Part VII - Commercial Air Services

Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) 2015-2

Standard 723 - Air Taxi - Aeroplanes

Content last revised: 2012/06/01

Foreword

This Commercial Air Service Standard outlines the requirements for complying with Subpart 703 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations.

For ease of cross reference, the divisions and numbers of the standard are assigned to correspond to the regulations, therefore Standard 723.05 would reflect a standard required by Section 703.05 of the Regulations.

DIVISION I - GENERAL

The standards under this Subpart apply to every Canadian air operator engaged in commercial air services under Subpart 703 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations.

Definitions

The words and expressions used in these Standards have the same meaning as in the General Provisions in Section 100.01 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations with the following additions:

"deplane" - means disembark; an aeroplane is deplaned when the passengers leave the aeroplane in the normal manner as opposed to evacuating the aeroplane. (débarquement)

"evacuate" - the egress from an aeroplane in an emergency situation using all available exits and assist means such as wings etc. (évacuation)

"fuelling" - means the act of transferring fuel into or out of an aeroplane fuel tank from or to an external supply. (avitaillement ou reprise de carburant)
(amended 2003/06/01)

"operations co-ordination" - means the exercise of authority by an air operator over its operating activities, excluding operational control. (coordination des operations)

"take-off safety speed" - is the lowest speed at which the aeroplane complies with those handling criteria associated with the climb after take-off following an engine failure. (vitesse de sécurité au décollage)

DIVISION II - CERTIFICATION

723.07 Issuance or Amendment of Air Operator Certificate

(1) Application for an Air Operator Certificate

The following constitutes an application for an Air Operator Certificate:

  1. (a) Form 26-0045 Airport - information required to determine the suitability of the base of operations, sub-bases and all scheduled points. The operator shall be able to demonstrate that operations are permitted at each base, sub-base or scheduled point. This will normally be done by providing written permission from the Local Airport Authority (LAA). Where the air operator can not obtain written permission and operations have not been denied in writing by the LAA, access to the aerodrome shall be demonstrated by other means; such as facilities provided through a lease, contractual agreement, etc.;
  2. (b) Form 26-0046 Aircraft - information with respect to each aeroplane by registration;
  3. (c) Form 26-0047 Personnel - information on required personnel. These shall be supported by resumes and statements of qualification for each position;
  4. (d) Form 26-0048 Maintenance Facilities;
  5. (e) Maintenance Control Procedures;
  6. (f) Company Operations Manual;
  7. (g) Minimum Equipment List(s), (if applicable);
  8. (h) nomination for Company Check Pilot, (if applicable);
  9. (i) Form 26-0448 Cabin Safety, (if applicable); and
  10. (j) aeroplane crash charts (if the type has not previously been operated in Canada).

(2) Qualifications and Responsibilities of Operational Personnel

  1. (a) Operations Manager
    1. (i) Qualifications
      1. (A) hold or have held the appropriate licence and ratings which a pilot-in-command is required to hold for one of the aeroplanes operated; or have acquired not less than 2 years related supervisory experience with an air operator of a commercial air service whose flight operations are similar in size and scope;
      2. (B) demonstrate knowledge to the Minister with respect to the content of the Company Operations Manual, the Air Operator Certificate and Operations Specifications, the provisions of the regulations and standards necessary to carry out the duties and responsibilities to ensure safety; and
      3. (C) has attended a Company Aviation Safety Officer (CASO) course or attends such a course within 12 months of assuming the position of Operations Manager.
        (amended 2000/12/01; no previous version)
    2. (ii) Responsibilities

      The Operations Manager is responsible for safe flight operations. In particular the responsibilities of the position include:

      1. (A) control of operations and operational standards of all aeroplanes operated;
      2. (B) the identification of operations coordination functions which impact on operational control (eg. maintenance, crew scheduling, load control, equipment scheduling);
      3. (C) supervision, organization, function and manning of the following:
        1. (I) flight operations;
        2. (II) cabin safety;
        3. (III) crew scheduling and rostering;
        4. (IV) training programs; and
        5. (V) flight safety;
      4. (D) the contents of the air operator’s Company Operations Manual;
      5. (E) the supervision of and the production and amendment of the Company Operations Manual;
      6. (F) liaison with the regulatory authority on all matters concerning flight operations, including any variations to the air operator’s Air Operator Certificate;
      7. (G) liaison with any external agencies which may affect air operator operations;
      8. (H) ensuring that the air operator’s operations are conducted in accordance with current regulations, standards and air operator policy;
      9. (I) ensuring that crew scheduling complies with flight and duty time regulations;
      10. (J) ensuring that all crew members are kept informed of any changes to the regulations and standards;
      11. (K) the receipt and actioning of any aeronautical information affecting the safety of flight;
      12. (L) the dissemination of aeroplane safety information, both internal and external;
      13. (M) qualifications of flight crew member; and
      14. (N) maintenance of a current operations library.

NOTE:

In his or her absence, all responsibilities for operational duties shall be delegated to another individual qualified in accordance with the Canadian Aviation Regulations except that the knowledge requirements detailed under Operations Manager qualifications may be demonstrated to the air operator rather than the minister.

  1. (b) Chief Pilot
    (amended 1998/06/01)
    1. (i) Qualifications
      1. (A) The chief pilot shall:
        (amended 1998/06/01)
        1. (I) where VFR only is authorized by the air operator certificate, hold an Airline Transport Pilot Licence (Aeroplane) or a Commercial Pilot Licence (Aeroplane) appropriate for an aeroplane subject to this Subpart;
          (amended 1998/06/01)
        2. (II) where Day and Night VFR is authorized by the air operator certificate, hold an Airline Transport Pilot Licence (Aeroplane) or a Commercial Pilot Licence (Aeroplane), valid for night, and an Instrument Rating appropriate for an aeroplane subject to this Subpart; or
          (amended 1998/06/01)
        3. (III) where IFR is authorized by the air operator certificate, hold a valid Airline Transport Pilot Licence (Aeroplane) or in the case of an IFR centre line thrust aeroplane or single-engine operation, a valid Commercial Pilot Licence (Aeroplane) and a valid Instrument Rating appropriate for an aeroplane subject to this Subpart.
          (amended 2003/06/01)
      2. (B) In addition to the items set out in clause A, the chief pilot shall also:
        (amended 1998/06/01)
        1. (I) if applicable, hold a type rating for one of the types of aeroplanes operated;
          (amended 1998/06/01)
        2. (II) have at least 500 hours flight time of which 250 hours shall be as pilot-in-command within the preceeding 3 years on the same category and class of aircraft being operated;
          (amended 2000/12/01)
        3. (III) be qualified in accordance with the air operator’s training program to act as a pilot-in-command on one of the types to be operated; and
          (amended 1998/06/01)
        4. (IV) demonstrate knowledge to the Minister with respect to the content of the Company Operations Manual, Training Manuals, Standard Operating Procedures (if applicable), Company Check Pilot Manual (if applicable), and the provisions of the Regulations and Standards necessary to carry out the duties and responsibilities of the position.
          (amended 1998/06/01)
      3. (C) The chief pilot’s personal record in relation to aviation shall not include:
        (amended 2003/06/01; no previous version)
        1. (I) any conviction under subsection 7.3(1) of the Aeronautics Act; or
        2. (II) two or more convictions, occurring during separate unrelated events, under the Canadian Aviation Regulations.

NOTE:

A Chief Pilot qualified under Subpart 704 or 705 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations may serve as the Chief Pilot for Subpart 703 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations operations within the same company.

  1. (ii) Responsibilities

    The Chief Pilot is responsible for the professional standards of the flight crews under his authority, and in particular:

    1. (A) developing standard operating procedures;
    2. (B) developing or implementing all required approved training programs for the air operator’s flight crews;
    3. (C) issuing directives and notices to the flight crews as required;
    4. (D) the actioning and distribution of accident, incident, and other occurrence reports;
    5. (E) the processing and actioning of any crew reports;
    6. (F) the supervision of flight crew; and
    7. (G) assuming any responsibilities delegated by the Operations Manager.

NOTE:

In his or her absence, all responsibilities for operational duties shall be delegated to another individual qualified in accordance with the Canadian Aviation Regulations except that the knowledge requirements detailed under Chief Pilot qualifications may be demonstrated to the air operator rather than the Minister.

  1. (c) Person Responsible for Maintenance

    The person responsible for the maintenance control system shall be qualified in accordance with Section 726.03 of the Commercial Air Service Standards.

(3) Operational Support Services and Equipment

The requirement for operational support services and equipment will be dependent on the types of aeroplanes and the size and scope of the operation and shall include the following, as applicable:

  1. (a) operational control system requirements;
  2. (b) current flight operations publications including a copy of the Aeronautics Act, applicable Canadian Aviation Regulations, Company Operations Manual, Maintenance Control Manual, Maintenance Procedures Manual (if applicable), Canada Flight Supplement, Water Aerodrome Supplement (if applicable), Airplane Flight Manuals, Aircraft Operating Manuals (if applicable), Standard Operating Procedures (if applicable), Aeronautical Information Publication, Minimum Equipment Lists (if applicable), and appropriate maps and charts;
  3. (c) passenger and cargo handling requirements;
  4. (d) communications requirements;
  5. (e) provisions for handling dangerous goods;
  6. (f) weather availability requirements;
  7. (g) ground de-icing/anti-icing program requirements; and
  8. (h) aeroplane servicing facilities and ground handling equipment.

723.08 Contents of Air Operator Certificate

(amended 1998/06/01; no previous version)

Navigation System Authorizations (refers to subparagraph 703.08(g)(i) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations)

(1) Minimum Performance Capability for Long Range Area Navigation System

To meet the requirements of this standard, a long range area navigation system shall, as a minimum:

  1. (a) have a standard deviation of lateral track deviations of less than 6.3 nautical miles;
  2. (b) have a proportion of the total flight time spent by the aircraft 30 nautical miles or more from cleared track of less than 5.3 x 10-4 ;
  3. (c) have a proportion of the total flight time spent by aircraft at or between 50 and 70 nautical miles from the cleared track of less than 1.3 x 10-4 ; and
  4. (d) in paragraphs 723.08(2)(c) and (d) below, if a GPS receiver(s) provides the only means of long range navigation, then the requirements of FAA Document No. 8110.60, GPS as a Primary Means of Navigation in Oceanic/Remote Operations must be met.

(2) Authorizations

  1. (a) Required Navigation Performance Capability (RNPC) Airspace

    The standard requirements for authorization to flight plan published high level fixed RNAV routes in Required Navigation Performance Capability (RNPC) airspace, or to be accommodated by Air Traffic Control (ATC) on other routes using RNPC separation criteria, are:

    1. (i) aeroplanes equipped with at least two independent navigation systems, one of which being a long range area navigation system; and
    2. (ii) flight crew training on operation of the long range area navigation system in accordance with training pursuant to subsection 723.98(21) .
  2. (b) Canadian Minimum Navigation Performance Specification (CMNPS) and RNPC Airspace

    The standard requirements for authorization to operate in Canadian Minimum Navigation Performance Specification (CMNPS) airspace, and to flight plan published high level fixed RNAV routes in Required Navigation Performance Capability (RNPC) airspace, and to be accommodated by Air Traffic Control (ATC) on other routes using RNPC separation criteria are:

    1. (i) aeroplanes with navigation equipment as follows:
      1. (A) for aeroplanes operating only in domestic airspace on high level airways equipment in accordance with paragraph 605.18(j) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations;
      2. (B) for aeroplanes operating only in domestic airspace on company approved routes or direct routes that begin and end within reception range of ground based navaids, at least two independent navigation systems, one of which being a long range area navigation system;
      3. (C) for aeroplanes operating in CMNPS airspace other than on high level airways, company approved routes and direct routings that begin and end within the reception range of ground based navaids, two independent long range navigation systems;
    2. (ii) flight crew training on operation of the long range area navigation system(s) in accordance with training requirements set out in subsection 723.98(21) of these Standards.
  3. (c) North Atlantic Minimum Navigation Performance Specification (NAT MNPS), CMNPS and RNPC Airspace

    The standard requirements for authorization to operate in North Atlantic Minimum Navigation Performance Specification (NAT MNPS) airspace, CMNPS airspace, to flight plan published high level fixed RNAV routes in Required Navigation Performance Capability (RNPC) airspace, and to be accommodated by Air Traffic Control (ATC) on other routes using RNPC separation criteria are:

    1. (i) subject to clauses (A) and (B) aeroplanes shall be equipped with at least two independent long range area navigation systems.
      1. (A) aeroplanes equipped with at least two independent navigation systems, one of which being a long range area navigation system, may be approved for NAT MNPS operations restricted to routes approved for aeroplanes with one long range RNAV system; and
      2. (B) aeroplanes equipped with at least two independent navigation systems based on short range ground transmitters may be approved for NAT MNPS operations restricted to routes approved for aircraft with no long range RNAV capability; and
    2. (ii) flight crew training on operation of long range area navigation systems in accordance with training requirements set out in subsection 723.98(21) of these Standards.
  4. (d) Reduced Vertical Separation Minima (RVSM) Airspace
    (amended 2003/03/01)

    The standards for authorization to operate in Reduced Vertical Separation Minima (RVSM) airspace are:
    (amended 2003/03/01)

    1. (i) the aircraft shall be certified in accordance with the ICAO/FAA Document 91-RVSM and meet the other applicable technical requirements of ICAO NAT DOC 001,
      (amended 2003/03/01)
    2. (ii) the air operator shall comply with the ICAO/FAA Document 91-RVSM and meet the other applicable requirements of ICAO NAT DOC 001, and
      (amended 2003/03/01; no previous version)
    3. (iii) the flight crew training shall be in accordance with the requirements of subsection 723.98(31).
      (amended 2003/03/01; no previous version)
  5. (e) Pacific Required Navigation Performance 10 (RNP-10) Airspace
    (amended 2002/12/01; no version précédente)

    The requirements for authorization to operate in Pacific RNP-10 airspace are as follows:

    1. (i) the aircraft is equipped with at least two independent long range navigation systems capable of meeting a position accuracy of +/- 10 NM or better for 95% of the flight time in RNP-10 airspace,
    2. (ii) an RNP-10 time limit is established for aircraft equipped with only Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) or Inertial Navigation Units (INU), in order to meet the Pacific RNP-10 accuracy requirements,
    3. (iii) the aircraft meets the technical requirements of the navigation element of FAA Order 8400.12A, Required Navigation Performance 10 (RNP-10) Operational Approval,
    4. (iv) flight crew training is provided on the operation of the long range area navigation systems in accordance with the training requirements set out in subsection 723.98(21), and
    5. (v) flight crew training is provided on operations in Pacific RNP-10 airspace in accordance with the training requirements set out in subsection 723.98(30).

(3) Instrument Approaches - Global Positioning System (GPS)
(amended 1998/09/01; no previous version)

  1. (a) The standard requirements for authorization to fly instrument approach procedures using only GPS navigation information are:
    1. (i) an operational evaluation in accordance with subsection 723.08(3)(b) has been completed by the Minister on each aircraft type/GPS/FMS model installation for which approach authorization is sought;
    2. (ii) an air operator has an approved flight crew training and qualifications program for use of the GPS/FMS system that meets the requirements of subsection 723.98(21); and
    3. (iii) standard operating procedures have been amended to reflect GPS approach operations and approved by the Minister (where required).
  2. (b) The following items will be assessed in the operational evaluation prior to the approval of the operator’s GPS approach standard operating procedures (where applicable) and training program. Identical installations of the same model of GPS in the same type of aircraft with the same operator do not need separate evaluations.
    1. (i) Database

      The geographical coverage area for the database shall be compatible with the type of operations conducted by the company. The air operator shall have procedures in place to ensure that the database will be updated in accordance with the appropriate data revision cycle. This shall include a contract with a database supplier and the inclusion, in the appropriate company manuals, of the person responsible for installing the updates in the aircraft. The company shall have a procedure in place for pilots to report database errors and for information on database errors to be passed on to other company pilots, the avionics manufacturer and the Minister.

    2. (ii) Unit Installation and Operation

      The handling and procedures associated with the GPS avionics shall be such that all operations required for GPS approach can be accomplished without an adverse impact on normal crew duties and responsibilities. GPS related tasks shall not consume the attention of the pilot not flying (PNF) during critical phases of flight (i.e. between the time the aircraft turns inbound on the final approach course and the time the aircraft is established in the climb configuration on a missed approach).

      A GPS avionics installation that is used on board aircraft operated under CARs Part VII, Subpart 3 (Air Taxi) conducting single-pilot IFR GPS approaches where persons other than flight crew are carried, shall be capable of:
      (amended 2000/12/01)

      1. (A) displaying a moving-map graphical depiction of the programmed route and the instrument procedure; and
        (amended 2000/12/01)
      2. (B) being coupled to the auto-pilot for lateral guidance and control of the aircraft during the IFR approach.
        (amended 2000/12/01)
    3. (iii) Control Display Unit (CDU) and Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) / Distance Display

      If the GPS/FMS control unit is not adequately accessible from each pilot position, or if GPS course deviation and distance displays are not within the primary field of view at both pilot stations, air operators shall designate in the standard operating procedures the position that the pilot flying (PF) and pilot not flying (PNF) are required to occupy during GPS approach for that type of installation. Aircraft types that are certified for operation by two crew members shall have GPS course deviation and distance displays at each pilot station. An Operations Specification authorizing GPS approaches shall not be issued unless the PNF has a means acceptable, in the Minister’s opinion, of monitoring the PF during an approach.

    4. (iv) Distance Display on the HSI

      Installations where GPS guidance information (course tracking, To/From and NAV flags) are switched onto the HSI for display, but the DME distance information is not switched out (i.e. DME distance, rather than GPS distance, is displayed continuously on the HSI even when GPS source is selected to HSI), shall require air operators, in their standard operating procedures for GPS approach, to deselect other NAV/DME sources to eliminate distance displays in the pilot’s primary field of vision not related to the approach procedure being flown.

    5. (v) Annunciation

      Responses to system annunciation (including Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) warnings), the means of selecting GPS track information to the CDI/HSI and the means of coupling GPS steering information to the aircraft automatic flight control system shall be compatible with the safe operation of the aircraft type/category. Standard operating procedures shall specify the procedure whereby the control unit is programmed, approach waypoints are verified against an independent source, approach mode is armed, and cockpit NAV source and AFC guidance source switches are selected and verified. Any switch selection or programming errors that the Minister believes are likely to occur and that could lead to a serious incident shall, if possible, be identified and addressed in training and in the standard operating procedures. Otherwise, the installation shall not be approved for approach use.

    6. (vi) Airborne Evaluation

      The Minister shall observe the pre-flight and in-flight operation of the unit on at least one GPS approach and missed approach. If the PF is allowed to occupy either seat during GPS approaches, then one approach from each pilot position shall be demonstrated. An airborne evaluation in an aircraft must take place under VFR. Emphasis will be on crew co-ordination, pilot workload (PF and PNF), and switch selections.

DIVISION III - FLIGHT OPERATIONS

723.15 Scheduled Air Service Requirements

The standard for scheduled operations into or out of an uncertified aerodrome is as follows: the operation shall be conducted under conditions established by the Minister which require the air operator and aerodrome operator to ensure a level of safety in respect to the use of the aerodrome that is equivalent to the level of safety established by Subpart 302 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations.

723.16 Operational Control System

Operations conducted under Subpart 703 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations require a Type D operational control system. Another organization may be contracted to exercise operational control on behalf of an air operator.

Type D

(1) General

  1. (a) Application

    For all operations under Air Taxi Operations.

  2. (b) Responsibility and Authority

    Operational control is delegated to the pilot-in-command of a flight by the Operations Manager who retains responsibility for the day-to-day conduct of flight operations.

  3. (c) Centres

    Current information on the location of the air operator’s aeroplanes shall be maintained at the main base of operations, the sub-base or, where appropriate, from the location from which flight following is being carried out.

  4. (d) Communications

    Each aeroplane shall be equipped with serviceable and functioning communications equipment that permits the pilot-in-command to communicate with a ground radio station for the purpose of flight following. Such a ground station may be operated by the government, the air operator or a private agency.

  5. (e) On Duty

    A person, qualified and knowledgeable in the air operator’s flight alerting procedures, shall be on duty or available when IFR or VFR at night flight operations are being conducted.

(2) Flight Following

Flight Following for a Type D system is the monitoring of a flight’s progress and the notification of appropriate air operator and search-and-rescue authorities if the flight is overdue or missing.

Flight Following procedures and the standards of training and qualification for the individual performing this function shall be described in the air operator’s Company Operations Manual.

  1. (a) Each flight shall be conducted under an IFR Flight Plan, VFR Flight Plan or Flight Itinerary, as appropriate.
  2. (b) The pilot-in-command is responsible for Flight Watch but shall be supported by an air operator Flight Following System that shall monitor the progress of each IFR flight or VFR at night flight from its commencement to its termination, including any intermediate stops. The person performing the flight following function, who may be the same as in paragraph 1(e) above, shall be delegated to do so by the Operations Manager.
  3. (c) The pilot-in-command shall be responsible for passing messages concerning aeroplane landings and departures from the point of origin, at enroute stops, and from the final destination in order to satisfy the requirements of paragraph 2(b) above.

723.18 Operational Flight Plan

(1) The air operator shall specify in its company operations manual, the format of the operational flight plan, how the operational flight plan will be recorded, and how formal acceptance of the operational flight plan by the pilot-in-command will be recorded.
(amended 2008/12/30)

(2) The operational flight plan shall be either computer generated or produced manually.
(amended 2008/12/30)

(3) The format of the operational flight plan shall:
(amended 2008/12/30)

  1. (a) display the requisite information as specified in the company operations manual;
  2. (b) provide the necessary space to make entries as the flight progresses; and
  3. (c) permit the flight crew to record the progressive fuel state.

(4) For day VFR operations, the ATC flight plan or flight itinerary may constitute the air operator’s operational flight plan. The air operator shall specify in its company operations manual how day VFR operations are conducted and recorded.
(amended 2008/12/30)

(5) For day VFR flights that originate and terminate on the same calendar day, at the same aerodrome, a company flight notification may be in the form of a notice board, wall map or similar flight information system at the base of operations.
(amended 2008/12/30)

(6) Except for flights specified in subsection (5), a pilot-in-command shall carry on board a copy of the operational flight plan.
(amended 2008/12/30)

723.22 Transport of Passengers in Single-Engined Aeroplanes

The standard for transport of passengers in a single-engined aeroplane under IFR or VFR at night is:

(1) General

  1. (a) only factory built, turbine-powered aeroplanes are permitted;
  2. (b) the turbine-engine of the aeroplane type must have a proven Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) of .01/1000 or less established over 100,000 hours in service; and
  3. (c) pilot training in accordance with subsection 723.98(24).
    (amended 2000/12/01)

(2) Aeroplane Equipment Requirements

  1. (a) two attitude indicators which are powered separately and independently from each other;
  2. (b) two independent power generating sources, either of which is capable of sustaining essential flight instruments and electrical equipment;
  3. (c) an auto-ignition system, or alternatively, the Company Operations Manual must specify that continuous ignition must be selected "ON" for take-off, landing and flight in heavy precipitation;
  4. (d) a chip detector system to warn the pilot of excessive ferrous material in the entire engine lubrication system in all regimes of flight;
    (amended 2003/06/01)
  5. (e) a radar altimeter;
  6. (f) a manual throttle which bypasses the governing section of the fuel control unit and permits continued unrestricted operation of the engine in the event of a fuel control unit failure;
  7. (g) sufficient supplemental oxygen to allow for an optimal glide profile during an engine out let-down from 25,000 feet until a cabin altitude of 13,000 feet;
    (amended 2003/06/01; no previous version)
  8. (h) an electronic means of rapidly determining and navigating to the nearest suitable aerodrome for an emergency landing; and
    (amended 2003/06/01; no previous version)
  9. (i) sufficient emergency electrical supply to power essential electrical systems, including auto pilot flight instruments and navigation systems, following engine failure throughout the entirety of a descent at optimal glide speed and configuration from the aeroplane’s operating level to mean sea level.
    (amended 2003/06/01; no previous version)

723.23 Aircraft Operating Over Water

Operations Specifications for over water flight are not applicable to the operation of aeroplanes.

723.24 Number of Passengers in Single-Engined Aeroplanes

Operations Specifications for carrying more than 9 passengers in a single-engine aircraft are not applicable to aeroplanes.

723.28 VFR Flight Minima - Uncontrolled Airspace

The standard for reduced VFR limits of one mile in uncontrolled airspace is as follows:

(1) Aircraft Equipment

The aeroplane shall be equipped with the following equipment:
(amended 1998/06/01)

  1. (a) an artificial horizon;
    (amended 1998/06/01)
  2. (b) a directional gyro or gyro compass; and
    (amended 1998/06/01)
  3. (c) a Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation receiver.
    (amended 1998/06/01)

(2) Pilot Experience

Before conducting operations at reduced visibility, pilots shall have achieved at least 500 hours of experience in Part VII or equivalent operations in the same category and class of aeroplane for which the authority is sought.
(amended 1998/06/01)

(3) Airspeed and Configuration for Operation in Reduced Visibility

Aeroplanes shall be operated at a speed such that obstacles can be seen and avoided. Aeroplane configuration for operations in reduced visibility shall conform to the Aircraft Flight Manual recommendations.

(4) Pilot Training

Pilots shall receive training as follows:
(amended 1998/06/01)

  1. (a) initially and every three years thereafter, pilot decision making training which shall include the following topics:
    (amended 2000/12/01)
    1. (i) the decision making process, including modules on factors which affect good judgement;
      (amended 2000/12/01)
    2. (ii) human performance factors, including modules on physical, psychological and, physiological phenomena and limitations; and
      (amended 2000/12/01)
    3. (iii) human error countermeasures and good airmanship;
      (amended 2000/12/01)
  2. (b) one hour initial flight training and one hour annual recurrent flight training in basic instrument flying manoeuvres and flight at reduced airspeed; and
  3. (c) initial training and annual recurrent training in the use of all equipment specified in subsection (1) above, and in all procedures specified in the Company Operations Manual for low visibility operations.

(5) Company Operations Manual

The Company Operations Manual shall contain the following information:
(amended 1998/06/01)

  1. (a) a company-established minimum safe operational IAS and configuration for reduced visibility operations for each aeroplane type for which this authority is sought; and
  2. (b) company low visibility operational procedures and considerations including, but not limited to:
    (amended 1998/06/01)
    1. (A) wind,
    2. (B) gross weight and weather considerations,
    3. (C) route/terrain knowledge and/or restrictions (availability of forced landing areas, potential for white-out, etc.),
    4. (D) time of day restrictions (e.g., no low visibility operations at dawn or twilight), and
    5. (E) communications.

723.30 Take-off Minima

(1) The standard for conducting a take-off in IMC when weather conditions are at or above take-off, but below landing minima for the runway in use are:
(amended 1999/09/01)

  1. (a) the aeroplane is twin-engined or a single-engine aeroplane approved for operations under section 703.22 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations;
    (amended 1998/06/01)
  2. (b) an alternate aerodrome is specified in the IFR flight plan; and
  3. (c) that aerodrome is located within the distance that can be flown in 60 minutes at the normal cruising speed.

(2) Weather Below Published Take-off Minima

The standard for take-off in a turbine-powered aeroplane in IMC below the weather minima specified in the Canada Air Pilot or in an equivalent foreign publication is:

  1. (a) Take-off Minima Reported Visibility RVR 1200 feet (1/4 mile) - Aeroplanes with Certified Engine-out Take-off and Climb Performance
    1. (i) the Company Operations Manual shall contain detailed guidance on how to determine departure one engine inoperative climb gradient and obstacle clearance;
    2. (ii) a take-off alternate within 60 minutes flying time based on still air normal cruising speed is specified in the flight plan. The take-off alternate aerodrome weather minima shall meet the alternate requirements set out in the Canada Air Pilot;
    3. (iii) the runway is equipped as detailed in the manual of Aerodrome Standards and Recommended Practices with serviceable and functioning high intensity runway lights or runway centre-line lights or with runway centre-line markings that are plainly visible to the pilot throughout the take-off run;
    4. (iv) the pilot-in-command is satisfied that the required RVR 1200 feet or 1/4 mile visibility exists for the runway to be used before commencing take-off;
    5. (v) the pilot-in-command and second-in-command attitude instruments (artificial horizons) on the aeroplane shall incorporate pitch attitude index lines in appropriate increments above and below the zero pitch reference line to at least 15º, and are capable of ensuring ready depiction of total aeroplane attitude. An approved failure warning system which will immediately detect essential instrument and equipment failures or malfunctions shall be installed and operative. For the purpose of reduced visibility take-offs, essential instruments are defined as attitude indicators, directional gyros and Horizontal Situation Indicators (HSI);
    6. (vi) the flight crew members shall be given training in accordance with subsection 723.98(20) as applicable;
      (amended 2003/06/01)
    7. (vii) the chief pilot has certified in the document certifying qualifications and proficiency that the pilot-in-command is competent to conduct an RVR 1200 feet (1/4 mile) take-off; and
    8. (viii) the pilot-in-command shall have at least 100 hours of pilot-in-command experience on the aeroplane type.
  2. (b) Takeoff Minima Reported Visibility RVR 1200 feet (1/4 mile) - Aeroplanes without Certified Engine-out Take-off and Climb Performance

The following requirements must be met:

  1. (i) the Company Operations Manual shall contain detailed guidance on how to determine single-engine climb gradient and obstacle clearance;
  2. (ii) a take-off alternate within 60 minutes flying time based on still air normal cruising speed is specified in the flight plan. The take-off alternate aerodrome weather minima shall meet the alternate requirements set out in the Canada Air Pilot;
  3. (iii) the takeoff weight of the aeroplane shall not exceed the weight determined from the Aeroplane Flight Manual that, considering the runway characteristics and ambient weather conditions, meets the following requirements:
    1. (A) the required Accelerate-Stop Distance shall not exceed Accelerate-Stop Distance Available (ASDA); and
    2. (B) the required engine-out take-off distance shall not exceed Take-off Distance Available (TODA).

NOTE:

Where the manufacturer does not provide data for single-engine take-off distance, but provides data for engine-out climb in the take-off configuration, the aeroplane weight shall permit a positive rate of climb using the configuration and speed at liftoff.

  1. (iv) the runway is equipped as detailed in the manual of Aerodrome Standards and Recommended Practices with serviceable and functioning high intensity runway lights or runway centre-line lights or with runway centre-line markings that are plainly visible to the pilot throughout the take-off run;
  2. (v) the pilot-in-command is satisfied that the required RVR 1200 (1/4 mile) visibility exists for the runway to be used before commencing take-off;
  3. (vi) the pilot-in-command and first officer attitude instruments (artificial horizons) on the aeroplane shall incorporate pitch attitude index lines in appropriate increments above and below the zero reference line to at least 15º, and are capable of ensuring ready depiction of total aeroplane attitude. An approved failure warning system which will immediately detect essential instrument and equipment failures or malfunctions shall be installed and operative. For the purpose of reduced visibility take-offs, essential instruments are defined as attitude indicators, directional gyros and HSI’s;
  4. (vii) the flight crew members shall be given training in accordance with subsection 723.98(20), as applicable, and must also complete annual training in a simulator for the type, certificated to Level B or higher, during which RVR 1200 take-offs are practiced;
    (amended 2003/06/01)
  5. (viii) the Chief Pilot has certified in the document certifying qualifications and proficiency that the pilot-in-command is competent to conduct an RVR 1200 feet (1/4 mile) visibility take-off; and
  6. (ix) the pilot-in-command shall have at least 100 hours of pilot-in-command experience on the aeroplane type.

723.31 No Alternate Aerodrome - IFR Flight

Operations Specifications for IFR flight where an alternate aerodrome is not designated in the IFR flight plan or in the IFR flight itinerary are not applicable to the operation of aeroplanes.

723.33 VFR OTT (Over the Top) Flight

The following standard shall be complied with for flights operating VFR OTT:

(1) the flight shall be conducted in accordance with the requirements of Section 602.116 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations;

(2) for multi-engined aeroplanes where the pilot holds a valid Instrument Rating for the group of aeroplane, the flight shall be operated under conditions allowing descent under VMC or continuation of the flight under IFR or VMC if its critical engine fails;

(3) for multi-engined aeroplanes where the pilot does not hold a valid Instrument Rating for the group of aeroplane, or that can not comply with (2) above, and for single-engine aeroplanes, the flight shall be operated under conditions allowing:

  1. (a) for multi-engined aeroplanes, descent under VMC, or continuation of the flight under VMC conditions if its critical engine fails;
  2. (b) for single-engined aeroplanes, descent under VMC if its engine fails.

723.34 Routes in Uncontrolled Airspace

The standard for establishing routes in uncontrolled airspace is:

(1) A minimum obstruction clearance altitude (MOCA) shall be established for each route segment by the use of aeronautical charts and the Canada Flight Supplement for updating of significant obstructions as follows:

  1. (a) for flight under IFR, a minimum altitude of 2000 feet above the highest obstacle located within a horizontal distance of 10 miles from the centre line of the route; and
  2. (b) for flight at night in VFR conditions, a minimum altitude of 1000 feet above the highest obstacle located within 3 miles from the centre line of the route.

(2) For each route segment a minimum enroute altitude (MEA) shall be established which meets or exceeds the minimum obstruction clearance altitude and assures navigational signal coverage. For line of sight navigation aid reception distance, for ground installed aids, the minimum reception altitude may be calculated by calculating the square root of an altitude above the navigation aid and multiplying the result by 1.25 (Sq. root 3000 ft. is 54.7 x 1.25 = 68 miles). The MEA will be established to the nearest higher 100 foot increment.

(3) Each route shall include:

  1. (a) the FROM/TO route segment;
  2. (b) track;
  3. (c) MOCA;
  4. (d) MEA;
  5. (e) distance between fixes or waypoints; and
  6. (f) navigation aids.

(4) The air operator shall maintain a record of the company routes in a form and format similar to the catalogue of approved routes.

Provided the above procedures are followed, an air operator’s pilot may use routes that are not yet contained in the record of company routes.

(5) Prior to initial use of other than a publicly available navigation aid, permission of the owner/operator shall be obtained and retained in company records. No VFR at night or IFR flights shall commence unless the navigation aids upon which the route is predicated are in satisfactory operating condition or the flight is conducted using an approved long range navigation system.

When company routes are predicated on other than publicly available navigation aids and arrangements have not been made with the owner/operator to advise when the navigation aid is out of service, instructions to pilots shall be included on how, and whom to contact, to confirm that the navigation aid is in service.

(6) The air operator’s Company Operations Manual shall be amended to outline the above procedures and information for pilot guidance.

(7) The flight visibility shall not be less than 3 miles for flights in VFR at night.

NOTE:

Pilot training for Area Navigation Systems is contained in subsection 723.98(21)

723.37 Weight and Balance Control

The weight and balance system required by Section 703.37 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations shall specify for each flight how the air operator will establish and be responsible for the accuracy of:
(amended 1998/06/01)

(1) aeroplane basic empty weight and centre of gravity determined in accordance with the Airplane Flight Manual;

(2) aeroplane operational empty weight and centre of gravity. The aeroplane operational empty weight is the actual weight of the aeroplane before loading for dispatch consisting of the aeroplane basic empty weight and may include removable equipment, flight crew members and crew members (including baggage), oil, unusable fuel and emergency equipment and shall be defined by the air operator;

(3) weight of passengers, carry‑on baggage and checked baggage, where the weight of passengers and carry-on baggage is determined either by actual weight, or by using segmented weight values, either as published, or derived from statistically meaningful data using a methodology acceptable to the Minister, and where the weight of checked baggage and cargo is determined by actual weight;
(amended 2012/06/30)

(4) weight of the fuel load determined by using either the actual specific gravity or a standard specific gravity;

(5) aeroplane loading including, but not limited to, compartment weight and bulk cargo limits, floor loading limits, cargo restraint and loading considering weight and centre of gravity limits;

(6) aeroplane zero fuel weight, (as applicable);

(7) location of the centre of gravity to include the longitudinal position and where required, lateral and vertical positions;

(8) preparation and disposition of all required documentation whether by the air operator or other qualified personnel authorized by the air operator; and

(9) the training, both initial and recurrent, of all air operator personnel and other qualified personnel authorized by the air operator with duties and responsibilities in this system. The training shall be in the appropriate parts of the Company Operations Manual.

The weight and balance computation may be incorporated in the operational flight plan or be a separate form.

723.38 Passenger and Cabin Safety Procedures

(1) Safe Movement of Passengers to and from the Aeroplane

The procedures for the safe movement of passengers to and from the aeroplane shall include:

  1. (a) wherever possible, aeroplanes are parked in a location that avoids passenger exposure to hazardous conditions;
  2. (b) passengers are alerted to hazardous conditions;
  3. (c) guidance, and where necessary an escort, to ensure passengers are directed along a safe route to or from the aeroplane;
  4. (d) smoking restrictions are enforced;
  5. (e) personal headsets that are used with personal entertainment systems that decrease awareness of other traffic or limit reception of audible direction or warning signals are not worn;
    (amended 1999/09/01)
  6. (f) passengers are briefed on how to safely emplane and deplane when aircraft engines are running; and
    (amended 1998/06/01; no previous version)
  7. (g) passengers on float planes are alerted to hazards unique to emplaning and deplaning these aircraft.
    (amended 1998/06/01; no previous version)

(2) Fuelling with Passengers on Board

Aeroplanes may be fuelled with passengers on board, embarking or disembarking under the following conditions:

  1. (a) the pilot supervises the fuelling and remains near the aeroplane main exit to immediately communicate with and assist the evacuation of passengers in an emergency;
  2. (b) all exits are clear of obstruction and available for passenger evacuation;
  3. (c) the aeroplane engines are not running unless the aircraft incorporates a propeller brake and the brake is set. Procedures must be included in the Aircraft Flight Manual for the use of the prop brake while refuelling;
  4. (d) electrical power supplies are not being connected or disconnected, and any equipment likely to produce sparks or arcs is not being used;
  5. (e) smoking is not permitted in the aeroplane or in the vicinity of the aeroplane;
  6. (f) fuelling is suspended when there are lightning discharges within 8 km of the aerodrome;
  7. (g) combustion heaters in the aeroplane or in the vicinity of the aeroplane are not operated;
  8. (h) known high energy equipment such as High Frequency (HF) radios and weather-mapping radar are not operated, unless in accordance with the aeroplane manufacturer’s approved flight manual where the manual contains procedures for the use of this equipment during fuelling; and
  9. (i) photographic equipment is not used within 10 feet (3 m) of the fuelling equipment or the fill or vent points of the aeroplane fuel systems.

(3) Use of Portable Electronic Devices
(amended 1998/06/01; no previous version)

The prohibited devices, the permitted devices without restrictions and the permitted devices with restrictions are defined as follows, and are to be used in accordance with the stated requirements as applicable:

  1. (a) Prohibited Devices

    Any transmitting device that intentionally radiates radio frequency signals;

  2. (b) Permitted Devices Without Restrictions
    1. (i) hearing aids,
    2. (ii) heart pacemakers,
    3. (iii) electronic watches, and
    4. (iv) properly certificated air operator installed equipment;
  3. (c) Permitted Devices With Restrictions
    1. (i) personal life support systems may be operated during all phases of flight, provided that the device does not cause interference with the aircraft’s systems or equipment;
    2. (ii) portable two-way radio communication devices may be used subject to all of the following conditions and restrictions being met:
      1. (A) use is prohibited at all times when the aircraft engines are running, excluding the auxiliary power unit,
      2. (B) when the pre-flight safety briefing begins prior to engine start, use is terminated during the delivery of the pre-flight safety briefing and demonstration, and
      3. (C) the company operations manual contains procedures to ensure these devices are turned off and properly stowed during the delivery of the pre-flight safety briefing and demonstration and while the aircraft engines are running;
    3. (iii) other portable electronic devices may be used, except during take-off, climb, approach and landing.

(4) Passengers shall be informed of the air operator’s policy pertaining to the use of portable electronic devices and those devices that are prohibited from use during the delivery of the pre-flight safety briefing and demonstration.
(amended 1998/06/01; no previous version)

(5) When interference with the aircraft’s systems or equipment is suspected from use of a portable electronic device, crew members shall:
(amended 1998/06/01; no previous version)

  1. (a) confirm passenger use of portable electronic device(s),
  2. (b) instruct passenger(s) to terminate the use of portable electronic device(s),
  3. (c) prohibit the use of suspected portable electronic device(s); and
  4. (d) recheck the aircraft’s systems and equipment.

(6) The pilot-in-command shall report incidents of portable electronic device interference and include the following information in the report:
(amended 1998/06/01; no previous version)

  1. (a) Flight Information - aircraft type, registration, date and UTC time of incident, aircraft location (VOR bearing/DIST/LAT/LONG), altitude, weather conditions, pilot name and telephone number,
  2. (b) Description of Interference - description of effects on cockpit indicators, audio or systems, including radio frequency, identification, duration, severity and other pertinent information,
  3. (c) Action Taken by Pilot/Crew to Identify Cause or Source of Interference,
  4. (d) Identification of Portable Electronic device - description of device, brand name, model, serial number, mode of operation (i.e. FM radio), device location (seat location), and regulatory approval number (FCC/other),
  5. (e) Identification of User - name and telephone number of passenger operating the device, and
  6. (f) Additional Information - as determined pertinent by the crew.

(7) Reports of portable electronic device interference shall be submitted to the Director, Safety Services, Transport Canada, Transport Canada Building, Place de Ville, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0N8.
(amended 1998/06/01; no previous version)

723.39 Briefing of Passengers

(1) Standard Safety Briefing

The standard safety briefing shall consist of an oral briefing provided by a flight crew member or by audio or audiovisual means which includes the following information as applicable to the aeroplane, equipment, and operation:

  1. (a) prior to take-off:
    1. (i) when, where, why and how carry-on baggage is required to be stowed;
    2. (ii) the fastening, unfastening, adjusting and general use of safety belts or safety harnesses;
    3. (iii) when seat backs must be secured in the upright position and tables stowed;
    4. (iv) the location of emergency exits, and for passengers seated next to an exit, how that exit operates;
    5. (v) the location, purpose of, and advisability of reading the safety features card;
    6. (vi) the regulatory requirement to obey crew instructions regarding seat belts and no smoking or Fasten Seat Belts and No Smoking signs and the location of these signs;
    7. (vii) the location of any emergency equipment the passenger may have a need for in an emergency situation such as the ELT, fire extinguisher, survival equipment (including the means to access if in a locked compartment), first aid kit and life raft;
    8. (viii) the use of passenger operated portable electronic devices;
    9. (ix) the location and operation of the fixed passenger oxygen system, including the location and presentation of the masks; the action to be performed by the passenger in order to obtain the mask, activate the flow of oxygen and correctly don and secure the mask. This will include a demonstration of their location, method of donning (including the use of elastic band), operation, and instruction on the priority for persons assisting others; and
    10. (x) the location and use of life preservers, including how to remove from stowage/packaging and a demonstration of their location, method of donning and inflation, and when to inflate life preservers;
  2. (b) after take-off, if not included in the pre-take-off briefing:
    1. (i) that smoking is prohibited; and
    2. (ii) the advisability of using safety-belts or safety harnesses during flight;
  3. (c) in-flight because of turbulence:
    1. (i) when the use of seat belts is required; and
    2. (ii) the requirement to stow carry-on baggage;
  4. (d) prior to passenger disembarkment, the safest direction and most hazard-free route for passenger movement away from the aeroplane following disembarkment; and any dangers associated with the aeroplane type such as pitot tube locations, propellers, or engine intakes; and
  5. (e) where no additional passengers have embarked the flight for subsequent take-offs on the same day, the pre-take-off and after take-off briefing may be omitted provided a crew member has verified that all carry-on baggage is properly stowed, safety belts or harnesses are properly fastened, and seat backs and chair tables are properly secured.

(2) Individual Safety Briefing

The individual safety briefing shall include:

  1. (a) any information contained in the standard safety briefing and the safety features card that the passenger would not be able to receive during the normal conduct of that safety briefing; and
  2. (b) additional information applicable to the needs of that person as follows:
    1. (i) the most appropriate brace position for that passenger in consideration of his/her condition, injury, stature, and/or seat orientation and pitch;
    2. (ii) the location to place any service animal that accompanies the passenger;
    3. (iii) for a mobility restricted passenger who needs assistance in moving expeditiously to an exit during an emergency:
      1. (A) a determination of what assistance the person would require to get to an exit;
      2. (B) the route to the most appropriate exit;
      3. (C) the most appropriate time to begin moving to that exit; and
      4. (D) a determination of the most appropriate manner of assisting the passenger;
    4. (iv) for a visually impaired person:
      1. (A) detailed information of and facilitating a tactile familiarization with the equipment that he/she may be required to use;
      2. (B) advising the person where to stow his/her cane if applicable;
      3. (C) the number of rows of seats between his/her seat and his/her closest exit and alternate exit;
      4. (D) an explanation of the features of the exits; and
      5. (E) if requested, a tactile familiarization of the exit;
    5. (v) for a comprehension restricted person:
      1. (A) while using the safety features card, point out the emergency exits and alternate exits, and any equipment that he/she may be required to use;
    6. (vi) for persons with a hearing impairment:
      1. (A) while using the safety features card, point out the emergency exits and alternate exits to use, and any other equipment that the person may be required to use; and
      2. (B) communicating detailed information by pointing, face-to-face communication permitting speech reading, pen and paper, through an interpreter or through their attendant;
    7. (vii) for a passenger who is responsible for another person on board, information pertinent to the needs of the other person as applicable:
      1. (A) in the case of an infant:
        1. (I) seat belt instructions;
        2. (II) method of holding infant for take-off and landing;
        3. (III) instructions pertaining to the use of a child restraint system;
        4. (IV) oxygen mask donning instructions;
        5. (V) recommended brace position; and
        6. (VI) location and use of life preservers, as required;
      2. (B) in the case of any other person:
        1. (I) oxygen mask donning instructions;
        2. (II) instructions pertaining to the use of a child restraint system; and
        3. (III) evacuation responsibilities;
    8. (viii) for an unaccompanied minor, instructions to pay close attention to the normal safety briefing and to follow all instructions.

NOTES:

  1. (a) A passenger that has been provided with an individual safety briefing need not be re-briefed following a change in crew if the crew member that provided the individual safety briefing has advised a member of the new crew of the contents of that briefing including any information respecting the special needs of that passenger.
  2. (b) A passenger may decline an individual safety briefing.

(3) Passenger Preparation for an Emergency Landing

The emergency briefing provided in the event of an emergency, where time and circumstances permit, shall consist of instructions pertaining to:

  1. (a) safety belts or safety harnesses;
  2. (b) seat backs and tables;
  3. (c) carry-on baggage;
  4. (d) safety features cards;
  5. (e) brace position (when to assume, how long to remain);
  6. (f) life preservers, (as applicable); and
  7. (g) if applicable, evacuation procedures for an occupant of a child restraint system.
    (amended 1999/09/01; no previous version)

(4) Safety Features Card

The safety features card shall contain the following information as applicable to the aeroplane and equipment carried:

  1. (a) general safety information including:
    1. (i) smoking is prohibited on board the aeroplane;
    2. (ii) each type of safety belt or safety harness installed for passenger use, including when to use, and how to fasten, tighten and release;
    3. (iii) when and where carry-on baggage must be stowed and any other related requirements and restrictions pertinent to the particular aeroplane; and
    4. (iv) correct positioning of seat backs and tables for take-off and landing.
  2. (b) emergency procedures and equipment including:
    1. (i) fixed passenger oxygen system showing:
      1. (A) mask location and presentation; the actions to be performed by the seated passenger in order to obtain the mask, activate the flow of oxygen and correctly don and secure the mask; and
      2. (B) priority for persons assisting others with oxygen;
    2. (ii) location of first aid kits;
    3. (iii) location of fire extinguishers that would be accessible to the passengers;
    4. (iv) location of Emergency Locator Transmitters;
    5. (v) location of survival equipment and, if the stowage compartment is locked, the means of access or location of the key;
    6. (vi) passenger brace position for impact, as appropriate for each type of seat and restraint system installed for passenger use; including the brace position for an adult holding an infant;
    7. (vii) the location, operation and method of using each exit on the aeroplane;
    8. (viii) the safest direction and most hazard-free escape route for passenger movement away from the aeroplane following evacuation;
    9. (ix) the attitude of the aeroplane while floating;
    10. (x) location of life preservers and correct procedures for removal from stowage/packaging; donning and use of the life preservers for adult, child and infant users including when to inflate;
    11. (xi) location and use of life rafts, (as applicable); and
    12. (xii) location, removal and use of flotation devices;
  3. (c) The safety features card shall bear the name of the air operator and the aeroplane type and shall contain only safety information; and
  4. (d) The safety information provided by the card shall:
    1. (i) be accurate for the aeroplane type and configuration in which it is carried and in respect of the equipment carried;
    2. (ii) be presented with clear separation between each instructional procedure. All actions required to complete a multi-action procedure are to be presented in correct sequence and the sequence of actions are to be clearly identified; and
    3. (iii) be depicted in a clear and distinct manner.

723.41 Instrument Approach Procedures

(amended 2006/12/01; no previous version)

Stabilized Constant-Descent-Angle (SCDA) Non-Precision Approach

In order to conduct a stabilized constant descent angle (SCDA) non-precision approach, the following requirements shall be met:

  1. (a) the air operator’s flight crew training and qualifications program includes SCDA non-precision approach in accordance with section 703.98 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations;
  2. (b) the air operator’s standard operating procedures incorporate SCDA non-precision approach in accordance with section 703.107 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, and the procedures include a specified amount to be added to the MDA to compensate for the additional height loss during the missed approach initiation during approaches where
    1. (i) there is a failure of an aircraft system,
    2. (ii) the aircraft is above normal maximum landing weight,
    3. (iii) the aircraft landing weight is limited by aborted landing climb performance, or
    4. (iv) height loss could be expected to be larger than normal;
  3. (c) the final approach course does not differ from the runway centreline direction by more than 15 degrees; and
  4. (d) the descent angle from the planned final approach fix (FAF) crossing altitude to the target touchdown point on the runway is not less than 2.9 degrees and not more than 3.5 degrees.

DIVISION IV - AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE OPERATING LIMITATIONS

There are currently no standards published for this division.

DIVISION V - AIRCRAFT EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS

There are currently no standards published for this division.

DIVISION VI - EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT

723.82 Equipment Standards and Inspection

(1) Survival Equipment

  1. (a) Flights Over Land
    1. (i) the Company Operations Manual shall show how compliance with Section 602.61 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations is to be achieved;
    2. (ii) a list of survival equipment shall be carried on board with information on how to use it;
    3. (iii) a survival manual appropriate for the season and climate shall be carried on board; and
    4. (iv) crew members shall be trained in accordance with subsection 723.98(24).
  2. (b) Where life rafts are required to be carried, in accordance with Section 602.63 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, they shall be equipped with an attached survival kit containing at least the following:
    1. (i) a pyrotechnic signalling device;
    2. (ii) a radar reflector;
    3. (iii) a life raft repair kit;
    4. (iv) a bailing bucket and sponge;
    5. (v) a signalling mirror;
    6. (vi) a whistle;
    7. (vii) a raft knife;
    8. (viii) an inflation pump;
    9. (ix) dye marker;
    10. (x) a waterproof flashlight;
    11. (xi) a two day supply of water, calculated using the overload capacity of the raft, consisting of one pint of water per day for each person or a means of desalting or distilling salt water sufficient to provide an equivalent amount;
    12. (xii) a fishing kit;
    13. (xiii) a book on sea survival; and
    14. (xiv) a first aid kit containing antiseptic swabs, burn dressing compresses, bandages and anti-motion sickness pills.

(2) First Aid Kit Contents

A first aid kit required by section 602.60 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations shall contain the supplies and equipment for a Type A kit set out in Schedule II of Part X of the Aviation Occupational Safety and Health Regulations. In addition, each kit shall contain one pair of protective non-permeable gloves made of latex or equivalent material.
(amended 2001/06/01)

DIVISION VII - PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS

723.86 Minimum Crew

Single Pilot IFR Requirements

The standard for the operation of an aeroplane with passengers on board in IFR flight without a second-in-command is:

(1) the pilot shall have a minimum of 1000 hours of flight time which shall include, if the type to be flown is multi-engined, 100 hours on multi-engined aeroplanes. In addition, the pilot shall have 50 hours of simulated or actual flight in IMC, and a total of 50 hours flight time on the aeroplane type;

(2) the Pilot Proficiency Check shall be in the aeroplane type flown or if applicable in one of the types grouped for Pilot Proficiency Check renewals and shall include the following:

  1. (a) knowledge of the auto-pilot operations and limitations;
  2. (b) performance of normal and emergency procedures without assistance;
  3. (c) passenger briefing with respect to emergency evacuation; and
  4. (d) demonstration of the use of the auto-pilot during appropriate phases of flight;

(3) flight in pressurized aeroplanes shall be conducted at or below FL 250; and

(4) a pilot’s single pilot proficiency, if still valid, is transferable between air operators which have an Air Operator Certificate authority to conduct such operations and utilize the same type and model of aeroplane.

723.88 Flight Crew Member Qualifications

(1) Pilot Proficiency Check

  1. (a) The pilot proficiency check in an aeroplane shall be conducted in accordance with Schedule I of this subsection.
  2. (b) A pilot proficiency check shall be conducted in a manner that enables the pilot to demonstrate the knowledge and the skill respecting:
    1. (i) the aeroplane, its systems and components;
    2. (ii) proper control of airspeed, direction, altitude, attitude and configuration of the aeroplane, in accordance with normal, abnormal and emergency procedures and limitations set out in the aeroplane operating manual (where applicable), the aeroplane flight manual, the air operator’s Company Operations Manual, the air operator’s standard operating procedures, the check list, and any other information relating to the operation of the aeroplane type;
    3. (iii) departure, enroute and arrival instrument procedures (if applicable); and
    4. (iv) adherence to approved procedures.
  3. (c) Each manoeuvre or procedure within a phase of flight specified in Schedule I to this subsection shall be performed in the aeroplane or synthetic flight training device.
  4. (d) A pilot-in-command check shall be completed in the seat normally occupied by the pilot-in-command and a second-in-command check shall be completed in the seat normally occupied by the second-in-command.
  5. (e) A Transport Canada inspector or an approved company check pilot shall determine whether a person has demonstrated the knowledge and the skill in accordance with the following factors:
    1. (i) the pilot’s adherence to approved procedures; and
    2. (ii) the pilot’s qualities of airmanship in selecting a course of action.
  6. (f) During the pilot proficiency check the person conducting the check may request any manoeuvre or procedure, from the Schedule, required to determine the proficiency of the candidate.
  7. (g) A PPC must include a demonstration of instrument flight (IF) proficiency if:
    1. (i) the candidate possesses a valid Instrument Rating; and
    2. (ii) the candidate conducts commercial IFR operations on the aeroplane in which the PPC is conducted.

      Where a pilot successfully completes the full pilot proficiency check, the pilot successfully completes the requirements for the renewal of the applicable instrument rating.

  8. (h) Where an Air Operator’s Certificate authorizes single-engine operation in IFR flight the pilot proficiency check shall include all items of Schedule I to this subsection which are relevant to a single-engined aeroplane.
  9. (i) Where an air operator has been authorized aeroplane grouping for pilot proficiency checks (renewals only), Schedule II and Schedule III to this subsection shall be used to determine which aircraft can be grouped. The following standard shall apply:
    1. (i) for a pilot to commence participating in an air operator’s authorized aeroplane grouping, that pilot shall have passed within the preceding 12 months, in each type of aeroplane in which that pilot will act as a flight crew member, the pilot proficiency check set out in Schedule I to this subsection;
    2. (ii) the pilot must complete initial and annual recurrent ground and flight training, including written examinations on systems and limitations, for each type of aeroplane in which he/she will act as a flight crew member;
    3. (iii) the annual PPC shall be completed and passed on one of the aeroplane types from the authorized group. A different type of aeroplane from the group shall be used each successive year for the conduct of the PPC;
    4. (iv) a failure to pass the PPC on the selected aeroplane type shall be considered to be a failure on all the aeroplane group types flown by that pilot; and
    5. (v) the document certifying qualifications and proficiency shall be endorsed for each aeroplane type.

NOTE:

Grouping of PPC’s (renewals only) is considered transportable from one air operator to another if the hiring operator has been authorized for grouping of the same aircraft types. As required in subsection 723.98(22), training shall be completed for each aeroplane type. Initial training and a PPC are required for any type on which the pilot is not current or has not previously served (see Section 723.91 - validity period).
(amended 2000/12/01)

  1. (j) The synthetic flight training device level of training and checking credits shall be approved by Transport Canada in the training program approval process for each aeroplane type. Training and checking procedures not approved for the synthetic flight training device shall be completed in the aeroplane.

(2) Competency Check

The standard for the Competency Check is:

  1. (a) for pilots flying single-engine aeroplanes operated in Day VFR (passengers and cargo), IFR (cargo only) or night VFR (cargo only), the chief pilot, or a pilot delegated by the Chief Pilot, shall be responsible for the training and shall certify the competency of each pilot on the most complex single-engined aeroplane to be flown;
    (amended 1998/06/01)

NOTE:

Pilots flying single-engine IFR with passenger or night VFR with passenger require a PPC.
(amended 1998/06/01; no previous version)

  1. (b) for pilots flying as second-in-command on multi-engined aeroplanes operating under IFR or VFR is as follows:
    1. (i) where the aeroplane is type certified for two-pilot operation, the second-in-command shall complete a competency check;
      (amended 1998/06/01)
    2. (ii) where operation of the aeroplane requires a type rating, and the second-in-command does not possess the required rating, he/she shall complete an initial pilot proficiency check as the qualifying flight to obtain the type rating. The Chief Pilot, or a pilot delegated by the Chief Pilot, shall then be responsible for annual recurrent training and will certify the competency of the pilot on each multi-engined aeroplane type to be flown. If the second-in-command already possesses the required type rating, the Chief Pilot or his delegate will be responsible for initial and recurrent training and certification of competency for each type of aeroplane to be flown;
      (amended 1998/06/01)
    3. (iii) for all other multi-engined aeroplanes, the Chief Pilot, or a pilot delegated by the Chief Pilot, shall be responsible for the training and will certify the competency of the pilot on each multi-engined aeroplane type to be flown; and
    4. (iv) the Chief Pilot or a pilot delegated by the Chief Pilot, shall certify the competency of the pilot immediately following completion of the last training flight before the pilot is released to line operations; and
      (amended 2000/06/01; no previous version)
  2. (c) a pilot shall be certified as competent in the performance of those Pilot Proficiency Check items contained in Schedule I to subsection (1) above which are applicable to single-engined aeroplanes or multi-engined aeroplanes, as applicable, operating on wheels, floats or skis, as appropriate for the operation to be conducted.

(3) Use of Other than an Air Operator Employee Pilot for Training and Checking

Authority may be given for other than an air operator employee pilot to occupy a flight crew seat when training, or conducting initial operating experience training or flight checks on an air operator’s pilots on a new aeroplane type in accordance with the following:

The pilot shall:

  1. (a) provide a resume, proof of background on the type of aeroplane, and recent experience appropriate to the training to be given; and
  2. (b) hold the appropriate licence, ratings and endorsement. Where the pilot holds a foreign pilot licence the licence and (as applicable) the instrument rating shall be validated by Transport Canada Aviation.

The pilot may be authorized to conduct pilot checks provided the requirements of the Company Check Pilot are met, with the exception of the minimum employment time with the air operator.

A foreign licensed pilot may be granted authority for training and checking only when a Canadian licensed pilot is not available.

Schedule I - Pilot Proficiency Check (PPC)

Schedule II - Grouping for PPC Purposes (Aeroplanes Having a MCTOW over 7000 lbs)

Schedule III - Grouping for PPC Purposes (Aeroplanes Having a MCTOW of 7000 lbs and less)

723.89 Qualifications of Operational Control Personnel

The standard for Operational Control Personnel is that contained in subsection 723.98(16).
(amended 1999/09/01)

723.91 Validity Period

(1) Where a flight crew member’s training has expired for a period of 24 months or more, that crew member shall successfully complete the air operator’s initial training program on the type of aeroplane.

(2) Where the flight crew member’s pilot proficiency check or competency check has expired for a period of 24 months or more that flight crew member shall, following completion of the air operator’s initial aeroplane ground and flight training, successfully complete the pilot proficiency check or competency check as applicable, on the type of aeroplane.

DIVISION VIII - TRAINING

723.98 Training Programs

The syllabus of each training program shall include the programmed time allotted and the subject matter to be covered.

(1) Training Standard General

  1. (a) Manuals, if applicable, shall be provided during training to each trainee on the subject matter to be taught.
  2. (b) Relevant training aids such as fire extinguishers, life preservers, rafts, aircraft components, static aircraft, etc. shall be available relevant to the program being presented.
  3. (c) Comprehensive examinations shall be used to validate competence of the trainee.

(2) Flight Crew Training on a Contract Basis

An air operator may contract training to another organization provided:

  1. (a) the arrangement is clearly provided for in the approved training program;
  2. (b) the outside organization uses the manuals and publications used by the air operator (SOP’s, Aircraft Flight Manual, Aircraft Operating Manual, if applicable, Company Operations Manual, etc.);
  3. (c) the air operator ensures that the training is conducted in accordance with the approved program;
  4. (d) where type training is conducted the training is provided on the type and model operated by the air operator unless otherwise provided for in the approved training program; and
  5. (e) the air operator maintains training records as required by Subpart 703 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations.

(3) Training and Qualifications of Training Personnel

  1. (a) Instructor - Ground Training
    1. (i) has satisfied the air operator that he/she has the knowledge and skills required to conduct the training; and
    2. (ii) if conducting aeroplane type training has successfully completed the ground school for the type of aeroplane.
  2. (b) Qualifications and Responsibilities of a Training Pilot (Flight)
    1. (i) Qualifications
      1. (A) If the Air Operator Certificate authorizes operations IFR:
        1. (I) hold a valid Airline Transport Pilot Licence and a valid Instrument Rating appropriate for the class of aeroplane, and have a valid PPC on type; or
          (amended 2003/06/01)
        2. (II) hold a valid Commercial Pilot Licence valid for night and a valid Instrument Rating appropriate for the class of aeroplane, have accumulated not less than 500 flight hours which shall include not less than 250 flight hours as pilot-in-command appropriate for the class of aeroplanes and have a valid PPC on type.
          (amended 2003/06/01)
      2. (B) If the Air Operator Certificate authorizes VFR at night:
        1. (I) hold at least a valid Commercial Pilot Licence valid for night, and a valid Instrument Rating appropriate for the class of aeroplane; or
      3. (C) If the Air Operator Certificate authorizes day VFR only:
        1. (I) hold at least a valid Commercial Pilot Licence appropriate for the class of aeroplane.
  3. (ii) Responsibilities

    The Training Pilot is responsible for monitoring the operation and identifying problems which may require the provision of extra training or changes in operational procedures. The training pilot is responsible, together with the Chief Pilot, for the establishment and promulgation of the standards and piloting techniques with which flight crew will be expected to comply during flight operations and which the flight crew will be required to demonstrate during initial and recurrent checks. Particular responsibilities are:

    1. (A) conducting ground, synthetic flight training device and flight training of all flight crew in accordance with the approved training program;
    2. (B) supervision of the standards and recommending amendments to their respective aeroplane operating manuals and standard operating procedures;
    3. (C) maintaining the air operator’s training records;
    4. (D) liaison with crew scheduling concerning training details; and
    5. (E) any responsibilities assigned by the Chief Pilot.
  4. (c) Qualifications and Responsibility of a Training Pilot (Synthetic Training Device)
    1. (i) Qualifications
      1. (A) hold or have held at least a Commercial Pilot Licence or equivalent, and if the Air Operator’s Certificate authorizes IFR an Instrument Rating appropriate for the class of aeroplane;
      2. (B) have completed the air operator’s ground school and synthetic training device program for the type of aeroplane;
      3. (C) have successfully completed within the past 12 months a flight check to PPC standards in the synthetic training device or aeroplane for that type;
      4. (D) know the content of the Aeroplane Operating Manual (if applicable), Aeroplane Flight Manual, Operations and Training Manuals and as applicable the Company Check Pilot Manual and the air operator Standard Operating Procedures for the aeroplane type, and the provisions of the regulations and standards; and
      5. (E) have received instruction on the operation of the synthetic training device from an instructor qualified to operate the synthetic training device.
    2. (ii) Responsibilities
      1. (A) The Training Pilot is responsible for monitoring the operation and identifying problems which may require the provision of extra training or changes in operational procedures.
      2. (B) The training pilot is responsible, together with the chief pilot, for the establishment and promulgation of the standards and piloting techniques with which flight crew will be expected to comply during flight operations and which the flight crew will be required to demonstrate during initial and recurrent checks. Particular responsibilities are:
        1. (I) conducting ground and synthetic flight training of all flight crew in accordance with the approved training program;
        2. (II) supervision of the standards and recommending amendments to their respective aeroplane operating manuals and standard operating procedures;
        3. (III) maintaining the air operator’s training records;
        4. (IV) liaison with crew scheduling concerning training details; and
        5. (V) any responsibilities assigned by the Chief Pilot.

NOTE:

The standard for the use of other than an air operator employee pilot for training and checking is in Section 723.88.

(4) Training Program Standards

Ground training programs shall provide a means of evaluating the trainee after completion of the syllabus by completion of examination with a review and correction of any errors. Training examinations should be comprehensive and periodically reviewed and updated.

Type training programs are to be titled as to the type to which they apply and include the number of instructional hours to be provided. They should be performance oriented and stress the operation (normal, emergency and malfunctions) of the aircraft systems and equipment. Instruction related to components and systems that flight crews cannot control, influence or operate should be minimized.

(5) Company Indoctrination Training

This training is required upon employment for all persons assigned to an operational control function including base managers, pilots and persons responsible for flight watch or flight following. The program shall ensure that persons involved in control of flight operations are aware of their responsibilities, know company reporting relationships and are competent to fulfil their assigned duties related to flight operations. Company indoctrination training shall include as applicable:

  1. (a) Canadian Aviation Regulations;
  2. (b) Air Operator Certificate and Operations Specifications;
  3. (c) company organization, reporting relationships and communication procedures including duties and responsibilities of the flight crew members and the relationship of their duties to other crew members;
  4. (d) flight planning and operating procedures;
  5. (e) fuelling procedures including procedures for fuelling with passengers on board and fuel contamination precautions;
  6. (f) critical surface contamination and safety awareness program;
  7. (g) passenger safety briefings and safe movement of passengers to/from the aeroplane;
  8. (h) use and status of Company Operations Manual including maintenance release procedures and accident/incident reporting procedures;
  9. (i) use of minimum equipment lists (if applicable);
  10. (j) windshear, aeroplane icing, and other meteorological training appropriate to the area of operations;
  11. (k) navigation procedures and other specialized operations applicable to the operator;
  12. (l) accident/incident reporting;
  13. (m) passenger on board medical emergency;
  14. (n) handling of disabled passengers;
  15. (o) carriage of external loads, (if applicable);
  16. (p) operational control system; and
  17. (q) weight and balance system procedures.

(6) Technical Ground Training - Initial and Recurrent

This training shall ensure that each flight crew member is knowledgeable with respect to aeroplane systems and all normal, abnormal and emergency procedures. The following subjects shall be included:

  1. (a) aeroplane systems operation and limitations as contained in the aeroplane flight manual and aeroplane operating manual and standard operating procedures;
  2. (b) operation of all equipment that is installed in all aeroplanes of the same type operated by the air operator;
  3. (c) differences in equipment that is installed in all aeroplanes of the same type in the air operators fleet;
  4. (d) applicable standard operating procedures for pilot flying and pilot not flying duties for normal, abnormal and emergency procedures for the aeroplane;
  5. (e) aeroplane performance and limitations; and
  6. (f) weight and balance procedures;

Technical ground training shall be conducted annually.

(7) Synthetic Flight Training Device

  1. (a) A Synthetic Flight Training Device has two classifications:
    1. (i) Full flight simulator (FFS); and
    2. (ii) Flight Training Device (FTD)

(8) Level A Training Program (if applicable)

An air operator with an approved Level A training program using a Level A or better FFS, approved in accordance with the Aeroplane and Rotorcraft Simulator Manual, is permitted to conduct most initial, upgrade and recurrent training in that simulator. Additionally, flight training in an aeroplane must be carried out for general handling and landing manoeuvres for initial and upgrade training.

  1. (a) The following training in standard operating procedures for normal, abnormal and emergency operation of the aeroplane systems and components shall be carried out in the FFS:
    1. (i) use of aeroplane checklists;
    2. (ii) flight and cabin crew co-operation, command and co-ordination;
    3. (iii) aeroplane and cargo fire on the ground and while airborne;
    4. (iv) engine fire and failure;
    5. (v) effects of engine icing and anti-ice operation;
    6. (vi) take-off, landing and flight with the critical engine inoperative including driftdown and engine inoperative performance capabilities;
    7. (vii) on 3- and 4-engine aeroplanes inflight procedures including approach and landing with 2 engines inoperative (applies to P-I-C only);
    8. (viii) loss of pressurization and emergency descent (if applicable);
    9. (ix) flight control failures and abnormalities;
    10. (x) hydraulic, electrical and other system failures;
    11. (xi) failure of navigation and communication equipment;
    12. (xii) pilot incapacitation - recognition and response during various phases of flight;
    13. (xiii) approach to the stall and recovery procedure with ground contact imminent and ground contact not a factor (clean, take-off and landing configuration);
    14. (xiv) buffet boundary onset, steep turns (45° of bank), and other flight characteristics such as unusual attitudes (as applicable for initial and upgrade only);
    15. (xv) aeroplane performance for climb, cruise, holding, descent and landing;
    16. (xvi) normal, noise abatement and performance limited take-offs;
    17. (xvii) take-off and landing data calculations;
    18. (xviii) rejected take-off procedures and rejected landings;
    19. (xix) passenger and crew evacuation;
    20. (xx) FMS, GPWS, TCAS and other specialized aeroplane equipment (where available); and
    21. (xxi) inadvertent encounters with moderate or severe in flight icing conditions.
      (amended 1998/06/01; no previous version)
  2. (b) Where the air operator seeks authorization for flight in IMC the following training in flight planning and instrument flight procedures shall be included:
    1. (i) departure, enroute, holding and arrival; and
    2. (ii) all types of instrument approaches and missed approaches in minimum visibility conditions using all levels of automation available (as applicable).
  3. (c) In addition to the training in an approved Level A FFS Training Program, the following flight training on the aeroplane type shall be carried out:
    1. (i) interior and exterior aeroplane preflight checks;
    2. (ii) ground handling for P-I-C;
    3. (iii) normal take-off, visual circuit (where possible) and landing;
    4. (iv) a simulated engine inoperative approach and landing;
    5. (v) simulated engine failure procedures during take-off and missed approach (at a safe altitude and airspeed);
    6. (vi) no electronic glide slope approach and landing; and
    7. (vii) circling (if applicable) and other approaches where the simulator lacks the capability.
  4. (d) If a Level A flight simulator has differences in performance, systems, or cockpit layout and configuration from the air operator’s aeroplane, additional training on these differences shall be provided.

(9) Level B Training Program (if applicable)

An air operator with an approved Level B training program using a Level B or better FFS, approved in accordance with the Aeroplane and Rotorcraft Simulator Manual, is permitted to conduct most initial, upgrade and recurrent training in that simulator. Additionally, flight training in an aeroplane must be carried out for general handling and landing manoeuvres for initial and upgrade training.

  1. (a) The following training in standard operating procedures for normal, abnormal and emergency operation of the aeroplane systems and components shall be carried out in the FFS:
    1. (i) use of aeroplane checklists;
    2. (ii) flight and cabin crew co-operation, command and co-ordination;
    3. (iii) aeroplane and cargo fire on the ground and while airborne;
    4. (iv) engine fire and failure;
    5. (v) effects of engine icing and anti-ice operation;
    6. (vi) take-off, landing and flight with critical engine inoperative including driftdown and engine inoperative performance capabilities;
    7. (vii) on 3- and 4-engine aeroplanes inflight procedures including approach and landing with 2 engines inoperative (applies to P-I-C only);
    8. (viii) loss of pressurization and emergency descent (if applicable);
    9. (ix) flight control failures and abnormalities;
    10. (x) hydraulic, electrical and other system failures;
    11. (xi) failure of navigation and communication equipment;
    12. (xii) pilot incapacitation - recognition and response during various phases of flight;
    13. (xiii) recovery from turbulence and windshear on take-off and approach;
    14. (xiv) approach to the stall and recovery procedure with ground contact imminent and ground contact not a factor (in clean, take-off and landing configuration);
    15. (xv) buffet onset boundary, steep turns (45° bank), and other flight characteristics such as unusual attitudes (as applicable for initial and upgrade only);
    16. (xvi) aeroplane performance for climb, cruise, descent and landing;
    17. (xvii) normal, noise abatement and performance limited take-offs;
    18. (xviii) take-off and landing data calculations;
    19. (xix) rejected take-off procedures and rejected landings;
    20. (xx) passenger and crew evacuation;
    21. (xxi) FMS, GPWS, TCAS and other specialized aeroplane equipment (as applicable); and
    22. (xxii) inadvertent encounters with moderate or severe in flight icing conditions.
      (amended 1998/06/01; no previous version)
  2. (b) Where the air operator seeks authorization for flight in IMC, the following training in flight planning and instrument flight procedures shall be included:
    1. (i) departure, enroute, holding and arrival; and
    2. (ii) all types of instrument approaches and missed approaches in minimum visibility conditions using all levels of automation available (as applicable).
  3. (c) In addition to the training in an approved Level B Simulator Training Program, the following flight training on the aeroplane type shall be carried out:
    1. (i) interior and exterior aircraft preflight checks;
    2. (ii) ground handling for the P-I-C;
    3. (iii) normal take-off, visual circuit (where possible) and landing;
    4. (iv) a simulated engine inoperative approach and landing;
    5. (v) simulated engine failure procedures during take-off and missed approach (at a safe altitude and airspeed);
    6. (vi) no electronic glide slope approach and landing; and
    7. (vii) circling (if applicable) and other approaches where the simulator lacks the capability.
  4. (d) If a Level B flight simulator has differences in performance, systems, or cockpit layout and configuration from the air operator’s aeroplane, additional training on these differences shall be provided.

(9.1) Level C Training Program (if applicable)
(amended 2006/06/30; no previous version)

  1. (a) For the purpose of this provision, "similar aeroplane" means both aeroplanes are subject to Subpart 703 and are
    1. (i) turbo-prop to turbo-prop - provided both aeroplanes are certified as Transport Category Aeroplanes, or both aeroplanes are certified under FAR 23 Commuter or SFAR 41C or equivalent, as established by the Minister, or
    2. (ii) reciprocating to reciprocating - provided both are certified for operations under Subpart 703;
  2. (b) An air operator with an approved Level C training program using a Level C FFS approved in accordance with the Aeroplane and Rotorcraft Simulator Manual, is permitted zero flight time training for candidates on initial training who have at least second-in-command experience on a similar aeroplane with the same operator or who have verifiable line currency as a second-in-command on a similar aeroplane within the previous two years. Candidates who do not qualify shall undergo aeroplane flight training in accordance with those items listed in subparagraphs 723.98(8)(c)(i) to (vii) above;
  3. (c) In addition to those items of training required in paragraphs 723.98(8)(a) and (b), the training in an approved Level C FFS shall include
    1. (i) manoeuvring of the aeroplane on the ground,
    2. (ii) crosswind take-offs and landings to 100% of the published crosswind component,
    3. (iii) a visual training program in the flight simulator to ensure VFR flight skills, covering scenarios of dusk and night with variable weather and visibilities. This program shall include
      1. (A) normal and crosswind take-offs, visual circuits and landings with variable wind, runway illusion and surface conditions,
      2. (B) engine inoperative approach and landing,
      3. (C) engine failure procedures during take-off and missed approach,
      4. (D) no electronic glideslope approach and landing, and
      5. (E) approaches and landings with flight control failures and abnormalities,
    4. (iv) a simulated line flight comprising at least 2 sectors (one as pilot flying and another as pilot not flying);
  4. (d) If a Level C FFS has differences in performance, systems, or cockpit layout and configuration from the air operator’s aeroplane, additional training on these differences shall be provided.

(9.2) Level D Training Program (if applicable)
(amended 2006/06/30; no previous version)

  1. (a) An air operator with an approved Level D training program using a Level D FFS approved in accordance with the Aeroplane and Rotorcraft Simulator Manual is permitted zero flight time training;
  2. (b) In addition to the training required for a Level C program, the following FFS training shall be carried out:
    1. (i) A VFR training program in the Level D FFS of at least 4 hours per crew (2 hours as pilot flying (PF) and 2 hours as pilot not flying (PNF)) is required, to ensure visual flight skills to cover either day or dusk and night with variable weather and visibility scenarios. This program shall include the following:
      1. (A) normal and crosswind take-offs, and visual circuits and landings, with variable wind, runway illusion and surface conditions,
      2. (B) engine inoperative approach and landing,
      3. (C) engine failure procedures during take-off and missed approach,
      4. (D) no visual aids approaches and landings, and
      5. (E) approaches and landings with flight control failures and abnormalities;

NOTE:

Where a pilot demonstrates a satisfactory level of performance in visual manoeuvres, the operator may use the time specified in subparagraph 723.98(9.2)(b)(i) as additional training to that required by any of the Level C requirements.

    1. (ii) Simulated line flights of at least 2 sessions (2 sectors as pilot flying (PF) and 2 sectors as pilot not flying (PNF)) are required. Pilot flying duties shall be carried out from the appropriate seat;
  1. (c) If a Level D FFS has differences in performance, systems, or cockpit layout and configuration from the air operator’s aeroplane, additional training on these differences shall be provided

(10) Aeroplane Flight Training Program

Any simulated failures of aeroplane systems shall only take place under operating conditions which do not jeopardize safety of flight.

  1. (a) Standard Operating Procedures for normal, abnormal and emergency operation of the aeroplane systems and components including:
    1. (i) use of aeroplane checklists including interior and exterior pre-flight checks;
    2. (ii) manoeuvring of the aeroplane on the ground;
    3. (iii) aspects of flight and cabin crew co-operation, command and co-ordination;
    4. (iv) normal take-off, visual circuit, approach and landing;
    5. (v) simulated aeroplane and cargo fire on the ground and while airborne;
    6. (vi) simulated engine fire and failure;
    7. (vii) briefings on effects of airframe and engine icing and anti-ice operation;
    8. (viii) take-off, landing and flight with the critical engine simulated inoperative, including driftdown and engine inoperative performance capabilities;
    9. (ix) on 3- and 4-engine aeroplanes inflight procedures including approach and landing with 2 engines simulated inoperative (applies to P-I-C only);
    10. (x) simulated loss of pressurization and emergency descent;
    11. (xi) no electronic glide slope approach and landing;
    12. (xii) simulated hydraulic, electrical and other system failures;
    13. (xiii) simulated flight control failures and abnormalities;
    14. (xiv) simulated failure of navigation and communication equipment;
    15. (xv) simulated pilot incapacitation - recognition and response;
    16. (xvi) briefing on recovery from turbulence and windshear on take-off and approach;
    17. (xvii) approach to the stall and recovery procedure simulating ground contact imminent and ground contact not a factor (clean, take-off and landing configuration);
    18. (xviii) buffet onset boundary, steep turns (45º of bank) and other flight characteristics (as applicable for initial and upgrade only);
    19. (xix) aeroplane performance for climb, cruise, holding, descent and landing;
    20. (xx) normal and performance limited take-offs;
    21. (xxi) crosswind take-off and landing, and briefing on contaminated runway take-off and landing;
    22. (xxii) take-off and landing data calculations;
    23. (xxiii) simulated rejected take-off procedures (at or below 60 kts) and rejected landings;
    24. (xxiv) briefing on crew and passenger evacuation procedures; and
    25. (xxv) other specialized aeroplane equipment (where applicable).
  2. (b) Flight planning and instrument flight procedures where the air operator is authorized for VFR flight at night or flight in IMC:
    1. (i) departure, enroute, holding and arrival; and
    2. (ii) all types of instrument approaches and missed approaches in simulated minimum visibility conditions, including circling approaches (where applicable) using all levels of automation available (as applicable).

(11) Emergency Procedures Training for Pilots

This training is required on an annual basis and shall include instruction in the location and operation of all emergency equipment. Training devices approved to simulate flight operating emergency conditions, static aeroplanes, ground demonstrations, classroom lectures, films or other devices may be used for training provided the method used ensures that each flight crew member is adequately trained in the operation or use of all emergency equipment. Where practical training is required it shall be completed on initial training and every three years thereafter.

  1. (a) aeroplane fire in the air and on the ground;
  2. (b) use of fire extinguishers including practical training;
  3. (c) operation and use of emergency exits including practical training;
  4. (d) passenger preparation for an emergency landing or ditching (as applicable) including practical training;
  5. (e) emergency evacuation procedures including practical training;
  6. (f) donning and inflation of life preservers (when equipped) including practical training;
  7. (g) removal from stowage, deployment, inflation and boarding of life rafts/slide rafts (when equipped) including practical training;
  8. (h) pilot incapacitation including practical training;
  9. (i) hijacking, bomb threat and other security procedures;
  10. (j) passenger on board medical emergency; and
  11. (k) special emergency procedures when the aeroplane is used on MEDEVAC operations including patient evacuation in emergency situations.

(12) Regaining Qualifications Training

For operators using a Level B, C, D FFS approved in accordance with the Aeroplane and Rotorcraft Simulator Manual, or the aeroplane, the following must be completed for all pilots who have not maintained their recency qualifications in accordance with paragraph 703.88(1)(b) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations for a period between 90 days and 12 months:
(amended 2000/12/01)

  1. (a) a briefing on changes that have occurred to the aeroplane or its operation since the last flight; and
  2. (b) three take-offs and landings (which may be carried out as part of a PPC where one has come due).

(13) Regaining Qualifications after PPC Expiry

  1. (a) Where the PPC has expired for less than 6 months the following must be completed to regain type qualification:
    1. (i) all the requirements specified by subsection (12) above; and
    2. (ii) any recurrent training, including a PPC, which may have come due during the absence from flying duties.
  2. (b) Where the PPC has expired from between 6 and 24 months the following must be completed to regain type qualification:
    1. (i) all the requirements of paragraph (13)(a) above; and
    2. (ii) a technical ground training course consisting of an aeroplane system review and FTD training (where applicable).
  3. (c) Where the PPC has expired for a period greater than 24 months a complete initial aeroplane type training course shall be carried out.

(14) Right Seat Conversion Training

  1. (a) For a left seat-qualified pilot to operate an aeroplane from the right seat, the pilot shall:
    (amended 2000/12/01)
    1. (i) be qualified as a captain or pilot-in-command and be current on the aeroplane type for left seat duties,
      (amended 2000/12/01)
    2. (ii) receive sufficient technical ground training on right seat duties,
      (amended 2000/12/01)
    3. (iii) have, in the initial training received after January 1, 2001, sufficient flight or FFS training to enable a Company Check Pilot, air operator aeroplane type Chief Pilot or aeroplane type Training Pilot to certify the competency of the pilot to carry out pilot duties from the right seat, and
      (amended 2000/12/01)
    4. (iv) every 12 months, complete two segments in the right seat, one as the pilot-flying and one as the pilot-not-flying;
      (amended 2000/12/01; no previous version)
  2. (b) The initial training specified in subparagraph 723.98(14)(a)(iii) shall include at least the following items:
    (amended 2000/12/01; no previous version)
    1. (i) a normal take-off,
    2. (ii) an instrument approach and landing, and
    3. (iii) a take-off with an engine failure above V1 for FFS training or a simulated engine failure at a safe altitude for flight training;
  3. (c) If the currency requirements specified in subparagraph 723.98(14)(a)(iv) lapse, the initial training specified in subparagraph 723.98(14)(a)(iii) shall be completed in order to regain right seat currency;
    (amended 2000/12/01; no previous version)
  4. (d) A first officer, current on the aeroplane type, who is upgrading to captain on the same aircraft type will be considered to have completed the initial right seat training requirement specified in subparagraph 723.98(14)(a)(iii).
    (amended 2000/12/01; no previous version)

(15) Upgrade Training and Checking

  1. (a) Upgrade training and checking for pilots who are qualified as a second-in-command on that aeroplane type shall include the following:
    1. (i) successfully complete training as a pilot-in-command in all areas of aeroplane handling and operation as outlined in the air operator’s approved initial course;
    2. (ii) command and decision making;
    3. (iii) successfully complete specialized operations qualification training (e.g. lower take-off limits etc.); and
    4. (iv) successfully complete on that type of aeroplane the initial pilot proficiency check outlined in Schedule I or Schedule II, conducted by a Transport Canada inspector or an approved Company Check Pilot.
  2. (b) Upgrade training and checking for pilots whose PPC as second-in-command on that aeroplane type has expired within the previous 24 months shall consist of completion of regaining qualifications requirements specified in paragraphs 723.98(12)(a) and (b) as well as the requirements of paragraph 723.98(15)(a).
  3. (c) Pilots who have not held a valid PPC on that aeroplane type as second-in-command for a period greater than 24 months shall be given a complete initial aeroplane type training course as well as the requirements of paragraph (a) above.

(16) Flight Follower Training

An approved initial and annual recurrent training program is required for company personnel responsible for flight following of company aeroplanes. The training program shall consist of:

  1. (a) duties and responsibilities;
  2. (b) communication procedures;
  3. (c) applicable regulations and standards;
  4. (d) flight preparation procedures as applicable to assigned duties;
  5. (e) procedures in the event of an emergency or overdue aircraft;
  6. (f) accident and incident reporting procedures; and
  7. (g) requirements of approved Company Operations Manual as applicable to the duties and responsibilities.

(17) Aeroplane Surface Contamination Training

An approved surface contamination initial and recurrent training program is required for all operations personnel to ensure they are aware of the hazards and procedures for ice, frost and snow critical contamination on aircraft. The training program shall include:

  1. (a) responsibility of pilot-in-command and other operations personnel;
  2. (b) regulations related to operations in icing condition;
  3. (c) weather conducive to ice, frost and snow contamination;
  4. (d) inspection before flight and removal of contamination;
  5. (e) in-flight icing recognition; and
  6. (f) hazards related to critical surface contamination of ice, frost and snow.

(18) Minimum Equipment List Training (MEL)

When a Minimum Equipment List (MEL) has been approved for use on an aeroplane type the air operator shall provide the following training to flight crew members, maintenance personnel and to persons exercising operational control, as applicable:
(amended 2004/12/01)

  1. (a) training for maintenance personnel shall include instruction on those sections of the Maintenance Control Manual which address the MEL, placarding of inoperative equipment, maintenance release, and any other MEL related procedures;
    (amended 2004/12/01)
  2. (b) training for flight crew members and operational control personnel shall include instruction on the purpose and use of an MEL, air operator MEL procedures, elementary work as applicable, and responsibility of the pilot-in-command;
    (amended 2004/12/01)
  3. (c) recurrent training shall be conducted annually to ensure air operator personnel are aware of any changes to the MEL or MEL procedures.

(19) Transportation of Dangerous Goods

All training required by the Transportation of Dangerous Goods Regulations.

(20) Take-off Minima Reported Visibility RVR 1200 feet (1/4 mile)

Training is required for the pilot-in-command only, except, if the air operator authorizes in the Company Operations Manual, the second-in-command to conduct take-offs in lower than standard weather minima, the second-in-command shall undergo the same training as the pilot-in-command.

  1. (a) Ground Training
    1. (i) take-off alternate requirements;
    2. (ii) pilot-in-command minimum experience;
    3. (iii) pilot-in-command responsibility for visibility and obstacle clearance requirements;
    4. (iv) minimum aeroplane and runway equipment requirements; and
    5. (v) procedures to ensure compliance with performance limitations.
  2. (b) Synthetic Training Device Training RVR 1200-Aircraft without Certified Take-off Performance

    During initial and annual recurrent training:

    1. (i) a minimum of one take-off at RVR 1200 feet with failure of the critical engine shortly after lift-off; and
    2. (ii) a minimum of one rejected take-off at RVR 1200 feet at a speed approaching rotation.

(21) Area Navigation Systems (RNAV)
(amended 1998/09/01)

  1. (a) General Training
    1. (i) To qualify for use of RNAV systems on IFR operations, an air operator shall have an approved flight crew training and qualifications program for use of the system. Flight crew shall have completed the appropriate training and have completed an in-flight check or an equivalent check in an approved synthetic training device. This qualification check shall be conducted by an approved check pilot.
    2. (ii) Training shall be in the following areas:
      1. (A) pre-flight;
      2. (B) normal operation of the system;
      3. (C) procedures for manually updating system;
      4. (D) methods of monitoring and cross checking system;(E) operation in area of compass unreliability;
      5. (F) malfunction procedures;
      6. (G) terminal procedures;
      7. (H) waypoint symbology, plotting procedures, record keeping duties/practices;
      8. (I) time keeping procedures; and
        (amended 2003/03/01)
      9. (J) post-flight.
        (amended 2003/03/01)
    3. (iii) To qualify for approval to conduct GPS approaches in IFR, an air operator shall have a flight crew training program approved by the Minister. Flight crew shall have completed the appropriate ground and flight training and have completed an in-flight check, or an equivalent check in a synthetic training device approved by the Minister prior to conducting GPS approaches. This qualification check shall be conducted by an approved check pilot.
    4. (iv) Where pilots are required to use more than one type of GPS for approach, an air operator shall ensure the training program addresses the differences between the units, unless the units have been determined by the Minister to be sufficiently similar.
    5. (v) An air operator shall ensure the ground training includes "hands on" training using a desk top simulator, a computer based simulation of the unit to be used, a static in-aircraft unit, or other ground training devices acceptable to the Minister.
  2. (b) Ground Training - Non-Integrated Receivers (Panel Mount GPS Receivers)

    An air operator shall ensure that the training program candidates are trained to proficiency in each of the elements associated with the following areas:

    1. (i) Knowledge with the respect to the following:
      1. (A) the GPS system, including:
        1. (I) GPS system components and aircraft equipment;
        2. (II) the composition of satellite constellation;
        3. (III) the minimum number of satellites required for 2-D and 3-D navigation;
        4. (IV) the basic concept of satellite ranging;
        5. (V) factors affecting the accuracy of GPS signals;
        6. (VI) the World Geodetic Survey 84 (WGS 84) datum and the effect of using any other datum;
      2. (B) human factors applicable to the use of GPS and how errors may be reduced or eliminated;
      3. (C) company standard operating procedures for using GPS units; and
      4. (D) procedures for reporting GPS problems and database errors.
    2. (ii) Ability to perform the following operational tasks:
      1. (A) select appropriate operational modes;
      2. (B) recall categories of information contained in the database;
      3. (C) predict RAIM availability;
      4. (D) enter and verify user defined waypoints;
      5. (E) recall and verify database waypoints;
      6. (F) interpret typical GPS navigational displays including latitude/longitude, distance and bearing to waypoint, course deviation indication (CDI), desired track (DTK), track made good (TMG), actual track (TK), cross track error and any other information appropriate for the equipment used;
      7. (G) intercept and maintain GPS defined tracks;
      8. (H) determine navigation information appropriate for the conduct of the flight including ground speed (GS), estimated time of arrival (ETA) for next waypoint and destination;
      9. (I) recognition of waypoint passage;
      10. (J) use of ’direct to’ function;
      11. (K) link enroute portion of GPS flight plan to approach;
      12. (L) conduct SIDs, STARs, terminal area procedures and holds;
      13. (M) retrieve, verify and conduct GPS stand alone approaches; and
      14. (N) conduct GPS missed approaches.
    3. (iii) Ability to conduct the following operational and serviceability checks:
      1. (A) database currency and area of operation;
      2. (B) receiver serviceability;
      3. (C) RAIM status;
      4. (D) CDI sensitivity;
      5. (E) position indication; and
      6. (F) number of satellites acquired and, if available, satellite position information.
      7. (iv) Ability to recognize and take appropriate action for all GPS warnings and messages including, where applicable:
      8. (A) "loss of RAIM"
      9. (B) "2D navigation"
      10. (C) "In Dead Reckoning Mode"
      11. (D) "database out of date"
      12. (E) "GPS fail"
      13. (F) "barometric input fail"
      14. (G) "power/battery low" or "fail"
      15. (H) "parallel offset on"; and
      16. (I) "satellite fail".
  3. (c) Ground Training - Integrated Receivers (Flight Management Systems)

    An air operator shall ensure that the training program candidates are trained to proficiency in each of the elements associated with the following areas:

    1. (i) Knowledge with the respect to the following:
      1. (A) the GPS system and theory of operation, including:
        1. (I) GPS system components and aircraft equipment;
        2. (II) the composition of satellite constellation;
        3. (III) the minimum number of satellites required for 2-D and 3-D navigation;
        4. (IV) the basic concept of satellite ranging;
        5. (V) factors affecting the accuracy of GPS signals; and
        6. (VI) the WGS84 datum and the effect of using any other datum; and
      2. (B) human factors applicable to the use of GPS and how errors may be reduced or eliminated (i.e. maintaining situational awareness); and
    2. (ii) Ability to perform the following operational tasks:
      1. (A) predict RAIM availability;
      2. (B) link enroute portion of GPS flight plan to approach;
      3. (C) conduct GPS stand alone approaches; and
      4. (D) conduct GPS missed approaches.
    3. (iii) Ability to conduct the following operational and serviceability checks:
      1. (A) RAIM status;
      2. (B) CDI sensitivity; and
      3. (C) number of satellites acquired and, if available, satellite position I information.
    4. (iv) Ability to recognize and take appropriate action for all GPS warnings and messages including, where applicable:
      1. (A) "loss of RAIM";
      2. (B) "2D navigation";
      3. (C) "GPS fail";
      4. (D) "barometric input fail"; and
      5. (E) "satellite fail".
  4. (d) Flight Training
    1. (i) Pilots shall complete flight training in the use of GPS for approach and other associated duties for each crew position they are authorized to occupy. Flight training may be completed in an aircraft, or in a level A or higher simulator that is equipped with the same model of GPS receiver (or a model determined by the Minister to be sufficiently similar) that is installed in the company aircraft.
    2. (ii) Flight training shall be conducted by a designated training pilot who has completed the company ground training program approved by the Minister, and demonstrated proficiency in the use of the model of GPS (or a model determined by the Minister to be sufficiently similar) to an approved check pilot.
      (amended 2006/06/30)
    3. (iii) The following initial flight training and checking, and currency requirements apply to aircraft operated under Subpart 703 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations conducting single-pilot IFR GPS approaches where persons other than flight crew are carried.
      (amended 2000/12/01; no previous version)

      Before a pilot is assigned as the pilot-in-command (PIC) of a single-pilot IFR operation using GPS for an instrument approach, the following requirements shall be met:

    4. (A) within the preceding ninety days, and while under the direct supervision of a designated training pilot, the pilot shall conduct a minimum of ten (10) GPS approaches of which:
      1. (I) five (5) approaches are conducted in actual or simulated instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) to the prescribed landing minima,
      2. (II) three (3) approaches including a published missed approach, at least two of which are conducted in actual or simulated IMC, and
      3. (III) two (2) approaches are conducted using different initial approach waypoints (IAWPs);
    5. (B) completion of all of the requirements listed in clause (A) shall be recorded in the pilot’s training file together with the following information:
      1. (I) registration and type of aircraft, or type of simulator, used for the GPS approaches;
      2. (II) manufacturer and model number of GPS equipment used;
      3. (III) date, name and number of approaches conducted in total, in IMC, with missed approaches and from which IAWP; and
      4. (IV) certification by the designated training pilot attesting to the training given to the pilot;
    6. (C) the pilot shall successfully demonstrate his/her proficiency in GPS operations as part of a PPC or as a separate check ride conducted by an approved company check pilot or a Transport Canada Inspector and shall be certified as proficient; and
    7. (D) currency requirements shall be met by conducting GPS instrument approaches during the PPC.

(22) Transportability of Pilot Proficiency Check or Competency Check

Transportability of Pilot Proficiency Checks or Competency Checks from one air operator to another is permitted subject to the hiring air operator providing the following training which shall be specified in the approved operations/training manual:

  1. (a) company indoctrination;
  2. (b) pilot ground and emergency procedures training on each type of aeroplane the pilot is assigned, sufficient to cover the air operator procedures and equipment differences;
  3. (c) standard operating procedures review; and
  4. (d) the hiring air operator records the PPC/PCC validity and expiration date in company records.

(23) High Altitude Training

High Altitude training is required for all flight crew members operating aeroplanes above 13,000 feet ASL before the first assignment on a pressurized aeroplane and every three years thereafter:

  1. (a) physiological phenomena in a low pressure environment, including:
    1. (i) respiration;
    2. (ii) hypoxia;
    3. (iii) duration of consciousness at altitude without supplemental oxygen; and
    4. (iv) gas expansion and gas bubble formation.
  2. (b) other factors associated with rapid loss of pressurization including:
    1. (i) most likely causes;
    2. (ii) noise;
    3. (iii) cabin temperature change;
    4. (iv) cabin fogging;
    5. (v) effects on objects located near the point of fuselage failure; and
    6. (vi) actions of crew members immediately following the event and the likely resultant attitude.

(24) Single-engine Aeroplanes Carrying Passengers VFR at Night or Under IFR

The following training is required:

Pilot in Command
(amended 2006/06/30; no previous version)

  1. (a) initial training in an approved synthetic training device, including all emergency procedures that cannot be safely practiced in the aeroplane;
  2. (b) training in the aeroplane in accordance with the following training requirements:

Training Requirements
(amended 2006/06/30; no previous version)

INITIAL RECURRENT
Ground Aeroplane Simulator Ground Aeroplane Simulator
20.0 2.0 6.0 7.5 1.0 N/R
  1. 1. Ground training times do not include self-study or examination times.
  2. 2. Written exams are mandatory at completion of both Initial and Recurrent Ground Training.
  3. 3. Synthetic training device and Aeroplane times are Pilot Flying (PF) times only.
  1. (c) Required Synthetic Training Device Exercises
    1. (i) use of checklists
    2. (ii) aeroplane fire on ground or while airborne
    3. (iii) engine fire on ground and in flight
    4. (iv) engine failure in flight
    5. (v) inadvertent encounter with airframe icing conditions and operation of de-icing and anti-icing equipment
    6. (vi) hydraulic, electrical, and other system malfunctions (as applicable)
    7. (vii) loss of pressurization and emergency descent, (if applicable)
    8. (viii) recognition and recovery from turbulence and windshear on approach and landing
    9. (ix) rejected take-offs and landings
    10. (x) missed approach and go-around
    11. (xi) straight-in and circling approaches, with emphasis on non-precision procedures
    12. (xii) Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) containing crew coordination as applicable to the operation, in accordance with paragraph 723.107(1)(f).
      (amended 2006/06/30; no previous version)

The following training is required:
(amended 2006/06/30; no previous version)

Second in Command
(amended 2006/06/30; no previous version)

  1. (a) training in the aeroplane in accordance with the following training requirements:
    (amended 2006/06/30; no previous version)

Training Requirements
(amended 2006/06/30; no previous version)

INITIAL RECURRENT
Ground Aeroplane Simulator Ground Aeroplane Simulator
20.0 2.0 N/R 7.5 1.0 N/R
  1. 1. Ground training times do not include self-study or examination times.
  2. 2. Written exams are mandatory at completion of both Initial and Recurrent Ground Training.

(25) Survival Equipment Training

Training for all crew members shall include the following:

  1. (a) survival concepts;
  2. (b) contents of survival equipment kit; and
  3. (c) how to use the survival equipment carried on board as appropriate for the operation.

(26) Aeroplane Servicing and Ground Handling Training for Pilots

  1. (a) fuelling procedures:
    1. (i) types of fuel, oil and fluids used in the aeroplane;
    2. (ii) correct fuelling procedures; and
    3. (iii) procedures for checking fuel, oil and fluids and proper securing of caps.
  2. (b) use of tow bars and maximum nose wheel deflection when towing;
  3. (c) seasonal use of the parking brake;
  4. (d) installation of protective covers on the aeroplane; and
  5. (e) procedures for operating in cold weather such as:
    1. (i) moving the aeroplane out of a warm hangar when precipitation is present;
    2. (ii) procedures for applying de-icing and anti-icing fluids for the aeroplane type including critical flight controls post application inspections; and
    3. (iii) engine and cabin pre-heating procedures, including proper use of related equipment

(27) Training Program - Minimum Flight Training Times (Aeroplanes)
(amended 1998/06/01; no previous version)

  1. (a) In Tables I and II,
    1. (i) the term "flight training time" means "flight time";
    2. (ii) the terms "Level A", "Level B" and "Level C" refer to the approved training program, not to the certification level of the simulator used.
  2. (b) Pilots flying in a two crew environment must receive PNF flight training in the simulator or aircraft in addition to the PF times required in tables I and II.
    (amended 2006/06/30)

Table I

Table II

(28) Airborne Icing Training
(amended 1998/06/01; no previous version)

Approved initial and recurrent training programs for all flight crew shall include airborne icing training to ensure a full awareness of the hazards caused by airborne icing conditions and the operating procedures necessary to avoid and exit hazardous icing conditions. The training program shall include:

  1. (a) the basis for aeroplane certification for flight into known icing conditions;
  2. (b) airborne icing definitions and terminology;
  3. (c) aerodynamic effects of airborne icing;
  4. (d) airborne icing weather patterns, including both classical and non-classical mechanisms for freezing precipitation;
  5. (e) flight planning and in flight icing information;
  6. (f) information specific to aircraft fleet concerning operation de- and anti-ice equipment, and operational procedures; and
  7. (g) company directives concerning operations in airborne icing contained in COMs, SOPs, and other company documents.

(29) Controlled Flight into Terrain (CFIT) Avoidance Training
(amended 2000/06/01; no previous version)

Subject to paragraph (d), air operators who hold AOCs authorizing operations under IFR or NVFR shall provide the following CFIT avoidance training to all flight crew members operating aircraft under IFR or NVFR:

  1. (a) initial and biennial ground training:
    1. (i) factors that may lead to CFIT accidents and incidents,
    2. (ii) operational characteristics, capabilities, and limitations of GPWS (if applicable),
    3. (iii) CFIT prevention strategies,
    4. (iv) methods of improving situational awareness, and
    5. (v) escape manoeuvre techniques and profiles applicable to the aeroplane type;
  2. (b) air operators with GPWS equipment using synthetic training devices in their approved initial training program shall conduct CFIT avoidance training as follows:
    1. (i) one escape manoeuvre performed in VMC in response to a GPWS warning, and
    2. (ii) one escape manoeuvre performed in IMC in response to a GPWS warning;
  3. (c) air operators with GPWS equipment using synthetic training devices in their approved recurrent training program shall conduct CFIT avoidance training biennially as follows:
    1. (i) one escape manoeuvre performed in VMC in response to a GPWS warning where the air operator is approved for VFR only operations, or
    2. (ii) one escape manoeuvre performed in IMC in response to a GPWS warning where the air operator is approved for IFR operations;
  4. (d) where the flight crew members operate aircraft equipped with a Terrain Awareness and Warning System (TAWS), the training provided on TAWS is considered to have met the requirements of paragraphs (a), (b) and (c).

(30) Pacific RNP-10 Training
(amended 2002/12/01; no previous version)

For a flight crew member to qualify for operations in Pacific RNP-10 airspace, an air operator shall have initial and recurrent approved training programs that ensure that each flight crew member is proficient in the following areas:

  1. (a) flight planning for RNP-10 airspace;
  2. (b) navigation performance requirements for RNP-10 airspace;
  3. (c) en route procedures for RNP-10 airspace; and
  4. (d) contingency procedures for RNP-10 airspace.

(31) Reduced Vertical Separation Minima (RVSM) Training
(amended 2002/12/01; no previous version)

For a flight crew member to qualify for operations in RVSM airspace, an air operator shall have initial and recurrent approved training programs that ensure that each flight crew member is proficient in the following areas:

  1. (a) knowledge of the floor, ceiling and horizontal boundaries of the RVSM airspace to be operated in;
  2. (b) rules on exclusion of non-RVSM compliant aircraft;
  3. (c) pilot procedures with respect to:
    1. (i) pre-flight and in-flight altimeter checks,
    2. (ii) use of the automatic altitude control system,
    3. (iii) Minimum Equipment List (MEL) items applicable to RVSM operations,
    4. (iv) special procedures for in-flight contingencies,
    5. (v) weather deviation procedures,
    6. (vi) track offset procedures for wake turbulence and inconsequential collision avoidance systems alerts, and
    7. (vii) pilot level-off call;
  4. (d) procedures for flight of non-RVSM compliant aircraft for maintenance, humanitarian or delivery flights; and
  5. (e) use of ACAS/TCAS.

(32) Stabilized Constant-Descent-Angle (SCDA) Non-Precision Approach Training
(amended 2006/12/01; no previous version)

The air operator shall ensure that the pilot-in-command and the second-in-command, in order to conduct a stabilized constant-descent-angle (SCDA) non-precision approach, receive ground and simulator or flight training that addresses the following subjects within their initial and recurrent training programs:

  1. (a) factors that affect altitude loss during the initiation of a missed approach;
  2. (b) the relationship between the published missed approach point (MAP) and the position where a missed approach is commenced following a stabilized final approach descent to minimum descent altitude (MDA);

Information Note:

The missed approach climb from a stabilized final approach descent will normally occur some distance before reaching the published MAP.

  1. (c) the requirement to initiate a missed approach if the required visual reference necessary to continue to land has not been established, at the latest on reaching the earlier of:
    1. (i) the minimum descent altitude, and
    2. (ii) the MAP;
  2. (d) the requirement to commence the horizontal (lateral) navigation portion of the published missed approach procedure at the MAP;

Information Note:

It may be essential for obstacle clearance to delay any turns stated in the published missed approach procedure until the aircraft crosses the MAP.

  1. (e) the requirement to ensure that any altitudes at step-down fixes between the final approach fix (FAF) and the MAP are respected;
  2. (f) the operation of any aircraft computer-generated approach slope systems or other methods of computing stable approach paths to the target touchdown point;

Information Note:

The effects of horizontal position error and temperature on the vertical path, whether it is derived from an inertial, barometric vertical navigation (Baro VNAV), or altimeter reference, shall be addressed.

  1. (g) the requirement to verify any altitude and waypoint information from a navigation database against an independent source;
  2. (h) crew coordination upon reaching MDA and during the execution of a missed approach; and
  3. (i) utilization of temperature corrections to MDA and other published altitudes and remote altimeter correction factors, when required.

DIVISION IX - MANUALS

723.105 Contents of Company Operations Manual

The Company Operations Manual shall contain at least the following, as applicable to the operation:

(1) For air operators utilizing multi-engined aeroplanes or single-engined aeroplanes operating under IFR or VFR at night

  1. (a) preamble relating to use and authority of manual;
  2. (b) a table of contents;
  3. (c) amending procedures, amendment record sheet, distribution list and list of effective pages;
  4. (d) a copy of the Air Operator’s Certificate and operations specifications;
  5. (e) a chart of the management organization;
  6. (f) the duties, responsibilities and succession of command of management and operations personnel;
  7. (g) description of operational control system including:
    1. (i) flight authorization and flight preparation procedures;
    2. (ii) preparation of operational flight plan and other flight documents;
    3. (iii) procedures to ensure the flight crew are advised, prior to dispatch, of any aeroplane defects that have been deferred, (by Minimum Equipment List or any other means);
    4. (iv) flight watch, flight following and communication requirements;
    5. (v) dissemination procedures for operational information and acknowledgement;
    6. (vi) fuel and oil requirements;
    7. (vii) weight and balance system;
    8. (viii) accident/incident reporting procedures and procedures for reporting overdue aircraft;
    9. (ix) use of checklists;
    10. (x) maintenance discrepancy reporting and requirements of completion of flight, and
    11. (xi ) retention period of operational flight plans;
  8. (h) sample of operational flight plan, weight and balance form and retention period;
  9. (i) FDR and CVR procedures, (if applicable);
  10. (j) operating weather minima and applicable requirements for IFR, VFR, VFR at night, VFR over-the-top including alternate aerodrome requirements;
  11. (k) instrument and equipment requirements;
  12. (l) instrument approach procedures (including company approaches), and alternate aerodrome requirements;
  13. (m) procedures for establishing company routes in uncontrolled airspace;
  14. (n) procedures pertaining to enroute operation of navigation and communication equipment (including collision avoidance procedures);
  15. (o) operations in hazardous conditions such as icing, thunderstorms, white out, windshear;
  16. (p) aeroplane performance limitations;
  17. (q) securing of cargo;
  18. (r) passenger briefing procedures;
  19. (s) use of aircraft flight manual, aircraft operating manual, standard operating procedures and minimum equipment lists (as applicable);
  20. (t) aeroplane ice, frost and snow critical surface contamination procedures;
  21. (u) procedures for carriage of dangerous goods;
  22. (v) fuelling procedures including:
    1. (i) fuel contamination precautions;
    2. (ii) bonding requirements;
    3. (iii) fuelling with engine running (not permitted with passengers on board, see Section 602.09 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations); and
    4. (iv) fuelling with passengers on board;
  23. (w) list of emergency survival equipment carried on the aeroplane and how to use equipment;
  24. (x) emergency procedures for:
    1. (i) emergency locator transmitter;
    2. (ii) passenger preparation for emergency landing/ditching;
    3. (iii) emergency evacuation;
    4. (iv) ground emergency coordination procedures; and
    5. (v) unlawful interference;
  25. (y) minimum flight crew members required and flight crew member qualifications;
  26. (z) flight duty time limitations and rest requirements;
  27. (a-a) training programs including copy of company training and qualification record form(s);
  28. (b-b) use of oxygen;
  29. (c-c) carriage of external loads;
  30. (d-d) operational support services and equipment;
  31. (e-e) passenger and cabin safety procedures for emplaning and deplaning passengers when engines are running; and
    (amended 1998/06/01)
  32. (f-f) Float operators shall include procedures unique to their environment;
    (amended 1998/06/01; no previous version)
  33. (g-g) inspection details and frequency of inspection of emergency equipment carried on board the aeroplanes;
  34. (h-h) policy regarding GPWS and TCAS, (if applicable);
  35. (i-i) policy on occupation of observer seat, (if applicable);
  36. (j-j) requirement for preparing runway analysis charts;
  37. (k-k) procedures for reduced VFR limits in uncontrolled airspace (if applicable);
  38. (l-l) copies of all forms utilized including sufficient instruction on form completion;
  39. (m-m) for dedicated or contracted MEDEVAC operations, operational procedures. These shall include procedures which will ensure, to the maximum extent possible, that decisions affecting safety of flight are not influenced by the condition of the patient, and
    (amended 2003/06/01)
  40. (n-n) other information related to safety.
    (amended 2003/06/01)

(2) For an air operator utilizing single-engined aeroplanes under day VFR

  1. (a) preamble relating to use and authority of manual;
  2. (b) a table of contents;
  3. (c) amending procedures, amendment record sheet, distribution list and list of effective pages;
  4. (d) a copy of the Air Operator’s Certificate and operations specifications;
  5. (e) a chart of the management organization;
  6. (f) the duties, responsibilities and succession of command of management and operations personnel;
  7. (g) description of operational control system including:
    1. (i) flight authorization and flight preparation procedures;
    2. (ii) operational flight plans and retention period;
    3. (iii) flight watch and communication requirements;
    4. (iv) flight following requirements;
    5. (v) dissemination procedures for operational information and acknowledgement;
    6. (vi) fuel and oil requirements;
    7. (vii) weight and balance system;
    8. (viii) preparation and retention of operational flight plan and other flight documents;
    9. (ix) accident/incident reporting procedures and procedures for reporting overdue aircraft;
    10. (x) use of checklists; and
    11. (xi) maintenance discrepancy reporting and requirements of completion of flight;
  8. (h) operating weather minima and applicable requirements for VFR and VFR over-the-top;
  9. (i) operations in hazardous conditions such as icing, thunderstorms, white out, windshear;
  10. (j) aeroplane performance limitations;
  11. (k) securing of cargo;
  12. (l) passenger briefing procedures;
  13. (m) use of aircraft flight manual, aircraft operating manual, standard operating procedures and minimum equipment lists (as applicable);
  14. (n) aeroplane ice, frost and snow critical surface contamination procedures;
  15. (o) procedures for carriage of dangerous goods;
  16. (p) fuelling procedures including:
    1. (i) fuel contamination precautions;
    2. (ii) bonding requirements;
    3. (iii) fuelling with engine running (not permitted with passengers on board, see Section 602.09 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations); and
    4. (iv) fuelling with passengers on board;
  17. (q) list of emergency survival equipment carried on the aeroplane, how to use equipment and periodic inspection requirements;
  18. (r) emergency procedures for:
    1. (i) emergency locator transmitter;
    2. (ii) passenger preparation for emergency landing/ditching;
    3. (iii) emergency evacuation;
    4. (iv) ground emergency coordination procedures; and
    5. (v) unlawful interference;
  19. (s) minimum flight crew members required and flight crew member qualifications;
  20. (t) flight duty time limitations and rest requirements;
  21. (u) training programs including copy of company training and qualification record form(s);
  22. (v) carriage of external loads;
  23. (w) operational support services and equipment;
  24. (x) passenger and cabin safety procedures for emplaning and deplaning passengers when engines are running; and
    (amended 1998/06/01)
  25. (y) float operators shall include procedures unique to their environment;
    (amended 1998/06/01; no previous version)
  26. (z) procedures for reduced VFR limits in uncontrolled airspace; (if applicable); and
  27. (a-a) other information related to safety.

(3) For an owner/pilot operating aeroplanes day VFR and not employing other pilots

  1. (a) table of contents;
  2. (b) amendment procedures;
  3. (c) list of effective pages;
  4. (d) copy of air operator certificate and operations specifications;
  5. (e) weight and balance system;
  6. (f) list of emergency survival equipment carried on board the aeroplane;
  7. (g) training program including copy of company training and qualification record form;
  8. (h) procedures for reporting overdue aeroplanes;
  9. (i) procedures for reduced VFR limits in uncontrolled airspace (if applicable);
  10. (j) accident incident reporting;
  11. (k) procedures for carriage of dangerous goods;
  12. (l) passenger and cabin safety procedures for emplaning and deplaning passengers when engines are running; and
    (amended 1998/06/01; no previous version)
  13. (m) float operators shall include passenger and cabin safety procedures unique to their environment.
    (amended 1998/06/01; no previous version)

723.107 Aircraft Standard Operating Procedures (SOP)

The Aircraft Standard Operating Procedures shall contain the following information for each type of two pilot aeroplane operated. Where there are significant differences in equipment and procedures between aeroplanes of the same type operated the Standard Operating Procedures Manuals shall show the registration mark of the aeroplane it is applicable to.

Required information, if contained in another publication carried on board the aeroplane during flight, need not be repeated in the SOP.

The SOP may form part of the Company Operations Manual.

The SOP shall contain the following as applicable to the operation:

(1) General

  1. (a) table of contents;
  2. (b) list of effective pages;
  3. (c) amending procedure;
  4. (d) preamble;
  5. (e) communications;
  6. (f) crew coordination;
  7. (g) use of check lists;
  8. (h) standard briefings; and
  9. (i) standard calls.

(2) Normal Procedures

  1. (a) weight and balance control requirements;
  2. (b) ramp/gate procedures;
  3. (c) battery/APU engine starts;
  4. (d) taxi;
  5. (e) take-off and climb;
  6. (f) cruise;
  7. (g) descent;
  8. (h) approaches IFR, visual, VFR, and circling;
  9. (i) landing;
  10. (j) missed approach and balked landing procedures;
  11. (k) stall recovery;
  12. (l) refuelling with passengers on board;
  13. (m) use of on board navigation and alerting aids; and
  14. (n) check lists.

(3) Abnormal and Emergency Procedures

  1. (a) emergency landing/ditching - with time to prepare and without time to prepare;
  2. (b) pilot incapacitation two communication rule, (2 pilot crew);
  3. (c) bomb threat and hijacking;
  4. (d) engine fire/failure/shutdown;
  5. (e) propeller over speed, (as applicable);
  6. (f) fire, internal/external;
  7. (g) smoke removal;
  8. (h) rapid decompression, (as applicable);
  9. (i) flapless approach and landing, (as applicable);
  10. (j) rejected take-off;
  11. (k) inadvertent encounter with moderate to severe in flight icing; and
    (amended 1998/06/01)
  12. (l) other abnormal and emergency procedures that are specific to the type of aeroplane.
    (amended 1998/06/01)

(4) Diagrams

  1. (a) normal take-off;
  2. (b) engine out take-off;
  3. (c) precision approach, all engines operating;
  4. (d) precision approach, engine out;
  5. (e) non-precision approach, all engines operating;
  6. (f) non-precision approach, engine out;
  7. (g) go-around, all engines operating;
  8. (h) go-around, engine out;
  9. (i) VFR circuits;
  10. (j) partial flaps/slats approach; and
  11. (k) flapless approach.
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