Part VII - Commercial Air Services

Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) 2017-2

Standard 724 - Commuter Operations - Helicopters

Content last revised: 2008/12/30

Foreword

This Commercial Air Services Standard outlines the requirements for complying with Subpart 704 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations.

For ease of cross reference the divisions and numbers of the standard are assigned to correspond to the regulations, therefore Standard 724.05 would reflect a standard required by Regulation 704.05.

DIVISION I - GENERAL

724.01 Application

(1) The standards under this Subpart apply to every Canadian air operator engaged in commercial air services under Subpart 704 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations.

(2) The words and expressions used in these Standards have the same meaning as in the General Provisions in Section 100.01 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations with the following additions:

Definitions

"deplane" means disembark. A helicopter is deplaned when the passengers leave the helicopter (or disembark) in the normal manner, as opposed to evacuating; (débarquement)

"evacuate" means the egress from a helicopter in an emergency situation using all available exits and assist means; (evacuation)

"fuelling" means the act of transferring fuel into or out of a helicopter’s fuel tanks from or to an external supply; (avitaillement ou reprise de carburant)
(amended 2003/06/01)

"take-off safety speed" means a referenced airspeed obtained after lift-off at which the required one-engine inoperative climb performance can be achieved; (vitesse de sécurité au décollage)

"wide-body helicopter" means a helicopter having an interior cabin width of 2m (6’7") or more; (hélicoptère gros porteur)

DIVISION II - CERTIFICATION

724.07 Issuance or Amendment of Air Operator Certificate

(1) Application for an Air Operator Certificate

The following constitutes an application for an air operator certificate:

  1. (a) Form 26-0045 Airports - information required to determine the suitability of the base of operations, sub-bases and all scheduled points. The applicant shall be able to demonstrate that operations are permitted at each base or scheduled point. This will normally be done by providing written permission from the Local Airport Authority. Where the air operator can not obtain a written permission and operations have not been denied in writing by the LAA, access to the aerodrome shall be demonstrated by other means such as facilities provided through a lease or contractual agreement or ownership of a heliport;
  2. (b) Form 26-0046 Aircraft - information with respect to each helicopter by registration;
  3. (c) Form 26-0047 Personnel - information on required personnel. These must be supported by resumes and statements of qualification for each required position;
  4. (d) Form 26-0048 Maintenance Facilities;
  5. (e) Maintenance Control Procedures;
  6. (f) Company Operations Manual;
  7. (g) Standard Operating Procedures (if applicable);
  8. (h) Minimum Equipment List(s) (if applicable);
  9. (i) nomination for Company Check Pilot (if applicable);
  10. (j) Form 26-0448 Cabin Safety as applicable.

Qualifications and Responsibilities of Operational Personnel

(2) Operations Manager

Qualifications

(a) hold or have held the appropriate licence and ratings for which a pilot-in-command is required to hold for one of the helicopters operated; or have acquired not less than 3 years related supervisory experience with an operator of a Commercial Air Service whose flight operations are similar in size and scope; and

(b) demonstrate knowledge to the Minister with respect to the content of the operations manual, the air operator’s certificate and operations specifications, the provision of the regulations and the standards necessary to carry out the duties and responsibilities to ensure safety.

Responsibilities

The operations manager is responsible for safe flight operations. In particular, the responsibilities of the position include:

  1. (a) control of operations and operational standards of all helicopters operated;
  2. (b) the identification of operations coordination functions which impact on operational control (eg. maintenance, crew scheduling, load control, equipment scheduling);
  3. (c) supervision, organization, function and manning of the following;
    1. (i) flight operations;
    2. (ii) cabin safety;
    3. (iii) crew scheduling and rostering;
    4. (iv) training programs; and
    5. (v) flight safety;
  4. (d) the contents of the air operator’s Company Operations Manual;
  5. (e) the supervision of and the production and amendment of the Company Operations Manual;
  6. (f) liaison with the regulatory authority on all matters concerning the flight operations including any variation to the air operator’s operator certificate;
  7. (g) liaison with any external agencies which may effect air operator operations;
  8. (h) ensuring that the air operator’s operations are conducted in accordance with current regulations, standards and air operator policy;
  9. (i) ensuring that crew scheduling complies with flight and duty time regulations, and that all crew members are kept informed of any changes to the regulations and standards;
  10. (j) the receipt and actioning of any aeronautical information affecting the safety of flight;
  11. (k) the dissemination of helicopter safety information, both internal and external;
  12. (l) qualifications of flight crew;
  13. (m) maintenance of a current operations library; and
  14. (n) in his or her absence, all responsibilities for operational duties shall be delegated to another individual qualified in accordance with the Canadian Aviation Regulations except that the knowledge requirements detailed under Operations Manager Qualifications may be demonstrated to the air operator rather than the Minister.

(3) Chief Pilot

Qualifications

The chief pilot shall have the following qualifications:
(amended 2003/06/01)

  1. (a) if the Air Operator Certificate authorizes day VFR only - hold an Airline Transport Pilot Licence (Helicopter) or a Commercial Pilot Licence (Helicopter);
    (amended 2003/06/01)
  2. (b) if the Air Operator Certificate authorizes day and Night VFR - hold an Airline Transport Pilot Licence (Helicopter) or a Commercial Pilot Licence (Helicopter);
    (amended 2003/06/01)
  3. (c) if the Air Operator Certificate authorizes IFR - hold an Airline Transport Pilot Licence (Helicopter) with an instrument rating;
    (amended 2003/06/01)
  4. (d) have at least 3 years experience as pilot-in-command of multi-engined helicopters;
  5. (e) be qualified in accordance with the air operators training program to act as pilot-in-command of one of the types of helicopters operated; 
  6. (f) demonstrate knowledge to the Minister with respect to the content of the Approved Check Pilot Manual, as applicable, the Company Operations Manual, the provisions of the regulations, standards and flight operating procedures necessary to carry out the duties and responsibilities to ensure safety; and
  7. (g) the chief pilot’s personal record in relation to aviation shall not include:
    (amended 2003/06/01; no previous version)
    1. (i) any conviction under subsection 7.3(1) of the Aeronautics Act; or
    2. (ii) two or more convictions, occurring during separate unrelated events, under the Canadian Aviation Regulations.
Responsibilities

The chief pilot(s) is responsible for the professional standards of the flight crews and in particular for:

  1. (a) developing standard operating procedures;
  2. (b) developing and implementing all required approved training programs for the air operator’s flight crews;
  3. (c) issuing directives and notices to the flight crews as required;
  4. (d) the operational suitability and requirements of all aerodromes and routes served by the air operator;
  5. (e) the actioning and distribution of accident, incident, and other occurrence reports;
  6. (f) the processing and actioning of any crew reports;
  7. (g) the supervision of flight crews;
  8. (h) assuming any duties delegated by the Operations Manager; and
  9. (i) in his or her absence, all responsibilities for duties shall be delegated to another individual qualified in accordance with this subsection except that the knowledge requirements may be demonstrated to the air operator rather than the Minister.

(4) Person Responsible for Maintenance

The person responsible for the maintenance control system shall be qualified in accordance with Section 726.03 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations.

(5) Operational Support Services and Equipment

The requirement for operational support services and equipment will be dependent on type of helicopters and the size and scope of operations and shall include the following as applicable:

  1. (a) operational control system requirements;
  2. (b) flight operations publications including a copy of the Aeronautics Act, applicable Canadian Aviation Regulations, Company Operations Manual, Maintenance Control Manual/Maintenance Procedures Manual (as applicable), Canada Flight Supplement, Water Aerodrome Supplement (if applicable), Rotorcraft Flight Manuals, helicopter Operating Manuals (if applicable), Standard Operating Procedures, Aeronautical Information Publication, Minimum Equipment Lists (if applicable) and appropriate maps and charts;
  3. (c) passenger and cargo handling requirements;
  4. (d) communications requirements;
  5. (e) provision for handling dangerous goods (if applicable);
  6. (f) weather availability requirements;
  7. (g) ground de-icing/ anti-icing program requirements; and
  8. (h) helicopter servicing facilities and ground handling equipment.

724.08 Contents of Air Operator Certificate

The following are the standards for Operations Specifications which may be issued under this section:

(1) Special Helicopter Procedures (refers to subparagraph 704.08(g)(viii) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations)
(amended 2003/03/01)

The standard for authorization to use the helicopter offshore Non-Directional Beacon/Airborne Radar Approach (NDB/ARA) procedure is:

  1. (a) the helicopter used is type approved as a Transport Category A rotorcraft;
  2. (b) the helicopter is equipped with:
    1. (i) two independent VHF air ground communications systems and two radio altimeter indicators with altitude alert functions;
    2. (ii) one ADF and weather radar incorporating a beacon receiver mode;
    3. (iii) rain protection for each windshield; and
    4. (iv) a heat source for each airspeed pitot system;
  3. (c) the aerodrome shall be equipped with:
    1. (i) ground/air communications equipment capable of providing essential approach and landing information;
    2. (ii) facilities to provide essential information related to altimeter setting, observed weather, wind speed and direction, aerodrome condition and, if applicable, pitch and roll of the deck; and
    3. (iii) at least one non-directional beacon (NDB);
  4. (d) Flight Crew Member Qualifications
    1. (i) Before pilots may conduct approaches to a minimum descent altitude of 150 feet they shall have demonstrated, within the proceeding 12 months, to a Transport Canada Inspector or a Company Check Pilot their proficiency conducting NDB/ARA approaches to 150’ MDA. The check may be conducted in an approved synthetic flight training device provided the air operator is approved to use the FTD for pilot training. NDB/ARA certification shall be annotated on the Pilot Check Report; and
    2. (ii) Pilots-in-command having less than 100 hours pilot-in-command experience on the helicopter type or not currently holding NDB/ARA certification are restricted to NDB/ARA 250’ MDA; and
  5. (e) approach beyond the Final Approach Fix when visibility is reported at less than 1/4 statute mile is prohibited.

(2) Category I ILS - 100’ DH

The standards for authorization to use ILS approach minima to 100’DH and reported RVR of not less than 1200’ on a Category I Instrument Landing System (ILS) are:

  1. (a) the helicopter used is type-approved as a Transport Category A rotorcraft;
  2. (b) the approach is a Category I ILS instrument approach procedure as published in the Canada Air Pilot and the ILS system is serviceable and functioning, including medium or high intensity approach lighting and a forward scatter visibility sensor or a transmissometer at either the approach end or mid-point of the runway;
  3. (c) both the pilot-in-command (PIC) and the second-in-command (SIC) have at least 100 hours on type of rotorcraft flown;
  4. (d) the air operator has developed an acceptable program and has received authorization to conduct training and checks in an approved synthetic flight training device;
  5. (e) the PIC and the SIC shall be checked within the previous 12 months in an approved synthetic flight training device by an approved check pilot or a Transport Canada Inspector and shall be certified as competent to use these minima;
  6. (f) the helicopter shall be flown in a stabilized approach and at an indicated airspeed that will produce a ground speed not exceeding 80 knots from 500 feet above the Decision Height inbound, unless the approach is flown with the autopilot and coupler engaged in the automatic deceleration mode;
    (effective 2017/08/01)
  7. (g) the helicopter shall be equipped with the following serviceable and functioning systems:
    1. (i) a flight director or single automatic approach coupler augmenting the stabilization system;
    2. (ii) two radio altimeter indicators having an altitude alert function which do not interfere with the normal operation and display of the radio altimeter system;
    3. (iii) ice and rain protection for each windshield and a heat source for each airspeed system pitot tube installed;
    4. (iv) two independent VHF air-ground communications systems; and
    5. (v) dual ILS localizer and glide slope receivers and associated avionics failure warning systems;
  8. (h) the air operator shall provide training to flight crew members in accordance with the standards of Section 724.115;
  9. (i) for the purposes of crew certification, a successful approach is defined as one in which, at the DH:
    1. (i) the helicopter is in trim for continuation of a normal approach and landing;
    2. (ii) the indicated airspeed, heading and threshold height are satisfactory for a normal transition to an in-ground effect hover or run-on landing without an abnormally large flare such as would cause a gain in altitude and/or a loss of required visual reference;
    3. (iii) the aircraft is positioned and tracking to remain within the lateral confines of the runway extended;
    4. (iv) deviation from the glide path does not exceed one dot, as displayed on the ILS indicator; and
    5. (v) no unusual roughness or excessive attitude changes have occurred after leaving the final approach fix (FAF); and
  10. (j) for the purposes of crew certification:
    1. (i) the proficiency check (initial and recurrent) will be conducted by an approved company check pilot or by a Transport Canada Inspector. The company check pilot must receive lower limits training and be monitored initially in the simulator by a Transport Canada Inspector, prior to conducting lower limits checks on company personnel;
    2. (ii) the crew will consist of a pilot-in-command and a second-in-command and the company check pilot or the Transport Canada Inspector will not form part of the crew;
    3. (iii) the proficiency check (initial and recurrent) for each flight crew member shall include at least one RVR 1200’/DH 100’ approach to a missed approach during which a practical emergency (e.g. engine fire) is introduced to assess crew coordination, plus a subsequent RVR 1200’/DH 100’ ILS approach to a landing; and
    4. (iv) the lower limits certification shall be annotated on the Pilot Check Report and a copy shall be retained by the air operator in the respective pilot file.

(3) Instrument Approaches - Global Positioning System (GPS) (refers to subparagraph 704.08(g)(i) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations)
(amended 2003/03/01; no previous version)

  1. (a) The standard requirements for authorization to fly instrument approach procedures using only GPS navigation information are:
    1. (i) an operational evaluation in accordance with paragraph 724.08(3)(b) has been completed by the Minister on each aircraft type/GPS/FMS model installation for which approach authorization is sought;
    2. (ii) the air operator has an approved flight crew training and qualifications program for use of the GPS/FMS system that meets the requirements of subsection 724.115(20); and
    3. (iii) standard operating procedures have been amended to reflect GPS approach operations and approved by the Minister (where required).
  2. (b) The following items will be assessed in the operational evaluation prior to the approval of the operator’s GPS approach standard operating procedures (where applicable) and training program. Identical installations of the same model of GPS in the same type of aircraft with the same operator do not need separate evaluations.
    1. (i) Database

      The geographical coverage area for the database shall be compatible with the type of operations conducted by the company. The air operator shall have procedures in place to ensure that the database will be updated in accordance with the appropriate data revision cycle. This shall include a contract with a database supplier and the inclusion, in the appropriate company manuals, of the person responsible for installing the updates in the aircraft. The company shall have a procedure in place for pilots to report database errors and for information on database errors to be passed on to other company pilots, the avionics manufacturer and the Minister.

    2. (ii) Unit Installation and Operation

      The handling and procedures associated with the GPS avionics shall be such that all operations required for GPS approach can be accomplished without an adverse impact on normal crew duties and responsibilities. GPS related tasks shall not consume the attention of the pilot not flying (PNF) during critical phases of flight (i.e. between the time the aircraft turns inbound on the final approach course and the time the aircraft is established in the climb configuration on a missed approach).

    3. (iii) Control Display Unit (CDU) and Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) / Distance Display

      If the GPS/FMS control unit is not adequately accessible from each pilot position, or if GPS course deviation and distance displays are not within the primary field of view at both pilot stations, the air operator shall designate in the standard operating procedures the position that the pilot flying (PF) and pilot not flying (PNF) are required to occupy during GPS approach for that type of installation. Aircraft types that are certified for operation by two crew members shall have GPS course deviation and distance displays at each pilot station. An Operation Specification authorizing GPS approaches shall not be issued unless the PNF has a means acceptable, in the Minister’s opinion, of monitoring the PF during an approach.

    4. (iv) Distance Display on the HIS

      Installations where GPS guidance information (course tracking, To/From and NAV flags) are switched onto the HSI for display, but the DME distance information is not switched out (i.e. DME distance rather than GPS distance is displayed continuously on the HSI even when GPS source is selected to HSI), shall require the air operator, in the standard operating procedures for GPS approach, to deselect other NAV/DME sources to eliminate distance displays in the pilot’s primary field of vision not related to the approach procedure being flown.

    5. (v) Annunciation

      Responses to system annunciation (including Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) warnings), the means of selecting GPS track information to the CDI/HSI and the means of coupling GPS steering information to the aircraft automatic flight control system shall be compatible with the safe operation of the aircraft type/category. Standard operating procedures shall specify the procedure whereby the control unit is programmed, approach waypoints are verified against an independent source, approach mode is armed, and cockpit NAV source and AFC guidance source switches are selected and verified. Any switch selection or programming errors that the Minister believes are likely to occur and that could lead to a serious incident shall, if possible, be identified and addressed in training and in the standard operating procedures. Otherwise, the installation shall not be approved for approach use.

    6. (vi) Airborne Evaluation

      The Minister shall observe the pre-flight and in-flight operation of the unit on at least one GPS approach and missed approach. If the PF is allowed to occupy either seat during GPS approaches, then one approach from each pilot position shall be demonstrated. An airborne evaluation in an aircraft must take place under VFR. Emphasis shall be on crew coordination, pilot workload (PF and PNF), and switch selections.

DIVISION III - FLIGHT OPERATIONS

724.14 Scheduled Air Service Requirements

The standard for scheduled operations into or out of an uncertified aerodrome is as follows:

The operation shall be conducted under conditions established by the Minister which require the air operator and the aerodrome operator to ensure a level of safety in respect to the use of the aerodrome that is equivalent to the level of safety established by Subpart 302 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations.

724.15 Operational Control System

Operations conducted under Subpart 704 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations require a Type C or D operational control system. Another organization may be contracted to exercise operational control on behalf of an air operator.

Type C Operational Control System

General
  1. (a) Application

    A Type C operational control system shall apply to Commuter Operations using helicopters operating under Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) and Visual Flight Rules (VFR) at night.

  2. (b) Responsibility and Authority

    Operational control is delegated to the pilot-in-command of a flight by the Operations Manager, who retains responsibility for the day to day conduct of flight operations.

  3. (c) Centres

    Current information on the location of the air operator’s helicopters shall be maintained at the main base of operations, its sub-base or, where appropriate, the location from which flight following is being carried out.

  4. (d) Communications

    Each aircraft shall maintain two-way communications with a ground radio station for the purpose flight following. Such ground stations may be operated by the government, the air operator or a private agency.

  5. (e) Dispatch Release

    Flights operated under this system are self dispatched and released by the pilot-in-command.

  6. (f) Flight Following

    Flight Following for a Type C system is the monitoring of a flight’s progress, the provision of such operational information as may be required by that flight, and the notification of appropriate air operator and search and rescue authorities if the flight is overdue or missing.

    Flight Following procedures and the standards of training and qualification for the individual performing this function shall be described in the air operators Company Operations Manual.

    The pilot-in-command is solely responsible for flight watch but shall be supported by an air operator provided flight following system containing the following elements:

    1. (i) a person knowledgeable in the air operator’s flight alerting procedures, on duty and able to respond to requests by the pilot-in-command for information related to the flight. Such information shall include meteorological information without analysis or interpretation;
    2. (ii) the progress of each flight from its commencement to its termination, including any intermediate stops, shall be monitored, which may be done by the same person as in paragraph (i) above; and
    3. (iii) the pilot-in-command shall be responsible for passing messages concerning landings and departures from point of origin, enroute stops and final destination to the person described in paragraph (i) above.

Type D Operational Control System

General
  1. (a) Application

    A Type D operational control system shall apply to Commuter Operations using helicopters under Visual Flight Rules (VFR) during day.

  2. (b) Responsibility and Authority

    Operational control is delegated to the pilot-in-command of a flight by the Operations Manager, who retains responsibility for the day to day conduct of flight operations.

  3. (c) Centres

    Current information on the location of the air operator’s helicopters shall be maintained at the main base of operations, its sub-base or, where appropriate, at the location from which flight following is being carried out.

  4. (d) Communications

    Each helicopter shall be equipped with serviceable and functioning communications equipment that permits the pilot-in-command to communicate with a ground radio station for the purpose of flight following. Such ground stations may be operated by the government, the air operator or a private agency.
    (amended 2000/06/01)

  5. (e) On Duty

    A person knowledgeable in company flight alerting procedures shall be on duty or available when operations are being conducted.
    (amended 2000/06/01; no previous version)

  6. (f) Flight Following

    Flight Following for a Type D system is the monitoring of a flight’s progress and the notification of appropriate company and search and rescue authorities if the flight is overdue or missing. Flight following procedures and the standards of qualifications for the individual performing this function shall be described in the air operator’s Company Operations Manual. Each flight shall be conducted under a VFR Flight Plan or Flight Itinerary as appropriate.
    (amended 2000/06/01)

724.17 Operational Flight Plan

(1) For day VFR operations, the flight plan or flight itinerary may constitute the operational flight plan. A flight itinerary for day VFR may be in the form of a notice board, wall map or similar flight information system at the base of operations. A written copy of the operational flight plan need not be carried or retained by the operator for day VFR local flights which originate and terminate on the same day at the same aerodrome.

(2) Minimum Content of an Operational Flight Plan - VFR Night and IFR Operations

  1. (a) Air Operator name;
  2. (b) Date;
  3. (c) Aircraft registration, type and model;
  4. (d) Type of flight - IFR, VFR Night;
  5. (e) Pilot-in-command name;
  6. (f) Departure aerodrome;
  7. (g) Destination aerodrome;
  8. (h) Alternate aerodrome, if applicable;
  9. (i) Routing to destination by successive navigational way points with associated tracks for each, or proposed area of operation;
  10. (j) Routing to alternate aerodrome (IFR only, if applicable);
  11. (k) Planned cruise altitudes;
  12. (l) Planned cruise True Air Speed;
  13. (m) Estimated time enroute and, if applicable, to alternate;
  14. (n) Wind and temperature at cruise altitude;
  15. (o) Fuel on board and fuel required;
  16. (p) Cruise Ground Speed;
  17. (q) Number of persons on board;
  18. (r) Fuel burn enroute;
  19. (s)* Weights:
    1. (i) Zero fuel weight;
    2. (ii) Fuel, cargo and passenger weight; and
    3. (iii) Take-off weight; and
  20. (t) Signature of pilot-in-command, the flight dispatcher, or an alternate means of certifying acceptance.
    (amended 2008/12/30)

(3) Aircraft assigned to dedicated air ambulance operations may develop and use a modified operational flight plan provided an acceptable comparable system is shown.

(4) The operational flight plan shall permit the flight crew to record the fuel state and the progress of the flight relative to the plan.

(5) the air operator shall specify in its Company Operations Manual how formal acceptance of the operational flight plan for IFR and VFR at night flights is to be recorded.

724.24 VFR Flight Minimum Visibility - Uncontrolled Airspace

The standard for reduced VFR visibility limits of one half mile in uncontrolled airspace for helicopters is as follows:
(amended 1998/06/01)

  1. (a) Pilot Experience
    (amended 1998/06/01)

    Before conducting operations in reduced visibility, pilots shall have at least 500 hours of pilot-in-command experience in helicopters;

  2. (b) Airspeed for Operation in Reduced Visibility
    (amended 1998/06/01)

    Helicopters shall be operated at a reduced air speed that will provide the pilot-in-command adequate opportunity to see and avoid obstacles;

  3. (c) Pilot Training
    (amended 1998/06/01)

    The pilot shall have received training as follows:

    1. (i) a one time attendance at a Transport Canada recognized Pilot Decision Making course which shall include, but not be limited to the following topics:
      1. (A) Human Performance Factors, including modules on fatigue, hypoxia, nourishment, medication, balance and sight phenomena and limitations;
      2. (B) The Decision Making Process, including modules on psychological factors, levels of performance, and "error trap" phenomena - (unsafe actions taken as a result of wrongful assumptions, unsafe conditions or practices);
      3. (C) Human Error Countermeasures, highlighted by relevant case studies of past accidents; and
      4. (D) Stress and its Symptoms, including modules on recognizing and dealing with perceived pressures, family related stress and job related stress; and
    2. (ii) initial and annual recurrent flight training in procedures specified in the Company Operations Manual for operations in reduced visibility; and
  4. (d) Company Operations Manual
    (amended 1998/06/01)

    The Company Operations Manual shall, in addition to the training procedures referred to in subparagraph (c)(ii) above, contain low visibility operational procedures and pilot decision making considerations for operation in visibility conditions of less than one mile. These considerations shall include, but not be limited to:

    1. (i) gross weight,
    2. (ii) wind,
    3. (iii) weather,
    4. (iv) route / terrain,
    5. (v) time of day,
    6. (vi) communications, and
    7. (vii) the potential for white-out.

724.26 Take-off Minima

(1) The standard for authorization for a take-off where the weather conditions are at or above take-off minima but below the landing minima is that a take-off alternate aerodrome which is within 60 minutes flying time at normal cruise shall be specified in the IFR flight plan.
(amended 2000/06/01)

(2) The standard for authorization for take-off in IMC below the weather minima specified in the Canada Air Pilot or in an equivalent foreign publication is as follows:

  1. (a) the Company Operations Manual shall contain detailed guidance on how to determine departure one engine inoperative climb gradient and obstacle clearance;
  2. (b) the take-off runway is equipped with:
    1. (i) serviceable and functioning high intensity runway lights, runway centre-line lights and centre-line markings that are plainly visible to the pilot throughout the take-off; and
    2. (ii) at least one transmissometer, situated at either the approach end or mid point of the take-off runway with a reading of not less than RVR 600 feet;
  3. (c) the pilot-in-command is satisfied that the required RVR 600 feet visibility exists for the take-off runway and visual reference to the runway can be maintained at least until Vtoss (take-off safety speed) and Vmini (instrument flight minimum speed) have been attained;
  4. (d) the pilot-in-command and second-in-command attitude (artificial horizon) instruments incorporate pitch attitude index lines in appropriate increments above and below the zero pitch reference to at least 15 degrees and incorporate operative failure warning systems which will immediately detect essential instrument malfunction or failure; and
  5. (e) the pilot-in-command, and the second-in-command if authorized by the air operator for RVR 600 feet take-off, shall have been checked conducting RVR 600 feet take-offs and rejected take-offs by an approved company check pilot or a Transport Canada Inspector within the preceding 12 months in a synthetic flight training device capable of visually depicting RVR 600 feet. The RVR 600 feet take-off certification shall be annotated on the Pilot Check Report form.

724.27 No Alternate Aerodrome - IFR Flights

Helicopter standard for authority to conduct an IFR flight when an alternate aerodrome has not been designated in the IFR flight plan or in the IFR flight itinerary is as follows:

  1. (a) the Company Operations Manual shall contain guidance on the execution of no alternate IFR flights;
  2. (b) flight following personnel are to be aware that the flight is operating no alternate IFR and shall have current weather readily accessible for timely communication to the flight;
  3. (c) pilots-in-command are to be familiar with diversionary aerodromes;
  4. (d) terminal forecasts and weather reports shall be available for the destination and shall indicate that, at the estimated time of arrival and for one (1) hour after the estimated time of arrival, there will be:
    (amended 2003/06/01)
    1. (i) a ceiling of at least 1,000 feet above the airport elevation, or at least 400 feet above the lowest applicable approach minima, whichever is higher, and a visibility of at least two (2) statute miles.
      (amended 2003/06/01)

724.28 VFR OTT Flight

(amended 1998/06/01; no previous version)

The standard for VFR over-the-top flight for helicopters carrying passengers is:

(1) the flight shall be conducted in accordance with the requirements of Subpart 602 (Visual Flight Rules) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations;

(2) for IFR certified helicopters, where the pilot holds a group IV instrument rating, the flight shall be operated under conditions allowing, if an engine fails, descent under VMC conditions or continuation of the flight under IFR or VFR; and
(amended 2005/06/01)

(3) for helicopters not certified for IFR where the pilot holds a group IV instrument rating, the flight shall be operated under conditions allowing, if an engine fails, descent or continuation of the flight under VMC conditions.
(amended 2005/06/01)

724.29 Routes in Uncontrolled Airspace

The standard for establishing routes in uncontrolled airspace is:

(1) A minimum obstruction clearance altitude (MOCA) shall be established for each route segment by the use of aeronautical charts and the Canada Flight Supplement for updating of significant obstructions as follows:

  1. (a) for flight under IFR a minimum altitude of 2000 feet above the highest obstacle located within a horizontal distance of 10 miles from the centre line of route, except where the flight is conducted offshore, in which case a minimum altitude of 1000 feet above the highest obstacle located within a horizontal distance of 3 miles from the centre line of the route may be used; and
    (amended 1998/06/0)
  2. (b) for flight at night in VFR conditions a minimum altitude of 1000 feet above the highest obstacle located within 3 miles from the centre line of the route.

(2) For each route segment a minimum enroute altitude (MEA) shall be established which meets or exceeds the minimum obstruction clearance altitude and assures navigational signal coverage. For line of sight navigation aid reception distance for ground installed aids, the minimum reception altitude may be calculated by calculating the square root of an altitude above the navigation aid and multiplying the result by 1.25 (Sq. root 3000 ft. is 54.7 x 1.25 = 68 miles). The MEA will be established to the nearest higher 100 foot increment.

(3) Each route shall include:

  1. (a) the route segment;
  2. (b) track;
  3. (c) MOCA;
  4. (d) MEA;
  5. (e) distance between fixes or waypoints; and
  6. (f) navigation aids.

(4) The air operator shall maintain a record of their company routes in a form and format similar to the catalogue of approved company routes.

Provided the above procedures are followed, an air operator’s pilot may use routes that are not yet contained in the record of company routes.

(5) Prior to initial use of other than publicly available navigation aids, permission of the owner/operator shall be obtained and retained in company records. No VFR at night or IFR flights shall commence unless the navigation aids upon which the route is predicated are in satisfactory operating condition. When company routes are predicated on other than a publicly available navigation aid and arrangements have not been made with the owner/operator to advise when the navigation aid is out of service, instructions to pilots shall be included on how, and whom to contact, to confirm the status of the navigation aid.

(6) The air operator’s Company Operations Manual shall be amended to outline the above procedures and information for pilot guidance.

(7) The flight visibility shall not be less than 3 miles for flights in VFR at night.

724.31 Minimum Altitudes and Distances

(1) For air operator authority to operate a helicopter over a built-up area at altitudes and distances less than those specified in Section 602.14 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations or to conduct a landing or take-off within the built-up area of a city or town a plan shall be submitted to the Transport Canada Aviation Regional Office in the region in which the flights are to take place at least five working days in advance of the operation and include:

  1. (a) certification that the governing municipality have been informed of the proposed operation;
    (amended 1998/06/01)
  2. (b) purpose of the flights;
  3. (c) dates, alternate dates and proposed time of day of the operation;
  4. (d) location of the operation;
  5. (e) type of aircraft to be used;
  6. (f) altitudes and routes to be used and depicted on a map of the area;
  7. (g) procedures and precautions to be taken to ensure no hazard is created to persons or property on the surface, including locations of forced landing areas in the event of an emergency; and
  8. (h) name of contact person designated by the air operator.
    (amended 1998/06/01)

(2) For operating certificate authority, the air operator shall submit an application providing the above information as applicable, show a requirement for operating certificate authority and amend its Company Operations Manual to include the routes and conditions for its use.
(amended 1998/06/01)

724.32 Weight and Balance Control

An air operator shall publish in its Company Operations Manual a system to ensure that during any phase of flight operations the loading, weight and centre of gravity of the helicopter complies with the limitations specified in the approved flight manual.

The weight and balance system shall:

  1. (a) establish an operational empty weight and centre of gravity for each helicopter and configuration;
  2. (b) establish passenger and cargo weight determination procedures. Weight of passengers and cargo may be determined by using approved standard weights or approved survey weights for passengers and actual weight of cargo;
  3. (c) establish weights for calculation of fuel weight which may be determined using actual specific gravity or a standard specific gravity;
  4. (d) provide weight and centre of gravity forms for calculation of maximum take-off and landing weights and calculation of longitudinal and lateral CG position;
  5. (e) establish preparation and disposition requirements of weight and balance forms;
  6. (f) establish loading procedures including floor loading limits and cargo restraint requirements; and
  7. (g) provide for initial and annual system training to air operator personnel responsible for the weight and balance system.

The weight and centre of gravity computation may be incorporated into the operational flight plan form or be a separate form.

724.33 Apron and Cabin Safety Procedures

(1) Safe Movement of Passengers to and from Helicopters

The procedures for the safe movement of passengers to and from the helicopter shall include:

  1. (a) wherever possible, helicopters are parked in a location that avoids passenger exposure to hazardous conditions;
  2. (b) passengers are alerted to hazardous conditions;
  3. (c) guidance, and where necessary an escort is provided to ensure passengers are directed along a safe route to or from the helicopter;
  4. (d) an escort is assigned to control passenger movements when the route to or from the helicopter is congested by other aircraft or vehicles or when required by the Air Carrier Security Measures;
  5. (e) passengers are not exposed to hazards from aircraft operations, refuelling equipment, exposure to jet blasts, engines, rotors or propellers, or to the hazards posed by lighting conditions, obstacles positioned along the route or unsafe surface or stairway conditions;
  6. (f) smoking restrictions are enforced;
  7. (g) "personal headsets that are used with personal entertainment systems that decrease awareness of other traffic or limit reception of audible direction or warning signals, are not worn;
    (amended 1999/09/01)
  8. (h) the procedures shall be incorporated in training programmes and training will be provided to crew members, ground handling and passenger agent staff (including contract personnel) involved with the transfer of passengers between the terminal building and the helicopter; and
  9. (i) the training will be adequate to ensure that personnel are fully aware of their responsibilities, are able to perform their assigned duties for the safety of passengers and know to whom the air operator personnel report in the application of their responsibilities. Where there is an overlap in the duties/responsibilities assigned to personnel, the training will ensure that the trainees know the relationship of their duties/responsibilities to those of the other personnel involved.

(2) Fuelling with Passengers on Board

Helicopters may be fuelled with passengers on board, embarking or disembarking under the following conditions:

  1. (a) In order to ensure that crew members receive prompt notification of a situation threatening safety such as fuel spill or a fire, two way communication is maintained between the ground crew supervising the fuelling and the qualified personnel on board the helicopter so that the helicopter can be disembarked or evacuated as necessary.
  2. (b) A means of communication among the qualified personnel on board the helicopter, ground/maintenance crews and fuelling agencies is determined and established and the procedures are provided to the appropriate personnel.
  3. (c) The helicopter engines are not running.
  4. (d) During the fuelling process:
    1. (i) ground power generators or other electrical ground power supplies are not being connected or disconnected;
    2. (ii) heaters installed on the helicopter are not operated;
    3. (iii) other combustion heaters used in the vicinity of the helicopter are manufactured to CSA or ULC standards and approved in accordance with the Fire Commissioner of Canada for use in hazardous atmosphere;
    4. (iv) known high energy equipment such as High Frequency (HF) radios are not operated, unless in accordance with the helicopter manufacturer’s approved flight manual where the manual contains procedures for the use of this equipment during fuelling;
    5. (v) weather-mapping radar equipment in the helicopter is not operated unless in accordance with the manufacturer’s approved flight manual where the manual contains procedures for use during fuelling;
    6. (vi) helicopter batteries are not being removed or installed;
    7. (vii) external battery chargers are not being connected, operated or disconnected,
    8. (viii) electric tools or similar tools likely to produce sparks or arcs are not being used, and;
    9. (ix) photographic equipment is not used within 10 ft. (3m) of the fuelling equipment or the fill or vent points of the helicopter fuel systems.
  5. (e) Fuelling is immediately suspended when there are lightning discharges within 8 km of the aerodrome.
  6. (f) The helicopter is fuelled in accordance with manufacturer’s procedures for that type of helicopter.
  7. (g) The helicopter emergency lighting system is armed or on if so equipped.
  8. (h) "No Smoking" signs on board the helicopter are illuminated if so equipped.
  9. (i) Procedures are established to ensure that passengers do not smoke, operate portable electronic devices or otherwise produce sources of ignition.
  10. (j) The designated evacuation exits during fuelling are identified by helicopter type and published in the Company Operations Manual, and are clear and available for use by passengers and crew members should an evacuation be required.
  11. (k) The air operator has procedures in place to ensure that there is a ready escape route from each designated evacuation exit during fuelling.
  12. (l) A qualified person trained in the operation and use of emergency exits and in emergency evacuation procedures is ready to initiate and direct an evacuation and is at or near the door.
  13. (m) Where desirable for climatic reasons a boarding door may be closed, but may not be latched.

(3) Use of Portable Electronic Devices

(amended 1999/09/01; no previous version)

The prohibited devices, the permitted devices without restrictions and the permitted devices with restrictions are defined as follows, and are to be used in accordance with the stated requirements as applicable:

  1. (a) Prohibited devices:

    Any transmitting device that intentionally radiates radio frequency signals;

  2. (b) Permitted devices without restrictions:
    1. (i) hearing aids;
    2. (ii) heart pacemakers;
    3. (iii) electronic watches; and
    4. (iv)properly certificated air operator installed equipment;
  3. (c) Permitted devices with restrictions:
    1. (i) personal life support systems may be operated during all phases of flight, provided that the device does not cause interference with the helicopter’s systems or equipment;
    2. (ii) portable two-way radio communication devices may be used subject to all of the following conditions and restrictions being met:
      1. (A) use is prohibited at all times when the helicopter engines are running, excluding the auxiliary power unit,
      2. (B) when the pre-flight safety briefing begins prior to engine start, use is terminated during the delivery of the pre-flight safety briefing and demonstration, and
      3. (C) the Company Operations Manual contains procedures to ensure these devices are turned off and properly stowed during the delivery of the pre-flight safety briefing and demonstration and while the helicopter engines are running;
    3. (iii) other portable electronic devices may be used, except during take-off, climb, approach and landing.

(4) Passengers shall be informed of the air operator’s policy pertaining to the use of portable electronic devices and those devices that are prohibited from use during the delivery of the pre-flight safety briefing and demonstration.
(amended 1999/09/01; no previous version)

(5) When interference with the helicopter’s systems or equipment is suspected from use of a portable electronic device, crew members shall:
(amended 1999/09/01; no previous version)

  1. (a) confirm passenger use of portable electronic device(s);
  2. (b) instruct passenger(s) to terminate the use of portable electronic device(s);
  3. (c) prohibit the use of suspected portable electronic device(s); and
  4. (d) recheck the helicopter’s systems and equipment.

(6) The pilot-in-command shall report incidents of portable electronic device interference and include the following information in the report:
(amended 1999/09/01; no previous version)

  1. (a) Flight Information - helicopter type, registration, date and UTC time of incident, helicopter location (VOR bearing/DIST/LAT/LONG), altitude, weather conditions, pilot name and telephone number;
  2. (b) Description of Interference - description of effects on cockpit indicators, audio or systems, including radio frequency, identification, duration, severity and other pertinent information;
  3. (c) Action Taken by Pilot/Crew to Identify Cause or Source of Interference;
  4. (d) Identification of Portable Electronic device - description of device, brand name, model, serial number, mode of operation (i.e. FM radio), device location (seat location), and regulatory approval number (FCC/other);
  5. (e) Identification of User - name and telephone number of passenger operating the device; and
  6. (f) Additional Information - as determined pertinent by the crew; and

(7) Reports of portable electronic device interference shall be submitted to the Director, Safety Services, Transport Canada, Transport Canada Building, Place de Ville, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0N8.
(amended 1999/09/01; no previous version)

724.34 Briefing of Passengers

(1) Standard Safety Briefing

The standard safety briefing shall consist of an oral briefing provided by a crew member or by audio or audio-visual means which includes the following information as applicable to the helicopter, equipment, and operation:

  1. (a) prior to embarking passengers, rotor running embarking and disembarking procedures;
  2. (b) prior to take-off:
    1. (i) when, where, why and how carry-on baggage is required to be stowed;
    2. (ii) the fastening, unfastening, tightening and general use of safety belts or safety harnesses;
    3. (iii) when tables are to be stowed and seats secured in the upright position;
    4. (iv) the location of emergency exits, exit location signs, and how the exit operates;
    5. (v) the location, purpose of, and advisability of reading the safety features card;
    6. (vi) the requirement to obey crew instructions;
    7. (vii) the use, location, operation and deployment, as applicable, of emergency equipment such as life rafts, life preservers, ELT, survival equipment and first aid kit including means of access if in a locked compartment;
    8. (viii) the air operator’s policy on the use of portable electronic devices;
    9. (ix) instructions for immersion suits;
    10. (x) where applicable to wide body helicopters the method of egress in event of a roll-over accident by use of the under seat frame of the transverse cabin seats as a ladder for egress; and
    11. (xi) any special instructions related to emergency evacuation if the helicopter is configured with external fixtures (e.g. ski racks);
  3. (c) after take-off, if not included in the pre take-off briefing:
    1. (i) smoking is prohibited; and
    2. (ii) the advisability of using safety-belts or safety harnesses during flight;
  4. (d) in-flight because of turbulence:
    1. (i) when the use of seat belts is required; and
    2. (ii) the requirement to stow carry-on baggage; and
  5. (e) prior to disembarking of passengers, the safest direction and most hazard-free route for passenger movement away from the helicopter and any hazards associated with the helicopter type such as pitot tube locations, antennae, and rotors.

    Where no additional passengers have boarded the flight for subsequent take-offs on the same day, the pre-take-off and after take-off briefing may be omitted provided a crew member has verified that all carry-on baggage is properly stowed, safety belts or harnesses are properly fastened, and seat backs and chair tables are properly secured.

(2) Individual Safety Briefing

The individual safety briefing shall include:

  1. (a) any information contained in the standard safety briefing and the safety features card that the passenger would not be able to receive during the normal conduct of that safety briefing; and
  2. (b) additional information applicable to the needs of that person as follows:
    1. (i) the most appropriate brace position for that passenger in consideration of his/her condition, injury, stature, and/or seat orientation and pitch;
    2. (ii) the location to place any service animal that accompanies the passenger;
    3. (iii) for a mobility restricted passenger who needs assistance in moving expeditiously to an exit during an emergency:
      1. (A) a determination of what assistance the person would require to get to an exit;
      2. (B) the route to the most appropriate exit;
      3. (C) the most appropriate time to begin moving to that exit; and
      4. (D) a determination of the most appropriate manner of assisting the passenger;
    4. (iv) for a visually impaired person:
      1. (A) detailed information of and facilitating a tactile familiarization with the equipment that he/she may be required to use;
      2. (B) advising the person where to stow his/her cane if applicable;
      3. (C) the number of rows of seats between his/her seat and his/her closest exit and alternate exit;
      4. (D) an explanation of the features of the exits; and
      5. (E) if requested, facilitating a tactile familiarization of the exit;
    5. (v) for a comprehension restricted person, while using the safety features card, point out the emergency exits and alternate exit(s) to use, and any equipment that he/she may be required to use;
    6. (vi) for persons with a hearing impairment;
      1. (A) while using the safety features card, point out the emergency exits and other equipment that the person may be required to use; and
      2. (B) communicating detailed information by pointing, face-to-face communication permitting speech reading, pen and paper, through an interpreter or through their attendant;
    7. (vii) for a passenger who is responsible for another person on board, information pertinent to the needs of the other person as applicable:
      1. (A) in the case of an infant:
        1. (I) seat belt instructions;
        2. (II) method of holding infant for take-off and landing;
        3. (III) instructions pertaining to the use of a child restraint system; and
        4. (IV) recommended brace position; and
      2. (B) in the case of any other person:
        1. (I) instructions pertaining to the use of a child restraint system; and
        2. (II) evacuation responsibilities; and
    8. (viii) for an unaccompanied minor, instructions to pay close attention to the normal safety briefing and to follow all instructions.

A passenger that has been provided with an individual safety briefing need not be re-briefed following a change in crew if the crew member that provided the individual safety briefing has advised a member of the new crew of the contents of that briefing including any information respecting the special needs of that passenger.

A passenger may decline an individual safety briefing.

(3) Passenger Preparation for an Emergency Landing

The emergency briefing provided in the event of an emergency where time and circumstances permit shall consist of instructions pertaining to:

  1. (a) safety belts or safety harnesses;
  2. (b) seat backs and tables;
  3. (c) carry-on baggage;
  4. (d) safety features cards;
  5. (e) brace position (when to assume, how long to remain); and
  6. (f) if applicable, life preservers; and
  7. (g) if applicable, evacuation procedures for an occupant of a child restraint system.
    (amended 1999/09/01; no previous version)

724.35 Safety Features Card

The safety features card shall contain the following information as applicable to the helicopter and equipment carried:

  1. (a) general safety information including:
    1. (i) smoking restrictions;
    2. (ii) each type of safety belt or safety harness installed for passenger use, including when to use, and how to fasten, tighten and release; and
    3. (iii) when and where carry on baggage must be stowed; and any other related requirements and restrictions pertinent to that particular helicopter;
  2. (b) emergency procedures and equipment including:
    1. (i) location of first aid kits;
    2. (ii) location of fire extinguishers that would be accessible to the passengers;
    3. (iii) location of Emergency Locator Transmitters;
    4. (iv) location of survival equipment, and if the stowage compartment is locked, the means of access or location of the key;
    5. (v) passenger brace position for impact, as appropriate for each type of seat and restraint system installed for passenger use; including the brace position for an adult holding an infant;
    6. (vi) method of egress in event of a roll-over accident;
    7. (vii) the location, operation and method of using each exit type on the helicopter, including identification of those emergency exits known to be rendered unusable in a ditching or because of helicopter configuration;
    8. (viii) the safest direction and most hazard-free escape route for passenger movement away from the helicopter following evacuation;
    9. (ix) the attitude of the helicopter while floating;
    10. (x) location of life preservers, flotation devices and correct procedures for removal from stowage/packaging; donning and use of the life preservers for adult, child and infant users including when to inflate; and
    11. (xi) location and use of life rafts;
  3. (c) The safety card shall bear the name of the air operator and the helicopter type and shall contain only safety information; and
  4. (d) The safety information provided by the card shall:
    1. (i) be accurate for the helicopter type and configuration in which it is carried and in respect of the equipment carried;
    2. (ii) be presented with clear separation between each instructional procedure. All actions required to complete a multi-action procedure to be presented in correct sequence and the sequence of actions to be clearly identified; and
    3. (iii) be depicted in a clear and distinct manner.

DIVISION IV - AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE OPERATING LIMITATIONS

There are currently no standards published for this division.

DIVISION V - HELICOPTER EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS

There are currently no standards published for this division.

DIVISION VI - EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT

724.84 Equipment Standards and Inspection

(1) Survival Equipment - Flights Over Land

The Company Operations Manual shall:

  1. (a) show how compliance with Section 602.61 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations is to be achieved;
  2. (b) list equipment on board, information on how to use it and include, as appropriate for the season and climate, a survival manual; and
  3. (c) include crew member training in accordance with paragraph 724.115(3)(c).

(2) Survival Equipment - Flights Over Water

Where life rafts are required to be carried in accordance with Section 602.63 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations they shall be equipped with an attached survival kit containing at least:

  1. (a) pyrotechnic signalling devices;
  2. (b) whistle, signalling mirror and dye marker;
  3. (c) a waterproof flashlight;
  4. (d) a raft inflation pump and raft knife;
  5. (e) a bailing bucket, sponge and liferaft repair kit;
  6. (f) a radar reflector;
  7. (g) a fishing kit and sea survival manual;
  8. (h) a two day water supply calculated using the overload raft capacity and consisting of one pint of water per day per person or a means of desalting salt water to equivalent amount; and
  9. (i) a first aid kit containing antiseptic swabs, burn dressing compresses, bandages and motion sickness pills.

(3) First Aid Kits

For the purposes of section 704.84 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, a first aid kit required by section 602.60 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations shall contain the supplies and equipment for a Type A kit set out in Part X, Schedule II of the Aviation Occupational Safety and Health Regulations. In addition, each kit shall contain one pair of protective non-permeable gloves made of latex or equivalent material.
(amended 2001/06/01)

DIVISION VII - PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS

724.108 Crew Member Qualifications

(1) Pilot Proficiency Check

  1. (a) The pilot proficiency check shall be conducted in accordance with the Pilot Proficiency Check Requirements of this subsection.
  2. (b) A pilot proficiency check shall be conducted in a manner that enables the pilot to demonstrate the knowledge and the skill respecting:
    1. (i) the helicopter, its systems and components;
    2. (ii) proper control of airspeed, direction, altitude, attitude and configuration of the helicopter, in accordance with the procedures and limitations set out in the operating manual where applicable, the helicopter flight manual, the air operator’s Company Operations Manual, the air operator’s standard operating procedures, the check list, and any other information relating to the operation of the helicopter type;
    3. (iii) departure, enroute and arrival procedures and other applicable procedures; and
    4. (iv) Each manoeuvre or procedure within a phase of flight specified in the Pilot Proficiency Check shall be performed in the helicopter or approved synthetic flight training device.
  3. (c) A pilot-in-command check shall be completed in the seat normally occupied by the pilot-in-command.
    (amended 1998/06/01)
  4. (d) A Transport Canada inspector or an approved company check pilot shall determine whether a person has demonstrated the knowledge and the skill in accordance with the following factors:
    1. (i) the pilot’s adherence to approved procedures; and
    2. (ii) the pilot’s qualities of airmanship in selecting a course of action.
  5. (e) During the pilot proficiency check the person conducting the check may request any manoeuvre or procedure from the Schedule to this section required to determine the proficiency of the candidate.
  6. (f) Where the pilot is required to hold an instrument rating, the PPC shall include the instrument procedures portion of the schedule. This shall constitute the issue or renewal of the instrument rating. Where more than one type which requires an instrument rating is flown, the PPC on only one of these types need include instrument procedures.
  7. (g) Synthetic flight training device (FTD) checking and training credits shall be approved by Transport Canada in the training program approval process for each helicopter type. Training and checking procedures not approved for the FTD shall be completed in the helicopter.

(2) Use of Other Than an Air Operator Employee Pilot for Training and Checking

Authority may be given for other than an air operator employee pilot who has not completed the requirements of paragraphs 704.108(1)(b), (c), and (d) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations to act as a flight crew member when giving training, conducting line indoctrination and while flight crews are completing the minimum flight time requirements on a new helicopter type. The following are the conditions governing this authorization:

  1. (a) the air operator shall provide a resume on behalf of the pilot containing proof of background on helicopter type and recent experience appropriate to the assignment;
  2. (b) the pilot shall be the holder of an appropriate licence and ratings. Where the pilot holds a foreign pilot licence the licence and, as applicable, the instrument rating shall be validated by Transport Canada Aviation;
  3. (c) The pilot may be authorized to conduct pilot checks provided the requirements of the Approved Check Pilot Manual are met with the exception of employment time with the air operator; and
  4. (d) A foreign licensed pilot may be granted authority only when a Canadian licensed pilot is not available.

Helicopter Schedule - Pilot Proficiency Check

724.109 Qualifications of Operational Control Personnel

A person shall successfully complete the training program outlined in Section 724.115 for a position in operational control.

724.111 Crew Member Validity Period

(1) Where a flight crew member’s training has expired for a period of 24 months or more, that crew member shall successfully complete the air operator’s initial training program on the type of helicopter.

(2) Where a flight crew member’s pilot proficiency check has expired for a period of 24 months or more, that flight crew member shall, following completion of the air operator’s initial helicopter type ground and flight training, successfully complete the pilot proficiency check on the type of helicopter.

DIVISION VIII - TRAINING

724.115 Training Program

The syllabus of each training program shall include the programmed time allotted and the subject matter to be covered.

(1) General Training Standard

  1. (a) manuals, if applicable, shall be provided during training to each trainee on the subject matter to be taught;
  2. (b) relevant training aids such as fire extinguishers, life preservers, rafts, aircraft components, static aircraft, etc. shall be available relevant to the program being presented; and
  3. (c) comprehensive examinations shall be used to validate competence of the trainee.

(2) Flight Crew Training on a Contract Basis

An air operator may contract crew member training to another organization provided:

  1. (a) the arrangement is clearly provided for in the approved training program;
  2. (b) the outside organization uses the manuals and publications used by the air operator (SOP’s, Aircraft Flight Manual, Aircraft Operating Manual, if applicable, Company Operations Manual, etc.);
  3. (c) the air operator ensures that the training is conducted in accordance with the approved program;
  4. (d) where type training is conducted the training is provided on the type and model operated by the air operator unless otherwise provided for in the approved training program; and
  5. (e) the air operator maintains training records as required by Subpart 704 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations.

(3) Training Facilities

Training facilities shall be adequate to ensure that training objectives can be achieved. Facilities shall be:

  1. (a) quiet and free of distractions;
  2. (b) suitably lighted for the type of instructions to be given, e.g. lectures, slides and audio-visual;
  3. (c) furnished with sufficient desks, chairs, chalkboards and other appropriate equipment; and
  4. (d) equipped with training aids such as films, Vu-graphs, system components, audio-visual, helicopter manuals or computer based systems.

(4) Training and Qualifications of Training Personnel

  1. (a) Instructor - Ground Training
    1. (i) has satisfied the air operator that he/she has the knowledge and skills required to conduct the training; and
    2. (ii) if conducting helicopter type training has successfully completed the ground school for the type of helicopter.
  2. (b) Qualifications and Responsibilities of a Training Pilot (Flight)
    1. (i) Qualifications
      1. (A) hold the licence and ratings appropriate for the type of helicopter and type of operation;
      2. (B) be qualified for line flying on the type of helicopter; and
      3. (C) know the content of the Rotorcraft Flight Manual, Aircraft Operating Manual (if applicable), Approved Check Pilot Manual, Company Operations and Training Manuals and the operator’s Standard Operating Procedures for the helicopter type, and the provisions of the regulations and standards.
    2. (ii) Responsibilities

      The Training Pilot is responsible for monitoring the operation and identifying problems which may require the provision of extra training or changes in operational procedures. The training pilot is responsible, together with the Chief Pilot, for the establishment and promulgation of the standards and piloting techniques with which flight crew will be expected to comply during flight operations and which the flight crew will be required to demonstrate during initial and recurrent checks. Particular responsibilities are:

      1. (A) conducting ground, synthetic flight training device and flight training of all flight crew in accordance with the approved training program;
      2. (B) supervision of the standards and recommending amendments to their respective helicopter operating manuals and standard operating procedures;
      3. (C) maintaining the air operator’s training records;
      4. (D) liaison with crew scheduling concerning training details; and
      5. (E) any responsibilities assigned by the Chief Pilot.
  3. (c) Qualifications and Responsibility of a Training Pilot (Synthetic Training Device)
    1. (i) Qualifications
    1. (A) hold or have held the licence and ratings appropriate for the type of helicopter and type of operation;
      (amended 1998/06/01)
    2. (B) have completed the air operator’s ground school and synthetic training device program for the type of helicopter;
    3. (C) have successfully completed within the past 12 months a pilot proficiency check in the synthetic training device or helicopter for that type;
    4. (D) know the contents of the Aircraft Operating Manual (if applicable), Rotorcraft Flight Manual, Operations and Training Manuals and as applicable the Approved Check Pilot Manual and the air operator Standard Operating Procedures for the helicopter type, and the provisions of the regulations and standards; and
    5. (E) have received instruction on the operation of the synthetic training device from an instructor qualified to operate the synthetic training device.
    1. (ii) Responsibilities

      The Training Pilot is responsible for monitoring the operation and identifying problems which may require the provision of extra training or changes in operational procedures. The training pilot is responsible, together with the Chief Pilot, for the establishment and promulgation of the standards and piloting techniques with which flight crew will be expected to comply during flight operations and which the flight crew will be required to demonstrate during initial and recurrent checks. Particular responsibilities are:

      1. (A) conducting ground and synthetic flight training of all flight crew in accordance with the approved training program;
      2. (B) supervision of the standards and recommending amendments to their respective helicopter operating manuals and standard operating procedures;
      3. (C) maintaining the air operator’s training records;
      4. (D) liaison with crew scheduling concerning training details; and
      5. (E) any responsibilities assigned by the Chief Pilot.

NOTES:

(1) Requirements for the use of other than an air operator employee pilot for training and checking are in Section 724.108.

(2) The standard for air operator check pilots are those contained in the (as amended).

(5) Training Program Standards

Ground training programs shall provide a means of evaluating the trainee after completion of the syllabus by completion of examination with a review and correction of any errors. Training examinations should be comprehensive, and periodically reviewed and updated.

Type training programs are to be titled as to the type of helicopter to which they apply and include the number of instructional hours to be provided. They should be performance oriented and stress the operation (normal, emergency and malfunctions) of the aircraft systems and equipment. Instruction related to components and systems that flight crews cannot control, influence or operate should be minimized.

(6) Company Indoctrination Training

This training is required upon employment for all persons assigned to an operational control function including base managers, pilots and persons responsible flight following. The program shall ensure that persons involved in control of flight operations are aware of their responsibilities, know company reporting relationships and are competent to fulfil their assigned duties related to flight operations. Company indoctrination training shall include as applicable:

  1. (a) Canadian Aviation Regulations and applicable Standards;
  2. (b) Air Operator Certificate and operating conditions;
  3. (c) company organization, reporting relationships and communication procedures, including duties and responsibilities of flight crew members and the relationship of those duties to other crew members;
  4. (d) flight planning and operating procedures;
  5. (e) fuelling procedures including procedures for fuelling with passengers on board and fuel contamination precautions;
  6. (f) critical surface contamination and safety awareness program;
  7. (g) passenger safety briefings and safe movement of passengers to/from the helicopter;
  8. (h) use and status of Company Operations Manual including maintenance release procedures and accident/incident reporting procedures;
  9. (i) use of minimum equipment lists (if applicable);
  10. (j) aircraft icing, and other meteorological training appropriate to the area of operations;
  11. (k) navigation procedures and other specialized operations applicable to the operator;
  12. (l) accident/incident reporting;
  13. (m) passenger on board medical emergency;
  14. (n) handling of disabled passengers;
  15. (o) operational control system;
  16. (p) weight and balance system procedures;
  17. (q) standard operating procedures (if applicable); and
  18. (r) pre-flight crew-member briefing.

(7) Technical Ground Training - Initial and Recurrent

This training shall ensure that each flight crew member is knowledgeable with respect to helicopter systems and all normal, abnormal and emergency procedures. The following subjects shall be included:

  1. (a) helicopter systems operation and limitations as contained in the helicopter flight manual and aircraft operating manual, and standard operating procedures;
  2. (b) operation of all equipment that is installed in all helicopter of the same type operated by the air operator;
  3. (c) differences in equipment that is installed in all helicopters of the same type in the air operators fleet;
  4. (d) applicable standard operating procedures for pilot flying and pilot not flying duties for normal, abnormal and emergency procedures for the helicopter;
  5. (e) helicopter performance and limitations; and
  6. (f) weight and balance procedures.

Technical ground training shall be conducted annually.

(8) Synthetic Flight Training Device

  1. (a) A Synthetic Flight Training Device has two classifications:
    1. (i) Full flight simulator (FFS); and
    2. (ii) Flight Training Device (FTD).
  2. (b) Transport Canada encourages operators to conduct training on a simulator, or to use a combination of training in a FTD and helicopter.

(9) Level A or B Training Program (if applicable)

(amended 2008/12/30)

An air operator with an approved Level A or B training program using a Level A, or better, FFS approved in accordance with the Aeroplane and Rotorcraft Simulator Manual is permitted to conduct most initial, upgrade and recurrent training in that simulator. Additionally, flight training in a helicopter must be carried out for general handling and landing manoeuvres for initial and upgrade training.
(amended 2008/12/30)

  1. (a) The following training in standard operating procedures for normal, abnormal and emergency operation of the helicopter systems and components shall be carried out in the FFS:
    1. (i) use of checklists;
    2. (ii) flight crew co-operation, command and co-ordination;
    3. (iii) helicopter and cargo fire on the ground and while airborne;
    4. (iv) engine fire and failure;
    5. (v) effects of engine icing and anti-ice operation;
    6. (vi) take-off, landing and flight with the critical engine inoperative and engine inoperative performance capabilities;
    7. (vii) flight control failures and abnormalities;
    8. (viii) hydraulic, electrical and other system failures;
    9. (ix) failure of navigation and communication equipment;
    10. (x) pilot incapacitation - recognition and response during various phases of flight;
    11. (xi) steep turns (45º of bank), and other flight characteristics such as unusual attitudes (as applicable for initial and upgrade only);
    12. (xii) helicopter performance for climb, cruise, holding, descent and landing;
    13. (xiiii) normal, and performance limited take-offs;
    14. (xiv) take-off and landing data calculations;
    15. (xv) rejected take-off procedures;
    16. (xvi) passenger and crew evacuation;
    17. (xvii) FMS, EGPWS, ACAS and specialized helicopter equipment (where available);
      (amended 2008/12/30)
    18. (xviii) inadvertent encounters with moderate or severe in-flight icing conditions where the helicopter is certified for flight into known icing conditions (where available); and
      (amended 2008/12/30; no previous version)
    19. (xix) loss of pressurization and emergency descent (if applicable).
      (amended 2008/12/30; no previous version)
  2. (b) Where the air operator seeks authorization for flight in IMC the following training in flight planning and instrument flight procedures shall be included:
    1. (i) departure, enroute, holding and arrival; and
    2. (ii) all types of instrument approaches and missed approaches in minimum visibility conditions using all levels of automation available (as applicable).
  3. (c) In addition to the training in a Level A or B FFS Training Program, the following flight training on the helicopter type shall be carried out:
    (amended 2008/12/30)
    1. (i) interior and exterior preflight checks;
    2. (ii) ground handling;
      (amended 2008/12/30)
    3. (iii) hover, normal take-off, visual circuit (where possible) and landing;
    4. (iv) a simulated engine inoperative approach and landing;
    5. (v) simulated engine failure procedures during take-off and missed approach (at safe altitude and airspeed);
    6. (vi) no electronic glide slope approach and landing;
    7. (vii) approaches where the simulator lacks the capability; and
      (amended 2008/12/30)
    8. (viii) a simulated line flight comprising at least 2 sectors, one as pilot flying and another as pilot not flying.
      (amended 2008/12/30; no previous version)
  4. (d) If a Level A, or better, FFS has differences in performance, systems, or cockpit layout and configuration from the air operator’s helicopter, additional training on these differences shall be provided.
    (amended 2008/12/30)

(9.1) Level C Training Program (if applicable)

(amended 2008/12/30; no previous version)

  1. (a) For the purpose of this provision, “similar helicopter” means helicopters listed in the Schedule to this subsection.
  2. (b) An air operator with an approved Level C training program using a Level C, or better, FFS approved in accordance with the Aeroplane and Rotorcraft Simulator Manual is permitted zero flight time training for candidates on initial training who have experience on a similar helicopter with the same operator or who have verifiable currency on a similar helicopter within the previous two years. Candidates who do not qualify shall undergo helicopter flight training in accordance with those items listed in paragraph 724.115(9)(c) above.
  3. (c) In addition to those items of training required in paragraphs 724.115(9)(a) and (b), the training in an approved Level C, or better, FFS shall include:
    1. (i) manoeuvring of the helicopter on the ground,
    2. (ii) crosswind take-offs and landings to 100% of the published crosswind component,
    3. (iii) a visual training program in the flight simulator to ensure VFR flight skills, covering scenarios of dusk and night with variable weather and visibilities. This program shall include:
      1. (A) normal and crosswind take-offs, visual circuits and landings with variable wind, runway illusion and surface conditions,
      2. (B) engine inoperative approach and landing,
      3. (C) engine failure procedures during take-off and missed approach,
      4. (D) no electronic glide slope approach and landing, and
      5. (E) approaches and landings with flight control failures and abnormalities,
    4. (iv) a simulated line flight comprising at least 2 sectors (one as pilot flying and another as pilot not flying).
  4. (d) If a Level C, or better, FFS has differences in performance, systems, or cockpit layout and configuration from the air operator’s helicopter, additional training on these differences shall be provided.

SCHEDULE - Full Flight Simulator Grouping - Helicopters

  1. (a) The following helicopters are “similar helicopters” for the purpose of FFS Grouping:
    1. (i) Agusta 109 and 119, all model series,
    2. (ii) Bell 47, all model series (including Bell 47T),
    3. (iii) Bell 206, all model series’ (including 206 LT),
    4. (iv) Bell 222, 230 and 430, all model series,
    5. (v) Bell 204, 205, 210 and 212, all model series,
    6. (vi) Bell 212 and 412, all model series,
    7. (vii) Enstrom F28, 280 and 480, all model series,
    8. (viii) Eurocopter AS 350, AS 355 and EC 130, all model series,
    9. (ix) Eurocopter SA 330, AS 332 and EC 225, all model series,
    10. (x) Eurocopter SE 313/3130, SE 316/3160 and SA 313 thru 319 (Alouette II / Lama / Alouette III), all model series,
    11. (xi) Eurocopter SA 360, SA/AS 365 and EC 155, all model series,
    12. (xii) Eurocopter BK 117 and EC 145, all model series,
    13. (xiii) Eurocopter BO 105, all model series,
    14. (xiv) Hiller 12E and 12ET, all model series,
    15. (xv) Hughes/Schweizer Models 269, 300, 330 and 333, all model series,
    16. (xvi) McDonnell Douglas/Hughes 500(369), 520, 530 and 600, all model series,
    17. (xvii) McDonnell Douglas MD 900, 901 and 902 Explorer, all model series,
    18. (xviii) Sikorsky S 55 and S 55T, all model series,
    19. (xix) Sikorsky S 58 and S 58T, all model series,
    20. (xx) Sikorsky S 61 and S 62, all model series,
    21. (xxi) Sikorsky S 70, all model series, and
    22. (xxii) Sikorsky S 76, all model series.
  2. (b) Any type of helicopter not shown in paragraph (a) above, has not been considered for similar grouping and should be treated separately.

(9.2) Level D Training Program (if applicable)

(amended 2008/12/30; no previous version)

  1. (a) An air operator with an approved Level D training program using a Level D FFS approved in accordance with the Aeroplane and Rotorcraft Simulator Manual is permitted zero flight time training.
  2. (b) In addition to the training required for a Level C program, the following FFS training shall be carried out:
    1. (i) A VFR training program in the Level D FFS of at least 4 hours per crew (2 hours as pilot flying and 2 hours of pilot not flying) is required to ensure visual flight skills to cover either day or dusk and night with variable weather and visibility scenarios. This program shall include the following:
      1. (A) normal and crosswind take-offs, and visual circuits and landings, with variable wind, runway illusion and surface conditions,
      2. (B) engine inoperative approach and landing,
      3. (C) engine failure procedures during take-off and missed approach,
      4. (D) no visual aids approaches and landings, and
      5. (E) approaches and landings with flight control failures and abnormalities,

Information Note:

Where a pilot demonstrates a satisfactory level of performance in visual manoeuvres, the air operator may use the time specified in subparagraph 724.115(9.2)(b)(i) as additional training to that required by any of the Level C requirements.

    1. (ii) Simulated line flights of at least 2 sessions (2 sectors as pilot flying and 2 sectors as pilot not flying) are required. Pilot flying duties shall be carried out from the appropriate seat.
  1. (c) If a Level D FFS has differences in performance, systems, or cockpit layout and configuration from the air operator’s helicopter, additional training on these differences shall be provided.

(10) Reserved

(amended 2008/12/30)

(11) Helicopter Only Flight Training Program

Any simulated failures of helicopter systems shall only take place under operating conditions which do not jeopardize safety of flight.

  1. (a) Standard Operating Procedures for normal, abnormal and emergency operation of the helicopter systems and components including:
    1. (i) use of checklists including interior and exterior pre-flight checks;
    2. (ii) manoeuvring of the helicopter on the ground (if applicable);
    3. (iii) aspects of flight crew co-operation, command and co-ordination;
    4. (iv) hover, normal take-off, visual circuit, approach and landing;
    5. (v) simulated helicopter and cargo fire on the ground and while airborne;
    6. (vi) simulated engine fire and failure;
    7. (vii) briefings on effects of airframe and engine icing and anti-ice operation;
    8. (viii) take-off, landing and flight with the critical engine simulated inoperative, and engine inoperative performance capabilities;
    9. (ix) approach and landing;
    10. (x) simulated hydraulic, electrical and other system failures;
    11. (xi) simulated flight control failures and degraded states of operation, while in-flight, and during take-off and landing (as applicable);
    12. (xii) simulated failure of navigation and communication equipment;
    13. (xiii) simulated pilot incapacitation - recognition and response;
    14. (xiv) steep turns (45° of bank) and other flight characteristics (as applicable for initial and upgrade only);
    15. (xv) helicopter performance for climb, cruise, holding, descent and landing;
    16. (xvi) normal and performance limited take-offs;
    17. (xvii) take-off data calculations;
    18. (xviii) simulated rejected take-off procedures;
    19. (xix) briefing on crew and passenger evacuation procedures; and
    20. (xx) other specialized equipment (where applicable).
  2. (b) Flight planning and instrument flight procedures where the air operator is authorized for VFR flight at night or flight in IMC:
    1. (i) departure, enroute, holding and arrival; and
    2. (ii) all types of instrument approaches and missed approaches in simulated minimum visibility conditions, including circling approaches (where applicable) using all levels of automation available (as applicable).

(12) Emergency Procedures Training for Pilots

This training is required on an annual basis and shall include instruction in the location and operation of all emergency equipment. Training devices approved to simulate flight operating emergency conditions, static helicopters, ground demonstrations, classroom lectures, films or other devices may be used for training provided the method used ensures that each flight crew member is adequately trained in the operation or use of all emergency equipment Where practical training is required, it shall be completed on initial training and every three years thereafter.

  1. (a) fire in the air and on the ground;
  2. (b) use of fire extinguishers including practical training;
  3. (c) operation and use of emergency exits including practical training;
  4. (d) passenger preparation for an emergency landing or ditching, (as applicable) including practical training;
  5. (e) emergency evacuation procedures including practical training;
  6. (f) donning and inflation of life preservers (when equipped) including practical training;
  7. (g) removal from stowage, deployment, inflation and boarding of life rafts/slide rafts (when equipped) including practical training;
  8. (h) pilot incapacitation including practical training;
  9. (i) hijacking, bomb threat and other security procedures; and
  10. (j) passenger on board medical emergency.

(13) Regaining Qualifications Training

For operators using an approved Level B, C, D FFS or the helicopter, the following must be completed for all pilots who have not maintained their recency qualifications in accordance with paragraph 704.108(1)(b) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations for a period between 90 and 180 days;

  1. (a) a briefing on changes that have occurred to the helicopter or its operation since the last flight; and
  2. (b) three take-offs and landings (which may be carried out as part of a PPC where one has come due).

(14) Flight Follower Training

Persons assigned the duties of the flight follower shall receive training in at least the following:

  1. (a) company indoctrination;
  2. (b) duties and responsibilities;
  3. (c) communication procedures;
  4. (d) applicable regulations and standards;
  5. (e) flight preparation procedures as applicable to assigned duties;
  6. (f) procedures in the event of an emergency or overdue helicopter;
  7. (g) accident and incident reporting procedures; and
  8. (h) requirements of approved Company Operations Manual as applicable to the duties and responsibilities.

(15) Helicopter Surface Contamination Training

An approved surface contamination initial and recurrent training program is required for all operations personnel to ensure they are aware of hazards and procedures for ice, frost and snow critical contamination on helicopters. The training program shall include:

  1. (a) responsibility of pilot-in-command and other operations personnel;
  2. (b) regulations related to operations in icing condition;
  3. (c) weather conducive to ice, frost and snow contamination;
  4. (d) inspection before flight and removal of contamination;
  5. (e) in-flight icing recognition; and
  6. (f) hazards related to critical surface contamination of ice, frost and snow.

(16) Minimum Equipment List (MEL) Training

When a Minimum Equipment List (MEL) has been approved for use on a helicopter type, the air operator shall provide the following training to flight crew members, maintenance personnel and to persons exercising operational control, as applicable:
(amended 2004/12/01)

  1. (a) training for maintenance personnel shall include instruction on those sections of the Maintenance Control Manual which address the MEL, placarding of inoperative equipment, maintenance release, and any other MEL related procedures;
    (amended 2004/12/01)
  2. (b) training for flight crew members and operational control personnel shall include instruction on the purpose and use of an MEL, air operator MEL procedures, elementary work as applicable, and responsibility of the pilot in command;
    (amended 2004/12/01)
  3. (c) recurrent training shall be conducted when required to ensure air operator personnel are aware of any changes to the MEL or MEL procedures.

(17) Transportation of Dangerous Goods

All training required by the Transportation of Dangerous Goods Regulations.

(18) Lower than Standard Take-off - Weather Minima RVR 600 feet

Authority to conduct 600 RVR take-offs shall be subject to approval of a training program using an approved synthetic training device for the type of helicopter to be used and capable of depicting RVR 600’ take-off conditions. Training is required for the pilot-in-command only unless the air operator authorizes the second-in-command to conduct 600 RVR take-offs in which case the second-in-command shall complete the same training.

The training program shall include:

  1. (a) take-off alternate requirements;
  2. (b) one engine inoperative performance requirements;
  3. (c) responsibility for obstacle clearance and visibility requirements;
  4. (d) take-off runway requirements;
  5. (e) helicopter equipment requirements;
  6. (f) pilot qualification requirements; and
  7. (g) training in the synthetic training device shall include normal take-offs under RVR 600’ conditions and rejected take-offs under RVR 600’ conditions including engine failures and system malfunctions.

(19) Lower than Standard Decision Height

Category 1 Instrument Landing System Approach Minima - Reported Visibility RVR 1200’ - Decision Height 100’

Authority to conduct approaches to 100’ DH with 1200 RVR is subject to approval of a training program using an approved synthetic training device for the helicopter type to be used. The training device shall be capable of depicting IMC to 100’ DH.

The training program shall include:

  1. (a) capabilities and limitations of the ILS and visual aids;
  2. (b) operational characteristics and limitations of the airborne system to be used such as the flight director, automatic approach coupler and systems and devices peculiar to the applicants installation such as missed approach guidance and failure warning systems;
  3. (c) individual crew duties including approach briefing, two pilot challenge and response communication rule, pilot incapacitation procedures and pilot monitored approach procedure with emphasis on need to continually monitor flight instruments until attitude and descent path have been visually assessed; and
  4. (d) training in the synthetic training device shall include effects of wind shear and turbulence, recognition and reaction to malfunctions encountered prior to and after reaching the missed approach point, ILS approaches to landings from 100’/1200 RVR conditions and missed approaches during which practical malfunctions and emergencies are introduced.

(20) Area Navigation Systems (RNAV)

  1. (a) General Training
    (amended 2003/03/01)
    1. (i) To qualify for use of RNAV systems on IFR operations an air operator shall have an approved flight crew training and qualifications program for use of the system. Flight crew shall have completed the appropriate training and have completed an in-flight check or an equivalent check in an approved synthetic training device. This qualification check shall be conducted by a Transport Canada inspector or an authorized air operator check pilot.
    2. (ii) Training shall be in the following areas:
      1. (A) pre-flight;
      2. (B) normal operation of the system;
      3. (C) procedures for manually updating the system;
      4. (D) methods of monitoring and cross checking the system;
      5. (E) action in the event of discrepancy between systems and method of determining which is the most accurate or reliable system;
      6. (F) the procedure for regaining track after deliberate or accidental deviation from cleared track;
      7. (G) Standard Instrument Departure (SID), Standard Terminal Arrival Route (STAR), and terminal procedures (if applicable);
      8. (H) operation in areas of compass unreliability;
      9. (I) malfunction procedures, including re-synchronization (if applicable);
      10. (J) terminal procedures;
      11. (K) waypoint symbology, plotting procedures and record keeping duties/practices; and
      12. (L) post-flight.
  2. (b) Ground Training - Non-Integrated Receivers (Panel Mount GPS Receivers)
    (amended 2003/03/01; no previous version)

    An air operator shall ensure that the training program candidates are trained to proficiency in each of the elements associated with the following areas:

    1. (i) Knowledge with respect to the following:
      1. (A) the GPS system, including:
        1. (I) GPS system components and aircraft equipment;
        2. (II) the composition of satellite constellation;
        3. (III) the minimum number of satellites required for 2-D and 3-D navigation;
        4. (IV) the basic concept of satellite ranging;
        5. (V) factors affecting the accuracy of GPS signals; and
        6. (VI) the World Geodetic Survey 84 (WGS 84) datum and the effect of using any other datum;
      2. (B) human factors applicable to the use of GPS and how errors may be reduced or eliminated;
      3. (C) company standard operating procedures for using GPS units; and
      4. (D) procedures for reporting GPS problems and database errors.
    1. (ii) Ability to perform the following operational tasks:
      1. (A) select appropriate operational modes;
      2. (B) recall categories of information contained in the database;
      3. (C) predict RAIM availability;
      4. (D) enter and verify user defined waypoints;
      5. (E) recall and verify database waypoints;
      6. (F) interpret typical GPS navigational displays including latitude/longitude, distance and bearing to waypoint, course deviation indication (CDI), desired track (DTK), track made good (TMG), actual track (TK), cross track error and any other information appropriate for the equipment used;
      7. (G) intercept and maintain GPS defined tracks;
      8. (H) determine navigation information appropriate for the conduct of the flight including ground speed (GS), estimated time of arrival (ETA) for next waypoint and destination;
      9. (I) recognition of waypoint passage;
      10. (J) use of ’direct to’ function;
      11. (K) link enroute portion of GPS flight plan to approach;
      12. (L) conduct SIDs, STARs, terminal area procedures and holds;
      13. (M) retrieve, verify and conduct GPS stand alone approaches; and
      14. (N) conduct GPS missed approaches.
    2. (iii) Ability to conduct the following operational and serviceability checks:
      1. (A) database currency and area of operation;
      2. (B) receiver serviceability;
      3. (C) RAIM status;
      4. (D) CDI sensitivity;
      5. (E) position indication; and
      6. (F) number of satellites acquired and, if available, satellite position information.
    3. (iv) Ability to recognize and take appropriate action for all GPS warnings and messages including, where applicable:
      1. (A) "loss of RAIM"
      2. (B) "2D navigation"
      3. (C) "In Dead Reckoning Mode"
      4. (D) "database out of date"
      5. (E) "GPS fail"
      6. (F) "barometric input fail"
      7. (G) "power/battery low" or "fail"
      8. (H) "parallel offset on"; and
      9. (I) "satellite fail".
  3. (c) Ground Training - Integrated Receivers (Flight Management Systems)
    (amended 2003/03/01; no previous version)

    An air operator shall ensure that the training program candidates are trained to proficiency in each of the elements associated with the following areas:

    1. (i) Knowledge with respect to the following:
      1. (A) the GPS system and theory of operation, including:
        1. (I) GPS system components and aircraft equipment;
        2. (II) the composition of satellite constellation;
        3. (III) the minimum number of satellites required for 2-D and 3-D navigation;
        4. (IV) the basic concept of satellite ranging;
        5. (V) factors affecting the accuracy of GPS signals; and
        6. (VI) the WGS84 datum and the effect of using any other datum; and
      2. (B) human factors applicable to the use of GPS and how errors may be reduced or eliminated (i.e. maintaining situational awareness);
    2. (ii) Ability to perform the following operational tasks:
      1. (A) predict RAIM availability;
      2. (B) link enroute portion of GPS flight plan to approach;
      3. (C) conduct GPS stand alone approaches; and
      4. (D) conduct GPS missed approaches;
    3. (iii) Ability to conduct the following operational and serviceability checks:
      1. (A) RAIM status;
      2. (B) CDI sensitivity; and
      3. (C) number of satellites acquired and, if available, satellite position information;
    4. (iv) Ability to recognize and take appropriate action for all GPS warnings and messages including, where applicable:
      1. (A) "loss of RAIM";
      2. (B) "2D navigation";
      3. (C) "GPS fail";
      4. (D) "barometric input fail"; and
      5. (E) "satellite fail".
  4. (d) Flight Training
    (
    amended 2003/03/01; no previous version)
    1. (i) Pilots shall complete flight training in the use of GPS for approach and other associated duties for each crew position they are authorized to occupy. Flight training may be completed in an aircraft, or in a level A or higher simulator that is equipped with the same model of GPS receiver (or a model determined by the Minister to be sufficiently similar) that is installed in the company aircraft.
    2. (ii) Flight training shall be conducted by a designated training pilot who has completed the company ground training program approved by the Minister, and demonstrated proficiency in the use of the model of GPS (or a model determined by the Minister to be sufficiently similar), to an approved check pilot.

(21) Transportability of Pilot Proficiency Check

Transportability of Pilot Proficiency Checks from one air operator to another is permitted subject to the hiring air operator providing the following training which shall be specified in the approved operations/training manual:

  1. (a) company indoctrination;
  2. (b) pilot ground and emergency procedures training on each type of helicopter the pilot is assigned, sufficient to cover the air operator procedures and equipment differences;
  3. (c) standard operating procedures review;
  4. (d) sufficient line indoctrination to allow the pilot to become familiar with the air operator routes and operational procedures. In no case shall this be less than two sectors over typical route segments that the air operator flies; and
  5. (e) the hiring air operator records the PPC validity and expiration date in company records.

(22) Survival Equipment Training

Training for all crew members shall include the following:

  1. (a) survival concepts;
  2. (b) contents of survival equipment kit; and
  3. (c) how to use the survival equipment carried on board the helicopter as appropriate for the operation.

(23) Aircraft Servicing and Ground Handling Training for Pilots

  1. (a) fuelling procedures:
    1. (i) types of fuel, oil and fluids used in the helicopter;
    2. (ii) correct fuelling procedures; and
    3. (iii) procedures for checking fuel, oil and fluids and proper securing of caps.
  2. (b) use of tow bars;
  3. (c) installation of protective covers on the helicopter; and
  4. (d) procedures for operating in cold weather such as:
    1. (i) moving the helicopter out of a warm hangar when precipitation is present;
    2. (ii) procedures for applying de-icing and anti-icing fluids for the helicopter type including critical flight controls post application inspections; and
    3. (iii) engine and cabin pre-heating procedures, including proper use of related equipment.

(24) Pilot Line Indoctrination

  1. (a) Line Indoctrination Training applies to each helicopter type to which a flight crew member is assigned for IFR operations.
  2. (b) During line indoctrination training a flight crew member shall be provided the following minimum experience while performing the duties appropriate to the crew member station. Sectors/hours acquired during proving or ferry flights may be counted towards this requirement. The number of flying hours and sectors apply to the pilot-in-command and to the second-in-command.
  3. (c) A sector for line indoctrination training is a flight composed of a take-off, departure, arrival and landing including at least a 30 N.M. enroute segment.
  4. (d) Flight crew members who have not completed line indoctrination in the same flight crew capacity on another helicopter type shall complete initial line indoctrination.
  5. (e) Flight crew members who have completed line indoctrination in the same flight crew capacity on another helicopter type shall complete transition line indoctrination.
  6. (f) Initial Line Indoctrination Training shall be conducted under the supervision of a flight training pilot and include at least 6 flight hours and 4 mandatory sectors. After completing 4 mandatory sectors the minimum flight hour requirement may be reduced by 1 hour for each additional sector flown to a maximum 50% reduction of the flight time requirement.
  7. (g) Transition Line Indoctrination Training shall be conducted under the supervision of a flight training pilot and include at least 4 flights hours and 4 mandatory sectors. After completing 4 mandatory sectors the remaining minimum flight time may be reduced by 1 hour for each additional sector flown to a maximum 50% reduction of the flight time requirement.
  8. (h) The following areas, as applicable, shall be covered in line indoctrination training and recorded as having been completed.
    1. (i) Flight Crew Member Duties
      1. (A) use of check lists and crew member coordination;
      2. (B) pilot-in-command responsibilities and crew briefing; and
      3. (C) crew member responsibilities.
    2. (ii) Helicopter and Equipment
      1. (A) aircraft documents;
      2. (B) manuals and log books;
      3. (C) MEL procedures, deferred defects and maintenance release;
      4. (D) FDR and CVR procedures;
      5. (E) normal and emergency exits - access, marking, lighting, operation;
      6. (F) fire extinguishers - location, use, serviceability;
      7. (G) fire axe - location and access;
      8. (H) first aid kit - location and serviceability;
      9. (I) survival equipment - stowage, contents, access;
      10. (J) life preservers - serviceability, access, stowage;
      11. (K) immersion suits; and
      12. (L) ELT - location and test procedures.
    3. (iii) Flight Authorization
      1. (A) flight and duty time limitations;
      2. (B) weight and balance control, loading;
      3. (C) weather minima;
      4. (D) IFR and night VFR routes in uncontrolled airspace;
      5. (E) Flight Following and Flight Watch; and
      6. (F) flight planning and fuel requirements.
    4. (iv) Operation of Flight
      1. (A) helicopter servicing and ground handling;
      2. (B) embarking passengers;
      3. (C) passenger briefing;
      4. (D) start, after start and pre-flight checks;
      5. (E) departure procedures;
      6. (F) enroute - fuel management, use of navigation aids, diversion;
      7. (G) approach procedure - altimeter setting, wind, checks;
      8. (H) hover manoeuvring and landing - landing checks;
      9. (I) helicopter shutdown procedures;
      10. (J) maintenance logs and flight records;
      11. (K) disembarking passengers:
      12. (I) emergency briefing and evacuation;
      13. (II) forced landing and ditching; and
      14. (III) malfunction procedures.

(25) Aerodrome and Area of Operation Qualifications

An air operator shall ensure that pilots-in-command are qualified for the areas of operation to which they are assigned and have received training, as applicable, to ensure safe operations are conducted.

  1. (a) Area Qualifications
    1. (i) seasonal meteorological conditions;
    2. (ii) weather phenomenon related to whiteout, blowing snow;
    3. (iii) communications, air traffic facilities, flight following facilities;
    4. (iv) navigation facilities and procedures;
    5. (v) survival equipment requirements;
    6. (vi) mountain flying techniques; and
    7. (vii) restrictions over built-up areas.
  2. (b) Aerodrome Qualifications
    1. (i) remote area unprepared landing sites - reconnaissance procedures, inclined sites, confined areas;
    2. (ii) use of offshore heliports and helidecks;
    3. (iii) use of elevated heliports;
    4. (iv) use of air ambulance heliports;
    5. (v) flight watch facilities; and
    6. (vi) aerodrome operating minima.

(26) Persons Assigned on Board Duties

Where an air operator has assigned on board duties to a non-flight crew member, that person shall be given adequate initial and annual training to perform the procedures relevant to the duties with which the person is to be involved including, as applicable:

  1. (a) authority of the pilot-in-command;
  2. (b) means of communication;
  3. (c) a general description of the helicopter in which the person is to serve and the proper use of cabin installed systems controls;
  4. (d) procedures for the handling of normal, abnormal, and emergency situations including:
    1. (i) safe movement in the vicinity of the helicopter and safe movement to and from the helicopter;
    2. (ii) briefing of passengers;
    3. (iii) handling of passengers;
    4. (iv) securing of cabin;
    5. (v) location, operation and use of emergency, life saving and survival equipment carried, including practical training;
    6. (vi) fire fighting, including practical training;
    7. (vii) decompression;
    8. (viii) location, operation and use of emergency exits, including practical training;
    9. (ix) passenger preparation for an emergency landing or ditching, including practical training; and
    10. (x) evacuation, including practical training; and
  5. (e) knowledge of the relationship of the procedures with respect to those of the other crew members.

(27) Controlled Flight into Terrain (CFIT) Avoidance Training

Air operators shall provide the following initial and biennial CFIT avoidance training to all flight crew members operating helicopters approved for operation under instrument meteorological conditions:
(amended 2000/06/01; no previous version)

  1. (a) factors that may lead to CFIT accidents and incidents;
  2. (b) CFIT prevention strategies; and
  3. (c) methods of improving situational awareness.

DIVISION IX - MANUALS

724.121 Contents of Company Operations Manual

The Company Operations Manual shall contain at least the following, as applicable to the operation:

  1. (a) preamble relating to use and authority of manual;
  2. (b) a table of contents;
  3. (c) amending procedures, amendment record sheet, distribution list and list of effective pages;
  4. (d) a copy of the Air Operator’s Certificate and operations specifications;
  5. (e) a chart of the management organization;
  6. (f) the duties, responsibilities and succession of command of management and operations personnel;
  7. (g) description of operational control system including:
    1. (i) flight authorization and flight preparation procedures;
    2. (ii) preparation of operational flight plan and other flight documents;
    3. (iii) procedures to ensure the flight crew are advised, prior to dispatch, of any aeroplane defects that have been deferred, (by Minimum Equipment List or any other means);
    4. (iv) flight following and communication requirements;
    5. (v) dissemination procedures for operational information and acknowledgement;
    6. (vi) fuel and oil requirements;
    7. (vii) weight and balance system;
    8. (viii) accident/incident reporting procedures and procedures for reporting overdue aircraft;
    9. (ix) use of checklists;
    10. (x) maintenance discrepancy reporting and requirements of completion of flight; and
    11. (xi ) retention period of operational flight plans;
  8. (h) sample of operational flight plan, weight and balance form and retention period;
  9. (i) CVR procedures;
  10. (j) operating weather minima and applicable requirements for IFR, VFR, VFR at night, VFR over-the-top including alternate aerodrome requirements;
  11. (k) instrument and equipment requirements;
  12. (l) instrument approach procedures (including company approaches), and alternate minima requirements;
  13. (m) procedures for establishing company routes in uncontrolled airspace;
  14. (n) procedures pertaining to enroute operation of navigation and communication equipment (including collision avoidance procedures);
  15. (o) operations in hazardous conditions such as icing, thunderstorms, white out, windshear;
  16. (p) helicopter performance limitations;
  17. (q) carriage and securing of cargo, carry on baggage, commissary and equipment (as applicable);
  18. (r) passenger briefing procedures;
  19. (s) use of aircraft flight manual, helicopter operating manual, standard operating procedures and minimum equipment lists (as applicable);
  20. (t) ice, frost and snow critical surface contamination procedures;
  21. (u) procedures of carriage of dangerous goods;
  22. (v) fuelling procedures including:
    1. (i) fuel contamination precautions
    2. (ii) bonding requirements
    3. (iii) fuelling with engine running (not permitted with passengers on board, see Section 602.09 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations); and
    4. (iv) fuelling with passengers on board;
  23. (w) list of emergency survival equipment carried on the helicopter and how to use equipment;
  24. (x) emergency procedures for:
    1. (i) emergency locator transmitter;
    2. (ii) passenger preparation for emergency landing/ditching;
    3. (iii) emergency evacuation;
    4. (iv) ground emergency coordination procedures; and
  25. (v) unlawful interference;
  26. (y) minimum flight crew members required and flight crew member qualifications;
  27. (z) flight duty time limitations and rest requirements;
  28. (a-a) training programs including copy of company training and qualification record form(s);
  29. (b-b) operational support services and equipment;
  30. (c-c) passenger and cabin safety procedures.
  31. (d-d) inspection details and frequency of inspection of emergency equipment carried on board the helicopter;
  32. (e-e) policy on occupation of observer seat (if applicable);
  33. (f-f) procedures for reduced VFR limits in uncontrolled airspace (if applicable);
  34. (g-g) copies of all forms utilized including sufficient instruction on form completion; and
  35. (h-hi) other information related to safety.

724.123 Aircraft Operating Manual

A helicopter operating manual shall consist of the following:

  1. (a) table of contents;
  2. (b) list of effective pages;
  3. (c) amending procedures;
  4. (d) preamble;
  5. (e) identification of the helicopter by the type and registration it is applicable to; and
  6. (f) helicopter operating procedures and limitations that are not less restrictive than those contained in the rotorcraft flight manual and the Canadian Aviation Regulations (as amended).

724.124 Standard Operating Procedures (SOP’s)

The Standard Operating Procedures Manual shall contain the following information for each type of helicopter operated. Where there are significant differences in equipment and procedures between helicopters of the same type operated, the Standard Operating Procedures Manuals shall show the registration mark of the helicopter it is applicable to.

Required information, if contained in another publication carried on board the helicopter during flight, need not be repeated in the SOP.

The SOP shall include the following as applicable to the operation:

(1) General

  1. (a) table of contents;
  2. (b) list of effective pages;
  3. (c) amending procedure;
  4. (d) preamble;
  5. (e) communications;
  6. (f) crew coordination;
  7. (g) use of check lists;
  8. (h) standard briefings; and
  9. (i) standard calls.

(2) Normal Procedures

  1. (a) weight and balance control requirements;
  2. (b) ramp;
  3. (c) battery/APU engine starts;
  4. (d) taxi;
  5. (e) take-off and climb;
  6. (f) cruise;
  7. (g) descent;
  8. (h) approaches IFR, visual, VFR, and circling;
  9. (i) landing;
  10. (j) missed approach and balked landing procedures;
  11. (k) refuelling with passengers on board;
  12. (l) use of on board navigation and alerting aids; and
  13. (m) check lists.

(3) Abnormal and Emergency Procedures

  1. (a) emergency landings/ditching - with time to prepare and without time to prepare;
  2. (b) pilot incapacitation and two communication rule, (2 pilot crew);
  3. (c) bomb threat and hijacking;
  4. (d) engine fire/failure/shutdown;
  5. (e) fire, internal/external;
  6. (f) smoke removal;
  7. (g) rejected take-off; and
  8. (h) other abnormal and emergency procedures that are specific to the type of helicopter.
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