Part VIII - Air Navigation Services

Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) 2017-2

Standard 821 - Canadian Domestic Air Traffic Control Separation

Content last revised: 2011/06/01

Foreword

This document contains the Canadian Domestic Air Traffic Control Separation Standards to be used by Air Traffic Control personnel in the control of VFR, CVFR and IFR aircraft in Canadian domestic airspace.

A symbol inserted in the text of this document indicates that explanatory or reference material has been included and are indicated as follows:

(a) (N) - note; and

(b) (R) - reference.

Definitions

"airport control service" - The control service provided by airport control towers to airport traffic.

"altitude" - The altitude indicated on an altimeter, set in accordance with the requirements specified in the Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs), Sections 602.35, 602.36 and 602.37.

"altitude reservation" - An airspace of defined dimensions within controlled airspace, reserved for the use of a civil or military agency during a specified period. An altitude reservation may be confined to a fixed area (stationary) or moving in relation to the aircraft that operate within it (moving).

"area navigation" - A method of navigation that permits aircraft operations on any desired track within the coverage of station-referenced navigation signals, or within the limits of a self-contained navigation system.

"common point" - A single fix, whether a NAVAID, a fix derived from NAVAIDs, or geographical coordinates expressed in degrees of latitude and longitude, over which two or more aircraft will pass, or have passed, before proceeding on the same track or diverging tracks.

"conflict resolution" - The resolution of potential conflicts between IFR/VFR and VFR/VFR aircraft that are radar identified and in communication with ATC.

"controlled airport" - An airport at which an airport control service is provided.

"controlled VFR flight" - A flight conducted under the visual flight rules within Class B Airspace and in accordance with an air traffic control clearance.

"fix" - A geographical location determined either by visual reference to the ground, or by means of radio aids or other navigational devices.

"flight level" or "FL" - An altitude expressed in hundreds of feet, indicated on an altimeter set to 29.92 inches of mercury or 1013.2 millibars.
(amended 2002/12/01; previous version)

"heavy aircraft" - In respect of aircraft wake turbulence weight categories, means an aircraft certificated for a maximum take-off weight of 136 000 kilograms (300,000 pounds) or more.
(amended 2006/12/30; previous version)

“identification” ‑ The situation which exists when the position indication of a particular aircraft is seen on a situation display and positively identified.
(amended 2011/06/30; no previous version)

"lateral separation" - The lateral spacing of aircraft.

"light aircraft" - In respect of aircraft wake turbulence weight categories, means an aircraft certificated for a maximum take-off weight of 7 000 kilograms (15,500 pounds) or less.
(amended 2006/12/30; previous version)

"longitudinal separation" - The longitudinal spacing of aircraft expressed in time or distance.

"mach-number technique" - The assignment by ATC of Mach-number values to aircraft that are in level flight, climbing or descending, in order to ensure that longitudinal separation is maintained.

"MARSA" A term used, whereby the military command/pilots involved, assume responsibility for separation of participating aircraft.

"medium aircraft" - In respect of aircraft wake turbulence weight categories, means an aircraft certificated for a maximum take-off weight of more than 7 000 kilograms (15,500 pounds), but less than 136 000 kilograms (300,000 pounds).
(amended 2006/12/30; previous version)

"NAVAID" Unless use of another navigation system is specifically authorized, this term means an NDB, VOR, TVOR, VORTAC, DME, VOR/DME, or TACAN.

"no transgression zone" - A corridor of airspace of defined dimensions, located centrally between the two extended runway centre lines, where controller intervention is required to manoeuvre the non-blundering aircraft, when the airspace is penetrated by an aircraft conducting a simultaneous approach to the adjacent parallel or near-parallel instrument runway.

"normal operating zone" - Airspace of defined dimensions, extending to either side of an ILS localizer centre line. Only the inner half of the normal operating zone is taken into account in independent approaches.

"reciprocal track" - A term used in the application of separation, indicating tracks that converge or diverge at an angle of 136 degrees to 180 degrees inclusive.

"Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum" or "RVSM" - the 1,000 feet vertical separation that is applied at and above FL 290, between RVSM certified aircraft operating in RVSM airspace or in an RVSM Transition Area.
(amended 2002/12/01; no previous version)

"RVSM airspace" - The airspace specified, and delineated as such, in the Designated Airspace Handbook.
(amended 2002/12/01; no previous version)

"RVSM Transition Area" - The airspace specified, and delineated as such, in the Designated Airspace Handbook.
(amended 2002/12/01; no previous version)

"same track" - A term used in the application of separation, indicating identical tracks or tracks that converge or diverge at an angle of 1 degree to 44 degrees inclusive.

"separation" - Spacing between aircraft, altitudes, or tracks.

"separation minimum" - A statement of the least allowable amount of lateral, longitudinal, or vertical separation to be applied.

"straight-in approach (IFR)" - An instrument approach in which final approach is begun without first having executed a procedure turn.

"straight-in approach (VFR)" - An approach in which the traffic circuit is entered on the final leg, without having executed any other part of the circuit.

"target/PPS resolution" - In the application of radar separation, an action to ensure that radar targets do not touch.

"track" - The projection on the earth's surface of the path of an aircraft, the direction of which path, at any point, is usually expressed in degrees from North (true, magnetic, or grid).

"traffic information" - Information issued to advise pilots of known or observed air traffic which may be in such proximity to their position or intended route of flight to warrant their attention.

"vertical separation" - The vertical spacing of aircraft.

"visual approach" - A procedure wherein an aircraft on an IFR flight plan, operating in VFR weather conditions under the control of an air traffic control facility and having an air traffic control authorization, may proceed to the airport of destination in VFR weather conditions.

"visual separation" - A means employed by controllers to separate aircraft operating in VMC.

(a) "VFR" - The controller having determined that a potential conflict exists, issues clearances, instructions and/or information, as necessary in order to either aid aircraft in establishing visual contact with each other or to assist aircraft in avoiding other aircraft.

(b) "IFR" or "CVFR" - Following a pilot's report that the traffic is in sight, the controller issues the clearance and instructs the pilot to provide his/her own separation by manoeuvring the aircraft as necessary to avoid or follow the traffic.

"VFR flight" - A flight conducted in accordance with the Visual Flight Rules.

"wake turbulence" - The turbulent air behind an aircraft caused by any of the following:

(a) wing-tip vortices;

(b) rotor-tip vortices;

(c) jet-engine thrust stream;

(d) rotor downwash; or

(e) prop wash.

Abbreviations

ACA Arctic Control Area
A.I.P. Aeronautical Information Publication
ALTRV Altitude Reservation
ALTRV APVL Altitude Reservation Approval
ASL Above Sea Level
AVANA Approval Void if Aircraft Not Airborne by (time)
CMNPS Canadian Minimum Navigation Performance Specifications
CVFR Controlled VFR
DCPC Direct Controller - Pilot Communications
DME Distance Measuring Equipment
ETD Estimated Time of Departure
IFR Instrument Flight Rules
ILS Instrument Landing System
MVA Minimum Vectoring Altitude
NOZ Normal Operating Zone
NTZ No Transgression Zone
OMNI Omnirange
PPS Present Position Symbol
RDPS Radar Data Processing System
RNAV Area Navigation
RNPC Required Navigation Performance Capability
RSE Radar Site Equipment
VFR Visual Flight Rules
CHAPTER 1 - VISUAL SEPARATION

1.0 Successive IFR Departures from the Same Runway

1.1 The following conditions shall be met when using visual separation to release successive IFR aircraft departing from the same runway:

(a) visual observation confirms that the preceding IFR aircraft has departed and has turned to clear the departure path of the succeeding aircraft, or has reached a point on its departure path where it will no longer conflict with the departure path of the succeeding aircraft;

(b) initial departure tracks diverge by 30 degrees or more;

(c) traffic information is passed to the succeeding aircraft;

(d) applicable wake turbulence minima are complied with, unless waived by the succeeding aircraft.

2.0 Arrivals and Departures

2.1 Separation of an Arriving Aircraft from a Preceding Aircraft

An arriving aircraft shall be separated from a preceding aircraft using the same runway by ensuring that the arriving aircraft does not cross the landing threshold until one of the following conditions exists:

(a) the preceding aircraft has landed and taxied off the runway;

(b) the preceding aircraft has landed or is over the landing runway and:

(i) is at a distance from the threshold sufficient to allow the arriving aircraft to complete its landing roll without jeopardizing safety, and

(ii) the arriving aircraft is advised of the preceding aircraft's position and intentions;

(c) the preceding aircraft is airborne and:

(i) is at a sufficient distance from the threshold that the arriving aircraft will not overtake it during the landing roll or conflict with it in the event of a missed approach, or

(ii) has turned to avoid any conflict with the arriving aircraft in the event of a missed approach.

2.2 Separation of a Departing Aircraft from a Preceding Aircraft

A departing aircraft shall be separated from a preceding aircraft using the same runway by ensuring that it does not begin take-off roll until one of the following conditions exists:

(a) the preceding aircraft has landed and taxied off the runway, or there is every assurance that it will vacate the runway by the time the departure starts the take-off roll;

(b) the preceding aircraft has departed and:

(i) has turned to clear the departure path, or

(ii) has reached a point on the departure path where it will not conflict with the succeeding aircraft.

2.3 Separation of an Arriving Aircraft from Aircraft using Intersecting Runway

An arriving aircraft shall be separated from another aircraft using an intersecting runway, or non-intersecting runway if flight paths intersect, by ensuring that the arriving aircraft does not cross the landing threshold or flight path of the other aircraft until one of the following conditions exists:

(a) a preceding departing aircraft has:

(i) passed the intersection or flight path, or

(ii) turned to avoid any conflict.

(b) a preceding arriving aircraft has:

(i) taxied off the landing runway,

(ii) completed the landing roll and will hold short of the intersection or flight path, or

(iii) passed the intersection or flight path.

2.4 Separation of a Departing Aircraft from Aircraft using Intersecting Runways

A departing aircraft shall be separated from an aircraft using an intersecting runway, or non-intersecting runway if flight paths intersect, by ensuring that the departing aircraft does not begin its take-off roll until one of the following conditions exists:

(a) a preceding departing aircraft has:

(i) passed the intersection,

(ii) crossed the departure runway, or

(iii) turned to avoid any conflict.

(b) a preceding arriving aircraft has:

(i) taxied off the landing runway,

(ii) completed the landing roll and will hold short of the intersection,

(iii) passed the intersection, or

(iv) crossed over the departure runway.

2.5 Separation of Taxiing Aircraft from Aircraft using the Runway

Taxiing aircraft shall be held until traffic using the runway has passed the point at which the aircraft is holding:

(a) at a taxi holding position, if one has been established;

(b) at least 200 feet from the edge of the runway, unless other holding positions are established by markings or signs; or

(c) at a sufficient distance from the edge of the runway to ensure that no hazard is created to arriving or departing aircraft, if it is not possible to comply with (a) or (b).

2.6 Separation of Pedestrians and Vehicles from Aircraft using the Runway

Ground traffic such as pedestrians, vehicles, or construction equipment shall be kept away from taxiing aircraft by holding ground traffic:

(a) at least 200 feet from the edge of an active runway, unless other holding positions are established by markings or signs; or

(b) at a sufficient distance from the edge of the runway to ensure that no hazard is created to arriving or departing aircraft, if it is not practicable to comply with (a).

3.0 Wake Turbulence

3.1 Separation Minima for Wake Turbulence

3.1.1 Two minutes separation shall be applied to any category aircraft that takes off into the wake of a known heavy aircraft on:

(a) the same runway; or

(b) a parallel runway less than 2,500 feet away.

3.1.2 Three minutes separation shall be applied to any category aircraft that takes off into the wake of a known heavy aircraft or a light aircraft that takes off into the wake of a medium aircraft if:

(a) the following aircraft starts its take-off roll from an intersection or a point significantly further along the runway, in the direction of take-off, than the preceding aircraft; or

(b) the controller has reason to believe that rotation may occur beyond the rotation point of the preceding aircraft.

3.1.3 If the projected flight paths will cross, 2 minutes separation shall be applied to any category aircraft that takes off behind a heavy aircraft that has taken off or is flying a low or missed approach on:

(a) a crossing runway; or

(b) a parallel runway 2,500 feet or more away.

3.1.4 If aircraft utilize the same runway or a parallel runway less than 2,500 feet away, 3 minutes separation shall be applied to any category aircraft that takes off after a heavy or heavier category aircraft has overflown the runway in the same or opposite direction.

4.0 Radar Service

4.1 Separation Minima

4.1.1 In the provision of separation or conflict resolution, aircraft shall be separated vertically by a minimum of 500 feet unless additional separation is required for wake turbulence.

4.1.2 When providing separation or conflict resolution using tower radar, target resolution separation shall be applied provided that:

(a) at least one of the aircraft is VFR;

(b) altitude information is displayed for both aircraft; or

(c) if altitude information is not displayed on both aircraft, the aircraft are 3,000 feet Above Airport Elevation or below; and

(d) Present Position Symbols (PPSs) do not touch.

CHAPTER 2 - AREA AND TERMINAL SEPARATION

1.0 Separation Between Flight Levels and Altitudes ASL

1.1 A flight level shall not be assigned that is lower than the lowest usable flight level determined from the following table:

If the Altimeter Setting is Then the Lowest Usable Flight Level is
29.92 or higher FL180
29.91 to 28.92 FL190
28.91 to 27.92 FL200
27.91 or lower FL210

1.2 The lowest assignable flight level that will ensure at least the required vertical separation minimum between an aircraft flying on the standard pressure setting and:

(a) an aircraft flying on an altimeter setting; or

(b) the upper limit of Class F airspace, if the upper limit is defined in terms of altitude;

shall be determined using the following table:

If the Aircraft Flying on the Standard Pressure Setting is at And if the Altimeter Setting is Then the Separation Required is
FL290 or below 29.92 or higher
29.91 to 28.92
28.91 to 27.92
27.91 or lower
1,000 feet
2,000 feet
3,000 feet
4,000 feet
Above FL290 29.92 or higher
29.91 to 28.92
28.91 to 27.92
27.91 or lower
2,000 feet
3,000 feet
4,000 feet
5,000 feet

1.3 The vertical separation to be applied between aircraft flying on an altimeter setting and the lower limit of Class F airspace, if the lower limit is defined in terms of flight level, shall be determined using the following table:

If the Altimeter Setting is Vertical Separation Required
29.92 or higher 1,000 feet
29.91 to 28.92 2,000 feet
28.91 to 27.92 3,000 feet
27.91 or lower 4,000 feet

2.0 Provision of Area and Terminal Separation

2.1 Separation need not be applied where:

(a) an aircraft has been authorized to maintain "at least 1,000 feet on top", except:

(i) at night, separation shall be applied between an aircraft maintaining "at least 1,000 feet on top" and other aircraft if any of the aircraft are holding, and

(ii) between an aircraft maintaining "at least 1,000 feet on top" and an aircraft operating on an ALTRV APVL;

(b) a VFR restriction has been applied to an aircraft climbing or descending en route or to a departing aircraft; or

(c) control of an arriving aircraft has been transferred to the tower.

3.0 Vertical Separation

3.1 Aircraft shall be separated vertically by:
(amended 2002/12/01; previous version)

(a) 1,000 feet;
(amended 1997/03/31; previous version)

(i) where the aircraft are operated at or below FL290; or
(amended 2002/12/01; previous version)

(ii) where both aircraft are RVSM certified and operating within designated RVSM airspace or an RVSM transition area; or
(amended 2002/12/01; previous version)

(b) 2,000 feet, where the aircraft are operated above FL290.
(amended 2002/12/01; previous version)

3.2 Vertical separation shall be applied between aircraft on reciprocal tracks from 10 minutes before until 10 minutes after their estimated passing time.

3.3 The following conditions shall be met when discontinuing vertical separation between aircraft on reciprocal tracks:

(a) both aircraft have reported by the same NAVAID and, if at FL180 or above, are 2 minutes apart;

(b) both aircraft have reported passing the same OMNI radial at an angle of 45 degrees or more and are:

(i) 2 minutes apart if 25 miles or less from the NAVAID producing the radial, or

(ii) 4 minutes apart if more than 25 miles from the NAVAID producing the radial;

(c) both aircraft are using the same DME and position reports indicate that they have passed and are 5 miles apart, provided the outbound aircraft is 15 miles or more from the DME facility;

(d) both aircraft are below FL180 and both have reported passing each other, or both have reported passing the same visual fix;

(e) both aircraft are in Class A airspace, are separated vertically by not more than 2,000 feet, and both aircraft report visual confirmation that they have passed each other.

3.4 Unless lateral separation exists, vertical separation shall be applied to an en route aircraft before and after the outer edge of the protected airspace, for a holding aircraft, or an aircraft on an instrument approach procedure, for the following time period:

(a) 15 minutes;

(b) 10 minutes, provided that NAVAID coverage permits determination of position and speed at intervals not exceeding 40 minutes flying time.

3.5 The following conditions shall be met when discontinuing vertical separation between an en route aircraft and a holding aircraft or an aircraft on an instrument approach procedure:

(a) the aircraft has reported over a fix within the appropriate protected airspace; and

(b) the aircraft is at least 5 minutes from the outer edge of the holding or approach area.

4.0 Lateral Separation

4.1 Aircraft shall be separated laterally by ensuring that the following protected airspaces do not overlap:

(a) holding areas;

(b)

(i) low-level airways, and

(ii) the airspace to be protected, including additional protected airspace for change of direction, for:

(A) high-level airways, and

(B) off-airway tracks;

(c) initial, intermediate, final, missed approach and departure areas.

4.2 Aircraft shall be considered geographically separated if one aircraft is over a location whose fix tolerance area does not overlap:

(a) the fix tolerance area for other aircraft over different geographical locations; or

(b) the protected airspace for other aircraft.

4.3 An aircraft that is proceeding away from protected airspace shall be considered geographically separated when it has reported crossing a radial that:

(a) provides at least 5 degrees clearance from the area of overlap; and

(b) intersects the track of the traversing aircraft at an angle of at least 45 degrees.

4.4 For aircraft turns of 16 degrees or more, the overflown side of the track shall be protected as follows:

(a) for turns of 16 degrees through 90 degrees:

(i) 14 miles from FL180 to FL230 inclusive, or

(ii) 17 miles above FL230;

(b) For turns of 91 degrees through 180 degrees, in addition to the 14/17 of a mile protected on the overflown side of the track, protect:

(i) 28 miles from FL180 to FL230 inclusive on the manoeuvring side of the track, or

(ii) 34 miles above FL230 on the manoeuvring side of the track.

4.5 DME Lateral Separation shall be applied by one of the following minima:

(a) between aircraft maintaining specified arcs of the same NAVAID:

(i) 20 miles, or

(ii) 10 miles, provided that both aircraft are 35 miles or less from the NAVAID;

(b) between an aircraft that is maintaining a specified arc of a NAVAID and the outer-edge of protected airspace for other aircraft:

(i) 10 miles; or

(ii) 5 miles, provided that the aircraft maintaining the specified arc is 35 miles or less from the NAVAID.

4.6 OMNI-Track Separation shall be applied by establishing aircraft on different specified radials of the same OMNI facility by the following minima:

(a) 30 degrees between:

(i) same direction, departing, outbound aircraft that are 15 miles or less from the facility,

(ii) same direction, en route, outbound aircraft that are 15 miles or less from the facility, provided that the aircraft are 3 minutes or more from the facility;

(b) 15 degrees between:

(i) same direction, outbound aircraft provided that at least one aircraft is more than 15 miles from the facility,

(ii) same direction, inbound aircraft provided that the second aircraft is more than 15 miles, and 10 minutes or more, from the facility,

(ii) opposite direction aircraft provided that:

(A) they will pass at a point more than 15 miles from the facility, or

(B) the outbound aircraft is more than 15 miles from the facility.

4.7 For aircraft operating on the same or reciprocal tracks:

(a) vertical separation shall be maintained until an aircraft diverging from an area of overlap, at an angle less than 45 degrees, is separated from the area of overlap by the greater of:

(i) 5 minutes, or

(ii) half the longitudinal separation minimum applicable; or

(b) vertical separation shall be established before an aircraft converging to an area of overlap, at an angle of less than 45 degrees, reaches a point that is separated from the area of overlap by the greater of:

(i) 5 minutes, or

(ii) half the longitudinal separation minimum applicable.

5.0 Longitudinal Separation

Where separation standards are applied using DME, DCPC shall be established.

5.1 Aircraft on the same track shall be separated by one of the following minima:

(a) 15 minutes;

(b) 10 minutes, provided that NAVAID coverage permits determination of position and speed at intervals not exceeding 40 minutes flying time;

(c) 5 minutes between:

(i) aircraft that have departed from adjacent locations and have reported over the same reporting point,

(ii) en route aircraft that have reported over the same reporting point, or

(iii) a departed aircraft behind an en route aircraft that has reported over the reporting point serving the point of departure,

provided that, in each case, the leading aircraft is maintaining a speed that is 20 or more knots faster than the following aircraft and NAVAID coverage permits determination of position and speed at intervals not exceeding 40 minutes flying time;

(d) 3 minutes between:

(i) aircraft that have departed from adjacent locations and have reported over the same reporting point,

(ii) en route aircraft that have reported over the same reporting point; or

(iii) a departed aircraft behind an en route aircraft that has reported over the reporting point serving the point of departure,

provided that, in each case, the leading aircraft is maintaining a speed that is 40 or more knots faster than the following aircraft and NAVAID coverage permits determination of position and speed at intervals not exceeding 40 minutes flying time.

5.2 Aircraft on the same track using DME shall be separated by one of the following minima:

(a) 20 miles;

(b) 10 miles between:

(i) aircraft that have departed from adjacent locations and have reported over the same reporting point,

(ii) en route aircraft that have reported DME in relation to the same facility, or

(iii) a departed aircraft behind an en route aircraft that has reported over the reporting point serving the point of departure,

provided that, in each case, the leading aircraft is maintaining a speed that is 20 or more knots faster than the following aircraft;

(c) 5 miles between:

(i) aircraft that have departed from adjacent locations and have reported over the same reporting point,

(ii) en route aircraft that have reported DME in relation to the same facility, or

(iii) a departed aircraft behind an en route aircraft that has reported over the reporting point serving the point of departure,

provided that, in each case, the leading aircraft is maintaining a speed that is 40 or more knots faster than the following aircraft.

5.3 Aircraft on the same track, at the time that altitude levels are crossed, shall be separated by one of the following minima: (N)

(a) minima specified in Chapter 2, section 5.1 or 5.2;

(b) 5 minutes, provided that:

(i) the altitude change is commenced not later than 10 minutes after the following aircraft has reported over the reporting point used by the leading aircraft,

(ii) the leading aircraft is descending through the altitude of the following aircraft or the following aircraft is climbing through the altitude of the leading aircraft, and

(iii) the vertical separation at the time of commencement of change is 4,000 feet or less;

(c) 10 miles, provided that:

(i) both aircraft are using DME,

(ii) DCPC is established, and

(iii) the leading aircraft is descending through the altitude of the following aircraft or the following aircraft is climbing through the altitude of the leading aircraft;

(d) 10 miles, if DCPC is not established, provided that:

(i) both aircraft are using the same DME facility,

(ii) the leading aircraft is 20 knots faster than the following aircraft,

(iii) the leading aircraft is descending through the altitude of the following aircraft or the following aircraft is climbing through the altitude of the leading aircraft,

(iv) the vertical separation at the commencement of change is 4,000 feet or less, and

(v) the position of the lead aircraft is determined before that of the following aircraft.

NOTE:

Except as otherwise allowed for in Chapter 2, Section 5.3(d), whenever aircraft are separated using DME, DCPC will be established.

5.4 Aircraft on crossing tracks shall be separated by one of the following minima:

(a) 15 minutes;

(b) 10 minutes, provided that NAVAID coverage permits determination of position and speed at intervals not exceeding 40 minutes flying time;

(c) 20 miles, provided that both aircraft are using the same DME and the tracks cross at the NAVAID;

(d) 10 miles provided both aircraft are using the same DME, the tracks cross at the NAVAID and the leading aircraft is maintaining a speed that is 20 or more knots faster than the following aircraft.

6.0 Initial Departure Separation

6.1 Separation minima contained in this subsection may be applied until another separation minimum is established, where:

(a) if aircraft depart from the same runway, the leading aircraft shall not be authorized to turn in either direction, to a track that is more than 135 degrees from the extended runway centre line; or

(b) if aircraft depart from different runways, the leading aircraft shall not be authorized to turn:

(i) toward the extended centre line of the runway to be used by the following aircraft, and

(ii) in the other direction to a track that is more than 135 degrees from the extended centre line of the runway to be used by the following aircraft.

6.2 The following conditions shall be met when a departing aircraft is separated from other departing aircraft by one of the following minima:

(a) 5 minutes, until altitude levels are crossed provided that:

(i) the following aircraft will climb through the altitude of the leading aircraft, and

(ii) both aircraft follow the same track until vertical separation is established;

(b) 5 minutes, provided that: (R)

(i) the leading aircraft will maintain a speed that is 20 or more knots faster than the following aircraft, and

(ii) NAVAID coverage permits determination of position and speed at intervals not exceeding 40 minutes flying time;

Reference: Section 602.32 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations - Airspeed Limitations

(c) 3 minutes, provided that: (R)

(i) the leading aircraft will maintain a speed that is 40 or more knots faster than the following aircraft, and

(ii) NAVAID coverage permits determination of position and speed at intervals not exceeding 40 minutes flying time;

Reference: Section 602.32 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations - Airspeed Limitations

(d) 3 minutes, until tracks diverge provided that:

(i) both aircraft will follow the same track initially and then assigned tracks that diverge by 45 degrees or more, and

(ii) the tracks diverge not later than 5 minutes after the second aircraft takes off;

(e) 3 minutes, until altitude levels are crossed provided that:

(i) prior to reaching 15 miles from the departure runway, the following aircraft will climb through the altitude of the leading aircraft, and

(ii) both aircraft will follow the same track until vertical separation is established;

(f) 1 minute, until tracks diverge provided that:

(i) both aircraft will follow assigned tracks that diverge by 45 degrees or more; and

(ii) the tracks diverge as soon as practicable after take-off; (N)

(g) 10 miles, until altitude levels are crossed provided that:

(i) the following aircraft will climb through the altitude of the leading aircraft, and

(ii) both aircraft use DME and follow the same track to or from the same DME NAVAID immediately after take-off;

(h) 5 miles, provided that:

(i) other separation will be established not later than the time the following aircraft reaches a point 15 miles from the departure runway, and

(ii) both aircraft use DME and follow the same track to or from the same DME NAVAID immediately after take-off.

NOTE 1:

This minimum shall only be applied if the following conditions exist:

(a) if the speed of a following aircraft will exceed that of a leading aircraft, the leading aircraft is turned. A following aircraft is not authorized to depart until the leading aircraft has commenced the turn;

(b) if the speed of the following aircraft will not exceed that of a leading aircraft:

(i) either aircraft is turned as soon as practicable, or

(ii) both aircraft are turned as soon as practicable such that the angle between their tracks equals 45 degrees or more.

NOTE 2:

Successive aircraft are not authorized to turn toward the same side of the extended runway centre line.

NOTE 3:

No other applications are authorized.

6.3 The following conditions shall be met when simultaneous take-offs from parallel runways are authorized:

(a) the runways are 4,300 feet or more apart (centre line to centre line);

(b) neither aircraft will turn towards the other runway;

(c) both aircraft will follow assigned tracks that diverge by 45 degrees or more immediately after take-off; and

(d) traffic information is passed to both aircraft.

6.4 The following conditions shall be met when simultaneous take-offs from non-intersecting runways are authorized:

(a) the runways diverge by 30 degrees or more;

(b) neither aircraft will turn toward the other runway; and

(c) the aircraft will fly assigned tracks that diverge by 45 degrees or more immediately after take-off.

6.5 The following conditions shall be met when a succeeding aircraft is authorized to take-off behind another aircraft departing from an intersecting runway:

(a) the runways diverge by 30 degrees or more;

(b) the preceding aircraft has passed the point of runway intersection;

(c) neither aircraft will turn toward the other runway; and

(d) the aircraft will fly assigned tracks that diverge by 45 degrees or more immediately after take-off.

6.6 Provided the airspace to be protected for the departure areas do not overlap, take-offs may be permitted in any direction.

6.7 The following conditions shall be met when a departing aircraft is authorized to take-off while an arriving aircraft is on an instrument approach to the same airport:

(a) in any direction, provided it will have a minimum of 5 minutes separation from an arriving aircraft on a straight-in approach, at the point where it will alter its heading to diverge from the reciprocal of the final approach track of the arriving aircraft by a minimum of:

(i) 45 degrees, or

(ii) 30 degrees, provided that both the arriving and departing aircraft will use a facility located on the airport that provides track guidance in the form of an OMNI radial or an ILS front or back beam; or

(b) in a direction that differs from the reciprocal of the final approach track of the arriving aircraft by a minimum of 45 degrees, except when an arriving aircraft will make a procedure turn, in which case the minimum is increased to 90 degrees on the procedure turn side of the final approach track, provided that the departing aircraft is airborne:

(i) before the arriving aircraft is estimated to be not less than 3 minutes from the instrument runway; or (N)

NOTE 1:

The 90 degree minimum may be reduced to 45 degrees on the procedure turn side of the final approach track where the protected airspace associated with the departure procedure does not overlap the airspace to be protected for the initial approach area.

NOTE 2:

This minimum shall only be applied if:

(a) the arriving aircraft is making a straight-in approach; or

(b) the fix from which the procedure turn is commenced is located between the procedure turn and approach end of the instrument runway.

(ii) before the arriving aircraft leaves a fix inbound not less than 4 miles from the instrument runway. (N)

NOTE 1:

The 90 degree minimum may be reduced to 45 degrees on the procedure turn side of the final approach track where the protected airspace associated with the departure procedure does not overlap the airspace to be protected for the initial approach area.

NOTE 2:

This minimum shall only be applied if an airport control service is being provided.

7.0 Separation from Class F Airspace

7.1 Separation shall be applied between an aircraft and the outer edge of Class F airspace, except if:

(a) the aircraft states that it has obtained permission from the user agency to enter the airspace;

(b) the aircraft is operating on an ALTRV APVL; or

(c) the aircraft has been cleared for a contact or visual approach.

7. 2,500 feet vertical separation shall be applied from an active Class F advisory airspace, unless wake turbulence minima is applicable, in which case 1,000 feet vertical separation shall be applied.

8.0 Separation from Photographic Survey Aircraft

8.1 Airspace in the following dimensions shall be protected for photographic survey aircraft that are operating on specific flights in accordance with CVFR or IFR:

(a) 4 miles each side of tracks; and

(b) 4 miles beyond the end of the flight line for aircraft below FL180 to complete a turn from one flight line to another or the appropriate minima for aircraft turning at or above FL180.

8.2 The complete photo block shall be protected for CVFR and IFR photographic aircraft operating within a flight planned photo block.

9.0 Canadian Minimum Navigation Performance Specifications (CMNPS) Minima

9.1 Vertical Separation

9.1.1 The control procedures may be applied to CMNPS certified aircraft operating within CMNPS airspace and the CMNPS transition area.

9.1.2 Vertical separation shall be established between aircraft on the same track that are converging to an area of overlap, when they are at least 60 miles or 1 degree of latitude apart if:

(a) the tracks are not laterally separated; and

(b) longitudinal separation does not exist.

9.1.3 Vertical separation is not required between aircraft on the same track that are diverging from an area of overlap, when they are at least 60 miles or 1 degree of latitude apart.

9.1.4 Vertical separation shall be applied between aircraft on reciprocal tracks from 15 minutes before, until 15 minutes after their estimated passing time.

9.1.5 One of the following conditions shall be met when discontinuing vertical separation between aircraft on reciprocal tracks:

(a) both aircraft have reported over a common point and 10 minutes have elapsed after their estimated passing; or

(b) position reports indicate the aircraft have passed and are 60 miles apart.

9.1.6 If longitudinal separation will not exist, vertical separation shall be applied between aircraft on crossing tracks as follows:

(a) vertical separation shall be established between aircraft when they are at least 60 miles or 1 degree of latitude apart; or

(b) vertical separation may be discontinued between aircraft that have passed and are at least 60 miles or 1 degree of latitude apart.

9.2 Lateral Separation

9.2.1 Aircraft shall be separated laterally by 60 miles based on the distance between track centre lines.

9.2.2 The following conditions shall be met when aircraft are separated laterally with reference to their difference in latitude, using 1 degree instead of 60 miles, provided that, in any interval of 10 degrees of longitude, the change in latitude of one of the tracks does not exceed:

(a) 1 degree in the area between 70 degrees North and 80 degrees North;

(b) 2 degrees in the area between 58 degrees North and 70 degrees North; and

(c) 3 degrees in the area south of 58 degrees North.

9.2.3 Aircraft shall be separated laterally by 60 miles while they are operating on tracks that:

(a) are north of 80 degrees North; or

(b) have a change in latitude which exceeds the allowable limits in Chapter 2, subsection 10.4.2.

9.2.4 Aircraft using area navigation systems shall be separated by 30 miles from the airspace to be protected for aircraft that are using ground-based NAVAIDs.

9.2.5 Lateral separation shall be applied to aircraft on reciprocal tracks that do not coincide, provided that:

(a) estimates indicate that the outbound aircraft will be at least 10 minutes beyond the point where lateral separation is achieved, when the inbound aircraft reaches the point where lateral separation is lost; or

(b) estimates indicate that the inbound aircraft is at least 10 minutes away from the point where lateral separation will be lost, when the outbound aircraft reaches the point where lateral separation is achieved.

9.3 Longitudinal Separation

9.3.1 Aircraft shall be separated by 15 minutes if they will follow:

(a) the same track; or

(b) tracks that are not laterally separated.

9.3.2 Aircraft on crossing tracks shall be separated by one of the following minima:

(a) 20 minutes, if either aircraft is maintaining a ground speed less than 340 knots;

(b) 15 minutes, provided that both aircraft are maintaining ground speeds of 340 knots or greater.

9.4 Longitudinal Separation - Mach-Number Technique

9.4.1 Mach-number technique shall be applied if required for separation of aircraft entering CMNPS airspace. (R)

Reference: Mach-number/TAS - Clearances and Reports; RAC 8.2, A.I.P. Canada (TP2300E).

9.4.2 Aircraft shall be separated by 10 minutes provided that:

(a) the Mach-number technique is used;

(b) the aircraft are in level flight, climbing or descending;

(c) the aircraft are operating on the identical track or continuously diverging tracks;

(d) the aircraft have reported over a common point; and

(e) the required longitudinal separation will be maintained until tracks diverge; and, when tracks diverge, the required lateral separation and at least 5 minutes longitudinal separation will exist at the point where lateral separation is achieved.

9.4.3 A faster succeeding aircraft shall be separated from a slower preceding aircraft by ensuring that not less than 10 minutes is maintained:

(a) until tracks diverge; and, when tracks diverge, the required lateral separation and at least 5 minutes longitudinal separation will exist at the point where lateral separation is achieved; or

(b) to a point at which another form of separation will be achieved.

9.4.4 The 10-minute separation minimum referred to in Chapter 2, subsection 9.4.3 may be reduced using the table, provided that the following conditions are met: (N)

(a) the preceding aircraft is maintaining a greater Mach-number than the succeeding aircraft; and

(b)

(i) the aircraft have reported over a common point, or

(ii) radar, DME, or RNAV distance is used to ensure that the appropriate time interval exists and will exist at the common point.

Mach Difference Minimum Separation
0.02 9 minutes
0.03 8 minutes
0.04 7 minutes
0.05 6 minutes
0.06 5 minutes

NOTE:

If the aircraft will follow continuously diverging tracks and the required lateral separation will be achieved not later than 20 minutes after the preceding aircraft has passed the common point, the requirement to have 5 minutes longitudinal separation where lateral separation is achieved does not apply.

10.0 Required Navigation Performance Capability (RNPC) Minima

10.1 General

10.1.1 Unless otherwise indicated, the criteria in this section shall be applied to RNPC certified aircraft operating within RNPC airspace, as specified in the Designated Airspace Handbook (TP1820E).

10.1.2 Distance-based separation requires Direct Controller - Pilot Communications (DCPC).

10.2 Vertical Separation

10.2.1 Vertical separation is not required between RNPC certified aircraft on reciprocal tracks, provided that RNAV positions indicate they have passed and are 30 miles apart.

10.3 Lateral Separation

10.3.1 RNPC certified aircraft shall be protected by:

(a) 10 miles each side of the track, if operating off airways; or

(b) the airspace to be protected for an airway, if operating on airways.

10.4 Longitudinal Separation

10.4.1 RNPC certified aircraft operating on the same track, or crossing tracks, shall be separated by a minimum of 10 minutes.

10.4.2 RNPC certified aircraft operating on the same track shall be separated by 30 miles, provided that the distance is determined through RNAV from a common point.

10.4.3 RNPC certified aircraft on crossing tracks shall be separated by 30 miles, as determined by RNAV distance from the crossing point.

10.4.4 If aircraft are on crossing tracks or converging to or diverging from an area of overlap at an angle of less than 45 degrees, vertical separation shall be established before the RNPC certified aircraft reaches a point 15 miles from the area of overlap, as determined by RNAV.

10.5 Longitudinal Separation - Mach-Number Technique

10.5.1 RNPC certified aircraft shall be separated by 10 minutes provided that:

(a) the Mach-number technique is used;

(b) aircraft are in level flight, climbing or descending;

(c) aircraft are operating on the same track or continuously diverging tracks;

(d) aircraft have reported over a common point; and

(e) the required longitudinal separation will be maintained until tracks diverge; and, when tracks diverge, the required lateral separation and at least 5 minutes longitudinal separation will exist at the next significant point.

10.5.2 The 10-minute separation minima referred to in Chapter 2, subsection 10.5.1 may be reduced in accordance with the table, provided that the following conditions are met: (N)

(a)

(i) the preceding aircraft is maintaining a greater Mach-number than the succeeding aircraft, and

(ii) the aircraft have reported over the same NAVAID, or fix derived from NAVAIDs; or

(b) radar, DME, or any RNAV distance is used to ensure that the appropriate time interval exists and will exist at the common point.

Mach Difference Minimum Separation
0.02 9 minutes
0.03 8 minutes
0.04 7 minutes
0.05 6 minutes
0.06 5 minutes

NOTE:

The 5-minute longitudinal separation minimum is no longer required, if the aircraft are following continuously diverging tracks and the required lateral separation will be achieved at the next significant point.

10.5.3 A faster succeeding aircraft shall be separated from a preceding aircraft by ensuring that a not-less-than 10-minute longitudinal separation is maintained:

(a) until tracks diverge, provided that the required lateral separation and at least 5 minutes longitudinal separation will exist at the next significant point; or

(b) to a point at which another form of separation will be achieved.

11.0 Altitude Reservations

11.1 General

11.1.1 The separation minima contained in this section shall be applied to provide separation between:

(a) ALTRVs;

(b) ALTRVs and predetermined unreserved tracks in controlled airspace; and

(c) aircraft operating outside an ALTRV, and:

(i) aircraft operating within a moving ALTRV,

(ii) the protected airspace of a moving ALTRV, or

(iii) the geographical and vertical limits of a stationary ALTRV.

11.1.2 A non-participating military aircraft need not be separated from a military ALTRV provided that the non-participating aircraft is operating:

(a) "at least 1,000 feet on top"; or

(b) in accordance with VFR.

11.2 Vertical Separation

11.2.1 Aircraft shall be separated vertically by one of the following minima:

(a) FL290 and below - 1,000 feet;

(b) above FL290 - 2,000 feet.

11.3 Lateral Separation

11.3.1 ALTRVs shall be separated laterally by:

(a) the appropriate lateral separation minima; or

(b) 30 miles for CMNPS certified aircraft from:

(i) the protected airspace of a moving ALTRV, or

(ii) the geographical limits of a stationary ALTRV.

11.3.2 For a stationary ALTRV, separation exists if there is no overlap of the boundary of the ALTRV with the boundary of another ALTRV.

11.4 Longitudinal Separation

11.4.1 Apply the following longitudinal separation minima:

(a) within domestic FIRs excluding the ACA - 30 minutes;

(b) within the ACA - 60 minutes.

11.5 Military IFR Formation Flights

11.5.1 Military IFR formation flights shall be separated as follows:

(a) Non-radar

(i) for a standard formation flight - standard separation minimum shall be applied, and

(ii) for a non-standard formation flight - increased separation minimum shall be applied when the lateral or longitudinal spacing of the aircraft is in excess of the criteria specified for a standard formation.

(b) Radar

(i) for a standard formation flight - add one mile to the appropriate radar separation minima,

(ii) between two standard formation flights - add two miles to the appropriate radar separation minima, and

(iii) for a non-standard formation flight - apply the appropriate radar separation minima to the perimeter of the airspace encompassing the non-standard formation, or from the outermost aircraft of the non-standard formation, whichever applies.

11.6 USAF Bomber Cell Flights

11.6.1 A USAF Bomber cell formation flight shall be separated from other aircraft as follows:

(a) vertical separation shall be applied from the highest or lowest altitude occupied by a cell aircraft as appropriate;

(b) lateral separation shall be applied as for a single aircraft;

(c) longitudinal separation shall be applied from the leading or trailing cell aircraft as appropriate.

11.7 Jet Approaches and Penetration Turn Procedures

11.7.1 The following conditions shall be met when a succeeding military jet aircraft is cleared for the same high-altitude approach procedure other than a straight-in approach:

(a) the preceding aircraft has reported intercepting the inbound track;

(b) DCPC is established with each aircraft;

(c) the initial penetration altitude of each aircraft is not lower than that of the preceding aircraft;

(d) the preceding aircraft will not execute a circling procedure before landing; and

(e) the missed approach procedure does not involve a reversal of heading.

11.7.2 The following conditions shall be met when a succeeding military jet aircraft is cleared for the same straight-in TACAN approach:

(a) there is a minimum of 10 miles separation between the aircraft;

(b) two DME fixes are used to establish an approach interval that will ensure that the required separation minimum is maintained;

(c) DCPC is established with each aircraft;

(d) the initial penetration altitude of each aircraft is not lower than that of the preceding aircraft;

(e) the preceding aircraft will not execute a circling procedure before landing; and

(f) the missed approach procedure does not involve a reversal of heading.

CHAPTER 3 - RADAR SEPARATION

1.0 Application of Radar Separation

1.1 The following conditions shall be met when radar separation is applied between an aircraft taking-off or executing a missed approach, and other radar controlled aircraft:

(a) the departing or missed approach aircraft will be radar identified within 1 mile of the end of the runway;

(b) radar separation will be established at that point; and

(c) continuing separation from all known IFR or CVFR aircraft will be assured.

1.2 The following conditions shall be met when radar separation is applied between a radar identified aircraft and an aircraft that is not radar identified:

(a) one aircraft is cleared to climb or descend through the altitude of the other aircraft;

(b) the performance of the primary radar system is adequate and primary radar targets are being displayed;

(c) the airspace in which the separation is applied is 10 miles or more from the extremity of reliable primary radar coverage provided;

(d) the non-identified aircraft is a type that can be expected to give an adequate primary radar return in the airspace in which the separation is being applied;

(e) if both aircraft are proceeding in the same direction, the identified aircraft is vectored, before climb or descent, to the extent necessary to ensure its target has not obscured that of the non-identified aircraft; and

(f) radar separation is maintained from all observed targets until non-radar separation is established from the non-identified aircraft.

2.0 Radar Separation Minima

2.1 Aircraft shall be separated using one of the following minima: (N)

(a) 5 miles; or

(b) 3 miles, where:

(i) terminal control service is being provided that,

(ii) a maximum range of 60 miles is displayed on the radar display, and

(iii)

(A) altitude readouts for both aircraft are displayed, or

(B) both aircraft are at or below 15,000 feet ASL;

(c) 2.5 miles between aircraft established on the same final approach course within 10 miles of the landing runway provided that:

(i) the leading aircraft is not a heavy,

(ii) the following aircraft's weight category is the same or heavier than that of the leading aircraft, and

(iii) the runway is bare;

(d) 1 mile provided that:

(i) the operation is in a mosaicked environment, and:

(A) at least one of the aircraft is VFR,

(B) a maximum range of 40 miles is displayed on the radar display,

(C) altitude readouts are displayed for both aircraft,

(D) the position of the centre of the radar display is such that the maximum range that this service can be provided does not exceed 120 miles from the preferred or supplementary radar;

(ii) the operation is in a non-mosaicked environment, and:

(A) at least one of the aircraft is VFR,

(B) a maximum range of 40 miles is displayed on the radar display,

(C) altitude readouts are displayed for both aircraft,

(D) the position of the centre of the radar display is such that the maximum range that this service can be provided does not exceed 60 miles from the Radar Site Equipment(RSE);

(e) target resolution provided that:

(i) at least one of the aircraft is VFR,

(ii) a maximum range of 40 miles is displayed on the radar display,

(iii) altitude readouts are displayed for both aircraft,

(iv) PPS size is selected at 2 or greater,

(v) the position of the centre of the radar display is such that the maximum range this service can be provided does not exceed 60 miles from the RSE.

(f) 10 miles if the source radar is not an RSE.

NOTE:

These minima do not apply when an arriving aircraft is separated from a departing aircraft in accordance with Chapter 3, subsection 6.2.1 - Departure Versus Arrival.

2.2 The following conditions shall be met when discontinuing vertical separation between aircraft on reciprocal tracks if observed on radar that they have passed each other and:

(a) are 3 miles apart; or

(b) the PPSs do not overlap, provided that:

(i) altitude readouts are displayed for both aircraft, or

(ii) both aircraft are at or below 15,000 feet ASL;

(c) 5 miles if the source radar is not an RSE.

2.3 Aircraft shall be separated from the boundary of adjoining airspace in which radar separation is being used, in accordance with the following table:

If: And If: And If:: Separation Required
      2.5 miles
  Adjoining airspace is controlled with RSE/RDPS 1. Terminal control service is being provided;
2. A maximum of 60 miles is displayed on the radar display; and
3.a) An altitude read-out is displayed for the aircraft; or
(b) The aircraft is at or below 15,000 feet ASL.
 
1.5 mile
      5 miles
RSE/RDPS Adjoining airspace is not controlled with RSE/RDPS 1. Terminal control service is being provided;
2. A maximum of 60 miles is displayed on the radar display; and
3.(a) An altitude read-out is displayed for the aircraft; or
(b) The aircraft is at or below 15,000 feet ASL.
 
3 miles
NON - RSE/RDPS     5 miles

2.4 A radar controlled aircraft shall be separated from the boundary of airspace in which non-radar separation is being used, or from the boundary of Class F restricted areas by:

(a) 5 miles; or

(b) 3 miles, provided that:

(i) a maximum range of 60 miles is displayed on the radar display, and

(ii)

(A) an altitude readout is displayed for the aircraft, or

(B) the aircraft is at or below 15,000 feet ASL;

(c) 10 miles, if the source radar is not an RSE.

2.5 If vertical separation will not be applied, aircraft shall be vectored to ensure that the PPS will not penetrate a Class F advisory area displayed on the radar display.

2.6 Vertical separation shall be established for an aircraft that will overfly a Class F advisory area, prior to the PPS penetrating the area as displayed on the radar display, and maintained until the PPS is clear of the area.

2.7 If the source radar is a non-RSE radar, separation shall be provided that during any time that the target is less than 5 miles from the Class F advisory area displayed on the radar map.

3.0 Wake Turbulence Minima

3.1 Wake turbulence radar minima shall be applied between aircraft that are being provided that radar service if one aircraft:

(a) is operating directly behind and less than 1,000 feet below a preceding aircraft;

(b) will cross directly behind a climbing or descending aircraft; or

(c) will cross behind a climbing or descending aircraft. If the following aircraft is at the same altitude or less than 1,000 feet below the altitude vacated by the preceding aircraft at the crossing position, the following aircraft shall be separated by one of the following minima:

(i) heavy behind a heavy - 4 miles,

(ii) medium behind a heavy - 5 miles,

(iii) light behind a heavy - 6 miles,

(iv) light behind a medium - 4 miles.

3.2 A 2-minute separation shall be applied at the point of flight path intersection, if an IFR departure from an adjacent airport will cross behind and less than 1,000 feet below a preceding IFR aircraft.

4.0 Category II ILS Approaches

4.1 When Category II ILS approaches are being conducted, aircraft on approach shall be separated by 5 miles or more.

v4.2 When Category II ILS approaches are being conducted, departing aircraft shall be separated from arriving aircraft by 4 miles or more.

5.0 Obstruction Clearance

5.1 Adequate terrain clearance shall be provided that above a prominent obstruction by one of the following minima:

(a) 5 miles, where the position of the prominent obstruction is indicated on the radar display; or

(b) 3 miles, where:

(i) terminal control service is being provided that,

(ii) a maximum range of 60 miles is displayed on the radar display, and

(iii) the prominent obstruction is enclosed within a buffer on the radar display.

6.0 Radar Departures

6.1 General

6.1.1 An initial departure clearance shall be based on non-radar separation minima and non-radar routes, to provide for radar or communication failure. (N)

NOTE:

This provision does not apply if aircraft will be radar separated in accordance with Chapter 3, section 1.2 - Application of Radar Separation.

6.2 Departure Versus Arrival

6.2.1 The following conditions shall be met when permitting a departing aircraft to take-off in a direction which differs by 45 degrees or more from the reciprocal of the track of an arriving aircraft:

(a) the arriving aircraft is on final approach;

(b) the arriving aircraft is radar identified;

(c)

(i) the departing aircraft is airborne when the arriving aircraft is not less than 2 miles from the threshold of the landing runway;

(ii) the departing aircraft has commenced its take-off roll when the arriving aircraft is not less than 2 miles from the threshold of the landing runway, provided that:

(A) separation will increase to a minimum of 3 miles (5 miles, if more than a 60-mile range is displayed on the radar display) within 1 minute after take-off;

(iii) if crossing runways are used, the departing aircraft has crossed the centre line of the runway on which the landing will be made when the arriving aircraft is not less than:

(A) 2 miles from the threshold of the landing runway, or

(B) 2 miles from the intersection of the departure and arrival runways;

(d) lateral separation from the specified missed approach course is assured immediately after take-off if the possibility of a missed approach exists;

(e) the arriving aircraft will not carry out a circling procedure.

6.2.2 The following conditions shall be met when a departing aircraft is authorized to take-off from a runway that is parallel to a runway being used by an arriving aircraft:

(a) the runway thresholds are even, and the runway centre lines are 2,500 feet or more apart (centre line to centre line); or

(b) the runway thresholds are staggered and:

(i) if the arriving aircraft is approaching the nearer runway, the required distance between runway centre lines may be 100 feet less than 2,500 feet for each 500 feet that the thresholds are staggered.

(ii) if the arriving aircraft is approaching the farther runway, the required distance between runway centre lines must be 100 feet more than 2,500 feet for each 500 feet that the thresholds are staggered.

(c) in addition to (a) and (b), the following conditions shall also be met:

(i) the aircraft are informed that simultaneous operations are in effect,

(ii) the aircraft are landing in the same direction being used for take-off and are making either straight-in or visual approaches which are being monitored on radar,

(iii) the departing aircraft are assigned headings that diverge immediately after take-off by 30 degrees or more from the missed approach of the arriving aircraft,

(iv) radar identification of the departing aircraft will be established within one mile of the runway,

(v) a maximum of 60 miles is displayed on the radar display,

(vi) neither a departing aircraft nor a missed approach aircraft is cleared nor permitted to turn toward the flight path of the other, unless another form of separation has been achieved.

6.3 Departure Versus Departure

6.3.1 The following conditions shall be met when a departing aircraft is authorized to take-off from a runway that is parallel to a runway being used by another departing aircraft:

(a) the runways are 2,500 feet or more apart (centre line to centre line);

(b) both aircraft will follow assigned tracks that diverge by 15 degrees or more immediately after take-off;

(c) radar identification of both aircraft will be established within 1 mile of the runway used for take-off;

(d) a maximum of 60 miles is displayed on the radar display; and

(e) neither aircraft is cleared nor permitted to turn towards the departure path of the other unless another form of separation has been achieved.

6.3.2 The following conditions shall be met when simultaneous take-offs are authorized for aircraft departing from non-intersecting runways:

(a) the runway centre lines diverge by 15 degrees or more;

(b) radar identification of both aircraft will be established within 1 mile of the runway used for take-off;

(c) a maximum of 60 miles is displayed on the radar display;

(d) when required, a wake turbulence minimum is applied; and

(e) neither aircraft is cleared nor permitted to turn towards the other unless another form of separation has been achieved.

6.3.3 The following conditions shall be met when a succeeding aircraft is authorized to take-off from an intersecting runway:

(a) the runway centre lines diverge by 15 degrees or more;

(b) the previous aircraft has passed the point of the runway intersection;

(c) when required, a wake turbulence minimum is applied to the succeeding aircraft;

(d) radar identification of both aircraft will be established within 1 mile of the runway used for take-off;

(e) a maximum of 60 miles is displayed on the radar display; and

(f) neither aircraft is cleared nor permitted to turn towards the departure path of the other unless another form of separation has been achieved.

6.4 Successive Departures

6.4.1 The following conditions shall be met when separating successive departing aircraft by 1 mile from the same, or parallel runways that are separated by less than 2,500 feet:

(a) radar identification of both aircraft will be established within 1 mile of the end of the runway used for take-off;

(b) a maximum of 60 miles is displayed on the radar display;

(c) both aircraft are assigned tracks that diverge immediately after take-off as follows:

(i) if the speed of the following aircraft will exceed that of the leading aircraft;

(A) turn the leading aircraft 30 degrees or more; and

(B) do not authorize the following aircraft to depart until the leading aircraft has commenced the turn; or

(ii) if the speed of the following aircraft will not exceed that of the leading aircraft, turn either aircraft 15 degrees or more, or turn both aircraft immediately after take-off such that the sum of the turns equals 15 degrees or more;

(d) successive departing aircraft are not authorized to turn towards the same side of the runway centre line;

(e) neither aircraft is cleared nor permitted to turn towards the departure path of the other, unless another form of separation has been achieved; and

(f) wake turbulence minima are applied when required.

7.0 Visual Approaches

7.1 The following conditions shall be met when an aircraft is cleared for a visual approach: (N)

(a) the aircraft is identified and provided radar service;
(amended 2011/06/30; previous version)

(b) the reported ceiling at the destination airport is 500 feet or more above the minimum IFR altitude and the ground visibility is 3 statute miles or more;

(c) separation, other than visual, is provided from other IFR or CVFR aircraft except that the aircraft may be instructed to maintain visual separation from preceding arriving IFR or CVFR aircraft when cleared for a visual approach;
(amended 2011/06/30; previous version)

(d) the aircraft reports sighting:

(i) the airport if there is no preceding IFR or CVFR aircraft,
(amended 2011/06/30; previous version)

(ii) the airport if separation from preceding IFR or CVFR aircraft is maintained by ATC, or
(amended 2011/06/30; previous version)

(iii) the aircraft that ATC instructs to follow;
(amended 2011/06/30; previous version)

(e) the aircraft will complete its approach by following a flight path which will not compromise separation with other IFR or CVFR aircraft.

NOTE:

Visual approaches may be requested by pilots or initiated by controllers to gain an operational advantage for arrivals operating in good weather conditions. Pilots cleared for a visual approach are responsible for compliance with published noise abatement procedures, wake turbulence separation and avoidance of Class F airspace.

7.2 Visual Approaches to Multiple Runways

7.2.1 IFR separation shall be maintained until visual separation is applied when conducting visual approaches to multiple runways.

7.2.2 In addition to the requirements in Chapter 3, section 7.0 - Visual Approaches, the following conditions shall be applied when visual approaches are conducted to parallel, intersecting and converging runways:

(a) parallel runways separated by less than 2,500 feet:

(i) IFR separation is maintained until the aircraft reports sighting any preceding aircraft on final approach to the adjacent runway,

(ii) the aircraft is instructed to maintain visual separation from the reported traffic,

(iii) a heavy aircraft is not permitted to pass any other aircraft, or a medium aircraft is not permitted to pass a light aircraft;

(b) parallel runways separated by 2,500, but less than 4,300 feet and both aircraft are being vectored for visual approaches:

(i) separation, other than visual, is maintained until the aircraft are established on a heading which will intercept the extended runway centre line by 30 degrees or less, and

(ii) both aircraft have received and acknowledged the visual approach clearance;

(c) parallel runways separated 4,300 feet or more, and both aircraft are being vectored for visual approaches, separation, other than visual, is maintained until one of the aircraft has received and acknowledged the visual approach clearance;

(d) if one of the aircraft is being vectored for a visual approach while another is being vectored for an instrument approach, separation, other than visual, is maintained until the aircraft conducting the visual approach has received and acknowledged the visual approach clearance;

(e) intersecting and converging runways:

(i) IFR separation shall be maintained until the aircraft has received and acknowledged the visual approach clearance,

(ii) visual approaches may be conducted simultaneously with visual or instrument approaches to another runway.

8.0 Simultaneous Operations

8.1 Simultaneous Independent Parallel ILS Approaches

8.1.1 The following conditions shall be met when aircraft are cleared for straight-in ILS approaches at locations where simultaneous independent parallel ILS approaches have been approved:

(a) the Arrival Controller:

(i) vectors each aircraft:

(A) to provide a minimum of 1 mile of straight and level flight prior to final approach course interception, and

(B) to intercept the final approach course, at an angle of 30 degrees or less, and at a point 2 miles or more from where final descent will begin;

(ii) provides a minimum of 1,000 feet vertical or 3 miles radar separation until both aircraft are within their normal operating zones and established on their respective localizers;

(iii) applies appropriate separation from other IFR or CVFR aircraft except for aircraft established on the parallel localizer and within the Normal Operating Zone (NOZ) for the parallel runway; (N)

NOTE:

Aircraft established on a final approach course are considered separated from aircraft established on an adjacent final approach course provided that it is apparent that neither aircraft is on a track that will cause it to enter the No Transgression Zone (NTZ).

(b) the Monitor Controller:

(i) monitors all simultaneous independent approaches;

(ii) maintains a listening watch on the appropriate airport control frequencies;

(iii) considers the aircraft to be the centre of the PPS;

(iv) issues necessary instructions and information, on the appropriate airport control or dedicated frequency, so as to ensure that aircraft remain within the applicable NOZ as follows:

(A) immediately, when an aircraft is observed to overshoot a turn-on or approach the edge of the NOZ, vectors the aircraft back to the centre line and provides position information, or

(B) when an aircraft is observed to continue on a track which will penetrate the NTZ, immediately vectors the aircraft back to the centreline;

(C) when it is observed that an aircraft has penetrated or is about to penetrate the NTZ, IMMEDIATELY:

(I) issues instructions to the aircraft on the adjacent localizer to alter its heading so as to avoid the deviating aircraft, and

(II) co-ordinates, as appropriate, to accommodate any probable missed approach;

(v) terminates monitoring, if:

(A) visual separation is applied;

(B) the aircraft reports the runway insight; or

(C) the aircraft is observed to be 1 mile from the runway threshold.

8.2 Simultaneous Dependent Parallel ILS Approaches

8.2.1 The following conditions shall be met when aircraft are cleared for straight-in ILS approaches at locations where simultaneous dependent parallel ILS approaches have been approved:

(a) the Arrival Controller:

(i) vectors each aircraft to intercept the final approach course at an angle of 30 degrees or less, and at a point 2 miles or more from where final descent will begin for a straight-in landing;

(ii) provides a minimum of 1,000 feet vertical or 3 miles radar separation until both aircraft are established inbound on their respective localizers;

(iii) provides a minimum of 1.5 miles radar separation diagonally between successive aircraft on adjacent localizer courses when runway centre lines are at least 2,500 feet, but no more than 4,300 feet apart; and

(iv) provides a minimum of 2 miles radar separation diagonally between successive aircraft on adjacent localizer courses when runway centre lines are more than 4,300 feet, but no more than 9,000 feet apart.

8.3 Simultaneous Arrivals Arrival/Departure

8.3.1 The following conditions shall be met when an aircraft is cleared to conduct a precision instrument approach while another aircraft is simultaneously conducting a precision instrument approach to a converging or intersecting runway:

(a) radar separation is maintained until:

(i) one aircraft has landed,

(ii) the tower is able to apply visual separation, or

(iii) another form of separation is established.

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