Gulfstream GIV-X (G350/G450), Gulfstream G-V, Gulfstream GV-SP (G500/G550)
Operational Evaluation Board Report
Gulfstream GIV-X (G350/G450)
Gulfstream GV-SP (G500/G550)
Approved: original signed by September 15, 2010
Roman A. Marushko
Program Manager, Flight Technical
Certification and Operational Standards (AARTF)
Place de Ville, Tower C, 330 Sparks Street
Telephone: (613) 993-4692
FAX (613) 954-1602
Management Coordination Sheet
Roman A. Marushko
Program Manager, Flight Technical
Certification and Operational Standards
Transport Canada, Civil Aviation
September 15, 2010
Chief, Certification & Operational Standards
Transport Canada, Civil Aviation
September 15, 2010
TC Quebec Region (NAXO)
TC Ontario Region (PAXW)
- Purpose and Applicability
- 1. Pilot "Type Rating" Requirements
- 2. Master Common Requirements (MCRS)
- 3. Master Difference Requirements (MDRS)
- 4. Acceptable Operator Difference Requirements (ODRS) Tables
- 5. OEB Specifications for Training
- 6. OEB Specifications for Checking
- 7. Specifications for Currency
- 8. Specifications for Line Indoctrination
- 9. Additional OEB Findings and Recommendations
- 10. Aircraft Regulatory Compliance Checklist
- 11. OEB Specifications for Devices and Simulators
- 12. Application of OEB Report
- 13. Alternate Means of Compliance to this Report
- Appendix 1 - Acceptable ODR Tables
- Appendix 2 - Training Program Special Emphasis Items
- Appendix 3 - Regulatory Compliance Checklists
- Appendix 4 - Head-Up Display (HUD) Systems
- Appendix 5 - Kollsman Enhanced Vision System (EVS)
|Revision No.||Section||Page #s||Date|
Purpose and Applicability
The primary purpose of this report is to specify Transport Canada master training, checking, and currency requirements applicable to crews operating GIV-X, G-V, and GV-SP model aircraft. This report will assist Commercial Air Operators in the development of training programs and POIs in the approval of operator training programs pursuant to CARs Part VII Subpart 4. Provisions of this report are effective until amended, superseded, or withdrawn by subsequent operational evaluation determinations.
Provisions of the report include:
- Defining pilot "type rating",
- Description of "Master Common Requirements" (MCRs),
- Description of "Master Differences Requirements" (MDR's) for crews requiring differences qualification for mixed-fleet-flying or transition,
- Examples of acceptable "Operator Difference Requirement (ODR)" Tables,
- Description of an acceptable training program, special emphasis items, and training device characteristics when necessary to establish compliance with pertinent Master Differences Requirements (MDRs), and
- Setting checking and currency standards, including specification of those checks that must be administered by Transport Canada or operators.
The Gulfstream GIV-X, G-V, and GV-SP are high altitude, ultra-range business jets certified under Chapter 525 of the Airworthiness Manual (AWM)/FAR 25. They are listed on Transport Canada Type Certificate Data Sheet A-129, and are hereafter referred to as the “GIV-X”, “GV”, and “GV-SP”. The GIV-X may be modified by Gulfstream Aerospace Corp. (GAC) through Aircraft Service Changes (ASC) to be identified as either a “G450” (ASC 005) or a “G350” (ASC 004). The G450 ASC is simply a change of the aircraft data plate. The G350 ASC changes the data plate, reduces the amount of fuel the aircraft will carry, and makes the VGS (HUD) and EVS optional equipment. The GV-SP may be modified by GAC through ASCs to be identified as either a “G550” (ASC 011) or a “G500” (ASC 010). The G550 ASC is simply a change of the aircraft data plate. The G500 ASC changes the data plate and reduces the amount of fuel the aircraft will carry, and makes the VGS (HUD) and EVS optional equipment.
The GV-SP is a variant of the G-V. Major changes from the GV to the GV-SP are the addition of a Honeywell Primus Epic avionics suite, which consists of 4 multi-function 14-inch Flat Panel LCD units, 2 cockpit side mounted Cursor Control Devices (CCD), triple MC-850 Multi-Function Control Display Units (MCDU), main entry door relocation approximately 2 feet forward, additional 7th cabin window, new cockpit observer’s seat, drag reduction modifications on the airframe, increased engine thrust, and a 500 pound increase in maximum ramp and takeoff weights.
The GIV-X is essentially a G-IV airframe with a GV-SP cockpit. It has a Honeywell Primus Epic avionics suite, which consists of 4 multi-function 14-inch Flat Panel LCD units, 2 cockpit side mounted Cursor Control Devices (CCD), triple MCU-850 Multi-Function Control Display Units (MCDU), Visual Guidance System (VGS), Enhanced Vision System (EVS), Tay 611-8C FADEC engines, a Honeywell 36-150 APU, a cockpit observer’s seat, and drag reduction modifications on the airframe. The flight control hydraulic boost ratios have been modified to replicate the handling characteristics of the GV and GV-SP.
Relevant acronyms are defined as follows:
|AARTF||Transport Canada Operational and Certification Standards|
|ACM||Additional Crew Member|
|AFCS||Automatic Flight Control System|
|AFM||Airplane Flight Manual|
|ASC||Aircraft Service Change|
|CARs||Canadian Aviation Regulations|
|CASS||Commercial Air Service Standards|
|CCD||Cursor Control Device|
|EASA||European Aviation Safety Agency|
|EDM||Emergency Descent Maneuver|
|EEC||Emergency Evacuation Crewmember|
|EFB||Electronic Flight Bag|
|EFIS||Electronic Flight Instrument System|
|EFVS||Enhanced Flight Vision System|
|EGPWS||Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System|
|EICAS||Engine Indicating and Crew Alerting System|
|EVS||Enhanced Vision System|
|EVS II||Enhanced Vision System (Second Generation EVS)|
|FAA||Federal Aviation Administration|
|FAR||Federal Aviation Regulations (FAA)|
|FADEC||Full Authority Digital Engine Control|
|FGS||Flight Guidance System|
|FMA||Flight Mode Annunciator|
|FMS||Flight Management System|
|FSB||Flight Standardization Board|
|FTD||Flight Training Device|
|GFS||Graphical Flight Simulator|
|GAC||Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation|
|HUD||Head Up Guidance Display|
|I-NAV||Integrated Navigation Display|
|IRS||Inertial Reference System|
|JAA||Joint Aviation Authority|
|JOEB||Joint Operational Evaluation Board|
|MMEL||Master Minimum Equipment List|
|MCDU||Multi-Function Control Display Units|
|MCR||Master Common Requirements|
|MDR||Master Differences Requirements|
|ODR||Operator Differences Requirements|
|OEB||Operational Evaluation Board|
|PAOBD||Person Assigned Onboard Duties|
|PFD||Primary Flight Display|
|POI||Principal Operations Inspector|
|QRH||Quick Reference Handbook|
|RAAS||Runway Awareness Advisory System|
|RFMU||Radio Frequency Management Unit|
|SV PFD||Synthetic Vision Primary Flight Display|
|TAWS||Terrain Awareness and Warning System|
|TCAS||Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System|
|TCCA||Transport Canada Civil Aviation|
|TCE||Training Center Evaluator|
|TCPM||Training Center Program Manager|
|VGS||Visual Guidance System|
|WOW||Weight on Wheels|
An integrated team composed of the FAA and JAA members had originally performed a Joint Operational Evaluation for the Gulfstream GV/ GV-SP (500/550) and the GIV-X (G350/450) aircraft. This report documents the Transport Canada activities conducted to validate this original operational evaluation.
From May 4 to May 27, 2009, the TCCA GLF5 Operational Evaluation Board (OEB) received a GV-SP (G500/G550) initial pilot ground school utilizing the training facilities of Flight Safety International and Gulfstream located in Savannah, GA. Training was conducted in classrooms, a Graphical Flight Simulator and an approved level D flight simulator which was qualified by the TC National Simulator Evaluation Program.
The OEB conducted an evaluation of the Honeywell 2020 Head Up Display (HUD) which was integrated during the ground school and simulator training program. The HUD was found to be operationally suitable for all phases of flight. CAT II approach operations (with and without the HUD) were not evaluated. The HUD training, checking and currency requirements are listed in Appendix 4.
The OEB conducted an evaluation of the Kollsman Enhanced Vision System (EVS) which was integrated during the ground school and simulator training program. The EVS integrates an infra-red (IR) image onto the HUD from a sensor mounted on the nose of the aircraft. The IR image is intended to provide increased situational awareness of surrounding terrain, obstacles and traffic and with appropriate authorizations to conduct instrument approaches below published minima to 100 feet Height Above Threshold (HAT). In addition, the EVS is certified for use as an aid during all phases of flight to include taxi, take-off, climb, cruise, descent and landing. The EVS was found to be operationally suitable for all phases of flight. CAT II approach operations (with and without the EVS) were not evaluated. The EVS training, checking and currency requirements are listed in Appendix 5.
Note: The EVS meets the requirements of EFVS (Enhanced Flight Vision System) as defined in FAR 91.175. It is certified for descent to 100 feet HAT in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) when operated in accordance with the limitations in the Gulfstream AFM Supplement CE51 335M001. The current Transport Canada Regulations CAR 602.128 does not allow this capability of using the EVS, while US operators may be permitted in accordance with FAR 91.175. An exemption to CAR 602.128 with appropriate conditions or an appropriate amendment to this regulation is necessary for a Canadian operator to exercise this capability.
The OEB conducted the FAA Advisory Circular (AC) 120-53 test T5 in a level D flight simulator, which is essentially an evaluation of all the required items outlined in the Transport Canada Pilot Proficiency Check and Aircraft Type Rating Flight Test Guide (TP14727). The flight test profile also met all the requirements of CASS 724.108 Schedule 1.
The OEB received differences training from the GV-SP to the G-IV-X, which consisted of a 2.0-hour ground school differences course. The course meets the requirements assigned by the OEB differences level “B”.
The OEB received differences training from the GV-SP to the GV, which consisted of a 4.0-hour ground school which included GFS time. The course meets the requirements assigned by the OEB differences level “C”.
The OEB did not conduct an evaluation of Category II capability.
1. Pilot "Type Rating" Requirements
In accordance with the CAR 401.06 the same pilot type rating is assigned to the GIV-X (G350/G450), G-V, and the GV-SP (G500/G550), and is designated “GLF5”.
The Canadian Type Certificate Data Sheet (A-129) for the Gulfstream specifies the need for One Pilot and One Copilot. In addition, CAR 421.40 (2)(a)(i) the GLF5 requires an individual type rating. The type rating may be issued by meeting the skill requirement in accordance with CAR 421.40(3)(a)(iii).
The Gulfstream GIV-X, G-V, and GV-SP have not been issued a new Type Certificate (TC) Data Sheet. They were all added to the existing G-II through G-IV TC Data Sheet issued by the Atlanta Aircraft Certification Office (ACO). Furthermore, these same models are listed on Transport Canada TCDS A-129.
The GIV-X, G-V, and GV-SP aircraft however, are not considered variants or derivatives of the Gulfstream G-IV aircraft for pilot type rating purposes. The OEB did not conduct a comparison between the G-IV and any other model aircraft for pilot type rating purposes; therefore, no credit may be given between the G-IV and any other model aircraft for training, checking, or currency.
2. Master Common Requirements (MCRs)
Master Common Requirement for all GIV-X, G-V and GV-SP airplanes:
Normal ‘Final’ Landing Flap Setting
The normal ‘final’ landing flap is 39 degrees for the GIV-X, G-V, and the GV-SP.
Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS)
The AFCS pilot/machine interface is the same for the GIV-X, G-V and GV-SP.
Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)
The EFIS/pilot interface is essentially the same for the GIV-X, GV and GV-SP aircraft. All three airplanes use the EFIS display controller as the initial interface.
Engine Indicating and Crew Alerting System (EICAS)
The EICAS philosophy is the same in the GV and the GV-SP aircraft. Only minor changes to crew alerting messages and the “look and feel” of the synoptic and system pages have been made.
Navigation and Communication
All three aircraft share the same navigation and communication equipment. Pilot operation of the equipment is the same for the GIV-X, GV, and GV-SP aircraft.
Primary and Secondary Flight Controls
Pilot operation of the primary and secondary flight controls is the same for the GIV-X, G-V and the GV-SP under normal conditions.
The takeoff, climb, and descent Profiles for the GIV-X, G-V and GV-SP are identical.
Landing Minima Category
The following straight-in approach minima (based on Maximum Landing Weight (MLW) and 1.3 times Vso) for the GIV-X, G-V, and the GV-SP are as follows:
For the purpose of determining circling approach minima, the minimums are based on the highest speed used during a circling maneuver. As depicted in the table below, the highest speed to be flown (speed category) during the circling maneuver must be used to determine the appropriate minimums. This will ensure that the aircraft will remain within the designated maneuver area and assure obstacle clearance.
|Speed Category||Visibility in Statute Miles|
|Less than 91 KTS||1 Mile|
|91 to 120 KTS||1 Mile|
|121 to 140 KTS||1 ½ Miles|
|141 to 165 KTS||2 miles|
|Above 165 KTS||3 Miles|
Approach Profiles and Speed
The approach profiles are the same for the GIV-X, G-V, and the GV-SP.
Approach speeds are dependent upon aircraft weight. All critical speeds are automatically presented to the pilot in a standardized manner for the GIV-X, G-V, and the GV-SP aircraft.
Abnormal & Emergency Procedures
Abnormal and emergency procedures are presented in Quick Reference Handbooks of an identical format for all three aircraft. Although some individual steps may differ or use different acronyms, these steps are carried out under the guidance of the handbook in a logical decision-making manner.
There are no memory items in the AFM for the GIV-X, GV, or the GV-SP. The manufacturer has stated it expects pilots to be able to respond to such events as a hot start, engine failure on take-off, engine fire, thrust reverser unlocked, emergency descent and left engine failure with right hydraulic system failure with initial actions without immediate reference to a checklist. To apply consistancy, Canadian operators should consider addressing appropriate “memory” items within their company SOP’s.
3. Master Difference Requirements (MDRs)
Master Difference Requirements (MDRs) for the GIV-X, G-V, and GV-SP are shown in the table below. MDR provisions apply when differences between variants exist which affect crew knowledge, skills, or abilities related to flight safety. The difference level definitions (A/A/A etc.) are specified in accordance with the criteria contained in, Common Procedures Document for Operational Evaluation Board (OEB) FAA-JAA-TCCA where the first letter refers to training requirements, the second to checking requirements, and the third to currency requirements.
Aircraft Type Rating:
|To Aircraft||GIV-X||C/B/A||C/B/A||Not Applicable|
4. Acceptable Operator Difference Requirements (ODRs) Tables
Operator Difference Requirement (ODR) tables are used to show an operator's compliance method. Acceptable ODR tables for operators conducting Mixed Fleet Flying (MFF) operations, or converting between the GIV-X, G-V, and GV-SP are shown in Appendix 1. The ODR tables represent an acceptable means to comply with MDR provisions based on those differences and compliance methods shown. The tables do not necessarily represent the only acceptable means of compliance for operators with airplanes having other differences, where compliance methods (e.g., devices, simulators, etc.) are different. For operators flying the GIV-X, G-V, and the GV-SP the ODR tables in Appendix 1 have been found acceptable, and therefore, may be approved by POI for a particular operator.
Operator Preparation of ODR Tables
Operators seeking different means of compliance must prepare and seek Transport Canada approval from their POI of specific ODR tables pertinent to their fleet.
ODR Table Coordination
New ODR tables proposed by operators shall be coordinated with the OEB prior to Transport Canada approval and implementation. Through this coordination, the OEB can ensure consistent treatment of variants between various operators’ ODR tables and compatibility of the MDR table with MDR provisions.
ODR Table Distribution
Originally approved ODR tables are retained by the operator. Copies of approved GIV-X, G-V, and GV-SP tables are retained by the Program Manager, Flight Technical in Certification and Operational Standards (AARTF).
5. OEB Specifications for Training
Additional requirements, as determined by the operator and the OEB may be necessary for pilot’s not having such experience. Appendix 2 contains a list of special emphasis items to be included in an approved training program.
Initial and Upgrade Training
Flight Safety International Training Centre’s Gulfstream initial course included all Gulsftream variants. Minimum initial training time requirements specified in CASS 724.115(31) Table 1 apply. Commercial operators shall ensure that their approved training program requirements are achieved when contracting their training to another organization. Air Operators conducting Mixed Fleet Flying (MFF) shall ensure that their initial training courses cover the aircraft differences as per the MDR tables.
Minimum recurrent training time requirements specified in CASS 724.115(31) Table 2 apply. Commercial operators shall ensure that their approved training program requirements are achieved when contracting their training to another organization. Air Operators conducting Mixed Fleet Flying (MFF) shall ensure that their recurrent training courses cover the aircraft differences as per the MDR tables.
The Gulfstream V-SP, the Gulfstream V and the Gulfstream IV-X differences training course provided by Flight Safety International in Savannah, GA was found to be in compliance with the requirements assigned by the OEB. When any combination of the GIV-X, G-V and GV-SP are flown, appropriate instruction in design and systems differences will be required for all aircraft, consistent with MDR provisions listed in Appendix 1.
Training Program Special Emphasis Items
Several aircraft systems and /or procedures that should receive special emphasis are contained in Appendix 2 of this report.
Air Operator Training Program Approval
Prior to commencing training, an Air Operator shall submit to Transport Canada for approval, a detailed syllabus for ground and flight training program.
The GIV-X, G-V, and GV-SP have a maximum seating capacity of 19 seats and therefore, do not require a Flight Attendant.
Aircraft Dispatcher Training, Flight Engineer Training, and Flight Navigator Training are not applicable.
6. OEB Specifications for Checking
Pilot Proficiency Checks and Aircraft Type Ratings as specified by CARs Subpart 401 and 704 apply. Checking conducted shall be in accordance with CASS 724.108 Schedule 1 and the Transport Canada Pilot Proficiency Check and Aircraft Type Rating Flight Test Guide (TP14727).
Areas of Emphasis: "No Flap" Approaches
Checking of "No Flap" Approaches and landings for the GLF5 aeroplane is required for the successful completion of an initial PPC for CARs Subparts 401and 704.
7. Specifications for Currency
Currency is considered to be common (i.e. Difference Level A) for the GIV-X, G-V and GV-SP. Separate tracking of currency for the GIV-X, G-V and GV-SP is not necessary or applicable. Currency will be maintained, or re-established, in accordance with all applicable currency requirements outlined in CARs Part VII.
8. Specifications for Line Indoctrination
Line indoctrination as specifed by CARs Subpart 704 applies.
9. Additional OEB Findings and Recommendations
Commercial Air Services CAR Subpart 704 – Commuter Operations.
The GLF5 variants may be equipped with several interior layout configurations. The OEB team determined that by applicability the GV-SP and the GV falls under the CAR Subpart 705 – Airline Operations, due to a MZFW of over 50,000 lbs. The GIV-X does not fall under this category due to its MZFW being below 50,000 lbs. By reason of its planned operational role and maximum number of passengers, the Minister has authorized the GV-SP and GV under a Letter of Authorization pursuant to paragraph 704.01(c) to be operated under CAR Subpart 704 - Commuter Operations. The latest version of this authorization is available from the Program Manager, Flight Technical in Certification and Operational Standards (AARTF). This authorization is accompanied by a requirement to have an Additional Crew Member (ACM)* on all passenger carrying flights for the following reasons:
Nature of the interior - representative interiors presented by the manufacturer show that the forward 12 to 14 feet immediately behind the cockpit to be occupied with passenger service area, crew rest area, main entrance, and forward lavatory between the main passenger cabin bulkhead and the cockpit bulkhead. This arrangement prevents the flight crew from exercising supervisory control over passengers during flight by visual and aural means.
Length of the aircraft - The length of the main cabin precludes visual supervision of passengers from a cockpit seat. This is compounded in those configurations where there are additional bulkheads forming passenger sleeping compartments and/or office areas.
Mission duration and over-water legs - The optimum utilisation of the GV and GV-SP is in the long-range transoceanic area. Typical 12 to 14 hour inter-continental missions as compared to the usual commuter inter-city flying highlights the need for an additional crewmember to assure passenger safety.
Therefore, GV and GV-SP operations under the CARs 704 shall have an ACM on all passenger carrying flights.
Note: CARs 704 does not contain any regulations and standards relating to an ACM/flight attendant assigned cabin safety duties. CAR’s 704 do however make reference to Persons Assigned On Board Duties (PAOBD). CARs 705 (Airline Operations) contain regulations and standards relating to “flight attendants”. To avoid the inappropriate application of the full spectrum of CARs 705 flight attendant regulations and standards and to signify a difference from CARs 704 regulations and standards, the term “additional crew member (ACM)” is used to describe the crew member assigned cabin safety related duties on the Gulfstream G-V and GV-SP aircraft when it is operated under CARs 704.
Additional Crew Member* Cabin Safety Requirements
The Letter of Authorization requires an air operator to demonstrate compliance with the additional regulatory compliance list that is provided as Annex A to the authorization. This list includes a complete list of provisions, including the invocation of certain sections of CARs Subpart 705 that are pertinent to the additional crew member*. The latest version of this authorization is available from the Program Manager, Flight Technical in Certification and Operational Standards (AARTF).
Public Address (PA) System.
The distance from the cockpit to the passenger cabin is too far for the flight crew to effectively communicate with passengers without assistance. Any arrangement of curtains, dividers or mid-cabin doors compounds this problem. The GV and GV-SP therefore require a PA system when carrying passengers.
Emergency Evacuation Crewmember (EEC) Training
During the GV-SP certification process Gulfstream asked the FAA to make an equivalent safety finding on the overwing exits because they did not meet current FAA certification standards. Gulfstream requested, and the FAA accepted, that anytime more than 9 passengers are carried, an additional crewmember trained in Emergency Evacuation for the Gulfstream elliptical exits be required onboard. The FAA found that this provides an equivalent level of safety to overwing emergency exits that would meet current FAA certification standards. Therefore, the GV-SP will require an Emergency Evacuation Crewmember on the aircraft any time more than 9 passengers are carried or the ACM should receive EEC Training . The specific training that EEC (or ACM) is required to undergo is specified in Gulfstream Operating Manual Supplements numbers G550-OMS-1 for the G550 and G500-OMS-1 for the G500.
The GIV-X does not require an EEC. The FAA certified the GIV-X overwing exits at an earlier certification rule amendment level, based on the G-IV certification.
Crew Rest Facilities & Forward Observer Seat
The GLF5 OEB did not evaluate any observer seat or flight crew rest quarters. Canadian air operators who require inflight crew checking by an authorized check pilot shall equip a GLF5 with an approved forward observer seat that meets FAA requirements. A person occupying the crew rest or passenger seat, cannot accomplish an inflight proficiency or monitor because of the cabin dimensions and aircraft configuration.
10. Aircraft Regulatory Compliance Checklist
Any Canadian operator wishing to operate the GLF5 aircraft will have to demonstrate to Transport Canada that the aircraft fully complies with all applicable requirements of CARs Subparts 605 and 704 prior to that aircraft entering service. A sample compliance checklist is included in Appendix 3 of this report.
Forward Observer’s Seat
Canadian Air Operators (i.e. 704) who require inflight crew checking (i.e. in-flights, PPC’s and Line Indoctrination etc) by a Transprt Canada Inspector or an Approved Check Pilot shall equip the GIV-X, GV, GV-SP, as applicable with an approved forward observer seat that meets FAA requirements. A person occupying the crew rest or passenger seat, due to the aircraft configuration, cannot accomplish an inflight proficiency check or monitor.
11. OEB Specifications for Devices and Simulators
Device and simulator characteristics are designated in Aeroplane and Rotorcraft Simulator Manual (TP 9685). The acceptability of differences between devices, simulators, and aircraft must be addressed by the POI. Requests for device approval should be made to the POI. The POI may approve those devices for that operator if their characteristics clearly meet the established TC criteria and have been qualified by the National Simulator Evaluation Program (NSEP).
12. Application of OEB Report
All relevant parts of this report are applicable to operators on the effective date of this report.
13. Alternate Means of Compliance to this Report
The OEB team leader should be consulted by the POI when alternate means of compliance, other than those specified in this report, are proposed. The Transport Canada, Program Manager, Flight Technical in Certification and Operational Standards (AARTF), shall approve an alternate means of compliance. If an alternate means of compliance is sought, operators will be required to submit a proposed alternate means for approval that provides an equivalent level of safety to the provisions of the CARs and this OEB report. Analysis, demonstrations, proof of concept testing, differences documentation, and/or other evidence may be required.
In the event that alternate compliance is sought, training program hour reductions, simulator approvals, and device approvals may be significantly limited and reporting requirements may be increased to ensure an equivalent level of training, checking, and currency. TCCA will generally not consider relief through alternate compliance means unless sufficient lead-time has been planned by an operator to allow for any necessary testing and evaluation.
Appendix 1 - Acceptable ODR Tables
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