopter Pilot Proficiency Check as applicable to the aircraft type; and
  4. (d) for pilot-only single-seat aircraft, the initial training program shall include cockpit familiarization instruction and at least three take-offs, circuits and landings. On completion of initial and annual training, the chief pilot, or a pilot delegated by the chief pilot, will certify satisfactory completion of training in company records.
(3) Authorized Aeroplane Groupings for PPC Purposes

(amended 2000/06/01; no previous version)

Where an air operator has been authorized aeroplane grouping for PPCs (renewal only), Schedule III and IV shall be used to determine which aircraft can be grouped. The following standard shall apply:

  1. (a) for a pilot to commence participating in an air operator's authorized aeroplane grouping that pilot shall have passed within the preceding 24 months, in each type of aeroplane in which that pilot will act as a flight crew member, the PPC set out in Schedule I;
  2. (b) the pilot must complete initial and annual recurrent ground and flight training, including written examinations on systems and limitations, for each type of aeroplane in which he/she will serve as a crew member;
  3. (c) the annual PPC shall be conducted by an approved check pilot or a Department of Transport Inspector and passed on one of the aeroplane types from the authorized group. A different type of aeroplane from the group shall be used each successive two year period for the conduct of the PPC;
  4. (d) a failure to pass the PPC on the selected aeroplane type shall be considered to be a failure on all the aeroplane group types flown by that pilot; and
  5. (e) the document certifying qualifications and proficiency shall be endorsed for each aeroplane type.

NOTE:

Grouping of PPC's (renewal only) is transferable from one air operator to another if the hiring operator has been authorized for grouping of the same aircraft types. The pilot must complete the hiring air operators recurrent ground and flight training for each type on which he/she intends to serve as a crew member. The training shall be completed to the extent required to demonstrate competency to the air operators training pilot. Initial training and a PPC are required for any type on which the pilot is not current or has not previously served.

Schedule I - Pilot Proficiency Check - Aeroplane

Schedule II - Pilot Proficiency - Helicopters

Schedule III - Aeroplanes Having a MCTOW of Over 7000 lbs

Schedule IV - Aeroplanes Having a MCTOW of Under 7000 lbs

722.67 Validity Period

Where a flight crew member's pilot proficiency check, competency check or annual training expires for a period of 24 months or more, that flight crew member shall successfully complete the air operator's initial aircraft flight and ground training program on the type of aircraft and successfully complete the pilot proficiency check or competency check, as applicable, for the aircraft type.

DIVISION VIII - TRAINING

722.76 Training Program

(1) Training Standard General
  1. (a) Manuals, if applicable, shall be provided to each trainee on the subject matter to be taught;
  2. (b) Relevant training aids such as fire extinguishers, life preservers, rafts, aircraft components, static aircraft, etc. shall be available for the program being presented; and
  3. (c) Comprehensive examinations shall be used to validate competence of the trainee.

Ground training programs shall provide a means of evaluating the trainee after completion of the syllabus by completion of an examination with a review and correction of any errors. Training examinations should be comprehensive, and periodically reviewed and updated.

Type training programs are to be titled as to the type to which they apply and include the number of instructional hours to be provided. They should be performance oriented and stress the operation (normal, emergency and malfunctions) of the aircraft systems and equipment. Instruction related to components and systems that flight crews cannot control, influence or operate should be minimized.

(2) Flight Crew Training on a Contract Basis

An air operator may contract crew member training to another organization provided:

  1. (a) the arrangement is clearly provided for in the approved training program;
  2. (b) the outside organization uses the manuals and publications used by the air operator; (operations manual, SOP's, Operating Manual, Aircraft Flight Manual);
  3. (c) the air operator ensures that the training is conducted in accordance with the approved program;
  4. (d) where type training is conducted, the training is provided on the type and model operated by the air operator unless otherwise provided for in the approved training program; and
  5. (e) the air operator maintains training records.
(3) Qualifications of Training Personnel
  1. (a) Instructor - Ground Training
    1. (i) has satisfied the air operator that he or she has the knowledge and skills to conduct the training;
    2. (ii) if conducting aircraft type training he or she has successfully completed the ground school for the aircraft type.
  2. (b) Flight Training Pilot
    1. (i) hold a valid Commercial Pilot Licence or Airline Transport Pilot Licence as required to act as pilot-in-command on commercial air service operations on the aircraft type;
    2. (ii) if conducting night flight training, be qualified for night flight and, unless the air operator is authorized night operations using only pilots not instrument rated, hold a valid instrument rating for the category of aircraft and class of aeroplane;
    3. (iii) if conducting IFR flight training hold a valid instrument rating for the category of aircraft and class of aeroplane;
    4. (iv) if conducting parachute jumping flight training, have qualifications as described in subparagraph (i) or, with a private pilot licence, have acquired a minimum of 250 hours pilot-in-command flying parachutists prior to October 10, 1996;
      (amended 2000/06/01; no previous version)
    5. (v) have knowledge of the applicable Aircraft Flight Manual, Aircraft Operating Manual, Standard Operating Procedures, Company Operations Manual;
      (amended 2000/06/01)
    6. (vi) have knowledge of the provisions of the applicable regulations and standards;
      (amended 2000/06/01)
    7. (vii) if conducting training in a Synthetic Flight Training Device, holds or has held the qualifications and ratings as detailed above for a flight training pilot, has successfully completed flight training in the device to pilot-in-command standards of the air operator's type training program, and has received instruction on operation of the device.
      (amended 2000/06/01)
  3. (c) Instructors and flight training pilots are responsible for presenting the assigned approved training program, monitoring standards, recommending changes to training programs and operating procedures where warranted and ensuring that trainees are competent for their assigned duties on completion of training. The operations manager or chief pilot may delegate responsibility for maintaining training records to instructors and training pilots.
(4) Company Indoctrination Training

This training is required upon employment for all persons assigned to an operational control function including base managers, pilots and persons responsible for flight following. The program shall ensure that persons involved in control of flight operations are aware of their responsibilities, know company reporting relationships and are competent to fulfil their assigned duties related to flight operations. Company indoctrination training shall include as applicable:

  1. (a) Canadian Aviation Regulations and applicable standards;
  2. (b) Air Operator Certificate and Operations Specifications;
  3. (c) company organization, reporting relationships and communication procedures, including duties and responsibilities of crew members and the relationship of their duties to other crew members;
  4. (d) flight planning and operating procedures;
  5. (e) fuelling procedures, including fuel contamination precautions;
  6. (f) critical surface contamination and safety awareness program;
  7. (g) safety briefings and safe movement of persons to and from aircraft;
  8. (h) use and status of the Company Operations Manual including maintenance release procedures and accident/incident reporting procedures;
  9. (i) use of Minimum Equipment List as applicable;
  10. (j) meteorological training appropriate to the area of operation;
  11. (k) navigation procedures appropriate to the area of operation;
  12. (l) carriage of external loads;
  13. (m) operational control system; and
  14. (n) weight and balance system.
(5) Upgrading Training

Upgrading training for a second-in-command upgrading to pilot-in-command on an aircraft type shall include:

  1. (a) completion of applicable qualification training related to assigned duties; and
  2. (b) completion of type training as pilot-in-command on the aircraft type and a pilot-in-command competency check or pilot proficiency check as applicable.
(6) Aerial Work Training
  1. (a) Pilot training shall be provided where the aerial work requires particular flight manoeuvres, aircraft performance considerations or knowledge of equipment to safely conduct the operation.

    Training shall include, as applicable:

    1. (i) training related to contents and requirements of flight manual supplements or airworthiness approvals;
    2. (ii) pre-flight inspection requirements of aerial work equipment;
    3. (iii) procedures for handling malfunctions and emergencies related to the aerial work equipment;
    4. (iv) operational preparation procedures related to reconnaissance of aerial work areas before low level flight operations;
    5. (v) operational restrictions; and
    6. (vi) flight training and practice in required flight manoeuvres.
  2. (b) Training - Class B and Class C External Loads

    This training is required where a pilot has not received training for the Class of external load to be carried or has not conducted the Class of external load within the previous 24 calendar months.

    1. (i) restrictions related to external load operations over built-up areas;
    2. (ii) preparation of loads, load rigging procedures and attaching of Class B and Class C loads as applicable;
    3. (iii) steps to be taken before starting operations, including flight and ground crew briefings, and instructions, inspection of suspension cables and pre-flight checking of jettison system;
    4. (iv) precautions related to aerodynamics of Class B and Class C external loads, including oscillation and carriage of unweighted cables;
    5. (v) flight training in the pick-up, departure, approach and delivery of representative Class B external loads as applicable;
    6. (vi) flight training in manoeuvring with Class C external loads as applicable; and
    7. (vii) instruction on the applicable external load flight manual supplement.
  3. (c) Training - Class D External Loads

    An approved initial and annual recurrent training program is required for pilots assigned to Class D External Load Operations. The training program shall include:

    1. (i) instruction on the applicable flight manual supplement or airworthiness approvals, including weight and balance calculation procedures, method of loading, rigging and attaching the external load and pre-flight procedures;
    2. (ii) instruction on operational requirements, including calculation of one engine inoperative performance as applicable, co-ordination communications procedures and operational restrictions;
    3. (iii) steps to be taken before commencing Class D load operations, including flight and ground crew briefings and instructions and pre-flight inspection requirements; and
    4. (iv) flight training with representative Class D loads including, as applicable to the load attachment configuration:
      1. (A) precision hovering in and out of ground effect, including vertical reference manoeuvring;
      2. (B) pick-up, departure, approach and delivery of Class D loads;
      3. (C) simulated emergencies and malfunction procedures with representative Class D loads.
  4. (d) Training - Embarking and Disembarking Persons Pursuant to section 702.18 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations

    Ground Training

    1. (i) briefing procedures for persons to be embarked or disembarked, including procedures for loading of equipment;
    2. (ii) calculation of weight and centre of gravity limits including calculation of centre of gravity change.

    Flight Training

    1. (i) precision hovering at gross weight with centre of gravity at lateral limits;
    2. (ii) precision hovering while persons disembark, load equipment and embark.
(7) Ground Technical Type Training

Initial and Annual Recurrent

This training shall ensure that each flight crew member is knowledgeable with respect to the aircraft systems and all normal, malfunction and emergency procedures. Ground technical type training programs shall include:

  1. (a) aircraft systems operation and limitations as contained in the Aircraft Flight Manual, aircraft operating manual and standard operating procedures;
  2. (b) use and operation of navigation and ancillary equipment;
  3. (c) equipment differences of aircraft of the same type, as applicable;
  4. (d) operation of normal and emergency exits and evacuation procedures;
  5. (e) aircraft performance and limitations;
  6. (f) weight and balance procedures; and
  7. (g) aircraft servicing and ground handling procedures.
(8) Aircraft Servicing and Ground Handling Training

Training in aircraft servicing and ground handling for pilots shall include as applicable to the aircraft type:

  1. (a) fuelling procedures:
    1. (i) types of fuel, oil and fluids used in the aircraft;
    2. (ii) correct fuelling procedures; and
    3. (iii) procedures for checking fuel, oil and fluids and securing of caps;
  2. (b) use of tow bars and allowable nose wheel deflection;
  3. (c) use and installation of protective covers; and
  4. (d) procedures for operating in cold weather such as:
    1. (i) moving aircraft from warm hangar when precipitation is present;
    2. (ii) procedures for applying de-icing and anti-icing fluids including critical flight controls post application inspection;
    3. (iii) seasonal use of parking brake, as applicable; and
    4. (iv) engine and cabin pre-heat procedures including proper use of related equipment.
(9) Synthetic Flight Training Devices

A Synthetic Flight Training Device has two classifications:

  1. (a) Full Flight Simulator (FSS);
  2. (b) Flight Training Device (FTD); and

    Provided the training device is approved in accordance with the Aeroplane and Rotorcraft Simulator Manual and the FTD Training Program is approved, an air operator is permitted to conduct training in that Flight Training Device. The training device shall represent the aircraft with sufficient fidelity, including control and system checks, take-off, climb, cruise, approach, landing and in malfunctions and emergencies, as applicable to the training sequences to be conducted. If a flight simulator has differences in performance, systems or cockpit layout or configuration from the air operator's aircraft, additional training on differences shall be provided. Flight training in the aircraft must be carried out for general handling and landing manoeuvres for initial and upgrade training.
(10) Aircraft Flight Training Program

Initial and Annual Recurrent

The initial and annual flight training program shall ensure that each flight crew member is trained to competently perform the assigned duties including those relating to abnormal and emergency duties. Simulated malfunctions and failures shall only take place under operating conditions which do not jeopardize safety of flight. Flight training programs shall include, as applicable to aircraft type;

  1. (a) standard operating procedures for normal, abnormal and emergency operation of aircraft systems and components;
  2. (b) use of check lists, including interior and exterior pre-flight checks;
  3. (c) crew member co-ordination procedures;
  4. (d) normal take-offs, circuits, approaches and landings including, as applicable, ground manoeuvring and hovering;
  5. (e) simulated engine and cabin fire procedures, including smoke control;
  6. (f) simulated engine and system malfunctions and failures including hydraulic and electrical systems and, for PIC on three and four engine aeroplanes, approach and landing with two engines simulated inoperative;
  7. (g) simulated failure of navigation and communication equipment;
  8. (h) approach to stall (clean, take-off and landing configuration) and recovery procedure simulating ground contact imminent and ground contact not a factor;
  9. (i) autorotations and anti-torque system malfunctions, as applicable;
  10. (j) rejected take-off procedures and rejected/balked landing procedures;
  11. (k) use of performance information and performance calculation procedures;
  12. (l) simulated loss of pressurization and emergency descent;
  13. (m) buffet onset boundary, steep turns and flight characteristics;
  14. (n) briefings on icing and anti-ice operations, recovery from turbulence and windshear, and evacuation procedures;
  15. (o) flight manoeuvres used in aerial work operations; and
  16. (p) flight planning and instrument flight procedures, as applicable, where the air operator is authorized for VFR at night or IFR including flight at night and under simulated IFR using each type of navigation facility used in normal operations.
(11) Transportability of Pilot Proficiency Check and Competency Check

Transportability of the validity of a Competency Check from one air operator to another air operator is permitted provided the pilot is assigned to only Aerial Work Operations unless the Competency Check was conducted under the responsibility of a Chief Pilot of an Air Taxi Operation.

Transportability of the validity of a Pilot Proficiency Check (PPC) from one air operator to another air operator is permitted. The 24 month PPC validity period is applicable to Aerial Work Operations only and the PPC shall not be valid for Air Transport Commercial Air Service Operations unless the valid period of the PPC complies with the applicable Canadian Aviation Regulations Subpart PPC validity period.

In all cases, transportability of PPC and Competency Check validity is subject to the hiring air operator providing the following training which shall be specified in the Company Operations Manual:

  1. (a) company indoctrination training;
  2. (b) pilot ground and emergency procedures training on each type of aircraft to which the pilot is assigned sufficient to cover the hiring air operator's procedures and equipment differences;
  3. (c) standard operating procedures review; and
  4. (d) the hiring air operator records the Pilot Proficiency Check or Competency Check applicable validity expiration date in company records.
(12) Single-engine Aeroplanes Carrying Persons other than Flight Crew under IFR - Pilot Training Requirements

The following training is required:

  1. (a) initial training in an approved synthetic training device, including all emergency procedures that cannot be safely practised in the aeroplane;
  2. (b) training in the aeroplane in accordance with the following training requirement:
    INITIAL RECURRENT
    Ground Aeroplane Simulator Ground Aeroplane Simulator
    20.0 2.0 6.0 7.5 1.0 N/R
    1. 1. Ground training times do not include self-study or examination times.
    2. 2. Written exams are mandatory at completion of both Initial and Recurrent Ground Training.
    3. 3. Synthetic training device and Aeroplane times are Pilot Flying (PF) times only.

Required Synthetic Training Device Exercises

  • use of checklists
  • aeroplane fire on ground or while airborne
  • engine fire on ground and in flight
  • engine failure in flight
  • inadvertent encounter with airframe icing conditions and operation of de-icing and anti-icing equipment
  • hydraulic, electrical, and other system malfunctions (as applicable)
  • loss of pressurization and emergency descent, (as applicable)
  • recognition and recovery from turbulence and windshear on approach and landing
  • rejected take-offs and landings
  • missed approach and go-around
  • straight-in and circling approaches, with emphasis on non-precision procedures
(13) Emergency Procedures Training

This training is required annually and shall include instruction on the location and operation of all emergency equipment. Training devices approved to simulate flight operating emergency conditions, static aircraft, ground demonstration, classroom lectures, films or other devices may be used for training provided the method used ensures that each trainee is proficient in the operation or use of all emergency equipment.

Whenever practical training is required it shall be completed on initial training and every three years thereafter.

  1. (a) contents and use of emergency survival equipment carried on board aircraft including survival concepts;
  2. (b) use of fire extinguishers including practical training;
  3. (c) donning and inflation of life preservers including practical training;
  4. (d) removal from stowage, deployment, inflation and boarding of life rafts when applicable, including practical training;
  5. (e) pilot incapacitation as applicable, including practical training;
  6. (f) evacuation procedures and use and operation of normal and emergency exits in an emergency including practical training;
  7. (g) emergency briefing procedures and preparation for emergency landing and ditching;
  8. (h) aircraft fire in the air and on the ground;
  9. (i) post accident vital actions related to the securing of fuel and electrical systems to minimize fire hazards.
(14) Surface Contamination Training

An approved surface contamination initial and recurrent training program is required for all operations personnel to ensure operations personnel are aware of hazards and procedures for ice, frost and snow critical surface contamination on aircraft. The training program shall include:

  1. (a) the responsibility of the pilot-in-command and other operations personnel;
  2. (b) regulations related to operations in icing conditions;
  3. (c) weather conducive to ice, frost and snow contamination;
  4. (d) inspection before flight and removal of contamination;
  5. (e) in-flight icing recognition; and
  6. (f) hazards related to critical-surface contamination by ice, frost and snow.
(15) Area Navigation Systems (RNAV)

(amended 1998/09/01)

  1. (a) General Training
    1. (i) To qualify for use of RNAV systems on IFR operations, an air operator shall have an approved flight crew training and qualification program for use of the system. Flight crew shall have completed the appropriate training and have completed an in-flight check or an equivalent check in a flight training device. This qualification check shall be conducted by an approved check pilot.
    2. (ii) Training shall be in the following areas:
      1. (A) pre-flight;
      2. (B) normal operation of the system;
      3. (C) procedures for manually updating system;
      4. (D) methods of monitoring and cross checking system;
      5. (E) operation in area of compass unreliability;
      6. (F) malfunction procedures;
      7. (G) terminal procedures;
      8. (H) waypoint symbology, plotting procedures, record keeping duties/practices;
      9. (I) time keeping procedures; and
        (amended 2003/03/01)
        1. (J) post-flight.
          (amended 2003/03/01)
    3. (iii) To qualify for approval to conduct GPS approaches in IFR, an air operator shall have a flight crew training program approved by the Minister. Flight crew shall have completed the appropriate training and have completed an in-flight check, or an equivalent check in a synthetic training device approved by the Minister prior to conducting GPS approaches. This qualification check shall be conducted by an approved check pilot.
    4. (iv) Where pilots are required to use more than one type of GPS for approach, the training program must address the differences between the units, unless the units have been determined by the Minister to be sufficiently similar.
    5. (v) Ground training shall include "hands on" training using a desk top simulator, a computer based simulation of the unit to be used, a static in-aircraft unit, or other ground training devices acceptable to the Minister.
  2. (b) Ground Training - Non-Integrated Receivers (Panel Mount GPS Receivers)

    An air operator shall ensure that the training program candidates are trained to proficiency in each of the elements associated with the following areas:

    1. (i) Knowledge with the respect to the following:
      1. (A) the GPS system, including:
        1. (I) GPS system components and aircraft equipment;
        2. (II) the composition of satellite constellation;
        3. (III) the minimum number of satellites required for 2-D and 3-D navigation;
        4. (IV) the basic concept of satellite ranging;
        5. (V) factors affecting the accuracy of GPS signals; and
        6. (VI) the World Geodetic Survey 84 (WGS 84) datum and the effect of using any other datum;
      2. (B) human factors applicable to the use of GPS and how errors may be reduced or eliminated;
      3. (C) company standard operating procedures for using GPS units; and
      4. (D) procedures for reporting GPS problems and database errors.
    2. (ii) Ability to perform the following operational tasks:
      1. (A) select appropriate operational modes;
      2. (B) recall categories of information contained in the database;
      3. (C) predict RAIM availability;
      4. (D) enter and verify user defined waypoints;
      5. (E) recall and verify database waypoints;
      6. (F) interpret typical GPS navigational displays including latitude/longitude, distance and bearing to waypoint, course deviation indication (CDI), desired track (DTK), track made good (TMG), actual track (TK), cross track error and any other information appropriate for the equipment used;
      7. (G) intercept and maintain GPS defined tracks;
      8. (H) determine navigation information appropriate for the conduct of the flight including ground speed (GS), estimated time of arrival (ETA) for next waypoint and destination;
      9. (I) recognition of waypoint passage;
      10. (J) use of 'direct to' function;
      11. (K) link enroute portion of GPS flight plan to approach;
      12. (L) conduct SIDs, STARs, terminal area procedures and holds;
      13. (M) retrieve, verify and conduct GPS stand alone approaches; and
      14. (N) conduct GPS missed approaches.
    3. (iii) Ability to conduct the following operational and serviceability checks:
      1. (A) database currency and area of operation;
      2. (B) receiver serviceability;
      3. (C) RAIM status;
      4. (D) CDI sensitivity;
      5. (E) position indication; and
      6. (F) number of satellites acquired and, if available, satellite position information.
    4. (iv) Ability to recognize and take appropriate action for all GPS warnings and messages including, where applicable:
      1. (A) "loss of RAIM";
      2. (B) "2D navigation";
      3. (C) "In Dead Reckoning Mode";
      4. (D) "database out of date";
      5. (E) "GPS fail";
      6. (F) "barometric input fail";
      7. (G) "power/battery low" or "fail";
      8. (H) "parallel offset on"; and
      9. (I) "satellite fail".
  3. (c) Ground Training - Integrated Receivers (Flight Management Systems)

    An air operator shall ensure that the training program candidates are trained to proficiency in each of the elements associated with the following areas.

    1. (i) Knowledge with the respect to the following:
      1. (A) the GPS system and theory of operation, including:
        1. (I) GPS system components and aircraft equipment;
        2. (II) the composition of satellite constellation;
        3. (III) the minimum number of satellites required for 2-D and 3-D navigation;
        4. (IV) the basic concept of satellite ranging;
        5. (V) factors affecting the accuracy of GPS signals;
        6. (VI) the WGS84 datum and the effect of using any other datum; and
      2. (B) human factors applicable to the use of GPS and how errors may be reduced or eliminated (i.e. maintaining situational awareness);
    2. (ii) Ability to perform the following operational tasks:
      1. (A) predict RAIM availability;
      2. (B) link enroute portion of GPS flight plan to approach;
      3. (C) conduct GPS stand alone approaches; and
      4. (D) conduct GPS missed approaches;
    3. (iii) Ability to conduct the following operational and serviceability checks:
      1. (A) RAIM status;
      2. (B) CDI sensitivity; and
      3. (C) number of satellites acquired and, if available, satellite position information;
    4. (iv) Ability to recognize and take appropriate action for all GPS warnings and messages including, where applicable:
      1. (A) "loss of RAIM";
      2. (B) "2D navigation";
      3. (C) "GPS fail";
      4. (D) "barometric input fail"; and
      5. (E) "satellite fail".
  4. (d) Flight Training
    1. (i) Pilots shall complete flight training in the use of GPS for approach and other associated duties for each crew position they are authorized to occupy. Flight training may be completed in an aircraft, or in a level A or higher simulator that is equipped with the same model of GPS receiver (or a model determined by the Minister to be sufficiently similar) that is installed in company aircraft.
    2. (ii) Flight training shall be conducted by a designated training pilot who has completed the company ground training program approved by the Minister, and demonstrated proficiency in the use of the model of GPS (or a model determined by the Minister to be sufficiently similar) to an approved check pilot.
      (amended 2006/06/30)
(16) Minimum Equipment List Training

When a Minimum Equipment List (MEL) has been approved for use by the operator on an aircraft type, the air operator shall provide the following training to flight crew members, maintenance personnel and to persons exercising operational control, as applicable:
(amended 2004/12/01)

  1. (a) training for maintenance personnel shall include instruction on those sections of the Maintenance Control Manual which address the MEL, placarding of inoperative equipment, maintenance release procedures and any other MEL related procedures;
    (amended 2004/12/01)
  2. (b) training for flight crew members and operational control personnel shall include instruction on the purpose and use of an MEL, air operator MEL procedures, elementary work as applicable, and responsibility of the pilot in command;
    (amended 2004/12/01)
  3. (c) recurrent training shall be conducted annually to ensure air operator personnel are aware of any changes to the MEL or MEL procedures.
(17) Transportation of Dangerous Goods Training

Training required pursuant to the Transportation of Dangerous Goods Regulations.

(18) High Altitude Training

High Altitude Training is required for flight crew operating aircraft above 13,000 feet ASL before the first assignment on a pressurized aircraft and every three years thereafter. Training shall include:

  1. (a) physiological phenomena in a low pressure environment, including:
    1. (i) respiration;
    2. (ii) hypoxia;
    3. (iii) duration of consciousness at altitude without supplemental oxygen; and
    4. (iv) gas expansion and gas bubble formation.
  2. (b) other factors associated with rapid loss of pressurization including:
    1. (i) most likely causes;
    2. (ii) noise;
    3. (iii) cabin temperature change;
    4. (iv) cabin fogging;
    5. (v) effects on objects located near point of fuselage failure; and
    6. (vi) actions of crew members immediately following the event and the likely resultant altitude.
(19) Training for Personnel Assigned to Duties on Board Aircraft

Personnel assigned to crew member duties on board aircraft shall be provided training to ensure that each crew member is trained to perform assigned duties, including:

  1. (a) proper use of on-board equipment relating to assigned duties;
  2. (b) crew member communication and co-ordination procedures;
  3. (c) duties relating to abnormal and emergency procedures including operation and use of emergency equipment and emergency exits; and
  4. (d) evacuation procedures.
(20) Training for Personnel who are Carried Externally

Persons assigned to be carried externally by helicopter Class D external load means shall be trained in related procedures and use of attachment equipment. Training shall include:

  1. (a) flight crew and externally carried person(s) communication and coordination procedures;
  2. (b) procedures (pilot action) in the event of an aircraft system malfunction or emergency;
  3. (c) equipment inspection procedures;
  4. (d) proper attachment procedures;
  5. (e) pre-flight inspection procedures;
  6. (f) equipment malfunction procedures;
  7. (g) practice in use of equipment and procedures using static aircraft; and
  8. (h) operational practice in procedures and use of equipment.
(21) Airborne Icing Training
  1. (a) Approved initial and recurrent training programs for all flight crew shall include airborne icing training to ensure that the flight crew is fully aware of the hazards presented by airborne icing and the operating procedures to avoid and exit hazardous icing conditions.
    (amended 1998/09/01; no previous version)
  2. (b) The training program referred to in paragraph (a) shall include:
    1. (i) Ground Training consisting of:
      1. (A) basis of certification for flight into known icing conditions;
      2. (B) airborne icing definitions and terminology;
      3. (C) aerodynamic effects of airborne icing;
      4. (D) airborne icing weather patterns, including both classical and non-classical mechanisms for freezing precipitation;
      5. (E) flight planning and in-flight icing information;
      6. (F) information specific to aircraft fleet concerning operation de-ice and anti-ice equipment, and operational procedures; and
      7. (G) company directives concerning operations in airborne icing contained in COMs, SOPs, and other company documents.
    2. Operators with IFR authority, who conduct training in synthetic training devices capable of simulating hazardous icing conditions, shall include scenarios involving inadvertent encounters with moderate to severe in-flight icing in their initial and recurrent simulator training syllabi.

      (ii) Flight Training - Synthetic Training Device
(22) Pacific RNP-10 Training

(amended 2002/12/01; no previous version)

For a flight crew member to qualify for operations in Pacific RNP-10 airspace, an air operator shall have initial and recurrent approved training programs that ensure that each flight crew member is proficient in the following areas:

  1. (a) flight planning for RNP-10 airspace;
  2. (b) navigation performance requirements for RNP-10 airspace;
  3. (c) en route procedures for RNP-10 airspace; and
  4. (d) contingency procedures for RNP-10 airspace.
(23) Reduced Vertical Separation Minima (RVSM) Training

(amended 2002/12/01; no previous version)

For a flight crew member to qualify for operations in RVSM airspace, an air operator shall have initial and recurrent approved training programs that ensure that each flight crew member is proficient in the following areas:

  1. (a) knowledge of the floor, ceiling and horizontal boundaries of the RVSM airspace to be operated in;
  2. (b) rules on exclusion of non-RVSM compliant aircraft;
  3. (c) pilot procedures with respect to:
    1. (i) pre-flight and in-flight altimeter checks,
    2. (ii) use of the automatic altitude control system,
    3. (iii) Minimum Equipment List (MEL) items applicable to RVSM operations,
    4. (iv) special procedures for in-flight contingencies,
    5. (v) weather deviation procedures,
    6. (vi) track offset procedures for wake turbulence and inconsequential collision avoidance systems alerts, and
    7. (vii) pilot level-off call;
  4. (d) procedures for flight of non-RVSM compliant aircraft for maintenance, humanitarian or delivery flights; and
  5. (e) use of ACAS/TCAS.

DIVISION IX - MANUALS

722.82 Contents of a Company Operations Manual

(1) Company Operations Manual for IFR and VFR at Night Operation
  1. (a) preamble related to use and authority of manual;
  2. (b) table of contents;
  3. (c) amending procedures, amendment record sheet, distribution list and list of effective pages;
  4. (d) copy of Air Operator Certificate and Operations Specifications;
  5. (e) chart of company management organization;
  6. (f) duties, responsibilities and succession of command of management and operations personnel;
  7. (g) description of operational control system, including:
    1. (i) flight authorization and flight preparation procedures;
    2. (ii) preparation of operational flight plan and other flight documents;
    3. (iii) procedures to ensure the flight crew are advised, prior to flight, of any aircraft defects that have been deferred (MEL or other means);
    4. (iv) flight watch, flight following and communications requirements;
    5. (v) dissemination procedures for operational information and acknowledgement;
    6. (vi) fuel and oil requirements;
    7. (vii) weight and balance system;
    8. (viii) accident/incident reporting procedures and procedures for reporting overdue aircraft;
    9. (ix) use of check lists;
    10. (x) maintenance discrepancy reporting and requirements on completion of flights; and
    11. (xi) retention period of operational flight plans and flight documents;
  8. (h) sample of operational flight plan and weight and balance form;
  9. (i) FDR and CVR procedures as applicable;
  10. (j) operating weather minima and applicable requirements for IFR, VFR, VFR at night, VFR over-the-top and, if applicable, use of reduced VFR visibility limits in uncontrolled airspace;
  11. (k) instrument and equipment requirements;
  12. (l) instrument approach procedures and alternate aerodrome requirements;
  13. (m) procedures pertaining to enroute operation of navigation and communication equipment, including collisions;
  14. (n) operations in hazardous conditions such as icing, thunderstorms, white-out, windshear;
  15. (o) performance limitations, as applicable;
  16. (p) securing of cargo;
  17. (q) briefing procedures for persons other than flight crew;
  18. (r) use of Aircraft Flight Manual, Aircraft Operating Manual, Standard Operating Procedures and Minimum Equipment Lists as applicable;
  19. (s) aircraft ice, frost and snow critical-surface contamination procedures;
  20. (t) procedures for carriage of dangerous goods, as applicable;
  21. (u) fuelling procedures including:
    1. (i) fuel contamination precautions;
    2. (ii) bonding requirements;
    3. (iii) fuelling with engine running;
    4. (iv) fuelling with persons on board;
  22. (v) list of emergency and survival equipment carried on aircraft, how to use equipment and periodic inspection details;
  23. (w) emergency procedures for:
    1. (i) emergency locator transmitter;
    2. (ii) preparation for emergency landing/ditching; and
    3. (iii) emergency evacuation;
  24. (x) minimum flight crew required and crew member qualifications;
  25. (y) flight time, flight duty time limitations and rest requirements;
  26. (z) training programs including copy of company training and qualification record form(s);
  27. (a-a) operational support services and equipment;
  28. (b-b) use of oxygen; and
  29. (c-c) procedures related to the aerial work operation including, as applicable;
    1. (i) carriage of external loads;
    2. (ii) low level flight precautions;
    3. (iii) towing precautions, pick-up and release procedures;
    4. (iv) helicopter external load procedures, including flight and ground crew signals and briefing procedures, steps to be taken before starting an external load operation, hazards of oscillating loads, low density loads and unfamiliar load configurations; and
    5. (v) operational restrictions related to aerial work operations.
(2) Operations Manual Content for Day VFR Operation.

Include items listed (a) through (f) of subsection (1) and the following:

  1. (a) flight authorization and flight preparation procedures;
  2. (b) retention period of flight operations documents;
  3. (c) flight following and communication requirements;
  4. (d) dissemination procedures for operational information ;
  5. (e) fuel and oil requirements;
  6. (f) weight and balance system;
  7. (g) accident/incident reporting procedures and procedures for reporting overdue aircraft;
  8. (h) use of check lists;
  9. (i) maintenance discrepancy reporting and requirements on completion of flights;
  10. (j) operating weather minima and applicable requirements for VFR, VFR over-the-top and reduced VFR visibility limits in uncontrolled airspace if applicable;
  11. (k) operations in hazardous conditions such as icing, thunderstorms, white-out, windshear;
  12. (l) performance limitations, as applicable;
  13. (m) securing of cargo;
  14. (n) briefing procedures for persons other than flight crew;
  15. (o) use of Aircraft Flight Manual, aircraft operating manual, standard operating procedures and MEL as applicable;
  16. (p) aircraft ice, frost and snow critical-surface contamination procedures;
  17. (q) procedures for carriage of dangerous goods;
  18. (r) fuelling procedures including;
    1. (i) fuel contamination precautions;
    2. (ii) bonding requirements;
    3. (iii) fuelling with persons on board; and
    4. (iv) fuelling with engine running;
  19. (s) list of emergency and survival equipment carried on aircraft, how to use equipment and periodic inspection requirements;
  20. (t) emergency procedures for:
    1. (i) emergency locator transmitter.;
    2. (ii) preparation for emergency landing/ditching; and
    3. (iii) emergency evacuation;
  21. (u) minimum crew members required and crew member qualifications;
  22. (v) flight time, flight duty time limitations and rest requirements;
  23. (w) training programs, including copy of company training and qualification record form(s);
  24. (x) operational support services and equipment; and
  25. (y) procedures related to aerial work operations including, as applicable:
    1. (i) carriage of external loads;
    2. (ii) low level flight precautions;
    3. (iii) towing precautions, pick-up and release procedures;
    4. (iv) helicopter external load procedures, including flight and ground crew signals and briefing procedures, steps to be taken before starting an external load operation, hazards of oscillating loads, low density loads and unfamiliar load configurations; and
    5. (v) operational restrictions related to aerial work operations.
(3) Abbreviated Content for Owner/Pilot Operating one Aircraft Day VFR
  1. (a) table of contents;
  2. (b) amendment procedures;
  3. (c) list of effective pages;
  4. (d) copy of Air Operator Certificate and Operations Specifications;
  5. (e) weight and balance system;
  6. (f) list of emergency and survival equipment carried on board aircraft;
  7. (g) procedures for reporting overdue aircraft;
  8. (h) procedures for reduced VFR visibility limits in uncontrolled air space if applicable; and
  9. (i) accident/incident reporting procedures.
(4) An abbreviated manual content for parachute jumping air operators operating no more than seven single-engined aircraft day or night VFR shall contain

(amended 2000/12/01; no previous version)

  1. (a) a preamble relating to use and authority of the manual;
  2. (b) a table of contents;
  3. (c) amendment procedures;
  4. (d) a list of effective pages;
  5. (e) a copy of the Air Operator Certificate and operations specifications;
  6. (f) a weight and balance system;
  7. (g) a list of emergency equipment carried on board the aircraft;
  8. (h) procedures for reporting overdue aircraft;
  9. (i) accident and incident reporting procedures; and
  10. (j) parachute jumping procedures for day and night VFR operations.

722.84 Aircraft Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)

The Standard Operating Procedures shall contain the following information for each type of two pilot aircraft operated. Where there are significant differences in equipment and procedures between the same type operated, the Standard Operating Procedures Manual shall show the registration mark of the aircraft it is applicable to.

Required information, if contained in another publication carried on board the aircraft during flight, need not be repeated in the SOP.

The SOP may form part of the Company Operations Manual. The SOP shall contain the following as applicable to the operation.

(1) General
  1. (a) table of contents;
  2. (b) list of effective pages;
  3. (c) amending procedure;
  4. (d) preamble;
  5. (e) communications;
  6. (f) crew co-ordination;
  7. (g) use of check lists;
  8. (h) standard briefings; and
  9. (i) standard calls.
(2) Normal Procedures
  1. (a) weight and balance control requirements;
  2. (b) ramp procedures;
  3. (c) battery / APU engine starts;
  4. (d) taxi;
  5. (e) take-off and climb;
  6. (f) cruise;
  7. (g) descent;
  8. (h) approaches IFR, visual, VFR and circling as applicable;
  9. (i) landing;
  10. (j) missed approach and balked landing procedure;
  11. (k) stall recovery, as applicable;
  12. (l) refuelling with persons on board;
  13. (m) use of on-board navigation and alerting aids; and
  14. (n) check lists.
(3) Abnormal and Emergency Procedures
  1. (a) emergency landing / ditching - with time to prepare and without time to prepare;
  2. (b) pilot incapacitation two communication rule;
  3. (c) bomb threat and hijacking;
  4. (d) engine fire/failure/shutdown;
  5. (e) propeller overspeed / rotor overspeed as applicable;
  6. (f) fire, internal / external;
  7. (g) smoke removal;
  8. (h) rapid decompression as applicable;
  9. (i) flapless approach and landing, as applicable; and
  10. (j) inadvertent encounter with moderate to severe in-flight icing.
    (amended 1998/09/01; no previous version)
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