Part VII - Commercial Air Services
Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) 2017-2
Standard 723 SCHEDULE I - Pilot Proficiency Check (PPC)
Content last revised: 2005/06/01
(1) Pre-flight Phase
(a) Flight Planning and Equipment Examination
- (i) Flight planning shall include a practical examination on the pilot's knowledge of standard operating procedures and the Aeroplane Flight Manual including performance charts, loading, weight and balance and Flight Manual Supplements; and
- (ii) The equipment examination shall show a practical knowledge of the airframe, engine, major components and systems including the normal, abnormal, alternate and emergency operating procedures and limitations relating thereto.
(b) Aeroplane Inspection
(i) A pre-flight aeroplane inspection that includes:
- (A) a visual inspection of the exterior and interior of the aeroplane, locating each item to be inspected and explaining the purpose of the inspection;
- (B) the proper use of the pre-start, start and pre-taxi check lists; and
- (C) checks of the appropriate radio communications, navigation and electronic equipment and selection of the appropriate communications and navigation frequencies prior to flight.
- (i) A pre-flight aeroplane inspection that includes:
(2) Flight Phase
- (i) taxiing procedures including, where appropriate, sailing and docking procedures;
(ii) a taxiing check including:
- (A) the use of the taxiing check list;
- (B) taxiing in compliance with clearances and instructions issued by the appropriate air traffic control unit or by the person conducting the pilot proficiency check; and
- (C) where a second-in-command is undergoing the pilot proficiency check, outlined above to the extent practicable from the second-in-command position.
(b) Engine Checks
Engine checks shall be conducted as appropriate to the aeroplane type.
- (i) One normal take-off to be performed in accordance with the Airplane Flight Manual;
- (ii) An instrument take-off performed in the same manner as the normal take-off except that instrument flight rules are simulated at or before reaching an altitude of 200 feet above the airport elevation. Not required to be demonstrated where the Air Operator's Certificate authorizes operations under day VFR only, or the air operator assigns the pilot to day VFR flight only;
(iii) Where practicable under existing meteorological, airport or airport traffic conditions, one crosswind take-off performed in accordance with the aeroplane operating manual where applicable;
Any or all of the above takeoffs may be combined.
(iv) a simulated engine failure after take-off as follows:
(A) where performed in a visual synthetic training device:
(I) the simulated failure of the critical engine shall occur at the take-off safety speed plus 10 kts; or
(II) the simulated failure of the critical engine shall occur at a speed greater than V1 and at an altitude of less than 50 feet AGL; or at a speed as close as possible to, but greater than V1 when V1 and V2, or V1 and Vr are identical; or
(amended 2005/06/01; no previous version)
- (I) the simulated failure of the critical engine shall occur at the take-off safety speed plus 10 kts; or
(B) where performed in an aeroplane in flight, at a safe altitude as close to the take-off safety speed plus 10 kts, or V2 + 10 kts, as is safe and appropriate to the aeroplane type under the prevailing conditions; and
- (A) where performed in a visual synthetic training device:
(v) a rejected take-off:
- (A) performed in a Level A synthetic flight training device prior to reaching lift-off speed; or
- (B) explained by the candidate prior to the flight where the pilot proficiency check is conducted in an aeroplane.
(d) Instrument Procedures
Except where an Air Operator Certificate authorizes operation under day VFR only, or an operator assigns the pilot to day VFR flight only, instrument procedures shall consist of IFR pre-flight preparation, departure and enroute procedures, terminal procedures and system malfunctions.
(i) An area departure and an area arrival procedure shall be performed where the pilot:
- (A) adheres to actual or simulated air traffic control clearances and instructions; and
- (B) properly uses the available navigation facilities;
- (ii) holding procedures;
- (iii) at least two instrument approaches performed in accordance with procedures and limitations in the Canada Air Pilot or in the equivalent foreign publications, or approved company approach procedure for the approach facility used. Where practicable one of the approaches shall be a precision approach and one a non-precision approach; and
- (iv) a circling approach except where local conditions beyond the control of the pilot prevent a circling approach from being performed.
- (i) An area departure and an area arrival procedure shall be performed where the pilot:
(e) In Flight Manoeuvres
- (i) At least one steep turn in each direction with a bank angle of 45° and a change in heading of at least 180° but not more than 360°.
(ii) Approaches to stalls
For the purpose of this manoeuvre the required approach to a stall is reached when there is a perceptible buffet or other response to the initial stall entry. When performed in an aeroplane the approach to stalls shall be conducted at an altitude of at least 5000 feet AGL, and if conducted above cloud at an altitude of at least 2000 feet above the cloud tops.
The following approaches to the stall are required during initial and upgrade PPC's:
- (A) one in the take-off configuration, except where a zero-flap take-off configuration is normally used in that model and type of aeroplane;
- (B) one in a clean configuration; and
(C) one in a landing configuration.
One of the approaches to stall shall be performed while in a turn with a bank angle of between 15° and 30°.
(f) Landings and Approaches to Landings
- (i) one normal landing which shall, where practicable, be conducted without external or internal glideslope information;
- (ii) one landing from an instrument approach, and where prevailing conditions prevent an actual landing, an approach to a point where a landing could have been made. Not required to be demonstrated where the Air Operator's Certificate authorizes operations under day VFR only, or the air operator assigns the pilot to day VFR flights only;
- (iii) one cross wind landing where practicable under existing meteorological, airport and airport traffic conditions;
(iv) one missed approach;
(v) where performed in a visual synthetic training device, one rejected landing. For the purposes of the rejected landing the landing shall be rejected at a height of approximately 50 feet when the aeroplane is approximately over the runway threshold. The rejected landing may be combined with a missed approach;
- (vi) one landing and manoeuvring to that landing with a simulated failure of 50 percent of the available engines; and
(vii) one landing under simulated circling approach conditions except that where prevailing conditions prevent a landing, an approach to a point where a landing could have been made.
Any of the landings and approaches to landings specified in this section may be combined. A minimum of two landings are required.
(g) Normal Procedures
The pilot shall demonstrate or show knowledge of as many of the normal procedures as the person conducting the check finds are necessary to determine that the pilot has the knowledge and ability to properly use installed equipment. The demonstration of these procedures may be combined with in-flight manoeuvres. The following are examples of areas that may be examined:
- (i) anti-icing and de-icing systems;
- (ii) auto-pilot systems;
- (iii) automatic or other approach aid systems;
- (iv) stall warning devices, stall avoidance devices, and stability augmentation system;
- (v) airborne radar devices; and
- (vi) other systems, devices, or aids.
(h) Abnormal and Emergency Procedures
- (i) The pilot shall demonstrate the use of as many of the abnormal and emergency procedures as is necessary to confirm that the pilot has an adequate knowledge and ability to perform these procedures.
- (ii) System malfunctions shall consist of a selection adequate to determine that the pilot has satisfactory knowledge and ability to safely handle malfunctions.
- (iii) At least two simulated engine failures any time during the check.
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