Part VII - Commercial Air Services

Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) 2017-2

Standard 723 - Air Taxi - Helicopters

Content last revised: 2008/12/30

Foreword

This Commercial Air Service Standard outlines the requirements for complying with Subpart 703 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations.

For ease of cross reference, the divisions and numbers of the standard are assigned to correspond to the regulations, therefore, Standard 723.05 would reflect a standard required by section 703.05 of the Regulations.

DIVISION I - GENERAL

723.01 Application

(1) The standards under this Subpart apply to every Canadian air operator engaged in commercial air services under Subpart 703 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations.

(2) The words and expressions used in these Standards have the same meaning as in the General Provisions, Part I of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, with the following additions:

Definitions

"deplane" - means disembark. A helicopter is deplaned when passengers leave the helicopter (or disembark) in the normal manner. (débarquement)

"evacuate" - means the egress from a helicopter in an emergency situation using all available exits and assist means. (évacuation)

"fuelling" - means the act of transferring fuel into or out of a helicopter's fuel tanks from or to an external supply. (avitaillement en carburant)

"NDB/ARA" - means Non-directional Beacon/Airborne Radar Approach; (radiophare non directionnel/approche radar de bord ou NDB/ARA)
(amended 2000/12/01)

"operations co-ordination" - means the exercise of authority by an air operator over its operating activities, excluding operational control. (coordination des opérations)

"take-off safety speed" - means a referenced airspeed obtained after lift-off at which the required one-engine inoperative climb performance can be achieved. (vitesse de sécurité au décollage)

"wide-body helicopter" - means a helicopter having an interior cabin width of 2 metres (6 feet, 7 inches) or more. (helicoptère gros porteur)

DIVISION II - CERTIFICATION

723.07 Issuance or Amendment of Air Operator Certificate

(1) The following constitutes an application for an Air Operator Certificate:

  1. (a) Form 26-0045 Airport - information required to determine the suitability of the base of operations and sub-bases. The applicant shall be able to demonstrate that operations are permitted at each base which will normally be done by providing written permission from the Local Airport Authority. Access to the aerodrome may also be demonstrated by other means such as facilities provided at a certified heliport through a lease or contractual agreement or by ownership of a certified heliport;
  2. (b) Form 26-0046 Aircraft - information with respect to each helicopter by registration;
  3. (c) Form 26-0047 Personnel - information on required personnel. These shall be supported by resumes and statements of qualification for each required position;
  4. (d) Form 26-0048 Maintenance Facilities;
  5. (e) Maintenance Control Procedures;
  6. (f) Company Operations Manual;
  7. (g) Minimum Equipment List(s) (if applicable);
  8. (h) nomination for Company Check Pilot (if applicable); and
  9. (i) Form 26-0448 Cabin Safety (as applicable).

(2) Qualifications and Responsibilities of Operations Personnel

  1. (a) Operations Manager
    1. (i) Qualifications
      1. (A) Except where the air operator certificate authorizes single-engine, day-only operations, has acquired not less than 2 years' related experience with an air operator of a Commercial Air Service whose flight operations are similar in size and scope;
      2. (B) demonstrates knowledge to the Minister with respect to the content of the operations manual, the Air Operator Certificate and operations specifications, the provisions of the regulations and the standards necessary to carry out the duties and responsibilities to ensure safety; and
      3. (C) has attended a Company Aviation Safety Officer (CASO) course or attends such a course within 12 months of assuming the position of Operations Manager.
        (amended 2000/12/01; no previous version)
    2. (ii) Responsibilities

      The operations manager is responsible for safe flight operations. In particular, the responsibilities of the position include.

      1. (A) control of operations and operational standards of all helicopters operated;
      2. (B) the identification of operations coordination functions which impact on operational control (eg. maintenance, crew scheduling, load control, equipment scheduling);
      3. (C) supervision, organization, manning and efficiency of the following:
        1. (I) cabin safety;
        2. (II) crew scheduling and rostering;
        3. (III) training program; and
        4. (IV) flight safety;
      4. (D) the contents of the air operator's Company Operations Manual;
      5. (E) the supervision of and the production and amendment of the Company Operations Manual;
      6. (F) liaison with the regulatory authority on all matters concerning flight operations including any variation to the Air Operator Certificate;
      7. (G) liaison with any external agencies which may effect air operator operations;
      8. (H) ensuring that the air operator's operations are conducted in accordance with current regulations, standards and air operator policy;
      9. (I) ensuring that crew scheduling complies with flight and duty time regulations,
      10. (J) ensuring that all crew members are kept informed of any changes to the regulations and standards;
      11. (K) the receipt and actioning of any aeronautical information affecting the safety of flight;
      12. (L) the dissemination of helicopter safety information, both internal and external;
      13. (M) qualifications of flight crew; and
      14. (N) maintenance of current operations library.

NOTE:

In the operations manager's absence, all responsibilities for operational duties shall be delegated to another individual qualified in accordance with the Canadian Aviation Regulations, except that the knowledge requirements may be demonstrated to the air operator rather than the Minister.

  1. (b) Chief Pilot
    1. (i) Qualifications

      (amended 2003/06/01; no previous version)

      1. (A) If the air operator certificate authorizes:
        1. (I) day VFR only - holds a Commercial Pilot Licence (Helicopter);
        2. (II) day and night VFR - holds a Commercial Pilot Licence (Helicopter) and a valid helicopter instrument rating; or
        3. (III) IFR - holds an Airline Transport Pilot Licence (Helicopter) and a valid helicopter instrument rating; or a valid Commercial Pilot Licence (Helicopter) and a valid helicopter instrument rating;
      2. (B) have at least 500 hours of flying time as a helicopter pilot-in-command, of which 250 hours shall have been acquired within the preceding three years;
        (amended 2002/06/01)
      3. (C) be qualified in accordance with the air operator's training program to act as pilot-in-command on one of the types to be operated;
      4. (D) demonstrate knowledge to the Minister with respect to the content of the Company Operations and Training Manuals and, if applicable, the Approved Check Pilot Manual, the provisions of the regulations and standards and flight operating procedures necessary to carry out the duties and responsibilities to ensure safety; and
      5. (E) the chief pilot's personal record in relation to aviation shall not include:
        (amended 2003/06/01; no previous version)
        1. (I) any conviction under subsection 7.3(1) of the Aeronautics Act; or
        2. (II) two or more convictions, occurring during separate unrelated events, under the Canadian Aviation Regulations.

NOTE:

A chief pilot qualified under Subpart 704 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations may serve as the chief pilot for Subpart 703 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations operations within the same company.

    1. (ii) Responsibilities

      The chief pilot is responsible for the professional standards of the flight crews and, in particular:

      1. (A) developing standard operating procedures;
      2. (B) implementing all required approved training programs for the air operator flight crews;
      3. (C) issuing directives and notices to the flight crews as required;
      4. (D) the actioning and distribution of accident, incident, and other occurrence reports;
      5. (E) the processing and actioning of any crew reports;
      6. (F) the supervision of flight crew;
      7. (G) assuming any responsibilities delegated by the Operations Manager; and
      8. (H) in his or her absence, all responsibilities for duties shall be delegated to a person with equivalent qualifications except that the knowledge requirements may be demonstrated to the air operator rather than to the Minister.
  1. (c) Person Responsible for Maintenance

    The person responsible for the maintenance control system shall be qualified in accordance with section 726.03 of the Commercial Air Service Standards.

  2. (d) Operational Support Services and Equipment

    The requirement for operational support services and equipment will be dependent on type of helicopters, the size and scope of the operations and shall include the following, as applicable:

    1. (i) operational control system requirements;
    2. (ii) flight operations publications including a copy of the Aeronautics Act, applicable Canadian Aviation Regulations, Company Operations Manual, Maintenance Control Manual, Maintenance Procedures Manual (if applicable), Canada Flight Supplement, Water Aerodrome Supplement (if applicable), Airplane Flight Manuals, Aircraft Operating Manuals (if applicable), Standard Operating Procedures (if applicable), Aeronautical Information Publication, Minimum Equipment Lists (if applicable) and appropriate maps and charts;
    3. (iii) passenger and cargo handling requirements;
    4. (iv) weather availability requirements;
    5. (v) communications requirements;
    6. (vi) procedures for handling dangerous goods;
    7. (vii) ground de-icing/anti-icing program requirements; and
    8. (viii) helicopter servicing facilities and ground handling equipment.

723.08 Contents of Air Operator Certificate

The following are the standards for operations specifications which may be issued pursuant to this section:

(1) Special Helicopter Procedures (refers to subparagraph 703.08(g)(vii) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations)
(amended 2003/03/01)

  1. (a) The standard for authorization to use the NDB/ARA Offshore Instrument Approach Procedure is:
    1. (i) the helicopter is certificated as a Transport Category A helicopter and operated by a pilot-in-command and a second-in-command two pilot flight crew;
    2. (ii) the helicopter shall be equipped with:
      1. (A) weather radar incorporating a beacon receiver mode and one ADF;
      2. (B) two independent VHF air ground communication systems;
      3. (C) two radio altimeter indicators with altitude alert function; and
      4. (D) rain protection for each windshield and a heat source for each airspeed system pitot tube;
    3. (iii) the aerodrome shall be equipped with:
      1. (A) ground/air communications equipment capable of providing essential approach and landing information;
      2. (B) facilities to provide essential information related to altimeter setting, observed weather, wind speed and direction, aerodrome condition and, if applicable, pitch and roll of the deck; and
      3. (C) at least one non-directional beacon (NDB);
    4. (iv) flight crew member qualifications;
      1. (A) before pilots may conduct approaches to a minimum descent altitude to 150 feet they shall have demonstrated, within the proceeding 12 months, to a Transport Canada Inspector or a Company Check Pilot their proficiency conducting NDB/ARA approaches to 150 feet MDA. The check may be conducted in an approved synthetic flight training device provided the air operator is approved to use the FTD for pilot training. NDB/ARA certification shall be annotated on the Pilot Check Report; and
      2. (B) pilots-in-command having less than 100 hours pilot-in-command experience on the helicopter type or not currently holding NDB/ARA certification are restricted to NDB/ARA 250 feet MDA;
    5. (v) approach beyond the Final Approach Fix when visibility is reported at less than 1/4 statute mile is prohibited.
  2. (b) Category I ILS - 100 feet DH

    The standards for authorization to use ILS approach minima to 100 feet DH and reported RVR of not less than 1,200 feet on a Category I Instrument Landing System (ILS) are:

    1. (i) the helicopter is certificated as Transport Category A rotorcraft, and operated by a pilot-in-command and second-in-command, two-pilot flight crew;
    2. (ii) the approach is a Category I ILS procedure as published in the Canada Air Pilot including medium or high intensity approach lighting and a transmissometer at either the approach and/or mid point of the runway;
    3. (iii) both the pilot-in-command (PIC) and the second-in-command (SIC) have at least 100 hours on type of rotorcraft flown;
    4. (iv) the air operator has developed an acceptable program and has received authorization to conduct training and checks in an approved synthetic flight training device (FTD);
    5. (v) the PIC and the SIC shall be checked within the previous 12 months in an approved FTD by an approved check pilot or a Transport Canada Inspector and shall be certified as competent to use these minima;
    6. (vi) the helicopter shall be established in a stabilized approach and shall be flown at an indicated airspeed not exceeding 80 knots from the final approach fix (FAF) inbound;
    7. (vii) the helicopter shall be equipped with the following serviceable and functioning systems:
      1. (A) a flight director or single automatic approach coupler augmenting the stabilization system;
      2. (B) two radio altimeter indicators having an altitude alert function which do not interfere with the normal operation and display of the radio altimeter system;
      3. (C) ice and rain protection for each windshield and a heat source for each airspeed system pitot tube installed;
      4. (D) two independent VHF air-ground communications systems; and
      5. (E) dual ILS localizer and glide slope receivers and associated avionics failure warning systems;
    8. (viii) the air operator shall provide training to flight crew members in accordance with the section 723.98;
    9. (ix) for the purposes of crew certification, a successful approach is defined as one in which, at the DH:
      1. (A) the helicopter is in trim for continuation of a normal approach and landing;
      2. (B) the indicated airspeed, heading and threshold height are satisfactory for a normal transition to an in-ground effect hover or run-on landing without an abnormally large flare such as would cause a gain in altitude and/or a loss of required visual reference;
      3. (C) the aircraft is positioned and tracking to remain within the lateral confines of the runway extended;
      4. (D) deviation from the glide path does not exceed one dot, as displayed on the ILS indicator; and
      5. (E) no unusual roughness or excessive attitude changes have occurred after leaving the final approach fix (FAF);
    10. (x) for the purposes of crew certification:
      1. (A) the proficiency check (initial and recurrent) will be conducted by an approved company check pilot or by a Transport Canada Inspector. The company check pilot must receive lower limits training and be monitored initially in the FTD by a Transport Canada Inspector, prior to conducting lower limits checks on company personnel;
      2. (B) the crew will consist of a pilot-in-command and a second-in-command and the company check pilot or the Transport Canada Inspector will not form part of the crew;
      3. (C) the proficiency check (initial and recurrent) for each flight crew member shall include at least one RVR 1200 feet/DH 100 feet approach to a missed approach during which a practical emergency (e.g. engine fire) is introduced to assess crew coordination, plus a subsequent RVR 1200 feet/DH 100 feet ILS approach to a landing; and
      4. (D) the lower limits certification shall be annotated on the Pilot Check Report and a copy shall be retained by the air operator in the respective pilot file.

(2) Instrument Approaches - Global Positioning System (GPS) (refers to subparagraph 703.08(g)(i) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations)
(amended 2003/03/01; no previous version)

  1. (a) The standard requirements for authorization to fly instrument approach procedures using only GPS navigation information are:
    1. (i) an operational evaluation in accordance with paragraph 723.08(2)(b) has been completed by the Minister on each aircraft type/GPS/FMS model installation for which approach authorization is sought;
    2. (ii) the air operator has an approved flight crew training and qualifications program for use of the GPS/FMS system that meets the requirements of subsection 723.98(19); and
    3. (iii) standard operating procedures have been amended to reflect GPS approach operations and approved by the Minister (where required).
  2. (b) The following items will be assessed in the operational evaluation prior to the approval of the operator's GPS approach standard operating procedures (where applicable) and training program. Identical installations of the same model of GPS in the same type of aircraft with the same operator do not need separate evaluations.
    1. (i) Database

      The geographical coverage area for the database shall be compatible with the type of operations conducted by the company. The air operator shall have procedures in place to ensure that the database will be updated in accordance with the appropriate data revision cycle. This shall include a contract with a database supplier and the inclusion, in the appropriate company manuals, of the person responsible for installing the updates in the aircraft. The company shall have a procedure in place for pilots to report database errors and for information on database errors to be passed on to other company pilots, the avionics manufacturer and the Minister.

    2. (ii) Unit Installation and Operation

      The handling and procedures associated with the GPS avionics shall be such that all operations required for GPS approach can be accomplished without an adverse impact on normal crew duties and responsibilities. GPS related tasks shall not consume the attention of the pilot not flying (PNF) during critical phases of flight (i.e. between the time the aircraft turns inbound on the final approach course and the time the aircraft is established in the climb configuration on a missed approach).

      A GPS avionics installation that is used on board aircraft operated under Subpart 703 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations (Air Taxi) conducting single-pilot IFR GPS approaches where persons other than flight crew are carried, shall be capable of:

      1. (A) displaying a moving-map graphical depiction of the programmed route and the instrument procedure; and
      2. (B) being coupled to the auto-pilot for lateral guidance and control of the aircraft during the IFR approach.
    3. (iii) Control Display Unit (CDU) and Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) / Distance Display

      If the GPS/FMS control unit is not adequately accessible from each pilot position, or if GPS course deviation and distance displays are not within the primary field of view at both pilot stations, the air operator shall designate in the standard operating procedures the position that the pilot flying (PF) and pilot not flying (PNF) are required to occupy during GPS approach for that type of installation. Aircraft types that are certified for operation by two crew members shall have GPS course deviation and distance displays at each pilot station. An Operations Specification authorizing GPS approaches shall not be issued unless the PNF has a means acceptable, in the Minister's opinion, of monitoring the PF during an approach.

    4. (iv) Distance Display on the HSI

      Installations where GPS guidance information (course tracking, To/From and NAV flags) are switched onto the HSI for display, but the DME distance information is not switched out (i.e. DME distance, rather than GPS distance, is displayed continuously on the HSI even when GPS source is selected to HSI), shall require the air operator, in the standard operating procedures for GPS approach, to deselect other NAV/DME sources to eliminate distance displays in the pilot's primary field of vision not related to the approach procedure being flown.

    5. (v) Annunciation

      Responses to system annunciation (including Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) warnings), the means of selecting GPS track information to the CDI/HSI and the means of coupling GPS steering information to the aircraft automatic flight control system shall be compatible with the safe operation of the aircraft type/category. Standard operating procedures shall specify the procedure whereby the control unit is programmed, approach waypoints are verified against an independent source, approach mode is armed, and cockpit NAV source and AFC guidance source switches are selected and verified. Any switch selection or programming errors that the Minister believes are likely to occur and that could lead to a serious incident shall, if possible, be identified and addressed in training and in the standard operating procedures. Otherwise, the installation shall not be approved for approach use.

    6. (vi) Airborne Evaluation

      The Minister shall observe the pre-flight and in-flight operation of the unit on at least one GPS approach and missed approach. If the PF is allowed to occupy either seat during GPS approaches, then one approach from each pilot position shall be demonstrated. An airborne evaluation in an aircraft must take place under VFR. Emphasis shall be on crew co-ordination, pilot workload (PF and PNF), and switch selections.

DIVISION III - FLIGHT OPERATIONS

723.16 Operational Control System

Operations conducted under Subpart 703 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations require a Type D operational control system. Another organization may be contracted to exercise operational control on behalf of an air operator.

Type D

(1) General

  1. (a) Application

    For all operations under Air Taxi Operations.

  2. (b) Responsibility and Authority

    Operational control is delegated to the pilot-in-command of a flight by the Operations Manager who retains responsibility for the day-to-day conduct of flight operations.

  3. (c) Centres

    Current information on the location of the air operator's aircraft shall be maintained at the main base of operations, the sub-base or, where appropriate, from the location from which flight following is being carried out.

  4. (d) Communications

    Each helicopter shall be equipped with serviceable and functioning communications equipment that permits the pilot-in-command to communicate with a ground radio station for the purpose of flight following. Such a ground station may be operated by the government, the air operator or a private agency.

  5. (e) On Duty

    A person, qualified and knowledgeable in the air operator's flight alerting procedures, shall be on duty or available when IFR or VFR at night flight operations are being conducted.

(2) Flight Following

Flight Following for a Type D system is the monitoring of a flight's progress and the notification of appropriate air operator and search-and-rescue authorities if the flight is overdue or missing.

Flight Following procedures and the standards of training and qualification for the individual performing this function shall be described in the air operator's Company Operations Manual.

  1. (a) Each flight shall be conducted under an IFR Flight Plan, VFR Flight Plan or Flight Itinerary, as appropriate.
  2. (b) The pilot-in-command is responsible for Flight Watch but shall be supported by an air operator Flight Following System that shall monitor the progress of each IFR flight or VFR at night flight from its commencement to its termination, including any intermediate stops. The person performing the flight following function, who may be the same as in paragraph (1)(e) above, shall be delegated to do so by the Operations Manager.
  3. (c) The pilot-in-command shall be responsible for passing messages concerning aircraft landings and departures from the point of origin, at enroute stops, and from the final destination in order to satisfy the requirements of paragraph (2)(b) above.

723.18 Operational Flight Plan

For day VFR operations, the flight plan or flight itinerary may constitute the operational flight plan. A company flight itinerary for day VFR may be in the form of a notice board, wall map or similar flight information system at the base of operations. A written copy of the operational flight plan need not be carried or retained by the air operator for day VFR flights which originate and terminate on the same day at the same aerodrome.

(1) Minimum content of an Operational Flight Plan for VFR Night and IFR

  1. (a) air operator name;
  2. (b) date;
  3. (c) aircraft registration, type and model;
  4. (d) type of flight - IFR, VFR night;
  5. (e) pilot-in-command name;
  6. (f) departure aerodrome;
  7. (g) destination aerodrome;
  8. (h) alternate aerodrome, if applicable;
  9. (i) routing to destination by successive navigational way points with associated tracks for each or proposed area of operation;
  10. (j) routing to alternate aerodrome (IFR only, if applicable);
  11. (k) planned cruise altitudes;
  12. (l) planned cruise true air speed;
  13. (m) estimated time enroute and, if applicable, to alternate;
  14. (n) winds and temperature at cruise altitude (IFR only);
  15. (o) cruise ground speed;
  16. (p) fuel on board and fuel required;
  17. (q) number of persons on board;
  18. (r) weights
    1. (i) Zero fuel weight,
    2. (ii) Fuel cargo and passenger weight, and
    3. (iii) Take-off weight;
  19. (s) fuel burn enroute; and
  20. (t) signature of pilot-in-command certifying the operational flight plan.

(2) Aircraft assigned to dedicated air ambulance operations may develop and use a modified operational flight plan provided an acceptable comparable system is shown.

(3) The operational flight plan shall permit the flight crew to record the fuel state and the progress of the flight relative to the plan.

(4) The air operator shall specify in its Company Operations Manual how the operational flight plan shall be recorded.

723.22 Transport of Passengers in Single-Engine Aircraft

Operations Specifications for transporting passengers at night and under IFR are not applicable to single-engine helicopters.

723.23 Aircraft Operating Over Water

The standard for authorization to operate a land aircraft over water pursuant to section 703.23 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations is:
(amended 2000/06/01)

  1. (a) the helicopter shall be equipped with an approved emergency flotation kit and operated in accordance with the Emergency Flotation Kit Flight Manual Supplement;
  2. (b) when enroute over water, the helicopter shall be operated at an altitude that will provide adequate time for full inflation of the flotation devices prior to water contact;
  3. (c) life preservers shall be carried and stowed so that they are within reach of each person carried when seated with his or her seat belt fastened;
  4. (d) the air operator's Company Operations Manual shall include passenger briefing ditching procedures and a requirement for the pilot to file a flight plan or flight itinerary; and
  5. (e) flights conducted over water more than 15 minutes at normal cruising speed from shore or from a suitable aerodrome shall be capable of direct flight following radio communications.

723.24 Number of Passengers in Single-Engine Aircraft

The standard for operating a single-engine helicopter where more than nine (9) passengers are carried is:

The pilot shall have successfully completed the required single-engine Pilot Proficiency Check on one of the single-engine helicopter types operated by the air operator which is to be operated carrying more than nine (9) passengers.

723.28 VFR Flight Minimum Visibility - Uncontrolled Airspace

The standard for reduced VFR visibility limits of one half mile in uncontrolled airspace for helicopters is as follows:
(amended 1998/06/01)

  1. (a) Pilot experience
    (amended 1998/06/01)

    Before conducting operations in reduced visibility, pilots shall have achieved at least 500 hours of pilot-in-command experience in helicopters;

  2. (b) Airspeed for operation in reduced visibility
    (amended 1998/06/01)

    Helicopters shall be operated at a reduced air speed that will provide the pilot-in-command adequate opportunity to see and avoid obstacles;

  3. (c) Pilot training
    (amended 1998/06/01)

    The pilot shall receive training as follows:
    (amended 2000/12/01)

    1. (i) initially and every three years therafter, pilot decision making training which shall include the following topics;
      (amended 2000/12/01)
      1. (A) the decision making process, including modules on factors which affect good judgement;
        (amended 2000/12/01)
      2. (B) human performance factors, including modules on physical, psychological and, physiological phenomena and limitations; and
        (amended 2000/12/01)
      3. (C) human error countermeasures and good airmanship;
        (amended 2000/12/01)
    2. (ii) initial and annual recurrent flight training in procedures specified in the Company Operations Manual for operations in reduced visibility; and
  4. (d) Company Operations Manual
    (amended 1998/06/01)

    The Company Operations Manual shall contain:

    1. (i) low visibility operational procedures; and
    2. (ii) pilot decision-making considerations for operation in visibility conditions of less than one mile, including but not limited to:
      1. (A) gross weight,
      2. (B) wind,
      3. (C) weather,
      4. (D) route / terrain,
      5. (E) time of day,
      6. (F) communications, and
      7. (G) the potential for white-out.

723.30 Take-Off Minima

(1) Weather Below Landing Limits

The standard for authorization to conduct a take-off in IMC when weather conditions are above take-off, but below landing minima for the runway in use are:

  1. (a) the helicopter is multi-engine;
  2. (b) an alternate aerodrome is specified in the IFR flight plan; and
  3. (c) that aerodrome is located within the distance which can be flown in 60 minutes at the normal cruising speed.

(2) Weather Below Published Take-off Minima

Take-off Minima - Reported RVR 600 feet

  1. (a) The Company Operations Manual shall contain detailed guidance on how to determine departure one engine inoperative climb gradient and obstacle clearance.
  2. (b) The take-off runway is equipped with:
    1. (i) serviceable and functioning high intensity runway lights, runway centre line lights and centre line markings that are plainly visible to the pilot throughout the take-off; and
    2. (ii) at least one transmissometer, situated at either the approach end or mid point of the take-off runway with a reading of not less than RVR 600 feet.
  3. (c) The pilot-in-command is satisfied that the required RVR 600 feet visibility exists for the take-off runway and visual reference to the runway can be maintained at least until Vtoss (take-off safety speed) and Vmini (instrument flight minimum speed) have been attained.
  4. (d) The pilot-in-command and second-in-command attitude (artificial horizon) instruments incorporate pitch attitude index lines in appropriate increments above and below the zero pitch reference to at least 15 degrees and incorporate operative failure warning systems which will immediately detect essential instrument malfunction or failure.
  5. (e) The pilot-in-command, and the second-in-command if authorized by the air operator for RVR 600 feet take-off, shall have been checked conducting RVR 600 feet take-offs and rejected take-offs by an approved company check pilot or a Transport Canada Inspector within the preceding 12 months in a synthetic flight training device capable of visually depicting RVR 600 feet. The RVR 600 feet take-off certification shall be annotated on the Pilot Check Report form.

723.31 No Alternate Aerodrome - IFR Flight

The helicopter standard for authority to conduct an IFR flight when an alternate aerodrome has not been designated in the IFR flight plan or in the IFR flight itinerary is as follows:

  1. (a) the Company Operations Manual shall contain guidance on the execution of no alternate IFR flights and the flight is operated under a Type C Operational Control System;
  2. (b) flight following personnel are to be aware that the flight is operating no alternate IFR and shall have current weather readily accessible for timely communication to the flight;
  3. (c) pilots-in-command are to be familiar with diversionary aerodromes;
  4. (d) terminal forecasts and weather reports shall be available for the destination and shall indicate that, at the estimated time of arrival and for one (1) hour after the estimated time of arrival, there will be:
    (amended 2003/06/01)
    1. (i) a ceiling of at least 1,000 feet above the airport elevation, or at least 400 feet above the lowest applicable approach minima, whichever is higher, and a visibility of at least two (2) statute miles.
      (amended 2003/06/01)

723.33 VFR OTT Flight

The standard for VFR over-the-top flight for helicopters carrying passengers is:

(1) the flight shall be conducted in accordance with the requirements of Subpart 602 (Visual Flight Rules) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations;

(2) for IFR certified multi-engine helicopters where the pilot holds a group IV instrument rating the flight shall be operated under conditions allowing, if an engine fails, descent under VMC or continuation of the flight under IFR or VFR; and
(amended 2005/06/01)

(3) for multi-engine helicopters not certified for IFR, where the pilot holds a group IV instrument rating, the flight shall be operated under conditions allowing, if an engine fails, descent or continuation of the flight under VMC conditions.
(amended 2005/06/01)

723.34 Routes in Uncontrolled Airspace

The standard for establishing company routes in uncontrolled airspace is:

(1) A minimum obstruction clearance altitude (MOCA) shall be established for each route segment by the use of aeronautical charts and the Canada Flight Supplement for updating of significant obstructions as follows:

  1. (a) for flight under IFR or in IMC, a minimum altitude of 2,000 feet above the highest obstacle located within a horizontal distance of 10 miles from the centre line of the route; or
  2. (b) for flight at night in VFR conditions a minimum altitude of 1,000 feet above the highest obstacle located within 3 miles from the centre line of the route.

(2) For each route segment a minimum enroute altitude (MEA) shall be established which meets or exceeds the minimum obstruction clearance altitude and assures navigational signal coverage. For line of sight navigation aid reception distance for ground installed aids, the minimum reception altitude may be calculated by calculating the square root of an altitude above the navigation aid and multiplying the result by 1.25 (Sq. root 3000 ft. is 54.7 x 1.25 = 68 miles). The MEA will be established to the nearest higher 100 foot increment.

(3) each route shall include:

  1. (a) the route segment;
  2. (b) track;
  3. (c) MOCA;
  4. (d) MEA;
  5. (e) distance between fixes or waypoints; and
  6. (f) navigation aids;

(4) The air operator shall maintain a record of their company routes in a form and format similar to the Catalogue of Approved Routes.

Provided the above procedures are followed, an air operator's pilot may use routes that are not yet contained in the record of company routes;

(5) Prior to initial use of other than publicly available navigation aids, permission of the owner/operator shall be obtained and retained in company records. No VFR at night or IFR flights shall commence unless the navigation aids upon which the route is predicated are in satisfactory operating condition.

When company routes are predicated on other than publicly available navigation aids and arrangements have not been made with the owner/operator to advise when the navigation aid is out of service, instructions to pilots shall be included on how, and whom to contact, to confirm the status of the navigation aid.

(6) The air operator's Company Operations Manual shall be amended to outline the above procedures and information for pilot guidance.

(7) the flight visibility shall not be less than 3 miles for flights in VFR at night.

723.36 Minimum Altitudes and Distances

(1) For air operator authority to operate a helicopter over a built-up area at altitudes and distances less than those specified in section 602.14 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations or to conduct a landing or take-off within the built-up area of a city or town, a plan shall be submitted to the Transport Canada Aviation Regional Office in the region in which the flights are to take place at least five working days in advance of the operation, and include:
(amended 1998/06/01)

  1. (a) certification that the governing municipality has been informed of the proposed operation;
    (amended 1998/06/01)
  2. (b) purpose of the flights;
  3. (c) dates, alternate dates and proposed time of day of the operation;
  4. (d) location of the operation;
  5. (e) type of aircraft to be used;
  6. (f) altitudes and routes to be used, depicted on a map of the area;
  7. (g) procedures and precautions to be taken to ensure no hazard is created to persons or property on the surface, including locations of forced landing areas in the event of an emergency; and
  8. (h) name of the contact person designated by the air operator.
    (amended 1998/06/01)

(2) For operating certificate authority the air operator shall submit an application providing the above information as applicable, show a requirement for operating certificate authority and amend its Company Operations Manual to include the routes and conditions for its use.
(amended 1998/06/01)

723.37 Weight and Balance System

An air operator shall publish in its operations manual a system to ensure that during any phase of flight operations the loading, weight and centre of gravity of the aircraft complies with the limitations specified in the approved flight manual.

The weight and balance system shall:

(1) establish an operational empty weight and centre of gravity for each aircraft and configuration;

(2) establish passenger and cargo weight determination procedures. Weight of passengers and cargo may be determined by using approved standard weights or approved survey weights for passengers and actual weight of cargo;

(3) establish weights for calculation of fuel weight which may be determined using actual specific gravity or a standard specific gravity;

(4) provide weight and centre of gravity forms for calculation of maximum take-off and landing weights and calculation of longitudinal and lateral CG position;

(5) establish preparation and disposition requirements of weight and balance forms;

(6) establish loading procedures, including floor loading limits and cargo restraint requirements; and

(7) provide for initial and annual system training to air operator personnel responsible for the weight and balance system.

723.38 Passenger and Cabin Safety Procedures

(1) Safe Movement of Passengers to and from the Helicopter

The procedures for the safe movement of passengers to and from the helicopter shall include:

  1. (a) wherever possible, helicopters are parked in a location that avoids passenger exposure to hazardous conditions;
  2. (b) passengers are alerted to hazardous conditions;
  3. (c) guidance and, where necessary, an escort is provided to ensure passengers are directed along a safe route to or from the helicopter;
  4. (d) smoking restrictions are enforced; and
  5. (e) personal headsets that are used with personal entertainment systems that decrease awareness of other traffic or limit reception of audible direction or warning signals are not worn.
    (amended 1999/09/01)

(2) Fuelling with Passengers on Board

Helicopters may be fuelled with passengers on board, embarking or disembarking, under the following conditions:

  1. (a) the pilot supervises the fuelling and remains near the helicopter main exit to immediately communicate with and assist in the evacuation of passengers in an emergency;
  2. (b) all exits are clear of obstruction and available for passenger evacuation;
  3. (c) the helicopter engines are not running;
  4. (d) electrical power supplies are not being connected or disconnected, and any equipment likely to produce sparks or arcs is not being used;
  5. (e) smoking is not permitted in the helicopter or in the vicinity of the helicopter;
  6. (f) fuelling is suspended when there are lightning discharges within 8 kilometres of the helicopter;
  7. (g) combustion heaters in the helicopter or in the vicinity of the helicopter are not operated;
  8. (h) known high energy equipment such as High Frequency (HF) radios and weather-mapping radar are not operated, unless in accordance with the approved flight manual where the manual contains procedures for the use of this equipment during fuelling; and
  9. (i) photographic equipment is not used within 10 feet (3 metres) of the fuelling equipment or the fill or vent points of the helicopter fuel systems.

(3) Use of Portable Electronic Devices

The prohibited devices, the permitted devices without restrictions and the permitted devices with restrictions are defined as follows, and are to be used in accordance with the stated requirements as applicable:
(amended 1999/09/01; no previous version)

  1. (a) Prohibited Devices

    Any transmitting device that intentionally radiates radio frequency signals;

  2. (b) Permitted Devices Without Restrictions
    1. (i) hearing aids,
    2. (ii) heart pacemakers,
    3. (iii) electronic watches, and
    4. (iv) properly certificated air operator installed equipment;
  3. (c) Permitted Devices With Restrictions
    1. (i) personal life support systems may be operated during all phases of flight, provided that the device does not cause interference with the helicopter's systems or equipment;
    2. (ii) portable two-way radio communication devices may be used subject to all of the following conditions and restrictions being met:
      1. (A) use is prohibited at all times when the helicopter engines are running, excluding the auxiliary power unit,
      2. (B) when the pre-flight safety briefing begins prior to engine start, use is terminated during the delivery of the pre-flight safety briefing and demonstration, and
      3. (C) the company operations manual contains procedures to ensure these devices are turned off and properly stowed during the delivery of the pre-flight safety briefing and demonstration and while the helicopter engines are running;
    3. (iii) other portable electronic devices may be used, except during take-off, climb, approach and landing.

(4) Passengers shall be informed of the air operator's policy pertaining to the use of portable electronic devices and those devices that are prohibited from use during the delivery of the pre-flight safety briefing and demonstration.
(amended 1999/09/01; no previous version)

(5) When interference with the helicopter's systems or equipment is suspected from use of a portable electronic device, crew members shall:
(amended 1999/09/01; no previous version)

  1. (a) confirm passenger use of portable electronic device(s),
  2. (b) instruct passenger(s) to terminate the use of portable electronic device(s),
  3. (c) prohibit the use of suspected portable electronic device(s); and
  4. (d) recheck the helicopter's systems and equipment.

(6) The pilot-in-command shall report incidents of portable electronic device interference and include the following information in the report:
(amended 1999/09/01; no previous version)

  1. (a) Flight Information - helicopter type, registration, date and UTC time of incident, helicopter location (VOR bearing/DIST/LAT/LONG), altitude, weather conditions, pilot name and telephone number,
  2. (b) Description of Interference - description of effects on cockpit indicators, audio or systems, including radio frequency, identification, duration, severity and other pertinent information,
  3. (c) Action Taken by Pilot/Crew to Identify Cause or Source of Interference,
  4. (d) Identification of Portable Electronic device - description of device, brand name, model, serial number, mode of operation (i.e. FM radio), device location (seat location), and regulatory approval number (FCC/other),
  5. (e) Identification of User - name and telephone number of passenger operating the device, and
  6. (f) Additional Information - as determined pertinent by the crew.

(7) Reports of portable electronic device interference shall be submitted to the Director, Safety Services, Transport Canada, Transport Canada Building, Place de Ville, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0N8.
(amended 1999/09/01; no previous version)

723.39 Briefing of Passengers

(1) Standard Safety Briefing

The standard safety briefing shall consist of an oral briefing provided by a flight crew member or by audio or audiovisual means which includes the following information, as applicable to the helicopter, equipment, and operation:

  1. (a) prior to take-off (or prior to embarking when rotors are turning):
    1. (i) when, where, why and how carry-on baggage is required to be stowed;
    2. (ii) the fastening, unfastening, tightening and general use of safety belts or safety harnesses;
    3. (iii) the location of normal and emergency exits and how the exits operate;
    4. (iv) the location, purpose of, and advisability of reading the safety features cards;
    5. (v) the requirement to obey crew instructions;
    6. (vi) the location of any emergency equipment the passenger may have a need for in an emergency situation such as the ELT, fire extinguisher, survival equipment (including the means to access if in a locked compartment), first aid kit and life raft;
    7. (vii) the location and use of life preservers, including how to remove them from stowage/packaging and a demonstration of their location, method of donning and inflation, and when to inflate life preservers;
    8. (viii) instructions for immersion suits;
    9. (ix) location, operation and deployment of life rafts;
    10. (x) where applicable to wide body helicopters, the method of egress in event of a roll-over accident by use of the under seat frame of the transverse cabin seats as a ladder for egress; and
    11. (xi) any special instructions related to emergency evacuation if the helicopter is configured with external fixtures. (e.g. ski racks); and
  2. (b) after take-off, if not included in the pre-take-off briefing:
    1. (i) the advisability of using safety belts or safety harnesses during flight;
  3. (c) in-flight because of turbulence:
    1. (i) when the use of seat belts is required; and
    2. (ii) the requirement to stow carry-on baggage;
  4. (d) prior to disembarking of passengers, the safest direction and most hazard-free route for passenger movement away from the helicopter, and any dangers associated with the helicopter, such as pitot tube locations, tail rotor and main rotor.

    Where no additional passengers have boarded the flight for subsequent take-offs on the same day, the pre take-off and after take-off briefing may be omitted provided a crew member has verified that all carry-on baggage is properly stowed, safety belts or harnesses are properly fastened, and seat backs and chair tables are properly secured.

(2) Individual Safety Briefing

The individual safety briefing shall include:

  1. (a) any information contained in the standard safety briefing and the safety features card that the passenger would not be able to receive during the normal conduct of that safety briefing; and
  2. (b) additional information applicable to the needs of that person as follows:
    1. (i) the most appropriate brace position for that passenger in consideration of his or her condition, injury, stature, and/or seat orientation and pitch;
    2. (ii) the location to place any service animal that accompanies the passenger;
    3. (iii) for a mobility restricted passenger who needs assistance in moving expeditiously to an exit during an emergency:
      1. (A) a determination of what assistance the person would require to get to an exit;
      2. (B) the route to the most appropriate exit;
      3. (C) the most appropriate time to begin moving to that exit; and
      4. (D) a determination of the most appropriate manner of assisting the passenger;
    4. (iv) for a visually impaired person:
      1. (A) detailed information of and facilitating a tactile familiarization with the equipment that he or she may be required to use;
      2. (B) advising the person where to stow his or her cane if applicable;
      3. (C) the number of rows of seats between his or her seat and his or her closest exit and alternate exit;
      4. (D) an explanation of the features of the exits; and
      5. (E) if requested, facilitating a tactile familiarization with the exit;
    5. (v) for a comprehension restricted person:
      1. (A) while using the safety features card, pointing out the exits to use, and any equipment that he or she may be required to use;
    6. (vi) for persons with a hearing impairment;
      1. (A) while using the safety features card, pointing out the emergency exits and other equipment that the person may be required to use; and
      2. (B) communicating detailed information by pointing, face-to-face communication permitting speech reading, pen and paper, through an interpreter or through their attendant;
    7. (vii) a passenger who is responsible for another person on board, information pertinent to the needs of the other person as applicable:
      1. (A) in the case of an infant:
        1. (I) seat belt instructions;
        2. (II) method of holding the infant for take-off and landing;
        3. (III) instructions pertaining to the use of a child restraint system; and
        4. (IV) recommended brace position;
      2. (B) in the case of any other person:
        1. (I) instructions pertaining to the use of a child restraint system; and
        2. (II) evacuation responsibilities; and
    8. (viii) for an unaccompanied minor, instructions to pay close attention to the normal safety briefing and to follow all instructions.

NOTE:

A passenger that has been provided with an individual safety briefing need not be re-briefed following a change in crew if the crew member that provided the individual safety briefing has advised a member of the new crew of the contents of that briefing, including any information respecting the special needs of that passenger.

A passenger may decline an individual safety briefing.

(3) Passenger Preparation for an Emergency Landing

The emergency briefing provided in the event of an emergency where time and circumstances permit shall consist of instructions pertaining to:

  1. (a) safety belts or safety harnesses;
  2. (b) seat backs and tables;
  3. (c) carry-on baggage;
  4. (d) safety features cards;
  5. (e) brace position (when to assume, how long to remain); and
  6. (f) life preservers if applicable; and
  7. (g) if applicable, evacuation procedures for an occupant of a child restraint system.
    (amended 1999/09/01; no previous version)

(4) Safety Features Card or Placards

The safety feature card or placards shall contain the following information as applicable to the helicopter and equipment carried:

  1. (a) general safety information, including:
    1. (i) smoking prohibition;
    2. (ii) each type of safety belt or safety harness installed for passenger use, including when to use and how to fasten, tighten and release; and
    3. (iii) where baggage must be stowed;
  2. (b) emergency procedures and equipment, including:
    1. (i) location of first aid kits;
    2. (ii) location of fire extinguishers that would be accessible to the passengers;
    3. (iii) location of Emergency Locator Transmitters;
    4. (iv) location of survival equipment and, if the stowage compartment is locked, the means of access or location of the key;
    5. (v) passenger brace position for impact, as appropriate for each type of seat and restraint system installed for passenger use, including the brace position for an adult holding an infant;
    6. (vi) method of the egress in event of a roll over accident;
    7. (vii) the location, operation and method of using each exit on the helicopter;
    8. (viii) the safest direction and most hazard-free escape route for passenger movement away from the helicopter following evacuation;
    9. (ix) location and use of life rafts; and
    10. (x) location, and use of life preservers;
  3. (c) the safety card shall bear the name of the air operator and the helicopter type and shall contain only safety information;
  4. (d) the safety information provided by the card shall:
    1. (i) be accurate for the helicopter type and configuration in which it is carried and in respect of the equipment carried;
    2. (ii) be presented with clear separation between each instructional procedure. All actions required to complete a multi-action procedure are to be presented in correct sequence and the sequence of actions clearly identified; and
    3. (iii) be depicted in a clear and distinct manner.

DIVISION IV - AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE OPERATING LIMITATIONS

There are currently no standards published for this Division

DIVISION V - AIRCRAFT EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS

There are currently no standards published for this Division

DIVISION VI - EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT

723.82 Equipment Standards and Inspection

(1) Survival Equipment

  1. (a) Flights Over Land
    1. (i) The Company Operations Manual shall show how compliance with section 602.61 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations is to be achieved;
    2. (ii) list equipment on board and information on how to use it;
    3. (iii) a survival manual appropriate for the season and climate shall be carried on board, and
    4. (iv) crew members shall be trained in accordance with subsection 723.98(24);
  2. (b) Where life rafts are required to be carried in accordance with section 602.63 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations they shall be equipped with an attached survival kit containing at least the following:
    1. (i) a pyrotechnic signalling device;
    2. (ii) a radar reflector;
    3. (iii) a life-raft repair kit;
    4. (iv) a bailing bucket and sponge;
    5. (v) a signalling mirror;
    6. (vi) a whistle;
    7. (vii) a raft knife;
    8. (viii) an inflation pump;
    9. (ix) dye marker;
    10. (x) a waterproof flashlight;
    11. (xi) a two day supply of water, calculated using the overload capacity of the raft, consisting of one pint of water per day for each person or a means of desalting or distilling salt water sufficient to provide an equivalent amount;
    12. (xii) a fishing kit;
    13. (xiii) a book on sea survival; and
    14. (xiv) a first aid kit containing antiseptic swabs, burn dressing compresses, bandages and anti-motion sickness pills.

(2) First Aid Kit Contents

A first aid kit required by section 602.60 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations shall contain the supplies and equipment for a Type A kit set out in Schedule II of Part X of the Aviation Occupational Safety and Health Regulations. In addition, each kit shall contain one pair of protective non-permeable gloves made of latex or equivalent material.
(amended 2001/06/01)

DIVISION VII - PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS

723.86 Minimum Crew

The standard for the operation of a helicopter in IFR flight with passengers on board without a second-in-command is:

(1) the helicopter is multi-engine and certified in the flight manual for single-pilot IFR operation;

(2) the pilot shall have at least 1,000 hours helicopter flight time, which shall include 100 hours pilot-in-command on multi-engine helicopters. In addition, the pilot shall have 50 hours of simulated or actual flight in IMC, and a total of 50 hours flight time on the helicopter type;

(3) the pilot proficiency check shall be conducted in the helicopter type or in an approved synthetic flight training device for the type and include:

  1. (a) knowledge of the auto-pilot operations and limitations;
  2. (b) performance of normal and emergency procedures without assistance; and
  3. (c) demonstration of the use of the auto-pilot during appropriate phases of flight; and

(4) a pilot's single-pilot proficiency check, if still valid, is transferable between air operators which have an Air Operator Certificate authority to conduct such operations and utilizing the same type of helicopter.

723.88 Flight Crew Member Qualification

(1) Pilot Proficiency Check

  1. (a) The Pilot Proficiency Check in a helicopter shall be conducted in accordance with the Pilot Proficiency Check - Helicopter Schedule of this subsection.
  2. (b) A pilot proficiency check shall be conducted in a manner that enables the pilot to demonstrate the knowledge and skill respecting:
    1. (i) the helicopter, its systems and components;
    2. (ii) proper control of airspeed, direction, altitude, attitude and configuration of the helicopter, in accordance with the procedures and limitations set out in the helicopter operating manual where applicable, the Helicopter Flight Manual, the air operator's Company Operations Manual, the air operator's Standard Operating Procedures, the check list, and any other information relating to the operation of the helicopter type; and
    3. (iii) departure, enroute and arrival procedures and other applicable procedures.
  3. (c) Each manoeuvre or procedure within a phase of flight specified in the Pilot Proficiency Check shall be performed in the helicopter or approved synthetic flight training device.
  4. (d) A pilot-in-command check shall be completed in the seat normally occupied by the pilot-in-command and a second-in-command check shall be completed in the seat normally occupied by the second-in-command.
  5. (e) A Transport Canada inspector or an approved check pilot shall determine whether a person has demonstrated the knowledge and the skill in accordance with the following factors:
    1. (i) the pilot's adherence to approved procedures; and
    2. (ii) the pilot's qualities of airmanship in selecting a course of action.
  6. (f) During the pilot proficiency check, the person conducting the check may request any manoeuvre or procedure, from the Schedule to this subsection, required to determine the proficiency of the candidate.
  7. (g) Where the pilot is required to hold an instrument rating, the PPC shall include the instrument procedures portion of the Schedule to this subsection. This shall constitute the issue or renewal of the instrument rating. Where more than one type which requires an instrument rating is flown, the PPC on only one of these types need include instrument procedures.
  8. (h) A synthetic flight training device (FTD) checking and training credits shall be approved by Transport Canada in the training program approval process for each helicopter type. Training and checking procedures not approved for the synthetic flight training device shall be completed in the helicopter.

(2) Competency Check

The standard for the Competency Check for pilots flying as second-in-command on multi-engine helicopters operating under IFR or VFR conditions is:

  1. (a) the chief pilot, or a pilot delegated by the chief pilot shall certify the competency of the pilot to perform the duties of second-in-command on each multi-engine helicopter type flown; and
  2. (b) the pilot shall be certified as competent in the performance of the Pilot Proficiency Check items applicable to multi-engine helicopters.

(3) Use of Other Than a Pilot Employed By an Air Operator for Training and Checking
(amended 1998/06/01)

The standard for authorization to permit a person not qualified in accordance with paragraphs 703.88(1)(b), (c), and (d) to act as a flight crew member is:

  1. (a) the person is not an employee of the air operator and is assigned for the purpose of conducting flight training for the air operator's first flight crews on a new helicopter type;
    (amended 1998/06/01)
  2. (b) the air operator provides a resume, proof of background on helicopter type and recent experience appropriate to the assignment on behalf of the pilot; and
  3. (c) the pilot is the holder of an appropriate licence and rating. Where the pilot holds a foreign pilot licence the licence and, as applicable, the instrument rating shall be validated by the Minister.
    (amended 1998/06/01)

The pilot may be authorized to conduct pilot checks provided the requirements of the Approved Check Pilot Manual are met with the exception of employment time with the air operator.

A foreign licensed pilot may be granted authority only when a Canadian licensed pilot is not available.

Schedule - Pilot Proficiency Check - Helicopter

723.89 Qualifications of Operational Control Personnel

A person assigned to an operational control position shall comply with the training standards of section 723.98.

723.91 Validity Period

(1) Where a flight crew member's training on type has expired for a period of 24 months or more, that crew member shall successfully complete the air operator's initial ground and flight training on type before re-assignment as pilot on the type.

(2) Where a flight crew member's Pilot Proficiency Check has expired for a period of 24 months or more, that flight crew member shall, following completion of the air operator's initial helicopter type ground and flight training, successfully complete the initial pilot proficiency check on the type of helicopter.

DIVISION VIII - TRAINING PROGRAMS

723.98 Training Program

The syllabus of each training program shall include the programmed time allotted and the subject matter to be covered.

(1) General Training Standard

  1. (a) Manuals, if applicable, shall be provided during training to each trainee on the subject matter to be taught.
  2. (b) Relevant training aids such as fire extinguishers, life preservers, rafts, aircraft components, static aircraft, etc. shall be available for the program being presented.
  3. (c) Comprehensive examinations shall be used to validate competence of the trainee.

(2) Flight Crew Training on a Contract Basis

An air operator may contract crew member training to another organization provided:

  1. (a) the arrangement is clearly provided for in the approved training program;
  2. (b) the outside organization uses the manuals and publications used by the air operator (SOPs, Rotorcraft Flight Manual, Aircraft Operating Manual, if applicable, Company Operations Manual, etc.);
  3. (c) the air operator ensures that the training is conducted in accordance with the approved program;
  4. (d) where type training is conducted, the training is provided on the type and model operated by the air operator unless otherwise provided for in the approved training program; and
  5. (e) the air operator maintains training records as required by Subpart 703 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations.

(3) Training and Qualifications of Training Personnel

  1. (a) Instructor - Ground Training
    1. (i) has satisfied the air operator that he or she has the knowledge and skills required to conduct the training; and
    2. (ii) if conducting helicopter type training, has successfully completed the ground school for the type of helicopter.
  2. (b) Qualifications and Responsibilities of a Training Pilot (Flight)
    1. (i) Qualifications
      1. (A) hold the licence and ratings appropriate for the type of helicopter and type of operation; and
      2. (B) know the contents of the Rotorcraft Flight Manual, Aircraft Operating Manual (if applicable), Approved Check Pilot Manual, Company Operations and Training Manuals and the operator’s Standard Operating Procedures for the helicopter type, and the provisions of the regulations and standards.
        (amended 1998/06/01)
    2. (ii) Responsibilities

      The Training Pilot is responsible for monitoring the operation and identifying problems which may require the provision of extra training or changes in operational procedures. The training pilot is responsible, together with the Chief Pilot, for the establishment and promulgation of the standards and piloting techniques with which flight crew will be expected to comply during flight operations and which the flight crew will be required to demonstrate during initial and recurrent checks. Particular responsibilities are:

      1. (A) conducting ground, synthetic flight training device and flight training of all flight crew in accordance with the approved training program;
      2. (B) supervision of the standards and recommending amendments to their respective aeroplane operating manuals and standard operating procedures;
      3. (C) maintaining the air operator's training records;
      4. (D) liaison with crew scheduling concerning training details; and
      5. (E) any responsibilities assigned by the Chief Pilot.
  3. (c) Qualifications and Responsibility of a Training Pilot (Synthetic Training Device)
    1. (i) Qualifications
      1. (A) hold or have the licence and ratings appropriate for the type of helicopter and type of operation;
      2. (B) have completed the air operator's ground school and synthetic training device program for the type of helicopter;
      3. (C) have successfully completed within the past 12 months a Pilot Proficiency Check in the synthetic training device or helicopter for that type;
      4. (D) know the contents of the Aircraft Operating Manual (if applicable), Rotorcraft Flight Manual, Operations and Training Manuals and as applicable the Approved Check Pilot Manual and the air operator’s Standard Operating Procedures for the helicopter type, and the provisions of the regulations and standards; and
      5. (E) have received instruction on the operation of the synthetic training device from an instructor qualified to operate the synthetic training device.
    2. (ii) Responsibilities

      The Training Pilot is responsible for monitoring the operation and identifying problems which may require the provision of extra training or changes in operational procedures. The training pilot is responsible, together with the Chief Pilot, for the establishment and promulgation of the standards and piloting techniques with which flight crew will be expected to comply during flight operations and which the flight crew will be required to demonstrate during initial and recurrent checks. Particular responsibilities are:

      1. (A) conducting ground and synthetic flight training of all flight crew in accordance with the approved training program;
      2. (B) supervision of the standards and recommending amendments to their respective helicopter operating manuals and Standard Operating Procedures;
      3. (C) maintaining the air operator's training records;
      4. (D) liaison with crew scheduling concerning training details; and
      5. (E) any responsibilities assigned by the Chief Pilot.

(4) Training Program Standards

Ground training programs shall provide a means of evaluating the trainee after completion of the syllabus by completion of an examination with a review and correction of any errors. Training examinations should be comprehensive, and periodically reviewed and updated.

Type training programs are to be titled as to the type to which they apply and include the number of instructional hours to be provided. They should be performance oriented and stress the operation (normal, emergency and malfunctions) of the helicopter systems and equipment. Instruction related to components and systems that flight crews cannot control, influence or operate should be minimized.

(5) Company Indoctrination Training

This training is required upon employment for all persons assigned to an operational control function, including base managers, pilots and persons responsible for flight following. The program shall ensure that persons involved in control of flight operations are aware of their responsibilities, know company reporting relationships and are competent to fulfil their assigned duties related to flight operations. Company indoctrination training shall include, as applicable:

  1. (a) the Canadian Aviation Regulations and applicable Standards;
  2. (b) Air Operator Certificate and Operations Specifications;
  3. (c) company organization, reporting relationships and communication procedures, including duties and responsibilities of flight crew members and the relationship of those duties to other crew members;
  4. (d) flight planning and operating procedures;
  5. (e) fuelling procedures including procedures for fuelling with passengers on board and fuel contamination precautions;
  6. (f) critical-surface contamination and safety awareness program;
  7. (g) passenger safety briefings and safe movement of passengers to/from the helicopter;
  8. (h) use and status of the Company Operations Manual including maintenance release procedures and accident/incident reporting procedures;
  9. (i) use of minimum equipment lists (if applicable);
  10. (j) aircraft icing and other meteorological training appropriate to the area of operations;
  11. (k) navigation procedures and other specialized operations applicable to the operator;
  12. (l) accident/incident reporting;
  13. (m) passenger on board medical emergency;
  14. (n) handling of disabled passengers;
  15. (o) carriage of external loads;
  16. (p) operational control system;
  17. (q) weight and balance system procedures;
  18. (r) standard operating procedures (if applicable); and
  19. (s) pre-flight crew member briefing.

(6) Technical Ground Training - Initial and Recurrent

This training shall ensure that each flight crew member is knowledgeable with respect to helicopter systems and all normal, abnormal and emergency procedures. The following subjects shall be included:

  1. (a) helicopter systems operation and limitations as contained in the Helicopter Flight Manual and Aircraft Operating Manual, and Standard Operating Procedures;
  2. (b) operation of all equipment that is installed in all helicopters of the same type operated by the air operator;
  3. (c) differences in equipment that is installed in all helicopters of the same type in the air operator's fleet;
  4. (d) applicable Standard Operating Procedures for pilot flying and pilot not flying duties for normal, abnormal and emergency procedures for the helicopter;
  5. (e) helicopter performance and limitations; and
  6. (f) weight and balance procedures.

Technical ground training shall be conducted annually.

(7) Synthetic Flight Training Device

  1. (a) A Synthetic Flight Training Device has two classifications:
    1. (i) Full flight simulator (FFS); and
    2. (ii) Flight Training Device (FTD).

(8) Level A or B Training Program (if applicable)
(amended 2008/12/30)

An air operator with an approved Level A or B training program using a Level A, or better, FFS approved in accordance with the Aeroplane and Rotorcraft Simulator Manual is permitted to conduct most initial, upgrade and recurrent training in that simulator. Additionally, flight training in a helicopter must be carried out for general handling and landing manoeuvres for initial and upgrade training.
(amended 2008/12/30)

  1. (a) The following training in Standard Operating Procedures for normal, abnormal and emergency operation of the helicopter systems and components shall be carried out in the FFS:
    1. (i) use of checklists;
    2. (ii) flight crew co-operation, command and co-ordination;
    3. (iii) helicopter and cargo fire on the ground and while airborne;
    4. (iv) engine fire and failure;
    5. (v) effects of engine icing and anti-ice operation;
    6. (vi) take-off, landing and flight with the critical engine inoperative and engine inoperative performance capabilities;
    7. (vii) flight control failures and abnormalities;
    8. (viii) hydraulic, electrical and other system failures;
    9. (ix) failure of navigation and communication equipment;
    10. (x) pilot incapacitation - recognition and response during various phases of flight;
    11. (xi) steep turns (45 degrees of bank), and other flight characteristics such as unusual attitudes (as applicable for initial and upgrade only);
    12. (xii) helicopter performance for climb, cruise, holding, descent and landing;
    13. (xiii) normal and performance limited take-offs;
    14. (xiv) take-off and landing data calculations;
    15. (xv) rejected take-off procedures;
    16. (xvi) passenger and crew evacuation;
    17. (xvii) FMS, EGPWS, ACAS and specialized equipment (where available);
      (amended 2008/12/30)
    18. (xviii) inadvertent encounters with moderate or severe in-flight icing conditions where the helicopter is certified for flight into known icing conditions (where available); and
      (amended 2008/12/30; no previous version)
    19. (xix) loss of pressurization and emergency descent (if applicable).
      (amended 2008/12/30; no previous version)
  2. (b) Where the air operator seeks authorization for flight in IMC, the following training in flight planning and instrument flight procedures shall be included:
    1. (i) departure, enroute, holding and arrival; and
    2. (ii) all types of instrument approaches and missed approaches in minimum visibility conditions using all levels of automation available (as applicable).
  3. (c) In addition to the training in an approved Level A or B FFS Training Program, the following flight training on the helicopter type shall be carried out:
    (amended 2008/12/30)
    1. (i) interior and exterior preflight checks;
    2. (ii) ground handling;
    3. (iii) hover, normal take-off, visual circuit (where possible) and landing;
    4. (iv) a simulated engine inoperative approach and landing;
    5. (v) simulated engine failure procedures during take-off and missed approach (at a safe altitude and airspeed);
    6. (vi) no electronic glide slope approach and landing; and
      (amended 2008/12/30; no previous version)
    7. (vii) approaches where the simulator lacks the capability.
      (amended 2008/12/30; no previous version)
  4. (d) If a Level A, or better, FFS has differences in performance, systems, or cockpit layout and configuration from the air operator's helicopter, additional training on these differences shall be provided.
    (amended 2008/12/30)

(8.1) Level C Training Program (if applicable)
(amended 2008/12/30; no previous version)

  1. (a) For the purpose of this provision, "similar helicopter" means helicopters listed in the Schedule to this subsection.
  2. (b) An air operator with an approved Level C training program using a Level C, or better, FFS approved in accordance with the Aeroplane and Rotorcraft Simulator Manual is permitted zero flight time training for candidates on initial training who have experience on a similar helicopter with the same operator or who have verifiable currency on a similar helicopter within the previous two years. Candidates who do not qualify shall undergo helicopter flight training in accordance with those items listed in paragraph 723.98(8)(c) above.
  3. (c) In addition to those items of training required in paragraphs 723.98(8)(a) and (b), the training in an approved Level C, or better, FFS shall include:
    1. (i) manoeuvring of the helicopter on the ground,
    2. (ii) crosswind take-offs and landings to 100% of the published crosswind component, and
    3. (iii) a visual training program in the flight simulator to ensure VFR flight skills, covering scenarios of dusk and night with variable weather and visibilities. This program shall include:
      1. (A) normal and crosswind take-offs, visual circuits and landings with variable wind, runway illusion and surface conditions,
      2. (B) engine inoperative approach and landing,
      3. (C) engine failure procedures during take-off and missed approach,
      4. (D) no electronic glide slope approach and landing, and
      5. (E) approaches and landings with flight control failures and abnormalities.
  4. (d) If a Level C, or better, FFS has differences in performance, systems, or cockpit layout and configuration from the air operator's helicopter, additional training on these differences shall be provided.

SCHEDULE – Full Flight Simulator Grouping – Helicopters

  1. (a) The following helicopters are "similar helicopters" for the purpose of FFS Grouping:
    1. (i) Agusta 109 and 119, all model series,
    2. (ii) Bell 47, all model series (including Bell 47T),
    3. (iii) Bell 206, all model series (including 206 LT),
    4. (iv) Bell 222, 230 and 430, all model series,
    5. (v) Bell 204, 205, 210 and 212, all model series,
    6. (vi) Bell 212 and 412, all model series,
    7. (vii) Enstrom F28, 280 and 480, all model series,
    8. (viii) Eurocopter AS 350, AS 355 and EC 130, all model series,
    9. (ix) Eurocopter SA 330, AS 332 and EC 225, all model series,
    10. (x) Eurocopter SE 313/3130, SE 316/3160 and SA 313 thru 319 (Alouette II / Lama / Alouette III), all model series,
    11. (xi) Eurocopter SA 360, SA/AS 365 and EC 155, all model series,
    12. (xii) Eurocopter BK 117 and EC 145, all model series,
    13. (xiii) Eurocopter BO 105, all model series,
    14. (xiv) Hiller 12E and 12ET, all model series,
    15. (xv) Hughes/Schweizer Models 269, 300, 330 and 333, all model series,
    16. (xvi) McDonnell Douglas/Hughes 500(369), 520, 530 and 600, all model series,
    17. (xvii) McDonnell Douglas MD 900, 901 and 902 Explorer, all model series,
    18. (xviii) Sikorsky S 55 and S 55T, all model series,
    19. (xix) Sikorsky S 58 and S 58T, all model series,
    20. (xx) Sikorsky S 61 and S 62, all model series,
    21. (xxi) Sikorsky S 70, all model series, and
    22. (xxii) Sikorsky S 76, all model series.
  2. (b) Any type of helicopter not shown in paragraph (a) above has not been considered for similar grouping and should be treated separately.

(8.2) Level D Training Program (if applicable)
(amended 2008/12/30; no previous version)

  1. (a) An air operator with an approved Level D training program using a Level D FFS approved in accordance with the Aeroplane and Rotorcraft Simulator Manual is permitted zero flight time training.
  2. (b) In addition to the training required for a Level C program, a VFR training program in the Level D FFS of at least 4 hours per crew (2 hours as pilot flying and 2 hours as pilot not flying) is required to ensure visual flight skills to cover either day or dusk and night with variable weather and visibility scenarios. This program shall include the following:
    1. (i) normal and crosswind take-offs, and visual circuits and landings, with variable wind, runway illusion and surface conditions,
    2. (ii) engine inoperative approach and landing,
    3. (iii) engine failure procedures during take-off and missed approach,
    4. (iv) no visual aids approaches and landings, and
    5. (v) approaches and landings with flight control failures and abnormalities.

Information Note:

Where a pilot demonstrates a satisfactory level of performance in visual manoeuvres, the air operator may use the time specified in subparagraph 723.98(8.2)(b)(i) as additional training to that required by any of the Level C requirements.

  1. (c) If a Level D FFS has differences in performance, systems, or cockpit layout and configuration from the air operator's helicopter, additional training on these differences shall be provided.

(9) Reserved
(amended 2008/12/30)

(10) Helicopter Only Flight Training Program

Any simulated failures of helicopter systems shall only take place under operating conditions which do not jeopardize safety of flight.

  1. (a) Standard Operating Procedures for normal, abnormal and emergency operation of the helicopter systems and components, including:
    1. (i) use of checklists, including interior and exterior pre-flight checks;
    2. (ii) manoeuvring of the helicopter on the ground (if applicable);
    3. (iii) aspects of crew co-operation;
    4. (iv) hover, normal take-off, visual circuit, approach and landing;
    5. (v) simulated helicopter and cargo fire on the ground and while airborne;
    6. (vi) simulated engine fire and failure;
    7. (vii) briefings on the effects of airframe and engine icing and anti-ice operation;
    8. (viii) take-off, landing and flight with the critical engine simulated inoperative, and engine inoperative performance capabilities;
    9. (ix) simulated hydraulic, electrical and other system failures;
    10. (x) simulated flight control failures and degraded states of operation, while in flight and during take-off and landing (as applicable);
    11. (xi) simulated failure of navigation and communication equipment;
    12. (xii) simulated pilot incapacitation - recognition and response;
    13. (xiii) steep turns (45 degrees of bank) and other flight characteristics (as applicable for initial and upgrade only);
    14. (xiv) helicopter performance;
    15. (xv) rejected take-off procedures;
    16. (xvi) briefing on crew and passenger evacuation procedures; and
    17. (xvii) specialized equipment (where applicable).
  2. (b) Flight planning and instrument flight procedures, where the air operator is authorized for VFR flight at night or flight in IMC:
    1. (i) departure, enroute, holding and arrival; and
    2. (ii) all types of instrument approaches and missed approaches in simulated minimum visibility conditions using all levels of automation available, (as applicable).

(11) Emergency Procedures Training for Pilots

This training is required on an annual basis and shall include instruction in the location and operation of all emergency equipment. Training devices approved to simulate flight operating emergency conditions, static helicopters, ground demonstrations, classroom lectures, films or other devices may be used for training provided the method used ensures that each flight crew member is adequately trained in the operation or use of all emergency equipment. Where practical training is required, it shall be completed on initial training and every three years thereafter.

  1. (a) fire in the air and on the ground;
  2. (b) use of fire extinguishers, including practical training;
  3. (c) operation and use of emergency exits, including practical training;
  4. (d) passenger preparation for an emergency landing or ditching, (as applicable) including practical training;
  5. (e) emergency evacuation procedures, including practical training;
  6. (f) donning and inflation of life preservers (when equipped), including practical training;
  7. (g) removal from stowage, deployment, inflation and boarding of life rafts/slide rafts (when equipped), including practical training;
  8. (h) pilot incapacitation, including practical training;
  9. (i) hijacking, bomb threats and other security procedures;
  10. (j) passenger on board medical emergency; and
  11. (k) special emergency procedures where the helicopter is used on MEDEVAC operations, including patient evacuation in emergency situations.

(12) Regaining Qualifications Training

For operators using a Level B, C, or D FFS, approved in accordance with the Aeroplane and Rotorcraft Simulator Manual, or the helicopter, the following must be completed for all pilots who have not maintained their recency qualifications in accordance with paragraph 703.88(1)(b) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations for a period between 90 and 180 days.

  1. (a) a briefing on changes that have occurred to the helicopter or its operation since the last flight; and
  2. (b) three take-offs and landings (which may be carried out as part of a PPC where one has come due).

(13) Flight Follower Training

Persons assigned the duties of the flight follower shall receive training in at least the following:

  1. (a) company indoctrination;
  2. (b) duties and responsibilities;
  3. (c) communication procedures;
  4. (d) applicable regulations and standards;
  5. (e) flight preparation procedures as applicable to assigned duties;
  6. (f) procedures in the event of an emergency or overdue aircraft;
  7. (g) accident and incident reporting procedures; and
  8. (h) requirements of the approved Company Operations Manual as applicable to the duties and responsibilities.

(14) Helicopter Surface Contamination Training

An approved surface contamination initial and recurrent training program is required for all operations personnel to ensure they are aware of hazards and procedures for ice, frost and snow critical contamination on helicopters. The training program shall include:

  1. (a) responsibility of the pilot-in-command and other operations personnel;
  2. (b) regulations related to operations in icing conditions;
  3. (c) weather conducive to ice, frost and snow contamination;
  4. (d) inspection before flight and removal of contamination;
  5. (e) in-flight icing recognition; and
  6. (f) hazards related to critical-surface contamination by ice, frost and snow.

(15) Minimum Equipment List (MEL) Training

When a Minimum Equipment List (MEL) has been approved for use on a helicopter type, the air operator shall provide the following training to flight crew members, maintenance personnel, and to persons exercising operational control as applicable:
(amended 2004/12/01)

  1. (a) training for maintenance personnel shall include instruction on those sections of the Maintenance Control Manual which address the MEL, placarding of inoperative equipment, maintenance release, and any other MEL related procedures;
    (amended 2004/12/01)
  2. (b) training for flight crew members and operational control personnel shall include instruction on the purpose and use of an MEL, air operator MEL procedures, elementary work as applicable and the responsibility of the pilot in command;
    (amended 2004/12/01)
  3. (c) recurrent training shall be conducted when required to ensure air operator personnel are aware of any changes to the MEL or MEL procedures.

(16) Transportation of Dangerous Goods

All training required by the Transportation of Dangerous Goods Regulations.

(17) Lower than Standard Take-off Weather Minima (RVR 600 feet)

Authority to conduct 600 RVR take-offs shall be subject to approval of a training program using an approved synthetic training device for the type of helicopter to be used and capable of depicting RVR 600' take-off conditions. Training is required for the pilot-in-command only unless the air operator authorizes the second-in-command to conduct 600 feet RVR take-offs in which case the second-in-command shall complete the same training.

The training program shall include:

  1. (a) take-off alternate requirements;
  2. (b) one engine inoperative performance requirements;
  3. (c) responsibility for obstacle clearance and visibility requirements;
  4. (d) take-off runway requirements;
  5. (e) helicopter equipment requirements;
  6. (f) pilot qualification requirements; and
  7. (g) training in the synthetic training device shall include normal take-offs under RVR 600 feet conditions and rejected take-offs under RVR 600 feet conditions, including engine failures and system malfunctions.

(18) Lower than Standard Decision Height

Category 1 Instrument Landing system Approach Minima

Reported Visibility RVR 1200 feet - Decision Height 100 feet

Authority to conduct approaches to 100 feet DH with 1200 RVR is subject to approval of a training program using an approved synthetic training device for the helicopter type to be used. The training device shall be capable of depicting IMC to 100 feet DH.

The training program shall include:

  1. (a) capabilities and limitations of the ILS and visual aids;
  2. (b) operational characteristics and limitations of the airborne system to be used such as the flight director, automatic approach coupler and systems and devices peculiar to the applicant's installation, such as missed approach guidance and failure warning systems;
  3. (c) individual crew duties, including approach briefing, two-pilot challenge and response communication rule, pilot incapacitation procedures and pilot-monitored approach procedure with emphasis on the need to continually monitor flight instruments until the attitude and descent path have been visually assessed; and
  4. (d) training in the synthetic training device shall include the effects of wind shear and turbulence, recognition and reaction to malfunctions encountered prior to and after reaching the missed approach point, ILS approaches to landings from 100/1200 feet RVR conditions and missed approaches during which practical malfunctions and emergencies are introduced.

(19) Area Navigation Systems (RNAV)

  1. (a) General Training
    (amended 2003/03/01)
    1. (i) To qualify for the use of RNAV systems on IFR operations, an air operator shall have an approved flight crew training and qualifications program for use of the system. Flight crew shall have completed the appropriate training and have completed an in-flight check or an equivalent check in an approved synthetic training device. This qualification check shall be conducted by a Transport Canada inspector or an authorized air operator check pilot.
    2. (ii) Training shall be in the following areas:
      1. (A) pre-flight;
      2. (B) normal operation of the system;
      3. (C) procedures for manually updating the system;
      4. (D) methods of monitoring and cross checking the system;
      5. (E) action in the event of discrepancy between systems and method of determining which is the most accurate or reliable system;
      6. (F) the procedure for regaining track after deliberate or accidental deviation from the cleared track;
      7. (G) Standard Instrument Departure (SID), Standard Terminal Arrival Route (STAR), and terminal procedures (if applicable);
      8. (H) operation in areas of compass unreliability;
      9. (I) malfunction procedures, including re-synchronization (if applicable);
      10. (J) terminal procedures;
      11. (K) waypoint symbology, plotting procedures and record keeping duties/practices; and
      12. (L) post-flight.
  2. (b) Ground Training - Non-Integrated Receivers (Panel Mount GPS Receivers)
    (amended 2003/03/01; no previous version)

    An air operator shall ensure that the training program candidates are trained to proficiency in each of the elements associated with the following areas:

    1. (i) Knowledge with respect to the following:
      1. (A) the GPS system, including:
        1. (I) GPS system components and aircraft equipment;
        2. (II) the composition of satellite constellation;
        3. (III) the minimum number of satellites required for 2-D and 3-D navigation;
        4. (IV) the basic concept of satellite ranging;
        5. (V) factors affecting the accuracy of GPS signals; and
        6. (VI) the World Geodetic Survey 84 (WGS 84) datum and the effect of using any other datum;
      2. (B) human factors applicable to the use of GPS and how errors may be reduced or eliminated;
      3. (C) company standard operating procedures for using GPS units; and
      4. (D) procedures for reporting GPS problems and database errors.
    2. (ii) Ability to perform the following operational tasks:
      1. (A) select appropriate operational modes;
      2. (B) recall categories of information contained in the database;
      3. (C) predict RAIM availability;
      4. (D) enter and verify user defined waypoints;
      5. (E) recall and verify database waypoints;
      6. (F) interpret typical GPS navigational displays including latitude/longitude, distance and bearing to waypoint, course deviation indication (CDI), desired track (DTK), track made good (TMG), actual track (TK), cross track error and any other information appropriate for the equipment used;
      7. (G) intercept and maintain GPS defined tracks;
      8. (H) determine navigation information appropriate for the conduct of the flight including ground speed (GS), estimated time of arrival (ETA) for next waypoint and destination;
      9. (I) recognition of waypoint passage;
      10. (J) use of 'direct to' function;
      11. (K) link enroute portion of GPS flight plan to approach;
      12. (L) conduct SIDs, STARs, terminal area procedures and holds;
      13. (M) retrieve, verify and conduct GPS stand alone approaches; and
      14. (N) conduct GPS missed approaches.
    3. (iii) Ability to conduct the following operational and serviceability checks:
      1. (A) database currency and area of operation;
      2. (B) receiver serviceability;
      3. (C) RAIM status;
      4. (D) CDI sensitivity;
      5. (E) position indication; and
      6. (F) number of satellites acquired and, if available, satellite position information.
    4. (iv) Ability to recognize and take appropriate action for all GPS warnings and messages including, where applicable:
      1. (A) "loss of RAIM";
      2. (B) "2D navigation";
      3. (C) "In Dead Reckoning Mode";
      4. (D) "database out of date";
      5. (E) "GPS fail";
      6. (F) "barometric input fail";
      7. (G) "power/battery low" or "fail";
      8. (H) "parallel offset on"; and
      9. (I) "satellite fail".
  3. (c) Ground Training - Integrated Receivers (Flight Management Systems)
    (amended 2003/03/01; no previous version)

    An air operator shall ensure that the training program candidates are trained to proficiency in each of the elements associated with the following areas:

    1. (i) Knowledge with respect to the following:
      1. (A) the GPS system and theory of operation, including:
        1. (I) GPS system components and aircraft equipment;
        2. (II) the composition of satellite constellation;
        3. (III) the minimum number of satellites required for 2-D and 3-D navigation;
        4. (IV) the basic concept of satellite ranging;
        5. (V) factors affecting the accuracy of GPS signals; and
        6. (VI) the WGS84 datum and the effect of using any other datum; and
      2. (B) human factors applicable to the use of GPS and how errors may be reduced or eliminated (i.e. maintaining situational awareness);
    2. (ii) Ability to perform the following operational tasks:
      1. (A) predict RAIM availability;
      2. (B) link enroute portion of GPS flight plan to approach;
      3. (C) conduct GPS stand alone approaches; and
      4. (D) conduct GPS missed approaches;
    3. (iii) Ability to conduct the following operational and serviceability checks:
      1. (A) RAIM status;
      2. (B) CDI sensitivity; and
      3. (C) number of satellites acquired and, if available, satellite position information;
    4. (iv) Ability to recognize and take appropriate action for all GPS warnings and messages including, where applicable:
      1. (A) "loss of RAIM";
      2. (B) "2D navigation";
      3. (C) "GPS fail";
      4. (D) "barometric input fail"; and
      5. (E) "satellite fail".
  4. (d) Flight Training
    (amended 2003/03/01; no previous version)
    1. (i) Pilots shall complete flight training in the use of GPS for approach and other associated duties for each crew position they are authorized to occupy. Flight training may be completed in an aircraft, or in a level A or higher simulator that is equipped with the same model of GPS receiver (or a model determined by the Minister to be sufficiently similar) that is installed in the company aircraft.
    2. (ii) Flight training shall be conducted by a designated training pilot who has completed the company ground training program approved by the Minister, and demonstrated proficiency in the use of the model of GPS (or a model determined by the Minister to be sufficiently similar), to an approved check pilot.
    3. (iii) The following initial flight training and checking, and currency requirements apply to aircraft operated under Subpart 703 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations conducting single-pilot IFR GPS approaches where persons other than flight crew are carried. Before a pilot is assigned as the pilot-in-command (PIC) of a single-pilot IFR operation using GPS for an instrument approach, the following requirements shall be met:
    1. (A) within the preceding ninety days, and while under the direct supervision of a designated training pilot, the pilot shall conduct a minimum of ten (10) GPS approaches of which:
      1. (I) five (5) approaches are conducted in actual or simulated instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) to the prescribed landing minima,
      2. (II) three (3) approaches, including a published missed approach, at least two of which are conducted in actual or simulated IMC, and
      3. (III) two (2) approaches are conducted using different initial approach waypoints (IAWPs);
    2. (B) completion of all of the requirements listed in clause (A) shall be recorded in the pilot's training file together with the following information:
      1. (I) registration and type of the aircraft, or type of simulator, used for the GPS approaches;
      2. (II) manufacturer and model number of GPS equipment used;
      3. (III) date, name and number of approaches conducted in total, in IMC, with missed approaches and from which IAWP; and
      4. (IV) certification by the designated training pilot attesting to the training given to the pilot;
    3. (C) the pilot shall successfully demonstrate his/her proficiency in GPS operations as part of a PPC or as a separate check ride conducted by an approved company check pilot or a Transport Canada Inspector and shall be certified as proficient; and
    4. (D) currency requirements shall be demonstrated by conducting GPS instrument approaches during the PPC.

(20) Transportability of Pilot Proficiency Check

Transportability of Pilot Proficiency Checks from one air operator to another is permitted subject to the hiring air operator providing the following training, which shall be specified in the approved operations/training manual:

  1. (a) company indoctrination;
  2. (b) pilot ground and emergency procedures training on each type of helicopter the pilot is assigned, sufficient to cover the air operator procedures and equipment differences;
  3. (c) standard operating procedures review; and
  4. (d) the hiring air operator records the PPC validity and expiration date in company records.

(21) Survival Equipment Training

Training for all crew members shall include the following:

  1. (a) survival concepts;
  2. (b) contents of the survival equipment kit; and
  3. (c) how to use the survival equipment carried on board as appropriate for the operation.

(22) Aircraft Servicing and Ground Handling Training for Pilots

  1. (a) Fuelling procedures:
    1. (i) types of fuel, oil and fluids used in the helicopter;
    2. (ii) correct fuelling procedures; and
    3. (iii) procedures for checking fuel, oil and fluids and the proper securing of caps.
  2. (b) use of tow bars;
  3. (c) installation of protective covers on the helicopter; and
  4. (d) procedures for operating in cold weather, such as:
    1. (i) moving the helicopter out of a warm hangar when precipitation is present;
    2. (ii) procedures for applying de-icing and anti-icing fluids for the helicopter type including critical flight controls post application inspections; and
    3. (iii) engine and cabin pre-heating procedures, including proper use of related equipment.

(23) Persons Assigned on Board Duties

Where an air operator has assigned on-board duties to a non-flight crew member, that person shall be given adequate initial and annual training to perform the procedures relevant to the duties with which the person is to be involved including, as applicable:

  1. (a) the authority of the pilot-in-command;
  2. (b) means of communication;
  3. (c) a general description of the helicopter in which the person is to serve and the proper use of cabin installed systems controls;
  4. (d) procedures for the handling of normal, abnormal, and emergency situations including:
    1. (i) safe movement in the vicinity of the helicopter and safe movement to and from the helicopter;
    2. (ii) briefing of passengers;
    3. (iii) handling of passengers;
    4. (iv) securing of the cabin;
    5. (v) location, operation and use of emergency, life-saving and survival equipment carried, including practical training;
    6. (vi) fire fighting, including practical training;
    7. (vii) location, operation and use of emergency exits, including practical training;
    8. (viii) passenger preparation for an emergency landing or ditching, including practical training; and
    9. (ix) evacuation, including practical training; and
  5. (e) knowledge of the relationship of the procedures with respect to those of the other crew members.

(24) Controlled Flight into Terrain (CFIT) Avoidance Training

Air operators shall provide the following initial and biennial CFIT avoidance training to all flight crew members operating helicopters approved for flight under instrument meteorological conditions:
(amended 2000/06/01; no previous version)

  1. (a) factors that may lead to CFIT accidents and incidents;
  2. (b) CFIT prevention strategies; and
  3. (c) methods of improving situational awareness.

DIVISION IX - MANUALS

723.105 Contents of a Company Operations Manual

(1) For air operators conducting IFR and VFR at night operations, the manual shall contain as applicable to the operations:

  1. (a) a preamble related to the use and authority of the manual;
  2. (b) a table of contents;
  3. (c) the amendment procedure;
  4. (d) a list of effective pages;
  5. (e) a copy of the Air Operator Certificate and operations specifications;
  6. (f) a chart of the company management organization;
  7. (g) duties, responsibilities and succession of command of management and operations personnel;
  8. (h) a description of the operational control system including:
    1. (i) flight authorization and flight preparation procedures;
    2. (ii) flight watch and communications requirements;
    3. (iii) flight following requirements;
    4. (iv) dissemination procedures for operational information and acknowledgement;
    5. (v) fuel requirements;
    6. (vi) weight and balance system;
    7. (vii) preparation and retention of flight documents;
    8. (viii) accident/incident reporting procedures and procedures for reporting overdue helicopters;
    9. (ix) use of check lists; and
    10. (x) maintenance discrepancy reporting and requirements on completion of flights;
  9. (i) a sample of the operational flight plan, weight and balance form and retention period;
  10. (j) CVR procedures;
  11. (k) operating weather minima and applicable requirements for IFR, VFR, VFR at night and VFR over-the-top, including alternate aerodrome requirements;
  12. (l) instrument and equipment requirements;
  13. (m) instrument approach procedures;
  14. (n) procedures for establishing company routes in uncontrolled airspace;
  15. (o) procedures for the use of area navigation (RNAV);
  16. (p) operations in hazardous conditions such as icing, thunderstorms and white-out;
  17. (q) operations in high density altitude conditions, related to take-off and landing weight limitations;
  18. (r) the securing of cargo;
  19. (s) passenger briefing procedures;
  20. (t) the use of the Rotorcraft Flight Manual, and Standard Operating Procedures, as applicable;
  21. (u) helicopter ice, frost and snow critical-surface contamination procedures;
  22. (v) procedures for the carriage of dangerous goods;
  23. (w) fuelling procedures, including:
    1. (i) fuel contamination precautions;
    2. (ii) bonding requirements;
    3. (iii) fuelling with engine running; and
    4. (iv) fuelling with passengers on board;
  24. (x) a list of the emergency survival equipment carried on helicopters, how to use the equipment and periodic equipment inspection requirements;
  25. (y) emergency procedures for:
    1. (i) the emergency locator transmitter;
    2. (ii) passenger preparation for emergency landing/ditching; and
    3. (iii) emergency evacuation;
  26. (z) crew member qualifications;
  27. (a-a) flight/duty time limitations and rest requirements;
  28. (b-b) training programs, including a copy of the company training and qualification record form(s); and
  29. (c-c) for dedicated or contracted MEDEVAC operations, operational procedures. These shall include procedures which will ensure, to the maximum extent possible, that decisions affecting safety of flight are not influenced by the condition of the patient.
    (amended 2003/06/01; no previous version)

(2) For air operators conducting day VFR operations only, the manual shall contain items (a) through (h) from subsection (1) and;

  1. (i) operating weather minima and requirements for VFR and VFR over-the-top;
  2. (j) operations in hazardous conditions such as icing, thunderstorms and white-out;
  3. (k) operations in high density altitude conditions as applicable;
  4. (l) the securing of cargo;
  5. (m) the use of the Rotorcraft Flight Manual, Aircraft Operating Manual and Standard Operating Procedures as applicable;
  6. (n) helicopter ice, frost and snow critical-surface contamination procedures;
  7. (o) procedures for the carriage of dangerous goods;
  8. (p) fuelling procedures, including;
    1. (i) fuel contamination precautions;
    2. (ii) bonding requirements;
    3. (iii) fuelling with passengers on board; and
    4. (iv) fuelling with engine running;
  9. (q) a list of the emergency survival equipment carried on helicopters, how to use the equipment, and periodic equipment inspection requirements;
  10. (r) emergency procedures for:
    1. (i) the E.L.T.
    2. (ii) passenger preparation for emergency landing/ditching; and
    3. (iii) emergency evacuation;
  11. (s) crew member qualifications;
  12. (t) flight and duty time limitations and rest requirements; and
  13. (u) training programs, including a copy of the company training and qualification record form(s).

(3) For an owner/pilot operating one aircraft and not employing other pilots, the manual shall contain:

  1. (a) a table of contents;
  2. (b) the amendment procedure;
  3. (c) a list of effective pages;
  4. (d) a copy of the air operator certificate and operations specifications;
  5. (e) the weight and balance system;
  6. (f) a list of the emergency survival equipment carried on helicopters;
  7. (g) the training program, including a copy of the company training and qualification record form;
  8. (h) the procedure for reporting overdue helicopters;
  9. (i) procedures for reduced VFR limits in uncontrolled airspace (if applicable);
  10. (j) accident/incident reporting; and
  11. (k) procedures for the carriage of dangerous goods.

723.107 Standard Operating Procedures

The Standard Operating Procedures shall contain the following information for each type of two-pilot helicopter operated. Where there are significant differences in equipment and procedures between helicopters of the same type operated, the Standard Operating Procedures shall show the registration mark of the helicopter it is applicable to.

Required information, if contained in another publication carried on board the helicopter during flight, need not be repeated in the SOP.

The SOP may form part of the Company Operations Manual.

The SOP shall contain the following as applicable to the operation:

(1) General

  1. (a) a table of contents;
  2. (b) a list of effective pages;
  3. (c) the amending procedure;
  4. (d) a preamble;
  5. (e) communications;
  6. (f) crew coordination;
  7. (g) the use of check lists;
  8. (h) standard briefings; and
  9. (i) standard calls.

(2) Normal Procedures

  1. (a) weight and balance control requirements;
  2. (b) ramp;
  3. (c) battery/AMU engine starts;
  4. (d) taxi;
  5. (e) take-off and climb;
  6. (f) cruise;
  7. (g) descent;
  8. (h) approaches: IFR, visual, VFR, and circling;
  9. (i) landing;
  10. (j) missed approach and balked landing procedures;
  11. (k) refuelling with passengers on board;
  12. (l) use of on-board navigation and alerting aids; and
  13. (m) check lists.

(3) Abnormal and Emergency Procedures

  1. (a) emergency landings/ditching - with time to prepare and without time to prepare;
  2. (b) pilot incapacitation and two communication rule, (two-pilot crew);
  3. (c) bomb threats and hijacking;
  4. (d) engine fire/failure/shutdown;
  5. (e) fire: internal/external;
  6. (f) smoke removal;
  7. (g) rejected take-off; and
  8. (h) other abnormal and emergency procedures that are specific to the type of helicopter.
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