Bombardier, BD-100-1A10 / Challenger 300

Challenger 300

APPROVED: Ralph Webster DATE: June 2, 2008

Ralph Webster for John McNamara
Team Leader, Challenger 300 Operational Evaluation Team

Transport Canada, Safety & Security
Commercial & Business Aviation, Operational Standards (AARXB)
Place de Ville, Tower C, 330 Sparks St.
Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0N8

Telephone: (613) 990-1080
FAX (613) 954-1602

Mamangement Coordination Sheet

Contents
REVISION RECORD
Revision No. Section Page #s Date
Original All All June 2, 2008
PURPOSE

The primary purpose of this report is to specify Transport Canada master training, checking and currency requirements applicable to crews operating the Bombardier BD-100-1A10, Challenger 300. Additionally, this report discusses operational suitability for private and commercial service in Canada, including regulatory compliance and crew composition. This report can help Canadian private and air operators in the development of training programs and Principal Operations Inspectors (POI) in the administration of the Pilot Proficiency Checks (PPC) required by and 704.108 (2) (c). Provisions of this report are effective until amended, superseded, or withdrawn by subsequent operational evaluation determinations.

Relevant acronyms are defined as follows:

Generic

AFCS Automatic Flight Control System
AFM Aircraft Flight Manual
AP Autopilot
ATP Airline Transport Pilot
BA Bombardier Aerospace
EFIS Electronic Flight Instrument System
EGPWS Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System
EICAS Engine Indication and Crew Alerting System
FDA Flight Director Annunciator
FCOM Flight Crew Operating Manual
FFS Full Flight Simulator
FGP Flight Guidance Panel
FMS Flight Management System
IFIS Integrated Flight Information System
PFD Primary Flight Display
POI Principal Operations Inspector
PPC Pilot Proficiency Check
OET Operational Evaluation Team
PTS Practical Test Standards
QRH Quick Reference Handbook
SOP Standard Operating Procedures
TCAS Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System
ZFW Zero Fuel Weight

Transport Canada

CAR Canadian Aviation Regulations
OE Operational Evaluation
AC Advisory Circular
ACO Aircraft Certification Office
AEG Aircraft Evaluation Group
CFR Code of Federal Regulations
FSB Flight Standardization Board
FTD Flight Training Device
NSEP National Simulator Evaluation Program
OET COMPOSITION
John McNamara Team Leader TC HQ, (AARXB)
Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0N8
Al Riley Regional Rep. Pacific Region, (NAXB)
Vancouver,
Dick Walker Certification Test Pilot Advisor TC HQ, (AARXD)
Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0N8
BACKGROUND

The Challenger 300 is a high altitude, medium-range business jet certified under CAR 525/FAR 25. It is listed on Transport Canada Type Certificate Data Sheet, A-234, as model BD-100-1A10. The Operational Evaluation Team (OET) conducted a joint evaluation of the Challenger 300 with an FAA Flight Standardisation Board (FSB) team formed under the authority of the Long Beach AEG resulting in this report concurrent with an FAA Flight Standards Board (FSB) report. The FAA team was comprised of three operations inspectors and a certification flight test pilot. Two JAA pilots participated in the ground school portion and flew one training sortie each. The JAA indicated that they would return to evaluate the complete Challenger 300 Initial Type rating course at the Bombardier Training Center at Dallas when the course is complete with the FTD and FFS.

From March 9 to April 11, 2003, the Challenger 300 (OE/FSB) received the Challenger 300 pilot training course provided by Bombardier Aerospace (BA) at its Training Center located in Wichita, Kansas. Training consisted of classroom instruction conducted by two instructors from their Bombardier Training Center – Dallas, supplemented with demonstrations using a Systems Integration Test System rig.

Each pilot received four training sorties in the pre-production aircraft C-GIPX (serial #20003) and C-GJCV (serial #20004). The OE/FSB used as a guide, Advisory Circular (AC) 120-53 test T5, which is an evaluation of all the FAA Practical Test Standards (PTS) maneuvers required for an airman to receive a pilot type rating.

The OE/FSB subsequently conducted ten flight legs, totaling approximately twenty flight hours to determine if the Challenger 300 is suitable for operation in Canada under CARs Part VI Subpart 4 and Part VII Subpart 4. In the time available on those flights, the OE/FSB evaluated the majority of the AFM normal, abnormal, and emergency procedures. The AFM was in draft form version 2.7 and could not be completely evaluated. A number of observations and recommendations where forwarded to BFTC and the TC Certification approval authority for inclusion in the final AFM. The final approved AFM will be further evaluated for Operational and Training considerations with the review of the complete FFS training program.

The OET is responsible for conducting future evaluations of future changes to the Challenger 300 (such as engines, system instrumentation, or similar new systems) and its derivatives. The OET will determine the impact of those changes on training, checking and currency, and will amend this report accordingly.

APPLICATION OF OPERATIONAL EVALUATION REPORT

The guidelines and recommendations contained in this report apply to: Civil Aviation Inspectors, Principal Operations Inspectors (POI) and Company Check Pilots employed by Canadian commercial and private operators

PILOT "TYPE RATING" REQUIREMENTS

In accordance with CAR 421.40 the pilot type rating for the Challenger 300, in Canada, is designated as "CL30”. This designator is consistent with the current ICAO Doc 8643 and the FAA Doc 7340. Since Bombardier Inc. applied for a unique type-rating, for the BD-100 Challenger, the OET did not conduct a comparison between the Challenger 300 and any other Bombardier models, therefore, no credit shall be given for training, checking, or currency between the Challenger 300 and any other aircraft.

“MASTER COMMON REQUIREMENTS" (MCRs)

This section is reserved for future variants of the Bombardier Challenger 300.

“MASTER DIFFERENCE REQUIREMENTS" (MDRs)

This section is reserved for future variants of the Bombardier Challenger 300.

ACCEPTABLE "OPERATOR DIFFERENCE REQUIREMENTS" (ODRs) TABLES

This section is reserved for future variants of the Bombardier Challenger 300.

OET SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRAINING

The Initial type training course should follow the typical format for this category and class of aircraft providing the average pilot with the knowledge, skill and proficiency to satisfy the type rating requirements of CAR Std 421.40(2)(a), and PPC requirements of CAR Std 724.108(1).

The course can be expected to be of 18 training days consisting of approximately:

  • 52 hours of Ground School covering:
    • All aircraft systems, description, integration, normal, and abnormal operation integration,
    • Aircraft Procedures, Flight Management Systems and Automatic Flight control system.
    • Performance, weight and Balance &Flight Planning
    • 16 Hours (per crew) in FTD training
    • 20 hours (per crew) in FFS.
  • Followed by a type-rating ride or PPC.

The OET has identified several aircraft systems and/or procedures that must receive special emphasis in a Challenger 300 training program:

Ground Training:

  1. High altitude physiology – The Challenger 300 has a service ceiling of 45,000 feet.
  2. International operating procedures for special use airspace such as: MNPS, RVSM, RNP-10, and RNP-5 operations.
  3. Flight Management System (FMS) – The Challenger employees a sophisticated Collins FMS.
  4. Wing leading edge contamination and its effect on clean stall speed
  5. Terrain Avoidance Warning System (TAWS), Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS)

Systems Integration Training (Flight Training Device - Level 6 or 7):

The integration of the PFD/MFD/FMS and reversion modes provides multiple means of making essential navigation and communication selections. Candidates should be proficient with all primary, optional and reversionary options.

Flight Training (Full Flight Simulator - Level C or D):

  • Aileron/elevator disconnect (jammed controls in each axis).
  • Primary Flight Display (PFD), Multifunction Display (MFD), and EICAS reversionary modes.
  • Integrated use of EICAS messages, switch positions and synoptic pages to determine aircraft system status.
  • Delayed engine response to full power applications at high altitudes. (especially high altitude stalls)
  • Traffic Collision and Avoidance System (TCAS)
  • Loss of all DC Power
  • Low energy rejected landing from idle thrust.
  • High altitude (above 41,000 ft.) handling characteristics with the autopilot and yaw damper inoperative.
  • Crew communications while wearing the oxygen mask using pressure breathing

A number of other characteristics of the Challenger 300 should be emphasised through out the training program:

  • Pilots must be vigilant in monitoring speed profiles in all flight regimes.
  • The aircraft exhibits very little drag rise until speed increases well above MMO/VMO. Care must be taken to monitor speeds when initiating enroute or emergency descents.
  • Enroute descents must be well planned to avoid a high and fast predicaments that may exacerbate the difficulty in reducing speed in a timely manner.
  • Due to low drag, and high residual thrust, speed control is very sensitive in the landing configuration particularly in gusty conditions. Pilots must be vigilant in controlling speed
  • Speed control on approach – on approach the aircraft is operating on the low part of the power curve with slower engine response. It is therefore necessary to be aware of speed/descent/power changes to resist over controlling.
  • An ILS approach using only the Integrated Standby Instruments. The instrument provides all attitude, airspeed and navigation information necessary for an ILS approach, however heading reference is only available from the standby compass.
  • Vertical Navigation and VNAV-MDA approaches (when certified) – will require special emphasis, as there is potential for mode confusion.

The OET also found that early exposure to the AFCS, and FMS is important, especially for pilots with no previous EFIS, or FMS experience. Establishing early confidence in manually flying the aircraft, converting from manual to automatic (FMS controlled) flight mode and back is equally important due to heavy reliance on the AFCS. In the event of a flight path deviation due to input error or system malfunction, the flight crew must be able to comfortably transition from automatic to manual mode and back in an orderly fashion.

PC-based CD-ROM demonstration software would be a valuable asset for clients with no previous experience with a Collins FMS.

Although BA did not seek credits for experience on other aircraft, there is substantial transference of skill and knowledge from the CL-604, which uses the same FMS and flight guidance logic. Should an operator apply, TCCA AARXB (now AARTF) will consider a proposed Challenger 604 / 300 transition course. Similarly an operator’s application to Group these two models for PPC purposes in accordance with CAR Std 724.108(2)

OET SPECIFICATIONS FOR CHECKING

Testing, Checking, and Evaluations specified by Subpart 4 of Part VII of the CARs and TP 6533 apply.

NO FLAP APPROACHES:

Checking in “FLAPS 0” approaches and landings is required for the successful completion of an initial PPC for CAR Parts IV, VI and VII

SPECIFIC FLIGHT CHARACTERISTICS (per PPC schedules CAR Part VII and Part VI, subpart 4):

None

OET SPECIFICATIONS FOR CURRENCY

There are no type-rating currency requirements for in Canada.

AIRCRAFT REGULATORY COMPLIANCE CHECKLIST

General:

BA provided a Compliance checklist for aircraft compliance with CAR 604, CAR 605 and 704. The aircraft as demonstrated was found to be compliant in all respects based on inspection of a demonstration interior. It is important to note that the aircraft is certified as a green airplane and each interior configuration will require a Supplementary type check. Operators are encouraged to consult the Regional Inspectors early in the planning stages to ensure their specific interior does not introduce any elements that would jeopardize the CAR 605/704 compliance.

Performance:

Prior to approval for operations in accordance with CAR 704, Transport Canada will require air operators to demonstrate compliance with Division IV requirements. The operator’s ability to effectively plan turning departures in areas of high terrain or obstacles will be assessed as part of the approval process.

OET SPECIFICATIONS FOR DEVICES AND SIMULATORS

Device and simulator characteristics are designated in Aeroplane and Rotorcraft Simulator Manual (TP 9685). The acceptability of differences between devices, simulators, and aircraft must be addressed by the POI. Requests for device approval should be made to the POI. The POI may approve those devices for that operator if their characteristics clearly meet the established TC criteria and have been qualified by the National Simulator Evaluation Program (NSEP).

ALTERNATE MEANS OF COMPLIANCE TO THIS REPORT

The OET team leader should be consulted by the POI when alternate means of compliance, other than those specified in this report, are proposed. Transport Canada, Commercial &Business Aviation, Operational Standards (AARXB), shall approve alternate means of compliance. If an alternate means of compliance is sought, operators will be required to submit a proposed alternate means for approval that provides an equivalent level of safety to the provisions CARs and this OET report. Analysis, demonstrations, proof of concept testing, differences documentation, and/or other evidence may be required.

In the event that alternate compliance is sought, training program hour reductions, simulator approvals, and device approvals may be significantly limited and reporting requirements may be increased to ensure an equivalent level of training, checking, and currency. Transport Canada will generally not consider relief through alternate compliance means unless sufficient lead-time has been planned by an operator to allow for any necessary testing and evaluation.

SUPPLEMENTAL REPORT - PART II

Part II of the OET report contains historical development information used to develop Part I. This information is kept on file at the Transport Canada, Safety and Security, Commercial &Business Aviation (AARXB), Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0N8

Documents kept on file are as follows:

  • Challenger 300 Master Minimum Equipment List
  • Challenger 300 Operational Manuals
  • Challenger 300 Training syllabus of OET members
  • Challenger 300 Original Aircraft Flight Manual
  • Challenger 300 Operational Evaluation Team member list
  • Challenger 300 Operational Issue Papers
  • Challenger 300 Compliance Checklist for CAR 604, 605 &704
Appendix 1 - COLLINS PROLINE 21 WITH IFIS 5000 BD-100-1A10 CHALLENGER 300

1. PURPOSE AND APPLICABILITY

The following is provided for the benefit of Principal Operating Inspectors, aircraft operators, and training centers for their use in determining the acceptance of the Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) applications (described below) as provided by the IFIS 5000 installation in the Challenger 300. The Collins IFIS 5000 is certified as Class 3 EFB Hardware and Type C applications. Applications are classified as Type C due to the interactivity of the Electronic Charts with the aircraft. The charts can be manipulated i.e. zoomed, scrolled, etc. as Type B, but are classified Type C because aircraft present position is provided on the installed display on the airport depictions and charts.

Transport Canada Civil Aviation (TCCA) guidance on EFB’s is provided in Commercial and Business Aviation Advisory Circular (CBAAC) 0231 and states: “More complex EFB’s, that are fully interfaced with aircraft systems (ex. Class 3 EFB’s and Type C software applications) require that the complete EFB and all its components, be approved by TCCA Aircraft Certification.” The IFIS 5000 installation on the Challenger 300 has been approved by TCCA Aircraft Certification.

EFB functions as provided by the IFIS 5000 are classified as Training Level C, Checking Level B, and Currency Level B.

2. EFB DESCRIPTION

The IFIS 5000 functions are intended to provide situational awareness only and do not provide alerts or warnings. The three major functions provided by the IFIS-5000 are; support for navigational charts, enhanced map overlays, and graphical weather images. The charts function allows the viewing of selected Jeppesen navigations charts. The Enhanced Maps function provide map overlays of geopolitical, airspace, and airway data. The Graphical Weather function provides various weather images, such as NEXRAD, that are uploaded via Datalink. The standard aircraft configuration contains the Enhanced Map Overlays functions. Electronic Charts and Graphical Weather are offered as customer selected options.

3. OE SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRAINING

Training is set at Level C. Level C training requires that flight crews operating under Part VII or subpart 4 of Part VI of the Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) master the Flight Management System and Electronic Flight Bag functions. In addition to the FMS training called for in the OE report, the crew should be trained to use the additional features provided by the IFIS and as a minimum, be able to pull up the airport depiction charts, SID's, Arrival Procedures, and approach charts using the EFB electronic chart function. For aircraft with the optional weather functions, pilots should master the graphic weather depiction function and be able to obtain METARS and TAF's for origin, destination, and alternate airports.

Given the multiple permutations of display options available, and that these options will be dependant on the customer selected options, operators should establish SOP’s for default configurations for departure and arrival.

4. OE SPECIFCATIONS FOR CHECKING

Checking is set at Level B. Level B checking requires a demonstration of proficiency in a task or system. A check is required for initial differences training and for reestablishing currency. The check may be administered by: the company chief pilot or his or her delegate, an approved check pilot, a properly qualified instructor or TCCA inspector. Recommended tasks include demonstrating competency in use of the electronic chart functions to display departures, arrivals, and approaches, and utilizing the graphical weather text functions, and adherence to company SOP’s.

5. OE SPECIFICATIONS FOR CURRENCY

Pilots who have not utilized the IFIS 5000 for a period exceeding 90 days should review the operating manual and company SOP’s prior to their next operational flight. Operators should establish a means of ensuring that pilots are current. Level B is set.

6. OE SPECIFICATIONS FOR DEVICES OR SIMULATORS

Flight Training Devices, Simulators, and or Part Task Trainers may be used for initial training and checking provided that the device accurately duplicates the recommended FMS and EFB functions. Training done in the airplane may be accomplished either in actual flight conditions or on the ground provided all necessary avionics equipment is ON and operational.

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