APPENDIX 3 to OPERATIONAL EVALUATION BOARD REPORT BOMBARDIER BD-700-1A10 and BD-700-1A11 Global Express and Global 5000

THALES HEAD UP DISPLAY (HUD) and BOMBARDIER ENHANCED VISION SYSTEM (BEVS) TRAINING, CHECKING AND CURRENCY REQUIREMENTS

SUMMARY

The training, checking and currency requirements for the operational use, in all phases of flight of the THALES Head Up Display (HUD) with or without the Bombardier Enhanced Vision System (BEVS) are provided in this appendix.

Initial and recurrent training require the use of a TCCA approved level C (or higher) Global aircraft full flight simulator equipped with the THALES HUD and BEVS (as applicable) and with day and night visual displays. As a minimum, the Pilot Flying (PF) the HUD requires a partial Pilot Proficiency Check (PPC), which incorporates specific maneuvers identified under the Checking Requirements of this appendix. An air operator’s pilots in command (PICs) require line indoctrination and consolidation after initial qualification on the HUD and BEVS (as applicable). Air operator 90-day PF takeoff, approach and landing currency requirements apply to the PIC. Training, checking and currency requirements using the BEVS for operations equivalent to FAR 91.175 (l) &(m), to descend below published minima to 100 ft Height Above Threshold (HAT) are included in this appendix.

Low visibility takeoff and CAT II approach operations using the HUD and EVS were not evaluated against the Part VI and VII requirements of the CARs.

This appendix is divided into two sections. The first covers HUD training, checking and currency requirements; and the second covers the additional training, checking and currency requirements associated with a HUD equipped with BEVS.

SECTION 1 – THALES HEAD UP DISPLAY (HUD) TRAINING, CHECKING AND CURRENCY REQUIREMENTS

PREREQUISITE FOR HUD TRAINING

Unless the training is integrated with or occurs sequentially preceding the initial qualification PPC, a prerequisite to HUD training on a Global aeroplane, are prior training, qualification and currency on the Global aeroplane.

HUD TRAINING - GENERAL

The Bombardier Aerospace Training Centre’s Global HUD course meets the requirements of CARs Subpart 604 and 704, for the initial and conversion training of Canadian pilots to operate Global aircraft using the THALES HUD in private or commercial service.

The HUD pilot training requirements consist of those related to initial and recurrent ground and flight training. It should be noted that the HUD training program focuses principally upon training events flown in the left seat by the Pilot-In-Command (PIC) as Pilot Flying (PF). Nevertheless, HUD training of Pilot Not Flying (PNF) Second-In-Command (SIC) duties in the right seat is required, when there are SOP differences for the PNF when the PF is heads up (compared to heads down). SIC HUD familiarization flown in the left seat is recommended.

Special training emphasis should be placed in the following areas:

  1. Crew coordination;
  2. Crew briefings and callouts;
  3. Duties of flying and non-flying pilots; and
  4. EICAS messages and use of QRH and Checklists applicable to HUD.

HUD INITIAL/CONVERSION GROUND TRAINING:

For air operators and private operators, initial/conversion training should be conducted in accordance with the applicable provisions of CARs 704.108 and 705.115, or 604.66 and 604.73. For all operators, the initial ground training program should include the following elements:

  1. Classroom instruction covering HUD operational concepts, crew duties and responsibilities and operational procedures including preflight, normal and abnormal operations, EICAS messages, miscompare, and failure flags.
  2. Classroom instruction or Computer Based Training (CBT) on the HUD symbology set and it’s inter-relationship with airplane aerodynamics, inertial factors, environmental conditions and comparison to Primary Flight Display (PFD).
  3. A HUD pilot training manual or equivalent material in the Flight Crew Operations Manual (FCOM), which explains the limitations, all modes of operation, clear descriptions of HUD symbology, including limit conditions and failures, and incorporating a crew procedures guide clearly delineating PF and PNF duties, responsibilities and procedural call-outs and responses during all phases of flight during which HUD operations are anticipated.

HUD INITIAL FLIGHT TRAINING

Unless integrated with initial type rating training, flight training dedicated to HUD familiarization and proficiency is in addition to other required training elements. Initial training requires a Level C or higher Full Flight Simulator (FFS) with both a day and night visual system equipped with the THALES HUD. All required approaches should be flown from no closer than the final approach fix (FAF) for instrument approaches and from no closer than approximately 1,000 feet AGL (3 - 4 NM) to the runway threshold for visual approaches.

The following flight training program is generic in nature and should not be construed to dictate or limit what the flight course of instruction consists of. Each operator has their own unique requirements, route structure, fleet composition and operations policies to consider in developing their training program. Therefore, what follows is to be considered a guide to operators who are tailoring a HUD training program to fit their own needs.

  1. Ground Operations:

    1. Deployment of HUD and stowage, and
    2. Taxi using HUD under various lighting and visibility conditions.
  2. Airwork: Airwork should include:

    1. Straight and level flight, accelerations and decelerations,
    2. Normal and steep turns, climbs and descents,
    3. Wind Effects on HUD display,
    4. Approach to stall recovery; and
    5. Unusual attitudes.


    Note: Special emphasis training for Airwork should be placed upon the following areas:

    1. HUD unique symbology with the autopilot and flight director both off and on, i.e. flight path vector, flight path acceleration cue, airspeed error tape, low and high speed cues, flight mode annunciator, use of non-conformal symbology including the use of the FPV to recognize and recover from flight at high angles of attack, AOA margin indicator (AMI), and excessive pitch chevrons.
    2. Transitioning to Head Down Displays (HDDs) and the inclusion of HDDs in the crosscheck including EICAS displays and other cockpit indications.
    3. Avoidance of fixation on HUD display and symbology elements, particularly during landing flare manoeuvre and appropriate conditions to turn OFF the HUD display.
    4. Use of HUD in conjunction with approved sun-visor.
  3. Visual Take-offs, Circuits,Approaches and Landings

    1. Crosswind take-off and landing,
    2. Visual approaches to runways at night with minimal lighting (“black hole” approaches) and use of FPV to achieve desired descent angle,
    3. Engine failure on take-off,
    4. One Engine Inoperative (OEI) landing,
    5. and OEI go-around;


    Note: It is desirable to fly these approaches with dissimilar approach and runway lighting systems. Special emphasis training for Visual Take-offs, Circuits and Approaches should be placed upon cross-wind landing technique, and HUD brightness settings for different approach lighting systems. Correct use of flare cue should be demonstrated for landing.
  4. Instrument Approaches:

    1. Approaches to the lowest authorized minima including an approach and landing with OEI,
    2. Missed approach OEI, and
    3. Non-precision, and circling approaches (if applicable).
  5. Abnormal/Emergency Operations: Perform the following manoeuvres (as applicable):

    1. Wind shear escape,
    2. EGPWS escape,
    3. TCAS RA,
    4. HUD failure on approach, and
    5. Approaches with the aircraft in a non-normal slat/flap configuration.


    Note: System/component failures could include slat/flap problems, engine-out operations, HUD failure, warning flags etc. Failure demonstrations may be incorporated into other elements of the Initial Flight Training. Special emphasis training for Abnormal/Emergency Operations should be placed upon the following areas:

    1. HUD symbology non-conformality (FPV) during abnormal flap configurations on final approach (e.g. Slats Out/Flap 0), and
    2. Demonstrate how HUD failure can reduce precision and increase pilot workload unless PF/PNF duties and responsibilities are clearly delineated and understood.

INITIAL HUD PILOT PROFICIENCY CHECK

For air and private operators, the PIC should complete a partial PPC employing the HUD, within 30 days subsequent to completion of HUD conversion training. For air and private operators, the PIC should complete a full Schedule I PPC that samples the employment of the HUD following initial type training that integrates the HUD or HUD training that occurs immediately following the initial type training. For air and private operators, when there are SOP differences for the PNF when the PF is heads up (compared to heads-down), the PNF should complete a partial Schedule I PPC on HUD related PNF duties, within 30 days subsequent to completion of HUD training.

The following manoeuvres should be evaluated as a minimum:

  1. Engine failure on take-off and departure;
  2. Instrument approach and missed approach OEI; and
  3. Failure of HUD during instrument approach.

INITIAL HUD LINE INDOCTRINATION

For air operators, PICs should complete line indoctrination employing the HUD. This requirement should include at least three HUD assisted takeoffs, one visual approach, and two instrument approaches in VMC.

HUD CONSOLIDATION PERIOD

For air operators, a consolidation period should apply prior to utilizing the HUD for instrument approach operations in IMC. PICs should accomplish at least ten manually flown HUD assisted takeoffs and ten HUD approaches to authorized minima in VMC conditions. Each approach should terminate in a manually controlled HUD assisted landing or HUD assisted go-around. Upon completion of these requirements, the HUD qualified PIC should then be qualified to conduct HUD takeoffs and approaches to the authorized minima as set forth in the operator’s operations specifications.

HUD RECURRENT TRAINING AND CHECKING REQUIREMENTS

For air and private operators, recurrent training should include the following HUD operations in addition to regular requirements:

  1. Takeoff, at the lowest authorized visibility, with crosswind;
  2. Takeoff, at the lowest authorized visibility, engine failure before or after V1 with crosswind;
  3. Approach and landing, at the lowest authorized visibility, with crosswind;
  4. Approach, at the lowest authorized visibility, with crosswind, with missed approach;
  5. Non-precision approach(s), including circling (if applicable);
  6. Selected abnormal/emergency manoeuvres. This should include approach and landing with flaps retracted, and approach and landing OEI.

Selected HUD related ground training subjects should be reviewed on a recurrent basis.

For air and private operators, the required manoeuvres on subsequent PIC PPCs should include a sample of operations requiring the use of the HUD. For air and private operators, when there are SOP differences for the PNF when the PF is heads up (compared to heads-down), the required manoeuvres on subsequent SIC PPCs should include a sample of PNF duties related to the use of the HUD.

HUD CURRENCY REQUIREMENTS

An air operator’s PICs should have completed at least three takeoffs, approaches and landings using the HUD in the aeroplane; or have completed at least three takeoffs, approaches and landings as PF using the HUD in a TCCA approved level C (or higher) Global full flight simulator with day and night visual displays, within the previous 90 days before acting as PF using the HUD.

SECTION 2 – BOMBARDIER ENHANCED VISION SYSTEM (BEVS) TRAINING, CHECKING AND CURRENCY REQUIREMENTS

INTRODUCTION

This Section is intended for use to supplement Section 1 (THALES HUD) of this Appendix. The contents of Section 1 apply in addition to the following except where noted.

The BEVS is certified for descent to 100 feet HAT in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) when operated in accordance with the limitations contained in Global Aircraft AFM Supplement 22. In general, descent below published Decision Altitude (DA) to 100 ft HAT is authorized for a straight-in ILS approach or LNAV/VNAV approach with a DA. The current Transport Canada Regulation CAR 602.128, does not allow this capability of using the BEVS, while US operators may be permitted by FAR 91.175 (l) and (m) to exercise this capability. An exemption to CAR 602.128 with appropriate conditions or an appropriate amendment to this regulation is necessary for a Canadian operator to exercise this capability.

The use of the BEVS for situational awareness was evaluated during the operational evaluation, but the focus of the evaluation was the safe operation of the BEVS to 100 feet HAT, because of the criticality of such operations in IMC and low visibility conditions. Accordingly the training, checking and currency recommendations are focused on this capability.

PREREQUISITE FOR BEVS TRAINING

As a prerequisite for BEVS training, pilots should have successfully completed HUD training in the Global Aircraft, however HUD and EVS training can be conducted concurrently.

For authorization equivalent to FAR 91.175 (l) &(m), to descend below published minima to 100 ft Height Above Threshold (HAT), ground training on the Global aircraft for low visibility procedures or CAT II training is required, if such training is not included in the BEVS training.

BEVS TRAINING - GENERAL

The Bombardier Aerospace Training Centre’s Global BEVS course with the required prerequisites meets the requirements of CARs Subparts 604 and 704, for the initial and conversion training of Canadian pilots to operate Global aircraft using BEVS in private or commercial service.

The BEVS pilot training requirements consist of those related to initial and recurrent ground and flight training. It should be noted that the HUD and BEVS training program focuses principally upon training events flown in the left seat by the PIC (PF). Nevertheless, BEVS training of PNF duties in the right seat is required. SIC BEVS familiarization flown in the left seat is recommended.

Note: An asterisk (*) indicates the training checking and currency requirements apply to the use of BEVS for situational awareness only. Authorization for descent below published Decision Altitude (DA) to 100 ft HAT requires that all of the following training, checking and currency requirements be met.

INITIAL/CONVERSION GROUND TRAINING:

For air operators and private operators, initial/conversion training should be conducted in accordance with the applicable provisions of CARs 704.108 and 705.115, or 604.66 and 604.73. For all operators, the initial ground training program should include the following elements:

  1. *Classroom instruction covering BEVS operational concepts, crew duties and responsibilities and operational procedures including preflight, normal and abnormal operations, EICAS messages, miscompare and failure flags.
  2. *Classroom instruction or Computer Based Training (CBT) on BEVS symbology set and its inter-relationship with airplane aerodynamics, inertial factors, environmental conditions and comparison to HUD symbology and the Primary Flight Display (PFD).
  3. *A BEVS pilot training manual or equivalent material in the Flight Crew Operations Manual (FCOM), which explains the limitations, all modes of operation, clear descriptions of BEVS symbology, including limit conditions and failures, and incorporating a crew procedures guide clearly delineating PF and PNF duties, responsibilities and procedural call-outs and responses during all phases of flight during which HUD operations are anticipated.

Special training emphasis should be placed in the following areas:

  1. *Crew briefings, callouts and Standard Operating Procedures (SOP’s);
  2. *Duties of PF and PNF;
  3. *Crew coordination and Crew Resource Management (CRM);
  4. *EICAS messages and use of QRH and Checklists applicable to BEVS;
  5. *Transition from EVS imagery to non-EVS, visual conditions. (Maximum use should be made of videotapes of actual EVS approaches. The relative luminosity between IR imagery and that of approach lighting systems should be identified);
  6. *Characteristics of Raster vs. Stroke displays, and effects of lighting conditions and crosswinds on BEVS symbology and Flight Path Vector (FPV);
  7. *Visual anomalies such as “noise” and “blooming”;
  8. *Appropriate use of Clear Switch;
  9. *Importance of the “design eye position” in acquiring the proper EVS image;
  10. Where PF should look to acquire required visual references for descent below published Decision Altitude (DA);
  11. *Importance of cross checking the BEVS instrumentation presentations against the EVS visual scene presentation to enable the pilot to recognize malfunctions of the EVS, navigational guidance information, and improper presentation of elements in the visual scene during an approach;
  12. Identification of 100 ft Height Above Threshold using Barometric Altitude and monitoring of Radio Altitude and response to altitude callouts and alerts and need for FMS temperature compensation for cold temperatures;
  13. AFM Performance &Obstacle Clearance on Go Around; Pilots should be made aware they may not have obstacle protection when initiating a missed approach from 100 ft HAT;
  14. Use of AP &AT coupled approaches &awareness of Autopilot Minimum Engage Height (MEH) for LNAV/VNAV approaches;
  15. Familiarization with criteria of FAR 91.175 (l) and (m) for descent below published minima to 100 ft. HAT.
  16. *Effective and appropriate monitoring by PNF, of EVS imagery presented on FMS CDU

INITIAL FLIGHT TRAINING

Unless integrated with initial type rating training, flight training dedicated to BEVS familiarization and proficiency is in addition to other required training elements. Initial flight training requires the use of a level C (or higher) Global aircraft full flight simulator equipped with BEVS with day and night visual displays and able to display a suitable IR image. All required approaches should be flown from no closer than the final approach fix (FAF) for instrument approaches and from no closer than approximately 1000 feet AGL (3 - 4 NM) to the runway threshold for visual approaches.

The following flight training program is generic in nature and should not be construed to dictate or limit what the flight course of instruction consists of. Each operator has their own unique requirements, route structure, fleet composition and operations policies to consider in developing their training program. Therefore, what follows is to be considered a guide to operators who are tailoring a BEVS training program to fit their own needs.

  1. *Ground Operations:

    1. Initialization of BEVS for operations;
    2. Taxi using BEVS under various lighting and visibility conditions.
  2. Airwork: There is no additional airwork requirement to HUD training.
  3. *Visual Take-offs, Circuits and Approaches

    1. Normal Take-off and Landing with crosswind;
    2. Visual approaches to runways at night with minimal lighting (“black hole” approaches) and use of FPV and Flight Path Reference Cue (FPARC) to achieve desired descent angle.


    *Sufficient demonstrations should be provided of HUD imagery over various terrain features during ground and flight operations under various conditions. IR imagery of other aircraft, vehicles, buildings and airport lighting systems should also be provided.
  4. Instrument Approaches:

    1. *ILS and LNAV/VNAV approaches to lowest published minima with missed approach or landing;
    2. ILS and LNAV/VNAV approaches to lowest published minima and acquisition of sufficient EVS image to continue to 100 ft HAT. Acquisition of required visual references without aid of EVS above 100 ft HAT followed by a landing or missed approach;
  5. *Abnormal/Emergency Operations:

    1. *Failure of BEVS, or
    2. Failure of the BEVS preventing continued approach when below published minima on a Category 1 ILS.

INITIAL BEVS PILOT PROFICIENCY CHECK

For air and private operators authorized to descend below published minima to 100 ft HAT, the PIC should complete a partial PPC employing the BEVS, within 30 days subsequent to completion of BEVS conversion training. For air and private operators, the PIC should complete a full Schedule I PPC that samples the employment of the BEVS following initial type training that integrates the BEVS or BEVS training that occurs immediately following the initial type training. For air and private operators, the PNF should complete a partial Schedule I PPC on BEVS related PNF duties, within 30 days subsequent to completion of BEVS training.

The following manoeuvres should be evaluated as a minimum for a partial PPC, or included in an initial full PPC:

  1. Instrument approach and landing with acquisition of the BEVS image before published minima and acquisition of required visual references without aid of BEVS above 100 ft HAT, to permit a landing; and
  2. Instrument approach with acquisition of EVS image before published minima and failure of BEVS below published minima requiring a missed approach above 100 ft. HAT.

INITIAL BEVS LINE INDOCTRINATION

For air operators, PICs should complete line indoctrination employing the BEVS. This requirement should include at least three BEVS assisted takeoffs at night, one visual approach at night, and two instrument approaches in VMC.

BEVS CONSOLIDATION PERIOD

*For air operators, a consolidation period should apply prior to utilizing the BEVS for instrument approach operations in IMC. PICs should accomplish at least three manually flown BEVS assisted night takeoffs, approaches, and landings to the lowest authorized minima in VMC conditions. Each approach should terminate in a manually controlled BEVS assisted landing or BEVS assisted go-around. Upon completion of these requirements, the BEVS qualified PIC should then be qualified to conduct BEVS takeoffs and approaches to the authorized minima as set forth in the operator’s operations specifications.

RECURRENT TRAINING AND CHECKING REQUIREMENTS

For air and private operators, the recurrent training applicable to the HUD apply with the addition of the following requirements using the BEVS:

  1. *Instrument approach and landing, or
  2. Instrument approach and landing with acquisition of EVS image before published minima and acquisition of image without aid of BEVS above 100 ft HAT, to provide required visual references to permit a landing; and
  3. *Instrument approach with acquisition of EVS image before published minima and failure of BEVS below published minima requiring a missed approach above 100 ft. HAT.

*Selected ground training subjects should be reviewed on a recurrent basis.

For air and private operators, the required manoeuvres on subsequent PIC PPCs should include a sample of operations requiring the use of the BEVS. For air and private operators, the required manoeuvres on subsequent SIC PPCs should include a sample of PNF duties related to the use of the BEVS.

BEVS CURRENCY REQUIREMENTS

An air operator’s PICs should have completed at least one night takeoff, approach and landing as PF using the BEVS; or have completed at least one night takeoff, approach and landing as PF using the BEVS in a TCCA approved level C (or higher) Global full flight simulator with day and night visual displays and able to display a representative IR image, within the previous 90 days before acting as PF using the BEVS. The BEVS currency requirement can be credited to the HUD currency requirements.

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