Sikorsky S-92

Transport Canada Civil Aviation Team Members:

Alex Roberts & Ross Mackay

Report Prepared and Submitted by:

Alex Roberts
Team Leader, Sikorsky S-92
Operational Evaluation
May 19, 2005

Transport Canada, Safety and Security
Commercial &Business Aviation, Operational Standards
Place de Ville, Tower C, 330 Sparks Street
Ottawa ON K1A 0N8

Telephone: (613) 990-1063
Fax: (613) 954-1602
E-Mail: roberal@tc.gc.cap

APPROVED Roman Marusko
Program Manager, Flight Technical
June 9, 2005

Transport Canada, Safety and Security
Commercial & Business Aviation, Operational Standards
Place de Ville, Tower C, 330 Sparks Street
Ottawa ON K1A 0N8

Telephone: (613) 993-4692
Fax: (613) 954-1602
E-Mail: marushr@tc.gc.cap

TRANSPORT CANADA CO-ORDINATION SHEET

Wayne Chapin
Chief, Certification & Operational Standards
Commercial & Business Aviation
Transport Canada, Civil Aviation
June 13, 2005

Michel Gaudreau
Director, Commercial & Business Aviation
Transport Canada, Civil Aviation
June 17, 2005

Contents

Executive Summary

The Report

  1. PURPOSE AND APPLICABILITY
  2. EVALUATION TEAM
  3. BACKGROUND
  4. PILOT “TYPE RATING” REQUIREMENTS
  5. MASTER COMMON REQUIREMENTS (MCRS)
  6. MASTER DIFFERENCE REQUIREMENTS (MDRS)
  7. ACCEPTABLE "OPERATOR DIFFERENCE REQUIREMENTS" (ODRS) TABLES
  8. TC SPECIFICATIONS FOR SPECIAL EMPHASIS TRAINING
  9. TC SPECIFICATIONS FOR PILOT LINE INDOCTRINATION (PLI)
  10. TC SPECIFICATIONS FOR CHECKING
  11. TC SPECIFICATIONS FOR CURRENCY / RECENT EXPERIENCE
  12. AIRCRAFT REGULATORY COMPLIANCE CHECKLIST
  13. TC SPECIFICATIONS FOR DEVICES AND SIMULATORS
  14. ALTERNATE MEANS OF COMPLIANCE TO THIS REPORT
  15. SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION
  16. LESSONS LEARNED

Appendixes (available upon request)

  1. Operational Evaluation Issue Papers “O1” TO “O7”
  2. TC OE Flight Evaluation
  3. Acronyms
  4. Joint Aviation Authority (JAA) Joint Operational Evaluation Board (JOEB) Type Rating Training Program (TRTP) Outline
  5. Typical S-92 Pilot Training Day Flow
  6. Simulator Certification
  7. TC S-92 Type Certificate Data Sheet H-105

Executive Summary

The S-92 is manufactured in the United States (U.S.) and the Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) is the regulatory body for that state. The U.S. FAA did not convene a Flight Standardization Board consisting of the FAA, Joint Aviation Authority (JAA) and Transport Canada (TC), as per International Agreement dated June 2000, for the Sikorsky S-92 evaluation, therefore the Canadian Operational Evaluation (OE) of the Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) S-92 type helicopter was conducted in relative isolation from them. The JAA representatives similarly conducted a separate S92 evaluation. Information and perspective was constructively shared between the JAA and TC evaluation teams during the evaluations.

The OE Team evaluated both the S-92 FAA Pilot Training and the JAA Pilot Training courses offered by Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation and presented by Flight Safety International (FSI) at the West Palm Beach Florida facility. While both courses were similar, the JAA approved course was found more suitable for Canadian Helicopter Type Training for the S-92 helicopter. The OE Team evaluated S-92 serial number 010 prior to its release for commercial service in Canada.

The TC OE Team had the pleasure of interacting with the Sikorsky S-92 design and commercial implementation team, the FSI S-92 training personnel and the JAA evaluation team. FSI solicited input, affirmative professional input was offered and the S-92 pilot course evolved positively leading up to aircraft certification in Canada.

The Report

1. PURPOSE AND APPLICABILITY

1.1 This OE report specifies training, checking, and currency requirements applicable to crews operating Sikorsky S-92A (S-92) aircraft under Subpart 704 and 702 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs). Provisions of the report:

  • define pilot "type rating" assigned to the S-92;
  • describe any unique requirements applicable to initial or recurrent qualification;
  • describe acceptable training program and device characteristics when necessary to establish compliance;
  • set checking and currency standards including specification of those checks that must be administered by TC or Canadian air operators; and
  • list regulatory compliance status (compliance checklist) for applicable sections of Subparts 602, 605, and 704 of the CARs.

1.2 This report includes:

  • minimum requirements, which must be applied by TC regions (e.g. Type Rating designations, etc.);
  • information which is advisory in general, but is mandatory for particular operators if the designated configurations apply and if approved for that operator;
  • information which is used to facilitate TC review of an aircraft type or variant that is proposed for use by an operator (e.g. compliance checklist); and
  • various sections within the report are qualified as to whether compliance is required, considering the provisions of FAA AC 120-53 as recommended, or is advisory in nature.

1.3 Provisions of this report are effective until amended, superseded or withdrawn by subsequent TC determinations.

1.4 This report addresses the S-92 as specified in the TC Type Certificate Data Sheet (TCDS).

2. EVALUATION TEAM

TC OE Team

Alex Roberts
OE Team Leader S-92
Transport Canada, Commercial &Business Aviation
Inspector Operational Standards (AARXB)
330 Sparks Street
Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0N8
OFFICE: (613) 990-1063
FAX: (613) 954-1602
E-MAIL: roberal@tc.gc.ca

Ross Mackay
Transport Canada Commercial &Business Aviation
Rotorcraft Superintendent Atlantic Region (MAXR)
P.O. Box 42, Moncton, NB E1C 8K6
OFFICE: (506) 851-7246
FAX: (506) 851-7190
E-MAIL: mackayr@tc.gc.ca

3.0 BACKGROUND

3.1 The S-92 is a transport category aircraft certified under Subpart 529 of the CARs – Airworthiness Requirements for Transport Category Helicopters. It is listed on TC Type Certificate Designator H105 (Appendix G). TC conducted an OE of the S-92 resulting in this OE Report.

3.2 TC developed the S-92 OE Plan, to define the scope of the OE, to establish acceptable means of compliance, and to provide regulatory reference for technical items pertaining to the following operational issue papers, issued by the TC:

  • O-1 – Operational Acceptability;
  • O-2 – Type Rating, Training and Checking Requirements;
  • O-3 – Flight Deck Observer Seat and Associated Systems;
  • O-4 – Master Minimum Equipment List (MMEL);
  • O-5 – Training Simulator;
  • O-6 – OE;
  • O-7 – Aircraft Configuration for OE.

3.3 TC adopted FAA AC 120-53 as an acceptable means for determination of type rating and evaluation of training, checking, and currency requirements for safe operation of the S 92.

3.4 In addition, TC adopted the JAA Joint Operational Evaluation Board (JOEB) Type Rating Training Program (TRTP), without module 1.8 “Helicopter Training” and, its subsequent revisions, dated 15th October 2004 for S-92 type helicopters, as the approved manufacturers pilot training course for the addition of an SK-92 type rating to a Canadian Helicopters Pilot License. The TRTP outline is contained in Appendix D. Acceptable standards are assured for commercial helicopter operations by the completion of the Pilot Proficiency Test following the course completion.

3.5 TC performed a modified AC 120-53 Test T5 on the first S-92 destined for commercial service in Canada. Concurrently, the JOEB performed an equivalent to Test 5, according to JAA specific regulation and guidance. It is assumed that the FAA conducted a similar evaluation.

3.6 FSI, in West Palm Beach Florida, is the sole provider of S-92 pilot and maintenance training courses as authorized by Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation.

3.7 Between July 11 and August 29, 2004, the TC OE Team received S-92 initial pilot ground school course provided by FSI in West Palm Beach Florida. The ground school course consisted of computer based instruction, classroom instruction and practical sessions utilizing the simulator (without motion) as a Cockpit Procedures Trainer (CPT). A separate CPT is to be operational at the FSI facility as part of the prescribed training syllabus by 2005.

3.8 Between August 30 and October 7, 2004, the TC OE Team received maneuvers and procedures training utilizing a S-92 interim level C flight simulator at FSI in West Palm Beach Florida, qualified by both the FAA National Simulator Program (NSP) and the JAA Joint Simulator Evaluation Team (JSET). TC recognized the evaluation and qualification of the flight simulator by the FAA as per a FAA/TC bilateral agreement. FSI instructors conducted the simulator training. The OE Team received and reviewed separate S-92 courses, allowing the evaluation of subtle differences between the FAA and JAA courses. One OE Team member participated in a conditionally approved training program based on the FAA course. One OE Team member participated in a conditionally approved training program based on the JAA course.

3.9 In addition, April 6, 2005, the first production aircraft destined for Canada, received a flight evaluation before entering Canadian Commercial Service. See Appendix B.

3.10 An OE Team member and an air operator senior pilot conducted the OE evaluation flight. The flight was used to determine if the S-92 was suitable for operation in Canada under Subpart 704 of the CARs. In the time available, the OE Team evaluated RFM normal, abnormal, and emergency procedures. The abbreviation of the TC evaluation flight was contemplated with the knowledge that the S-92 had undergone similar evaluation flights with both the JAA and FAA evaluation teams.

3.11 TC is responsible for conducting evaluations of future changes to the S 92 and its derivatives. The following particular systems, features, and types of operation were not part of the initial certification configuration, and therefore were not evaluated by the OE Team:

  • Flight Control and Rotor Blade Anti-ice and (or) De-ice System(s);
  • Air Conditioning System(s);
  • Flight Management System (FMS) Vertical Navigation Mode (VNAV); and
  • Electronic Checklist (ECL), and Snow Landing System (s).

3.12 At a later date, when these systems / features, or any other flight critical item are approved; it will be necessary to observe the performance of these installations. TC will determine the impact those changes have on training, checking and currency, and will amend this report accordingly.

3.13 Sikorsky did not request TC to conduct an evaluation of a flight attendant course for the S-92, as one is not required in the present configuration. However, if a configuration with additional seats is contemplated a typical flight attendant type rating course evaluation will be required.

4. PILOT "TYPE RATING" REQUIREMENTS

4.1 In accordance with TC Licensing “Type Designator Table”, the pilot type rating for the Sikorsky S-92 is designated as SK92. This designator is consistent with the current ICAO Aircraft Type Designators Database. Sikorsky did not request TC to conduct a comparison between the S-92 and any other Sikorsky models; therefore, no credit may be given for training, checking, or currency between the S-92 and any other variant of helicopters.

5. “MASTER COMMON REQUIREMENTS" (MCRs)

5.1 This section is reserved for future variants of the S-92.

6. “MASTER DIFFERENCE REQUIREMENTS" (MDRs)

6.1 This section is reserved for future variants of the S-92.

7. ACCEPTABLE "OPERATOR DIFFERENCE REQUIREMENTS" (ODRs) TABLES

7.1 This section is reserved for future variants of the S-92.

8. TC SPECIFICATIONS FOR SPECIAL EMPHASIS TRAINING

8.1 The type-rating course, as proposed by Sikorsky, offered by FSI, and approved by the JAA JOEB was found suitable for Canadian helicopter pilots, without module 1.8 “Helicopter Training”. For pilots not having previous experience with EFIS/FMS (UNS-1) and multi-engine transport helicopters, additional requirements may be appropriate depending on the intended operational environment.

Pilot course completion standards:

  1. Ground School: The pilot must demonstrate adequate knowledge of the SK-92 helicopter to pass a written, final examination, with a minimum score of 70%, corrected to 100%.
  2. Simulator Training: Using the checklists, the pilot(s) will perform and accomplish the listed and required maneuvers (including selected normal and abnormal procedures) to proficiency as required and outlined in the Practical Test Standards.

8.2 TC has identified aircraft systems and/or procedures that must receive special emphasis in a S-92 type rating course:

  • FMS (UNS-1 Esp. w/GPS &MMMS),
  • Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS),
  • Reversionary modes of the: Multi-function Display (MFD), Attitude, Heading, Reference System (AHRS), Data Control Unit (DCU), and Air Data Computer (ADC),
  • Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System (EGPWS) and,
  • Traffic Collision and Avoidance System (TCAS).

8.3 In addition, the following characteristics of the S-92 should be emphasized throughout the training program:

  • Pilots must exercise crew coordination and proper flight management (task sharing and crosschecking) due to the high level of automation.
  • Pilots must be trained to handle Engine Indication and Crew Alerting System (EICAS) cascading messages by proper identification of which malfunction originated thereto-associated failure conditions.

8.4 The OE Team found that early exposure to the AFCS and FMS is important, especially for pilots with no previous EFIS, or FMS experience. These candidates also will derive major benefits when spending time beyond the formal classes on the S-92 CPT in this regard. Establishing early confidence in manually flying the helicopter, converting back and forth from manual to FMS controlled flight mode, is equally important due to heavy reliance on the AFCS during normal operations. In the event of a flight path deviation due to input error or system malfunction, the flight crew must be able to comfortably transition from automatic to manual operation and back in an orderly fashion.

9. TC SPECIFICATIONS FOR PILOT LINE INDOCTRINATION (PLI)

9.1 Applicants employed by Canadian air operators operating under Subpart 704 of the CARs, which use a flight simulator in accordance with its approved training program, must meet the requirements of Subsection 704.115 (24) of the CARs, regarding “PLI Training”.

10. TC SPECIFICATIONS FOR CHECKING

10.1 TYPE RATING AND QUALIFICATION

10.1.1 Applicants must meet the requirements of Part 4 of the CARs Personnel Licensing and Training, for the addition of an SK-92 type rating to a Canadian Helicopter Pilot License.

10.1.2 In addition, applicants employed by Canadian air operators operating under Subpart 704 of the CARs operations must meet the checking requirements of Section 724.108 of the CARs including maneuvers and procedures specified in the standard attachment titled “Helicopter Schedule - Pilot Proficiency Check (PPC)”.

11. TC SPECIFICATIONS FOR CURRENCY / RECENT EXPERIENCE

11.1 Applicants employed by air operators conducting operations under Subpart 704 of the CARs must meet the requirements of Subsection 704.108 (1) of the CARs, commercial passenger transport utilizing the SK-92 type rating.

11.2 Applicants employed by air operators conducting operations under Subpart 704 of the CARs must meet the requirements of Section 724.111 of the CARs, Crew Member Validity Period.

12. AIRCRAFT REGULATORY COMPLIANCE CHECKLIST

12.1 The OE Team used production helicopter S-92 S/N 010 to conduct its operational evaluation flight April 6, 2005. It enabled OE Team to determine the S-92 compliance with the appropriate CAR operating requirements. Appendix B, provides the TC findings on those operating requirements.

12.2 Present and future S-92 air operators must demonstrate to TC that their aircraft fully complies with all applicable operating rules prior to that aircraft entering service.

13. TC SPECIFICATIONS FOR DEVICES AND SIMULATORS

13.1 The Canadian standard for simulator certification is contained in TP 9685 “The Aeroplane and Rotorcraft Simulator Manual”. TC recognized the FAA approved S-92 flight simulator situated in West Palm Beach Florida 23 August 2004. The FAA simulator identifier number is 901 and the TC simulator identifier number is 400. Simulator certification documentation is contained in Appendix “F”. Canadian Approved Flight simulator information is assessable at: http://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/civilaviation/publications/tp9685-chapter6-menu-5506.htm

14. ALTERNATE MEANS OF COMPLIANCE TO THIS REPORT

14.1 Air operators should consult the TC Flight Operations Division and the Personnel Licensing Division when an alternate means of compliance, other than those specified in this report, are proposed. The alternate means of compliance will be required to provide an equivalent level of safety to the provisions of adopted FAA AC 120-53 and this TC report. The TC Chief of the Operational Standards will review the application. Analysis, demonstrations, proof of concept testing, differences documentation, and/or other evidence may be required.

15. SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION

15.1 Reserved

16. LESSONS LEARNED

  • Future new aircraft evaluations should follow the international harmonization agreement direction dated June 2000. This involves convening a Flight Standardization Board by the country of manufacture, consisting of the FAA, JAA, and TC Teams. This would increase efficiency; minimize duplication and ease pressure on the manufacturer during the delivery of initial production aircraft.
  • Future Canadian OE Teams should undergo training together.
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