CESSNA CITATION SOVEREIGN C-680

Operational Evaluation

CESSNA AIRCRAFT COMPANY

Revision 1

February 18, 2006

Table of contents

Prologue

  1. Purpose
  2. OE Board composition
  3. Background
  4. Application
  5. Type rating determination
  6. Master Common Requirement (MCR)
  7. Master differences Requirements (MDR)
  8. Acceptable Operator differences Requirements (ODR's) tables
  9. Specification for training
  10. Specification for checking
  11. Specification for currency
  12. Aircraft regulatory compliance checklist
  13. Specification for devices and simulators
  14. Miscellaneous
  15. Appendix 1 - MDR table
  16. Appendix 2 - Acceptable ODR tables
  17. Appendix 3 - Training programs special emphasis training
  18. Appendix 4 - Operating rules appliance checklist

Prologue

Application of Operational Evaluation Report.

The guidelines and recommendations contained in this report apply to: Civil Aviation Inspectors, Principal Operations Inspectors (POI) and Company Check Pilots employed by Canadian commercial operators

This operational evaluation is based on contract ground and flight training provided by Flight Safety International, Cessna Flight Training Center, Wichita Kansas. Flight training was conducted in the Cessna Sovereign simulator (TC ID 444) This evaluation has been made in compliance with the TCCA JOEB/FLC common procedures terms of references.

General objectives

The report that follows covers the Flight Operations conducted under subpart 704 of the Canadian Aviation regulations.

Simulator and Minimum Equipment List (MEL) evaluation is not included in this report.

Generic abbreviations

AFCS Automatic Flight Control System
AFM Aircraft Flight Manual
AP Autopilot
ATP Airline Transport Pilot
EFIS Electronic Flight Instrument System
EGPWS Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System
EICAS Engine Indication and Crew Alerting System
FDA Flight Director Annunciator
FCOM Flight Crew Operating Manual
FFS Full Flight Simulator
FGP Flight Guidance Panel
FMS Flight Management System
PFD Primary Flight Display
POI Principal Operations Inspector
PPC Pilot Proficiency Check
PMI Principle Maintenance Inspector
OET Operational Evaluation Team
PTS Practical Test Standards
QRH Quick Reference Handbook
SIT Systems Integration Training
TCAS Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System
ZFW Zero Fuel Weight

Transport Canada

CAR Canadian Aviation Regulations
OE Operational Evaluation

Operational Evaluation Report, Operations

1 Purpose

This report:

  • Defines the Type Rating assigned to the C-680 Sovereign.
  • Makes recommendations for initial training.
  • Makes recommendation for checking.
  • Makes recommendation for currency.
  • Determines findings on the operational acceptability.

2 OE Board composition

  • One pilot conducted this TCCA operational evaluation.
  • Mark C. Evans - Superintendent, Fixed Wing Operations, Commercial Aviation TCCA - TAXF.
  • The inspector is type rated on multi engine turbojet aircraft . Board member performed and evaluated the areas of operation required by the airline transport pilot and / or type rating practical test standards required by Canadian Aviation Regulation (CAR) subpart 704.
  • The contracted training was conducted on behalf of Omega Aviation Corp. at Flight Safety's Cessna training center in Wichita Kansas.

3 Background

  • The model "Citation Sovereign 680 is a high speed long range aircraft certified under FAR 25. It is powered by two Pratt and Whitney PW306C turbofan engines each rated at 5770 pounds of static thrust at sea level up to 87 degrees Fahrenheit. The aircraft is certified for sustained flight from sea level to 47,000 feet.

4 Application

The guidelines set out in this report apply to:

  1. Flight training.
  2. Technical ground instructors.
  3. Contract training agencies.
  4. Civil Aviation Inspectors.
  5. Designated Approved Check Pilots.
  6. Pilots receiving training.

5 Type rating determination

5.1 Pilot Type Rating Requirements
  • With reference to Canadian Aviation Regulations 401.06 a new pilot's type rating is assigned to the Cessna Citation Sovereign and the designated licence endorsement is: C-680.
5.2 Type Rating Course
  • The Initial type training course should follow the typical format for this category and class of aircraft providing the average pilot with the knowledge, skill and proficiency to satisfy the type rating requirements of CAR Std 421.40(2)(a), and PPC requirements of CAR Std 724.108(1).
  • The course can be expected to be of 18 training days consisting of approximately:
    • 60 hours of Ground School covering:
    • All aircraft systems, descriptions, integrations, normal and abnormal operation.
    • Aircraft Procedures, Flight Management System and Automatic Flight control system.
    • Performance, weight and Balance &Flight Planning
    • 6 hours per pilot in "SIT" sessions
    • 14 Hours per pilot in FFS training
  • Followed by a type-rating PPC.
  • The OET has identified several aircraft systems and/or procedures that must receive special emphasis in a Citation Sovereign C-680 training program as follows:
5.2.1 Special Emphasis, Ground Training:
  • Ground school instruction general
    • conducted at the Wichita training facility commenced January 30th, 2006 and concluded February 4th, 2006 followed by half day "sit" sessions, two half day systems review and two half day qualification examinations. The "sit" sessions are designed to familiarize pilots with the "EPIC" avionics interface and re-enforce classroom learning to the practical operation of the aircraft.
    • During the ground school and simulator flight-training period, deficiencies were identified in the simulator visual display, course material and the Emergency and Abnormal Procedures Checklists. Changes to the syllabus, abnormal and emergency checklist were discussed with the instructors at Flight Safety. Changes are to be incorporated into the next Flight Safety QRH.
  • Flight Management System (FMS) – The Sovereign employees a sophisticated Honeywell FMS.
  • Wing leading edge contamination and its effect on clean stall speed
  • Terrain Avoidance Warning System (TAWS), Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS)
  • PC-based CD-ROM demonstration software was available. Unfortunately, the outdated software supplied on the desktop units limited complete FMS programming.
  • Required ground training that should be covered.
    • High altitude training. (The Sovereign has a service ceiling of 49,000 feet)
    • International operating procedures for special use airspace such as: MNPS, RVSM, RNP-10, and RNP-5 operations.
5.2.2 Special Emphasis, Systems Integration Training (SIT):
  • Emphasis must be given on;
    • philosophy of FMS programming and verification of waypoint selection, review of flight planning, and division of duties.
    • The integration of the EPIC interface with the PFD/MFD/FMS and reversion modes provides multiple means of making essential navigation and communication selections. Candidates should be proficient with all primary, optional, and reversionary options.
5.2.3 Special Emphasis, Flight Training (Full Flight Simulator - Level C and D):
  • Aileron/elevator disconnect (jammed controls in each axis).
  • Primary Flight Display (PFD), Multifunction Display (MFD), and EICAS reversionary modes.
  • Integrated use of EICAS messages to determine aircraft system status.
  • Delayed engine response to full power applications during low energy awareness training and at high altitudes, especially high altitude stall recovery.
  • Traffic Collision and Avoidance System (TCAS).
  • Dual generator failure.
  • High altitude (above 41,000 ft.) handling characteristics with the autopilot and yaw damper inoperative.
  • Crew communications while wearing the oxygen mask using pressure breathing.
  • Due to high lift configuration and high residual thrust, speed control is very sensitive in the landing configuration particularly in gusty conditions.
  • In the event of a flight path deviation due to input error or system malfunction, the flight crew must be able to comfortably transition from automatic to manual mode and back in an orderly fashion.

6 Master Common Requirement (MCR)

  • Steep turns, training, and evaluation at 200 KIAS.
  • Stalls sequences, require considerable elevator control force pressures if attempting to maintain altitude.
  • Engine shutdown, securing, and restart require coordination between the two pilots. Auto-flight operation is prohibited during starter assist engine restart procedures. Consideration for development in a company SOPS. Pratt and Whitney recommends that the engine be at idle power for 2 minutes prior to engine shutdown and that the restart be accomplished within one minute, or if the restart can not be accomplished within one minute, that the engine restart be delayed for 10 minutes. During training and testing candidates must leave engine at idle power for two minutes prior to advancing.
  • No flap approaches are required both in training and checking. No flap approaches should be limited to non-circling approaches only.
  • Full Flap Non-precision Approaches. It should be noted that it is the normal practice to execute non-precision instrument approaches and the circling maneuver with full flaps extended.
  • Precision approaches are conducted in the landing configuration and should be established prior to the final approach fix.
  • Landing minimum could be as low as category "B". Circling approaches are limited to category "C" as a minimum.

7 Master differences Requirements (MDR)

  • This section reserved for future variants of the C-680.

8 Acceptable Operator differences Requirements (ODR's) tables.

  • This section reserved for future variants of the C-680.

9 Specification for training.

  • It is the operator's responsibility to ensure that the training pilots (both ground and flight) meet the requirement of CASS 724.115(4).
  • The applicant must meet the training requirements of CAR 704.115.
  • Pilot in Command must hold an Airline Transport Pilot Licence. The Second in Command must hold a Commercial Pilot Licence and comply with CASS 421.40(3).
  • This report does not address the operation of this aircraft under CAR 604.

10 Specification for checking.

  • Checking conducted shall be in accordance with CASS 724.108 schedule 1.

11 Specification for currency

  • All currency requirements for the C-680 must be in accordance with an approved Company Operations Manual and comply with CAR 401.05 and CASS 704.108.

12 Aircraft regulatory compliance checklist.

  • Currently, there is no compliance checklist developed for the C-680. Air operators are cautioned when ordering interior configurations that may not conform to the Canadian Aviation Regulations. Operator should consult their POI and PMI when considering interior configuration.

13 Specification for devices and simulators

  • Requests for device approval should be made to the POI. CASS 724.115(8)(b) requires training and checking in a level A, B, C, or D simulators.
  • Currently, there is an approved level "D" (TC ID #444) simulator located at Wichita Kansas, which may be used to satisfy these requirements in the C-680.
  • Contact the National Simulator Program Manager for details as to the current status of any C-680 simulators.

14 Miscellaneous

  • There is no forward observer's seat on the flight deck or forward passenger seat that complies with CASS 720.16(2)(a.

15 Appendix 1 - MDR table

  • RESERVED

16 Appendix 2 - Acceptable ODR tables

  • RESERVED

17 Appendix 3 - Training programs special emphasis.

  • The operation evaluation covered the majority of the AFM normal, abnormal, and emergency procedures.
  • Configuration confusion exists between different status of mods on specific aircraft not know by instructor.
    • Max fuel imbalanced is affected by mod status SB680-27-02.
    • Latest software updates for FMS Mod status of specific aircraft not known.
    • APU Mod status of specific aircraft not known.
  • Baggage area;
    • Baggage heat - It is possible to melt plastic that comes in contact to the baggage heat inlet air duct. Training should be given to ensure baggage is not affected by contact to the surface of the heat outlets. Care should be given to ensure that recirculation air inlet is not restricted.
    • Baggage door - There is a specific sequence for opening and closing the baggage door.
  • Installation and removal of the "Water Barrier" used for ditching requires a large screwdriver. Aircrews should have training on installation and removal of this equipment.
  • Crew mask requires specific stowing procedure.
  • The Auxiliary hydraulic aux pump may be operated on the ground and will operate basic systems, a personnel hazard exists to ground personnel while in operation.
  • Reconnecting the pitch/roll disconnect must be rotated to the 9 o'clock position before pushing down. This is the only position that it will allow reconnection of both pitch and roll. Damage to the assembly will result if operated incorrectly.
  • AFM page 2-27 # 13 limitation requires update from manufacturer to amend prohibition for ILS preview capture during FMS transition.
  • Over-speed test will illuminate the airspeed indicator. An amber v/s red airspeed depends on flap setting during test.
  • An ILS approach using only the Integrated Standby Instruments. The instrument provides all attitude, airspeed and navigation information necessary for an ILS approach.
  • Performance lessons did not fully address Canadian Aviation Regulation requirements for 704 operations regarding fuel and alternate requirements.
  • Climb, fuel and descent charts are referenced from sea level and include 175 pounds of fuel. Airframe limitations for ramp weight allow for 250 lbs for taxi fuel, confusion may result.
  • Vmc is not published in limitations as found in other AFM's. Vmc can be found in performance (section 4 of the AFM)
  • Vertical Navigation and VNAV-MDA approaches (when certified) – will require special emphasis, as there is potential for mode confusion.
  • While Flight Safety does cover performance graphs, no emphasis or philosophy training is made to ensure correct chart identification.
  • FMS:
    • Basic programming philosophy is not prevalent in this course. Crews duties should be strictly adhered to while programming the FMS.
    • GPS standard verification procedures are not included in the training philosophy.
    • Classroom FMS training is not complete nor does it replicate the existing software in the simulator.

18 Appendix 4 - Operating rules compliance checklist

  • It is not the intention of this report to find commonality with other existing types.
  • Transport Canada, Commercial &Business Aviation, Operational Standards (AARXB), shall approve alternate means of compliance. If an alternate means of compliance is sought, operators will be required to submit a proposed alternate means for approval that provides an equivalent level of safety to the provisions CARs and this OET report. Analysis, demonstrations, proof of concept testing, differences documentation, and/or other evidence may be required.
  • In the event that alternate compliance is sought, training program hour reductions, simulator approvals, and device approvals may be significantly limited and reporting requirements may be increased to ensure an equivalent level of training, checking, and currency. Transport Canada will generally not consider relief through alternate compliance means unless sufficient lead-time has been planned by an operator to allow for any necessary testing and evaluation.
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