Boeing 787 (B-787)
APPROVED: _______________ DATE: __________
TCCA Operational Evaluation Board
Transport Canada Civil Aviation
Commercial Flight Standards
Place de Ville, Tower C, 330 Sparks Street
Ottawa ON K1A 0N8
Telephone: (613) 993-4692
Fax: (613) 990-6215
Chief, Commercial Flight Standards
Standards Branch (AARTF)
Transport Canada, Civil Aviation
Director, Standards Branch (AART)
Transport Canada, Civil Aviation
|Revision No.||Section||Page #s||Date|
PART I – B-787 TRAINING, CHECKING, AND CURRENCY REQUIREMENTS
- PURPOSE AND APPLICABILITY
- B-787 OPERATIONAL EVALUATION
- PILOT TYPE RATING REQUIREMENTS
- MASTER DIFFERENCE REQUIREMENTS (MDRs)
- ACCEPTABLE "OPERATOR DIFFERENCE REQUIREMENTS" (ODR) TABLES
- OEB SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRAINING
- OEB SPECIFICATIONS FOR CHECKING
- OEB SPECIFICATIONS FOR CURRENCY
- OPERATIONAL SUITABILITY
- OEB SPECIFICATIONS FOR DEVICES AND SIMULATORS
- APPLICATION OF OEB REPORT
- ALTERNATE MEANS OF COMPLIANCE
- APPENDIX 1 - ACRONYMNS
- APPENDIX 2 – MINIMUM DIFFERENCE LEVELS
- APPENDIX 3 – EXAMPLE ODR TABLES
- APPENDIX 4 – TCCA BOEING 787 DOCUMENTS ON FILE
- APPENDIX 5 – HEAD UP DISPLAY (HUD) QUALIFICATION PROGRAM
- APPENDIX 6 - EXAMPLE FULL TRANSITION COURSE FOOTPRINT
- APPENDIX 7 - EXAMPLE DIFFERENCES COURSE
- APPENDIX 8 - EXAMPLE DIFFERENCES COURSE
- APPENDIX 9 - EXAMPLE SHORTENED TRANSITION FOOTPRINT
1 PURPOSE AND APPLICABILITY
1.1 OEB Report Specifications.
This Transport Canada Civil Aviation (TCCA) Operational Evaluation Board (OEB) report specifies the TCCA pilot qualification requirements (training, checking, and currency) and operational requirements for operating the Boeing 787 (B-787) aeroplane under CAR Part VII, Subpart 5. The B-787 is a related aeroplane to the Boeing 777 (B-777). Pilot qualification credits may also be granted to pilots qualified on other Boeing “glass cockpit” equipped aeroplanes.
The guidelines and recommendations contained in this report apply to TCCA Inspectors including Principal Operations Inspectors (POI)s and Approved Check Pilots (ACP) employed by Canadian commercial operators.
This OEB report follows the guidance provided by the JAA/FAA/TCCA Common Procedures Document for Operational Evaluation Boards (CPD) and FAA Advisory Circular AC120-53A. This report also follows Transport Canada policy contained in Transport Canada Policy Letters, PL 136 and PL 173. It is expected that air operators will fully comply with OEB report MDR and ODR provisions including footnotes. Partial or selective application of the provisions will require the demonstration of an acceptable means of compliance with the applicable regulations, standards, and guidance material.
This report addresses the B-787 series aircraft as specified in the Transport Canada Type Certificate Data Sheet (TCDS) A-217.
Provisions of the report:
- Definition of the pilot “type rating” assigned to the B-787;
- Identify the B-787 and B-777 as related aircraft;
- Description of “Master Difference Requirements” (MDRs) for crews requiring differences qualification for Mixed Fleet Flying (MFF) or transition;
- Examples of acceptable “Operator Difference Requirements (ODR)” tables;
- Description of acceptable training program, special emphasis items and device training device characteristics;
- Setting checking and currency standards including specification of those checks that must be administered by TCCA or air operators and;
- Listing regulatory compliance status (compliance checklist) for the B-787 for CARs, Advisory Circulars, or other operational criteria.
1.2 OEB Report Comprehensiveness.
This report includes:
- Minimum requirements, (e.g. MDRs, Type Rating designations, etc.);
- Information which is advisory in general, but should be considered mandatory for particular air operators if the designated configurations apply and if approved for that operator (e.g. MDR footnotes, acceptable ODR tables), and;
- Information which is used to facilitate TCCA review of an aircraft type or related aircraft proposed for the use by an air operator (e.g. compliance checklist for POI use, …)
1.3 OEB Responsibility/Authority
Determinations made in this report are based on the evaluations of specific B-787 aeroplane models and related aeroplanes made in accordance with current regulations, standards and guidance. Modifications and upgrades made to the models described herein, or introduction of new related aircraft, may require amendment of the findings in this report. The OEB reserves responsibility and authority to re-evaluate and modify sections of this report based on new or revised advisory material, amended CARs, aircraft operating experience, or the testing of new or modified aircraft under the provisions of the CPD or AC 120-53A.
1.4 AQP/OEB Report Relationship
Where an air operator has an approved Advanced Qualification Program (AQP), differences between this report and an operator’s proposed training, checking, and currency requirements under an AQP should be substantiated and documented as part of the applicant’s AQP approval process. Program approvals under AQP need to ensure the provisions and requirements of this report have been addressed, and where necessary, coordination with the appropriate Operational Evaluation Board has been completed. (Refer to Section 13 of this report for alternate means of compliance to non-AQP programs.)
1.5 OEB Report Effectiveness
Provisions of this report are effective until amended, superseded, or withdrawn by subsequent OEB determinations. This report documents the B-787 training program evaluation by TCCA, the FAA and EASA. This OEB report is expected to be amended and re-issued as further significant developments related to the B-787 and the B-787 training program occur and are evaluated.
2.1 Boeing 787 and Related Aeroplanes
The Boeing 787 is a large Fly By Wire (FBW) very long range aeroplane. The B-787 is powered by the Roll Royce Model Trent 1000 Series or General Electric Model Genx series high bypass turbofan engines. The B-787 is certified by the FAA under FAR 25 and by TCCA under AWM Chapter 525. The B-787 incorporates numerous technical advances which are expected to result in significant operational efficiencies. The B-787 is equipped with a dual HUD as standard equipment. The HUD has the capability for low visibility take-offs.
The Boeing 787 may be produced in 3 basic models, the B-787-8, B-787-9 and the B-787-3. The OEB evaluation is based upon the B-787-8, which is the introductory model. The B-787-9 is a stretched fuselage and longer range version of the B-787-8, which is under development. The B-787-3 is a shortened fuselage and shorter range model compared to the other B-787 models. (The development of the B-787-3 has been deferred by the Boeing Company pending sufficient customer orders for this model.) Boeing is proposing maximum training difference levels between the B-787 models at Level A.
Boeing has developed a 20 day initial transition training course called Course A. This course was evaluated by one TCCA crew during the OE conducted in June 2010 in Seattle, Washington (WA). Similar evaluations were conducted by FAA and EASA crews.
The Boeing 787 is a related aircraft to the B-777. The B-777 is a very large FBW very long range aeroplane, which has been in operational service since 1995. The B-787 has been developed to allow pilots qualified on the B-777 to become qualified on the B-787 with a significantly reduced qualification program compared to a full transition course. Boeing has developed a 5 day differences training program between the two aeroplane types. Boeing has identified the training from the B-777 to the B-787 as Course C and the training from the B-787 to the B-777 as Course E. In June 2010, the OEB evaluated Course C by an Air Canada B-777 qualified pilot partnered with an EASA B-777 qualified pilot. Similar evaluations were conducted by the FAA and EASA. In February of 2012, a TCCA crew evaluated Course E, which was also evaluated by the FAA and EASA.
The B-787 is also related to other Boeing “Glass Cockpit” aeroplanes, which are the Boeing 737-600, -700, -800, -900 (B-737NG), the Boeing 747-400 (B-747-400), the Boeing 757 (B-757) and Boeing 767 (B-767). Boeing has developed a 13 day Shortened Transition and Rating (STAR) course for pilots qualified under these aeroplane types and models to become qualified to the B-787. This course is identified by Boeing as Course B. In June 2010, one B-767 qualified TCCA crew evaluated Course B. Similar evaluations were conducted by the FAA and EASA.
The following systems and procedures are specific to the Boeing 787:
- Dual Head Up Display (HUD)
- New Flight Management interface using EFB;
- FMS functionality upgrades;
- Limited Bleed Air Systems installed:
- Wing optimization through flight control system;
- Electric Ice Protection systems
- Electric Cabin Pressurization;
- Electric braking;
- Integrated Thrust Asymmetry Protection.
2.2 Boeing Pilot Qualification Plan (PQP)
Boeing has developed a pilot qualification plan for the Boeing 787-3,-8,-9 to guide the development of training, checking and currency requirements for pilots to fly the B-787. The PQP is currently at Revision G, dated January 7, 2012. The objectives of the PQP (as stated within) are to establish a joint Boeing/FAA/EASA/JAA/TCCA "process" which will ensure that Pilot Qualification and Airplane Design Objectives are met for the 787-3/-8/-9 airplanes. This process is defined by a series of "Gates" that will be identified to monitor process activities and measure progress.
The PQP is a Boeing document which has been significantly consulted with the three principal authorities involved in the B-787 OE; the FAA, EASA and TCCA. The PQP is considered to be a “living” document and is periodically amended to update program developments and schedules. TCCA uses the PQP in conjunction with the other guidance and policy material referenced in Section 15 of this Operational Evaluation Report (OER).
TCCA first became involved in the B-787 OE program in May 2005. Periodic PQP meetings have been held since May 2005 between Boeing, the principal authorities, observers and customer airlines to review the B-787 training program development and amend the PQP document as necessary. The proceedings of the meetings have been documented in meeting records.
2.3 Transport Canada Operational Review Items (ORI’s)
TCCA submitted to Boeing 7 Operational Review Items (ORIs) which are essentially Issue Paper’s (IPs) outlining the terms of the conduct of the OE between TCCA and Boeing. The seven TCCA ORI’s are:
No. 1; Operational Evaluation- Type Rating Determination; and Training, Checking and Currency Requirements;
No. 2; Operational Acceptability;
No. 3; Forward Observer Seat and Associated Systems;
No. 4; Master Minimum Equipment List (MMEL);
No. 5; Training and Checking Simulator;
No. 6; Operational Evaluation;
No. 7; Aircraft Configuration for Operational Evaluation;
Boeing has agreed in writing to support the provisions of the ORIs which have been closed by TCCA. These ORIs are kept on file with TCCA under RDIMS #4613800. The FAA and EASA submitted similar ORIs and IPs to Boeing.
3 B-787 OPERATIONAL EVALUATION
The B-787 OE was a joint OE conducted by the three principal authorities; the FAA, EASA and TCCA. (Note: EASA is the successor to the JAA). The OEB evaluated 3 different training courses at the Boeing Long Acres Training Facility in Renton Washington (Seattle, WA) over the dates of May 26 to July 8, 2010. Training was delivered by Boeing using the applicable courseware and training devices. All members of the OEB held current and valid FAA Airline Transport Pilot (ATPL) certificates (which were necessary to pilot the “N-registered “ B-787 test aeroplanes for specific “T-tests”). Oral exams and Proficiency Checks (PCs) corresponding to an applicable “T-test” were administered in the Full Flight Simulator (FFS) by the FAA or FAA Boeing delegates in accordance with FAA regulations.
Prior to the training courses, a T2 test was conducted on a B-787 test aeroplane on May 18, 2010, by B-777 qualified pilots representing the principal and observing authorities to successfully validate that there were no significant handling differences between the B-787 and B-777. This determination was necessary to permit commencement of the B-777 to B-787 differences training course. The Air Canada B-777 qualified pilot conducted the T2 test on behalf of TCCA.
On July 25, 2010, four of the OEB members completed 3 take-offs and landings each in a B-787 experimental test aeroplane (ZA003) to perform a “T3” test to validate the effectiveness of the training program received and the fidelity of the Full Flight Simulator (FFS) for these specific maneuvers.
In August 2010, one of the TCCA pilots observed several Operational Suitability flights conducted from Paine Field, WA (KPAE). A series of 2 to 3 hour long flights were conducted to demonstrate the B-787 during aircraft certification Function and Reliability (F&R) flights. A report of the flights is kept on file in RDIMS Document #6923565.
In February 2012 a TCCA crew evaluated Course E, the differences training from the B-787 to the B-777 (Transition from a B-787-8 to a B-777-300ER) in Seattle WA. A similar evaluation was conducted by an EASA crew and several FAA crews during the same time period. The training was validated by an FAA IFR Proficiency Check.
The TCCA crew underwent recurrent training on the B-787 and an FAA IFR proficiency check immediately prior to the Course E evaluation. TCCA did not evaluate as this recurrent training as this was not within the scope of the OE.
|Roman Marushko||OEB Chairman (Courses A, E)||AARTF|
|Captain Michael Downey||OEB Member (Course C)||Air Canada|
|Georges Lagace||OEB Member (Courses B, E Ops. Suitability)||AARTF|
|Robert Hannula||OEB Member (Course A)||AARTF|
|Thomas Smyth||OEB Member (Course B)||PAXE-OTT|
3.3 Courseware and Training Devices (OEB - May & June 2010)
The B-787 training was delivered using the following courseware and flight training devices during the OE conducted between May and July 2010:
- Boeing 787-8 Flight Crew Operations Manual (FCOM); Document Number D615Z003-TBC, October 31, 2007, Revision Number: 4, Revision Date: February 15, 2010;
- 787 Flight Crew Training Manual (FCTM); Document Number FCT 787 (TM), October 31, 2007, Revision Number: 1, Revision Date: October 31, 2008;
- Transition Training Manual Document Number: 787-T1; Revision Number: Rev New; Revision Date: May 24, 2010 (Course A and B);
- Differences Training 777 to 787; Document Number: 787-D1-TBC; Revision Number: 1;Revision Date: July 1, 2010 (Course B);
- 787 Quick Reference Handbook (QRH); D615Z003-TBC; February 15, 2010;
- Jeppesen Charts to support Fixed Base Trainer (FBT) and FFS training and evaluation. A complete set of charts were provided for KSEA, KMWH, KGEG, and KPDX.
3.3.2 Training Media:
- Toshiba Tablet Personal Computer (PC);
The courseware was provided exclusively in electronic form on a Toshiba Tablet Personal Computer (PC), which was issued to the student for use during the duration of the course. A two hour briefing was provided at the start of each course on the use of the tablet PC.
- Computer Based Training (CBT); CBT training was provided through an on-line link and was accessible through the tablet PC or through a PC in a study carrel. The CBT courses provided were as follows:
- Course A: [FT-TBC-787-RR-T] 787 Transition Course;
- Course B: [FT-TBC-787-RR-ST] 787 Shortened Transition Course;
- Course C: [FT-TBC-787-D6] 777-787 Differences Course.
- Study Carrel;
This is a study booth located at the training center able to accommodate a flight crew of 2 to conduct CBT training. The study carrel has a full scale depiction of the Boeing 787 panels that are located in the same geographic locations found on the flight deck.
- Briefing Tool;
This is a flat screen display system intended to be used for briefings prior to and following FBT and FFS training sessions. This device was not available for evaluation during the OE.
3.3.3 Flight Training Devices (FTDs):
Training was provided by a suite of training devices manufactured by Thales. These include the FBT and FFS.
- Fixed Base Trainer (FBT);
This is a fixed training device intended for systems and procedures training. The device is composed of flat panel emulations of flight deck panels, computer screen emulations of the Primary Flight Displays (PFDs), Multi Function Displays (MFDs), Head Up Displays (HUDs) and some aircraft hardware including flight, powerplant and avionics controls. The FBT is qualified as an FAA Level 5 Flight Training Device. There were 2 FBTs at the training facility.
- Full Flight Simulator (FFS);
The FFS is intended to be qualified as a Level D FFS. The Seattle training center had two FFSs, neither of which had received any qualifications at the time of the evaluation. The FFSs will be first qualified to Interim Level C, followed by Level D.
The Briefing Tool, FBT and FFS are designed to run on the same software “engine” to provide consistent functionality and training.
3.4 B-787 Transition Training – Course A
This training is identified in the PQP as Course A and is intended to train pilots who have not yet been qualified on the B-787. A Transport Canada crew of 2 inspectors having no previous Boeing experience evaluated this course from May 27 to June 24, 2010.
The course consists of a 20 day footprint (Appendix 6) including the following training:
- 42 hours of CBT training;
- Ten 2 hour sessions of FBT training with 1 hour of pre-flight briefing and ½ hour of debriefing time for each session. The tenth session is completed in the FFS with the motion off for the purpose of practicing procedural flows;
- Seven 4 hour FFS sessions and an eighth 5 hour FFS session. There is 1 hour of pre-flight briefing and ½ hour of debriefing time for each session. The eighth session is allocated for the FAA PC check which constituted a T5 test.
A “T3” test was conducted on a B-787 aeroplane on July 25, 2010 to validate the Course A training received on unqualified training devices. This test consisted of 3 take-offs and landings in VMC and ground maneuvering for one member of the TCCA Course A crew.
Note: This test was effectively a T5 test since this crew had completed a full transition vs. differences course.
3.5 B767 to B-787 STAR Transition Training – Course B
This course is intended to provide training credits for pilots qualified on Boeing “Glass Cockpit” aeroplanes. The particular Boeing models which qualify as glass cockpit aeroplanes are the B-737-600, -700, -800, -900, the B-747-400, the B-757 and B-767. Previous HUD or EFB experience is not a stated prerequisite for this course.
A Transport Canada crew of 2 inspectors qualified on the B-767 evaluated this course from June 19 to July 7, 2010.
The course consists of a 13 day footprint (Appendix 9) including the following training:
- 24 hours of CBT training;
- Five 2 hour sessions and one 4 hour session of FBT training with 1 hour of pre-flight briefing and ½ hour of debriefing time for each session. The last session is completed in the FFS with the motion off for the purpose of practicing procedural flows;
- Four 4 hour FFS sessions and one 5 hour FFS session. There is 1 hour of pre-flight briefing and ½ hour of debriefing time for each session. The fifth session is allocated for the FAA PC check which constituted a T3 test.
A T3 test was conducted on a B-787 aeroplane on July 25, 2010 to validate the Course C training received on unqualified training devices. This test consisted of 3 take-offs and landings under VMC for the TCCA Course B crewmembers.
3.6 B-777 to B-787 Differences Training – Course C
This course is intended to provide training credits for pilots qualified on the Boeing 777 aeroplane to become qualified on the B-787. Previous HUD or EFB experience is not a stated prerequisite for this course.
An Air Canada Pilot paired with an EASA pilot evaluated this course from July 4 to July 8, 2010.
The course consists of a 5 day footprint (Appendix 7) including the following training:
- 11.5 hours of CBT training;
- Two 4 hour sessions of FBT training with 1 hour of pre-flight briefing and ½ hour of debriefing time.
- One 4 hour FFS session and one 5 hour FFS session. There is 1 hour of pre-flight briefing and ½ hour of debriefing time for each session. The last FFS session is allocated for the FAA PC check which constituted a T3 test.
A T3 test was conducted on a B-787 aeroplane on July 25, 2010 to validate the Course C training received on unqualified training devices. This test consisted of 3 take-offs and landings under VMC for the TCCA Course C crewmember.
Note: A Partial Proficiency check will add the B-787 to the qualifications of a pilot only until the current expiry date of the validity period of the B-777.
B-787 to B-777 Differences Training – Course E
This course is intended to provide training credits for pilots qualified on the B-787 to become qualified on the B-777.
A Transport Canada crew of 2 inspectors evaluated the course in February 2012.
The course consists of a 5 day footprint (Appendix 8) and scheduled the following training:
- 6 hours of CBT training;
- One 4 hour session of FBT training with 1 hour of pre-flight briefing and ½ hour of debriefing time.
- Two 4 hour FFS sessions with 1 hour of pre-flight briefing and ½ hour of debriefing time for each session.
- One 4 hour FFS session for a Partial Proficiency check.
The FBT was a Boeing 777 training device. The FFS was a CAE B-777 Level D FFS.
The TCCA crew underwent a full FAA IFR proficiency check, to validate that the training received was sufficient to become qualified on the B-777. It was concluded that a partial Proficiency Check is sufficient following the Course E differences training. The crew also underwent an FAA oral examination prior to conducting the PC.
Note: A Partial Proficiency check will add the B-777 to the qualifications of a pilot only until the current expiry date of the validity period of the B-787.
3.8 TCCA regulatory requirements
An objective of the OEB is to evaluate compliance with the regulatory requirements for commercial operations of the B-787 in Canada. The applicable regulations for B-787 commercial operations include CAR Part VI Subpart 5 (CAR 605) and CAR Part VII Subpart 5 (CAR 705). The OEB evaluated TCCA regulations with respect to pilot qualifications and operational suitability.
3.8.1 TCCA Regulatory Requirements for Pilot Qualifications
The OEB evaluations pertaining to pilot qualifications dealt specifically with training, checking and currency requirements. The applicable regulations and associated standards are found under CAR 705 Division VII – Personnel Requirements, and CAR 705 Division VIII - Training. Division VII includes regulations for Pilot Qualifications. Evaluations were conducted by members of the OE taking the applicable training courses, then completing the corresponding ‘T’ tests to validate the training. An additional “T3” test was conducted on the aeroplane, because of a lack of qualified full flight simulator during the evaluation.
TCCA specifically evaluated the training received against the required training in the associated Commercial Air Service Standards (CASS) 725.124(12), Level D Training Program for Pilots other than Cruise Relief Pilots, in anticipation that training programs would ultimately be conducted with a Level D FFS. The OEB identified several specific regulatory training requirements that were not included in the Boeing training program. (Refer to 7.2)
The checking conducted after training was evaluated against Schedule I – Pilot Proficiency Check (PPC) – Synthetic Training Device, found in the CASS 725. The OEB determined that several specific checking requirements were not included during the PC checks that were completed. (Refer to 8.5.2)
The TCCA evaluation for pilot qualifications for Courses B and C focused on the training and checking received for the establishment of associated credits from the Boeing “Glass Cockpit” aeroplanes and B-777 to be applied to the B-787 training requirements respectively.
3.8.2 TCCA Regulatory Requirements for Operational Suitability
TCCA evaluated the applicable regulations and standards under CARs 605 and 705 to establish the operational suitability of the B-787 for use in Canadian commercial operations. Boeing also submitted regulatory compliance checklists as requested by ORI #2, Operational Acceptability making statements of compliance against the applicable TCCA regulations. The Boeing compliance statements pertain to the design and equipment on the B-787. (The Boeing compliance checklists are stored in RDIMS files #7535175 and #4613800.)
TCCA normally determines Operational Suitability by inspecting a representative aeroplane in a production configuration and conducting operational suitability flights with qualified flight crew.
3.9 Transport Canada Evaluation and Acceptance of Boeing Training Courses
TCCA, under the CARs, approves an individual air operator’s training program. TCCA does not approve a manufacturer’s training program, but can “accept” the use of a program for use by a Canadian air operator to develop his own training program. An air operator can in turn receive TCCA approval for their training program when based upon TCCA accepted manufacturer’s training. The acceptance of a manufacturer’s training program for use by an air operator to develop their own training program is documented in the applicable OEB report.
The TCCA evaluation of the B-787 training program focused on the effectiveness of the training received and the training devices used and assessed the effort required by the OE participants to successfully complete the training program. TCCA submitted to Boeing for their response, a TCCA document called a Record of Comments (RDIMS #6308955 with specific findings made during the course of the program. TCCA also submitted two narrative reports on courses B and C.
Boeing responded to TCCA’s satisfaction on the specific issues raised in the Record of Comments. TCCA has accepted Boeings training program for use by a Canadian Air Operator, provided the training identified in Section 7 of this report is provided. This includes additional training to address TCCA regulatory requirements and special emphasis training as identified.
3.10 Operational Suitability Flights
TCCA conducted a partial operational suitability evaluation in August 2010, when a TCCA B-787 qualified inspector acted as an observer on several aircraft certification F&R Flights. The aircraft used was Aircraft ZA-102, which was a production representative aircraft intended for Japan’s ANA airline for its domestic service. All of the elements required for the operational suitability demonstration could not be evaluated because of the scope of the F&R flights, and the expiry of the inspector’s B-787 currency. These flights were also conducted by the manufacturer, and not an air operator with passengers, cargo and airline airport facilities. These flights are documented in a B-787 Operational Suitability Flights Report, RDIMS #6923565.
An operational suitability evaluation should be completed prior to Canadian operations using a suitably configured B-787 under simulated airline operational conditions. A B-787 qualified TCCA inspector should conduct the evaluation as a Pilot Flying .
Section 10, Operational Suitability, references B-787 operational requirements and operational compliance checklists.
3.11 Future Boeing 787 OE activity
The scope of the TCCA OE at this issue of this OE report is as follows:
- Evaluation of B-787 Initial Training Program (Course A – B-787 Transition Course);
- Differences Training from “Boeing Glass” Cockpit aeroplanes (B-767) to B-787 (Course B; B -787 STAR course);
- Differences Training from B-777 to B-787 (Course C – B-777 to B-787 Differences Course);
- Differences Training from B-787 to B-777 (Course E – B-787 to B-777 Differences Course)
The scope of OE activities conducted to date establish the pilot qualification credits (for training checking and currency) that may be granted to pilots qualified on the B-777 or Boeing Glass Cockpit aeroplanes.
The OEB anticipates the following activities related to the B-787 as this program evolves:
- Differences training between B-787 models (B-787-8, -9 and -3);
- Any other training program or part thereof requested to be evaluated by Boeing or a Canadian air operator.
TCCA will conduct any of the above operational evaluations when requested by Boeing or a Canadian air operator and amend this OEB report accordingly.
4 PILOT TYPE RATING REQUIREMENTS
In accordance with the Personal Licensing and Training Standard 421.40, the Pilot Type Ratings to be assigned to all models of the B-787 is B787.
Pilots who have no previous experience on Boeing aeroplanes may be able to gain a B-787 type rating upon successful completion of an approved B-787 Full Transition training program.
Pilots qualified on the B-777 may be able to gain a B-787 type rating when taking an approved B-777 to B-787 differences training program.
Pilots qualified on the B-787 may be able to gain a B-777 type rating when taking an approved B-787 to B-777 differences training program.
Pilots qualified on Boeing “Glass Cockpit” aeroplanes may be able to gain a B-787 type rating when taking an approved STAR training program.
All of the preceding training should be conducted in accordance with the guidelines of this OER.
5 MASTER DIFFERENCE REQUIREMENTS (MDRs)
5.1 Common Requirements (All B-787s)
5.1.1& Autopilot Engage/Disengage Altitudes
- The B-787 has been specifically been evaluated for autopilot suitability for engagement at or above 200 ft AGL during take-off as referenced by approved AFMs.
- Without LAND 2 or LAND 3 annunciated, the autopilot must be disengaged below 100 feet AGL.
5.1.2 Aircraft Approach Category and Circling Minima:
- The B-787 is considered Category C or D aircraft for the purposes of determining “straight-in” landing weather minima. The B-787 approach category is determined by the maximum certified landing weight approach speed.
- Circling approaches are flown with landing gear down, flaps 20 and at the flap 20 maneuver speed. Circling approaches may be flown with flaps 25 or 30 as an option. Weather minima associated with the approach category for the circling speed flown should be used.
5.1.3 Normal Final Approach Flap Setting
The normal Final Approach Flap Setting is considered to be either flaps 25 or flaps 30 for all B-787’s.
5.2 Master Differences Requirements
5.2.1 MDRs are provided for particular B-777/B-787 combinations. These provisions apply when differences exist between related aeroplanes which affect crew knowledge, skills, or abilities related to flight safety (e.g., Level A or greater differences).
The MDR table below applies to the master differences from the B-777 to the B-787. The only B-787 model evaluated to date is the B-787-8. The MDRs in training/Checking/Currency are specified in accordance with the criteria contained in FAA AC 120-53A and the CPD. Appendix 1 summarizes the differences levels for training, checking and currency.
5.2.2 Notes to MDR requirements define acceptable "required means" or "alternate means" of compliance. A footnote can indicate requirements that are less restrictive than the basic designation, or more restrictive than the basic designation depending on the significance of the differences between particular variants.
MASTER DIFFERENCES REQUIREMENTS
- Addition of SATCOM may require additional training.
- Addition of FANS/DATA LINK may require additional training
- “TAC-off” requires D level training and checking
5.3 Requirements (MDRs) for Specific B-787/Boeing “Glass Cockpit” Aeroplane combinations
B-787 MDR and Example ODR tables available under RDIMS #7685386
6 ACCEPTABLE "OPERATOR DIFFERENCE REQUIREMENTS" (ODR) TABLES
6.1 ODR tables - Operator's Compliance Method
Acceptable Operator Difference Requirements tables for air operators using a particular combination of B-777 and B-787 related aircraft are shown in Appendix 3. The first three ODR tables use the B-777-300ER as the “Base Aircraft” and the B-787 as the “Difference Aircraft”. The second three ODR tables use the B-787as the “Base Aircraft” and the B-777-300ER as the “Difference Aircraft”. Air operators conducting Mixed Fleet Flying (MFF) operations with related aircraft must have approved ODR tables in both directions.
The ODR tables represent an acceptable means to comply with MDR provisions for this combination of aircraft, based on differences and compliance methods shown. The tables do not necessarily represent an acceptable means of compliance for air operators with aircraft having other differences, where compliance methods (e.g., devices or simulators) are different, or for combinations of aircraft not evaluated. For air operators operating related aircraft, which are the same as the aircraft used for the ODR table development and using the same compliance methods, the ODR tables in Appendix 2 have been found acceptable by the OEB. Equivalent tables may be approved by the POI for a particular air operator if found acceptable by the Program Manager of Airline Standards and/or Program Manager Flight Technical of the Commercial Flight Standards Branch Air operators with differences not shown on, or addressed by the tables of Appendix 2, or air operators seeking different means of compliance, should consult with the OEB when preparing specific ODR tables pertinent to their fleet.
6.2 ODR Table Coordination.
Unless identical or equivalent ODR tables have been previously approved by the POI, new ODR tables proposed by air operators should be coordinated with their POI and the Program Manager of Airline Standards and/or Program Manager Flight Technical of the Commercial Flight Standards Branch prior to TCCA approval and implementation. Coordination with the OEB ensures consistent treatment of related aeroplanes between various air operators, and compatibility of each ODR table with MDR provisions.
6.3 ODR Table Distribution
Original approved ODR tables are to be retained by the air operator. Copies of approved ODR tables are retained by the Program Manager Flight Technical of the Commercial Flight Standards Branch.
7 OEB SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRAINING
7.1 Training - General
7.1.1 Assumptions Regarding Previous Experience
The provisions of this section apply to training programs for pilots who have experience in both CAR 705 airline operations and multi-engine transport turbojet aeroplanes. For pilots not having this experience, additional requirements may be necessary as determined by the POI and the OEB.
7.1.2 Full Transition, Short Transition, Upgrade and Differences Ground Training
The OEB did not evaluate any B-787 upgrade training. Full transition, short transition, or differences ground training for the B-787 is accomplished as specified by the Commercial Air Service Standards (CASS) for conventional Aeroplane Type Training.When an air operator requests credits for transition training of flight crew members from a base aircraft to one or more related aircraft or when more than one related aircraft is operated in a MFF program, appropriate instruction in unique aircraft systems will be required for each related aircraft, consistent with MDR provisions. Policy Letter 173 contains the criteria for transition training for MFF operations. In some cases, training program requirements may be reduced when a reduction is substantiated, provided the provisions of the MDRs are complied with.
7.1.3 B-787 Full Transition Training programs.
Pilots undergoing the full transition training program will benefit from prior experience with the systems such as AFCS, A/T, LNAV/VNAV, FMS/FMC, EICAS and highly integrated avionics systems using electronic flight displays.
Experience with HUD and EFBs will also be beneficial. Dual EFBs are incorporated into B-787’s normal operations and are used for departure/approach charts, aircraft manuals and performance calculations. The EFBs have other functions such as an optional Electronic Logbook and video security systems, which are not included in the training programs. The B-787 is equipped with a dual HUD as standard equipment. Appendix 5 provides the pilot qualification requirements for the dual HUD on the B-787.
7.1.4 Differences Training Program Between B-787 and B-777
The Boeing Difference Training Program for pilots qualified on the B-787 or B-777 transitioning from one type to another is a relatively short course, because of the very similar design and operational philosophies between the two types. The flight characteristics of the B-787 and B-777 have been determined to be nearly identical because of the FBW design of both aircraft.
Unlike the B-787, the B-777 is not equipped with a HUD. The Boeing’s B-787 procedures incorporate the use of the HUD during normal operations. Maneuvers should be flown with reference to the HUD during differences training to the B-787. Maneuvers to be trained should be the same maneuvers provided on the full transition training program for the B-777 using HDD as required by the CASS. Appendix 5 provides a HUD qualification program for the B-787, which should be incorporated into the B-777 to B-787 differences training program.
The EFB is optional equipment on the B-777, whereas a dual Class 3 EFB is standard equipment on the B-787. Performance calculations on the B-787 are performed on the EFB and sent to the FMC’s. Performance calculations cannot be sent from the EFB’s to the FMC’s on the B-777. Sufficient EFB training should be provided to ensure adequate proficiency is gained in the use of the EFBs to perform the functions associated with normal and other operations.
A training program addressing pertinent differences described by individual air operator’s ODRs, including normal, non-normal, and alternate operations is required for each related aircraft operated. Ground Training in the following subjects for the B-777 or B-787, as applicable to the specific related aircraft, is required:
- General description of the aircraft;
- Performance characteristics;
- Airplane Systems (e.g. EICAS, hydraulics, electrical...);
- Normal, Non-normal, Emergency, Supplementary and Alternate Procedures;
- Other instruction in features unique to the air operator's fleet of B-787 airplanes and related aircraft;
- HUD (Appendix 5).
7.1.5 B-787 Short Transition Training Program (STAR) with Credit for Boeing “Glass Cockpit” Aeroplanes
This Boeing STAR training program is a reduced footprint program compared to the B-787 Initial Transition Training program. This program gives training credits to pilots qualified on Boeing “Glass Cockpit” aeroplanes. It is assumed by the OEB that pilots undergoing this STAR training program will have prior experience and a good working familiarity with Boeing procedures and with systems such as AFCS, A/T, LNAV/VNAV, FMS/FMC, EICAS and highly integrated avionics systems using electronic flight displays. The focus of the STAR training is directed at the systems and characteristics that are unique to the B-787.
The same considerations for HUD and EFB apply as for the differences training program from the B-777 to the B-787. Appendix 5 provides a HUD qualification program for the B-787, which should be incorporated into the STAR course.
7.1.6 Other STAR Training Programs
Air operators may apply for STAR programs that give credit for previous non-Boeing FMS/EFIS flight deck training/qualification. The OEB has only evaluated the Course B training program which is the STAR training from the B-767. Air operators wishing to have other STAR programs evaluated should consult the OEB.
7.2 Special Emphasis and Operational Training
The following items should receive special emphasis at the appropriate point during the ground and flight training (e.g. during CBT, FBT and/or FFS training) in all B787 training programs
- Major system architecture and electrically powered systems: Pilots should be given sufficient understanding of the function and architecture of certain critical systems and aircraft limitations, to assist in decision making when executing non-normal or emergency procedures. Important systems and limitations include the Common Core Resource (CCR), electrical, air data and attitude reference systems, electric braking, engine relight envelope, and engine time limits at take-off and TOGA thrust;
- EICAS engine display formats (e.g. for operation with different engine types);
- HUD use and symbology, (Refer to Appendix 5)
- Flight control system, including
- Modes of operation;
- Fly-by-wire characteristics;
- Bank angle indications and protection;
- Stall, low speed and high speed protections;
- Auto-throttle “wake up” function;
- Emergency equipment and flight crew procedures, including location, type/function, and operation of emergency equipment.
- The Autopilot disconnect and HUD De-clutter buttons are similar in colour and tactile characteristics and are located in close proximity on the control wheel. Pilots should be aware it is possible to inadvertently disconnect the autopilot if the wrong button is selected when intending to de-clutter the HUD and vice versa;
- Courses B and C should focus on system differences, especially in the areas of flight controls, wheel braking, electrical systems, CCR, and ice protection. FBT and/or FFS training on alternate navigation system using the Display Control Panel (DCP) should be provided;
- The courses should be organized as necessary and additional training time added to avoid concentrating too many training objectives into individual lessons. The FBT should be used prior to the FFS in first teaching system knowledge for certain failures, such as dual engine fail/stall and unreliable airspeed;
- FBT training should not be started until a minimum amount of CBT training has been completed and minimum level of proficiency in mastering procedural flows has been gained. Sufficient time free from training should be scheduled in all three courses at appropriate times, to allow time for the consolidation of flow procedures before proceeding with FBT training or written or oral exams. This study time should be in addition to normally scheduled days off for rest;
- More free-play capability in the CBT or dedicated freeplay trainers for the FMC, EFB, procedural flows and other highly interactive or integrated controls would assist in the preparation for FBT and FFS training;
- Air operators may add additional training elements as required by their operation, and these will vary. Training organisations should review their training courses when applicable aircraft modifications occur. Training organisations may add additional training elements as required by the air operator.
- The following additional training is required to meet CASS 725.124(12) requirements:
- Failure of navigation and communication equipment (Courses B and C);
- Pilot Incapacitation – recognition and response during various phases of flight;
- Recovery from approaches to stalls;
- Buffet boundary onset and steep turns (45o of bank), (Courses A and B);
- Performance limited take-offs;
- HUD training to include the same maneuvers as trained for Head Down Displays (Refer to Appendix 5);
- Crosswind take-offs and landings to 100% of the demonstrated crosswind component;
- Simulated line flying comprising at least 2 sectors (one as pilot flying and another as pilot not flying);
- EFB training should be provided if a candidate has no prior experience with the B-787 EFB (Courses B and C)
7.2.1 Adverse Weather
Training for Cold and Hot Weather Operations, Severe Turbulence and Windshear should include the material contained in Supplementary Procedures, Chapter SP, Section 16, Adverse Weather contained within Boeing 787-8 Flight Crew Operations Manual (FCOM); Document Number D615Z003-TBC, October 31, 2007, Revision Number: 4, Revision Date: February 15, 2010 or later revision. SOP’s should include provisions for ground de-icing and anti-icing.
7.2.2 All Weather Operations
The B-787 is certified to conduct Category II ILS approaches and Category CAT III ILS Autoland approaches. The OEB did not conduct an evaluation of all weather operations on the B-787. The B-787 has HUD guidance available for the conduct of low visibility take-offs. The HUD Takeoff (function, symbology, etc.) will be included in the Boeing CATII/III training course, which is a separate training course from the type rating courses. An OEB evaluation of the CAT II/III training course will be required prior to approval all weather operations for the B-787.
Training in the appropriate use of HUD and HUD symbology should be emphasized for take-off when visibility is less than or equal to ½ statute mile (SMRVR).
Existing Transport Canada criteria including training for the operational approval of All Weather Operations can be found in Transport Canada Publication (TP) 1490, Manual of All Weather Operations (Categories II and III), Fourth Edition, 06/2011, or later edition of this manual.
Training in automatic landings must be conducted in a B-787 FFS. Training conducted in a B-777 may be credited toward the B-787 for the B-777 to B-787 differences course.
7.2.3 Avionics and Automation
The B-787 is a highly automated aeroplane and is normally flown through the use of its highly integrated automatic systems. Establishing early confidence in manually flying the aeroplane and selecting the appropriate level of automation is important during the full transition, difference and STAR training. Manual flight should include exposure to flight with the Fly By Wire (FBW) flight control system in normal and degraded modes.
Training in the following areas should be emphasized:
- Proper outside visual scans without prolonged fixation on FMC operation and the failure of FMC components;
- Proper selection and use of map displays, raw data, flight director, and AFDS, particularly during instrument approaches;
- Confirmation and monitoring of AFDS and A/T mode selections through HDD and/or HUD Flight Mode Annunciators (FMAs);
- HUD TO/GA Mode Reset (use of Flight Director switches for HUD TO/GA setup)
- Navigation Display (ND) (e.g. clock function, airport moving map and vertical situation display, ANP/RNP symbology, etc.);
- Proficiency in FMC navigation including departures arrivals and approaches;
- FMC speed management when configuring flaps to avoid airspeeds below the maneuver speed for a specific flap configuration;
- FMC approach / VNAV / LNAV functions, IAN and GNSS/GLS procedures, etc;
- FMC - EFB data transfer and performance calculations (e.g. aircraft mass entries in EFB and FMS)
- Use of Electronic Checklists (ECL) during normal, non-normal and emergency procedures, appropriate use of ECL Notes, use of paper back-up and crew coordination;
- Proper use and knowledge of the Look ahead Terrain Function of the EGPWS;
- Proper use and knowledge of the Predictive Windshear (PWS
- Selection and display of ADF bearing pointers on PFD (If ADF equipped);
- European Approach Procedures (As applicable - e.g. potential bypass of the holding and inversion during some types of “racetrack” procedures).
7.2.4 Circling approaches and landing
The autopilot is available and it’s use is recommended for circling procedures. The autopilot may be engaged in accordance with all applicable AFM Limitations. An air operator’s training program for circling procedures must include training in a FFS and include landings and go-arounds from the circling procedure.
7.2.5 Dual HUD
Appendix 5 provides the training requirements for use of the HUD. The training should include all of the maneuvers for which the HUD is intended to be used. Training should also include maneuvers through use of Head Down Displays (HDDs) to ensure proficiency and to account for possible failures of the HUD. Specific HUD training for low visibility take-off is required prior to authorizing the use of the HUD for these operations.
If MFF of HUD and non-HUD equipped aircraft occurs, the air operator should have approved ODR tables reflecting the HUD installation.
7.2.6 Electronic Checklists (ECL)
The electronic checklist (ECL) display system is utilized to reduce crew workload. Use of the paper backup should also be trained. Standard practices and crew coordination should be established for use of the ECL. To reduce workload, line items, which are sensed and indicate “completed” by the ECL system need not be read aloud.
7.2.7Electronic Flight Bag (EFB)
EFB training should be provided to ensure adequate proficiency is gained in the use of the EFBs to perform the functions associated with normal and other procedures. Training should include the interface between the EFB and FMC. Additional training should be provided for use of the EFB for additional capabilities including Flight Deck Video Security Systems (if installed). Training and operational evaluation of the EFBs should be conducted in accordance with the guidelines contained in TC Advisory Circular (AC), AC 700-020 Electronic Flight Bags, Effective date 2011-08-03.
7.2.8 Emergency Training – Crewmember
This training was not evaluated by the OEB. This section is reserved until an evaluation of this training is conducted.
7.2.9 Emergency Training - General and Aircraft Specific
This training was not evaluated by the OEB. This section is reserved until an evaluation of this training is conducted.
7.2.10 Engine Types.
Mixed flying of B-787 fleets with different engine types (e.g. B-787 fleet with GE or RR engines) will require additional training to account for different engine displays, and operating procedures.
7.2.11 Extended Range Twin – Engine Operations (ETOPS)
Training requirements for ETOPS should be in accordance with the criteria contained in Transport Canada Publication (TP) 6327, Safety Criteria for Approval of Extended Range Twin-Engine Operations (ETOPS)
7.2.12 Future Air Navigation (FANS 1)
Flight Crews operating aircraft equipped with FANS software should receive appropriate instruction in its general operational functions, appropriate uses for areas of operation, routes or procedures to be flown. The air operator’s training program should address communications, navigation and surveillance (CNS) functions covered by FANS and PBN including RNAV and RNP/ANP. In addition training in use of data link communication (CPDLC) and Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) to ensure adequate knowledge, and proficiency for flight crews to operate the above system(s) in typical daily operations (requiring their use) should be provided.
7.2.13 Flight Characteristics
The B-787 FBW flight control system has conventional and intuitive handling characteristics in normal modes. Special emphasis however should be placed on bank angle limit indications and protections, speed stability characteristics, low and high speed protection in normal and degraded modes and associated flight display indications (HUD and HDD).
Training of flight characteristics should include steep turns and approaches to stalls and recoveries as required by the CASS. Approach to stall and stall training should be in accordance with the guidance provided in TC Commercial and Business Aviation Advisory Circular (CBAAC) CBAAC 0247.
Training in flight characteristics should also include delayed engine response to thrust application, especially at high altitudes and when conducting a stall recovery.
7.2.14 Ground Training – General
The OEB has identified several aircraft systems and/or operating procedures that require special emphasis in the B-787 training program. The following subjects were not covered during the Boeing training program, but should be covered by an air operator’s training program as applicable:
- High Altitude Physiology;
- Fatigue, sleep loss and circadian disruption;
- International operating procedures for special use airspace such as MNPS, RVSM, specific RNP and RNAV Operations (Refer to 7.2.12);
- CPDLC and ADS operations (Refer to 7.2.12);
- Fuel characteristics and fuel temperature management at high altitudes and cold temperatures, such as operations over polar routes.
7.2.15 Overhead flight crew rest (OFCR) and overhead flight attendant rest (OFAR) facilities
The OEB has not conducted an operational evaluation of the OFCR and OFAR intended for installation on the B-787. The section is reserved for any special emphasis training related to the OFCR and OFAR when an evaluation is eventually conducted.
7.2.16 Procedural Scan Flows and Checklist Use
The mastery of procedural scan flows early in the training program will promote the most effective utilization of time in the FBT and FFS. Air operators should develop appropriate training aids to assist in the mastery of scan flow patterns. The use of checklists and Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) should be carefully integrated with scan flows.
The Boeing Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) depend on the use of “flow procedures” that are backed up by checklists. An air operator may establish SOP’s and flows that are more consistent with their operation. Any SOP’s or flows that have critical safety of flight implications should be backed up by the appropriate checklists and checklist items. Checklists may need to be amended or expanded accordingly.
7.2.17 Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM)
TCCA provides the authorization for operations within RVSM airspace via the issuance of an Operations Specification (Ops Spec) to Canadian Private Operator Certificate (POC) holders or Canadian Air Operator Certificate (AOC) holders. CBAAC 0226, “Southern Domestic Reduced Separation Minimum and Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum Approval Process”, provides the applicable guidance and regulatory references (including training) for RVSM approval. Paragraphs 722.08 (2)(d), 723.08 (2)(d), 724.08 (2)(d) and 725.08 (2)(d) of the CASS make specific reference to this document, as well as ICAO NAT DOC 001 for RVSM standards.
Training appropriate to the type of RNAV/RNP operation for which the air operator is approved to conduct should be provided. Criteria for specific RNAV and RNP Operations may be found in Transport Canada Series 700 Advisory Circulars. (Refer to 8.2.12)
7.3 Recurrent Training
7.3.1 Recurrent Training - General
Recurrent training should include appropriate training in accordance with the CASS, or an approved AQP program, for each aeroplane type (e.g., B-777 and/or B-787), or for the base aircraft and each related aircraft when operating in accordance with an approved MFF program. When recurrent training addresses more than one related aircraft, the differences must be covered in accordance with the items and levels specified by MDR and ODR tables for the differences training, unless otherwise established by the OEB.
7.3.2 Recurrent Flight Training
Recurrent flight training requires appropriate maneuvers and procedures required by the CASS or an approved AQP program for each aeroplane type, (e.g., B-777 or B-787) or for the base aircraft and each related aircraft when operating in accordance with an approved MFF program.
Appropriate emphasis should be placed on systems and procedures that may not have been routinely used, and are expected to be used prior to the next recurrent training event.
Emphasis should also be placed on manual flight with minimum use of automation, to refresh basic manual flying skills, because of the normal high use of automation in flying the B-787. Manual flight should include exposure to flight with the Fly By Wire (FBW) flight control system in normal and degraded modes.
When a base aircraft and one or more related aircraft are operated under an approved MFF program and ODR table provisions identify differences in maneuvers or procedures between related aircraft, such differences must be addressed in the air operators’ recurrent training program.
7.3.3 Recurrent Training Level Adjustments
The OEB may consider proposals to establish recurrent differences training at levels other than the items and levels specified by MDR and ODR tables on a case-by-case basis. Requests for changes should be made to the OEB through the POI, in coordination with the Program Manager Large Aircraft Standards and/or the Program Manager Flight Technical. If the OEB accepts different levels for recurrent training, such provisions will be identified in amended MDR footnotes.
7.4 Other Training
7.4.1 LOFT Programs
For air operators with an approved LOFT programs, POIs should review those programs to assure their suitability for the related aeroplanes flown. If simulators used for LOFT have differences from the related aircraft actually flown, LOFT credits may be reduced or eliminated if such differences are determined to have a significant adverse effect on the effectiveness of LOFT.
Note: Air operators operating a base aircraft and one or more related aircraft of a different type in an approved MFF program may not take advantage of the provision of paragraph 705.113(2)(b) to extend the validity of a PPC to 12 months if they already alternate PPCs between the base aircraft and one related aircraft every 6 months as part of the MFF program.
7.4.2 Flight Attendants, Initial and Transition Ground Training
This training was not evaluated by the OEB. This section is reserved until an evaluation of this training is conducted.
7.4.3 Aircraft Dispatchers, Initial and TransitionTraining
7.5 MMEL/MEL Use
Adequate training should be provided to address dispatch with equipment or systems operated in alternate/degraded modes. Training should also emphasize the crewmember’s ability to cope with the subsequent airborne failure of the next most critical failure. (e.g., failure of one or more features of the auto-flight system)
8 OEB SPECIFICATIONS FOR CHECKING
8.1 Checking Items
The knowledge, procedures, and maneuvers specified by the CASS and pertinent to multi-engine turbojet transport aircraft apply to the B-787. Steep Turns and approaches to stalls are not required to be checked if the specific criteria of Standard 725 Schedule I – Pilot Proficiency Check, Synthetic Training Device are met.
8.2 Areas of Emphasis
The following specific areas of emphasis should be addressed during checks as necessary:
- Proficiency with manual and automatic flight must be demonstrated;
- Proper outside visual scans without prolonged fixation on FMC operation should be demonstrated, and failure of component(s) of the FMC should be addressed;
- Proper selection and use of map displays, raw data, flight director, and AFDS should be demonstrated, particularly during instrument approaches;
- Demonstrations of FMC navigation including departures, arrivals and approaches;
- Proficiency in the use of electronic checklists (ECL) during normal, non-normal and emergency procedures;
- Understanding of speed and altitude stability characteristics of B-787 flight controls in normal operations;
- Proper use and knowledge of the Look ahead Terrain Function of the EGPWS;
- Proper use and knowledge of the Predictive Wind Shear (PWS) system;
- Proper use of the Heads Up Display (HUD), and
- Proper use of the Electronic flight Bag
8.3 “No-Flap” Landings
The B-787 has redundant flap system features. The demonstration of a “No Flap” approach and landing during a PPC is unnecessary, provided alternate flap systems operations (flaps-only or partial-flap) is checked
8.4 MMEL/MEL Use
Dispatch relief under the provisions of the air operator’s MEL should receive appropriate emphasis as part of the normal checking process in order to address those issues related to crew workload and safety. Training and checking should be sufficient to ensure satisfactory crew performance in both normal and non-normal flight regimes. Special attention should be given to checking to ensure that adequate training is provided to address dispatch with systems operated in alternate/degraded modes. Training and checking should also emphasize the crewmember’s ability to cope with the subsequent airborne failure of the next most critical failure. (e.g., failure of one or more features of the auto-flight system. (Refer to 8.5))
8.5.1 Written Tests
Written tests should be conducted at the end of the academic and FBT phase of training. Closed book questions should be administered following initial, STAR, differences or recurrent training for recall (memory) items and limitations that must be committed to memory. Open book questions corrected to 100% should be administered for tests of aircraft system and operations knowledge.
8.5.2 Pilot Proficiency Check (PPC) or Line Operation Evaluation (LOE)
The PPC/LOE should follow Standard 725 Schedule I – Pilot Proficiency Check, Synthetic Training Device, or be conducted in accordance with an approved AQP program for the B-787 as the case may be. The PPC or the LOE should contain elements that are pertinent to the intended operations (eg. Oceanic operations) if AQP LOE’s apply.
For pilots qualified on the B-777, the B-787 initial qualification practical test need only address the differences between the two aircraft, if the B-787 is not operated in an approved MFF program. Elements that are common to both aircraft should be included for a PPC scenario that meets the requirements of 725.106(2)(h) of the CASS.
An air operator that has an approved Transition Training program may take advantage of the checking relief provided for in the MDR tables and approved for that air operator in his ODR tables for initial PPC or LOE on the B-787.
An air operator that is operating the B-787 and one or more related aircraft under an approved MFF program may take advantage of the checking relief provided for in the MDR tables and approved for that air operator in his ODR tables for recurrent PPC or LOE on the B-787.
When operated under an approved MFF program, a full proficiency check in either a B-777 or B-787 suffices to extend the validity period of the other related aircraft to the first day of the thirteenth month following the month in which the PPC or LOE was conducted. The applicable initial or recurrent qualification must be conducted in accordance with the MDRs and approved ODR tables for that air operator. Such checks should assess knowledge and acceptable levels of skill, considering the related aircraft flown and crew position.
When checks are conducted for MFF between the B-777 and B-787, one aircraft is typically selected as the base aircraft, and sufficient knowledge tests are conducted on the related aircraft, to ensure the effectiveness of the differences training. The preflight and equipment examination portion of initial and recurrent proficiency checks should address each aircraft operated by the flight crew member in mixed fleet flying. Satisfactory completion of a proficiency check may be substituted for recurrent flight training as permitted by the CARs.
8.6 Head Up Display (HUD)
Checking standards for HUD are equivalent to those for non-HUD operations except for low visibility takeoff. Required maneuvers should be demonstrated without use of HUD to assess non-HUD skills.
8.7 Alternating B-777 and B-787 Proficiency Checks
Air operators with flight crews operating the B-787 and B-777 in an approved MFF program may alternate PPC provided currency requirements detailed in Section 9 are maintained.
8.8 Line Checks
Line checks completed for either a B-777 or B-787 may satisfy requirements for both types when they are engaged in the same kind of operations and operated under an approved MFF program. Separate line checks may be required, such as for initial oceanic operations, special routes or airports, or other factors which may be unique to the operation of either B-777 or B-787 variant for that air operator. In some cases, such as when both aircraft type are operated in similar role but over different geographic areas, the annual line checks may be completed on a B-777 or B-787 on an alternating basis, subject to the approval of the POI.
9 OEB SPECIFICATIONS FOR CURRENCY
Recency of experience is common between the B-777 and B-787. Recency of experience required by CAR 705.106 (1) may be maintained for the B-777 and B-787 by accomplishing the required take-offs and landings in either aeroplane. Sector currency may be maintained in the B-777 and B-787 by accomplishing the required sector currency in either aeroplane.
In an approved MFF program, both the B-787 and B-777 should be flown between training and checking events.
10 OPERATIONAL SUITABILITY
10.1 Specific Operational Approvals and Authorizations
The following areas identify criteria associated with specific operations.
10.1.1 Operations in Canada and Cold Temperatures
The following issues were identified during the training program which may have an influence on operations in Canada:
- The FCOM and FCTM provide information and procedures for applying cold temperature corrections to FMC waypoint altitude constraints to conduct approach procedures;
- ADF pointers are displayed full time on the PFD mini-map when manually tuned but are not available on the HUD.
10.1.2 All Weather Operations
The B-787 is certified to conduct Category II ILS approaches and Category III ILS Autoland approaches. The B-787 also has a dual HUD installation with HUD guidance available for the conduct of low visibility take-offs. The OEB did not conduct an evaluation of all weather operations on the B-787. The HUD Takeoff (function, symbology, etc.) will be included in the Boeing CATII/III training course, which is a separate training course from the type rating courses. An OEB evaluation of CAT II/III training course will be required prior to approval all weather operations for the B-787.
Existing Transport Canada criteria including training for the operational approval of All Weather Operations can be found in Transport Canada Publication (TP) 1490, Manual of All Weather Operations (Categories II and III), Fourth Edition, 06/2011, or later edition of this manual. (Refer to 7.2.2)
10.1.3 Electronic Flight Bag (EFB)
The criteria within TC Advisory Circular (AC), AC 700-020 Electronic Flight Bags, Effective date 2011-08-03 should be followed for operational use of the EFB and associated functions. (Refer to 7.2.7) An air operator should also follow the critreria within this AC as the basis for the replacement of paper based documentation.
10.1.4 Extended Range Twin – Engine Operations (ETOPS)
Operational approval for ETOPS should be in accordance with the criteria contained in Transport Canada Publication (TP) 6327, Safety Criteria for Approval of Extended Range Twin-Engine Operations (ETOPS). (Refer to 7.2.11)
10.1.5 International operating procedures for special use airspace, CPDLC, ADS, and Polar operations
The OEB has not evaluated the B-787 for international operations and operations for special use airspace. Appropriate evaluations should be undertaken in support of operations in airspace requiring specific criteria. (Refer to 7.2.12 and 7.2.14)
10.1.6 Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM)
TCCA provides the authorization for operations within RVSM airspace via the issuance of an Operations Specification (Ops Spec) to qualifying Canadian Private Operator Certificate (POC) holders or Canadian Air Operator Certificate (AOC) holders. CBAAC 0226, “Southern Domestic Reduced Separation Minimum and Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum Approval Process”, provides the applicable guidance and regulatory references (including training) for RVSM approval. Paragraphs 722.08 (2)(d), 723.08 (2)(d), 724.08 (2)(d) and 725.08 (2)(d) of the CASS make specific reference to this document, as well as ICAO NAT DOC 001 for RVSM standards. (Refer to 7.2.17)
Criteria for specific RNAV and RNP Operations may be found in Transport Canada Series 700 Advisory Circulars. (Refer to 7.2.18)
10.1.8 OFCR and OFAR facilities
The OEB did not conduct an operational evaluation of the B-787 OFCR and OFAR facilities for the B-787. The section is reserved for any findings to the OFCR and OFAR when an evaluation is eventually conducted.
10.2 MEL Development
An individual air operator may elect to take advantage of the full range of relief provided under the MMEL. The POI should closely review specific MEL relief proposals to ensure that training and checking are sufficient to ensure satisfactory crew performance in both the normal and non-normal flight conditions while operating under MEL relief. MEL relief should be granted only where it can be confirmed that safety will not be compromised as a function of crew experience, qualifications and training. (Refer to 7.5 and 8.4)
10.3 Regulatory Compliance Checklist
TCCA has not yet completed an inspection of a production representative B-787. Boeing has submitted regulatory compliance checklists as requested by ORI #2, Operational Acceptability making statements of compliance against the applicable Canadian Aviation Regulations. The Boeing compliance statements pertained to the design and equipment on the B-787. (Section 3.9.2)
The RDIMS reference to access the regulatory compliance checklists is provided in Appendix 4.
10.4 TCCA Operational Review Items (ORI) Status
TCCA has accepted the Boeing Position stated in each ORI and has closed the ORIs. TCCA maintains a file of the ORIs. The following is a summary of the status of the requirements of each ORI:
10.4.1 ORI No. 1; Operational Evaluation- Type Rating Determination; and Training, Checking and Currency Requirements
TCCA has evaluated the Boeing B-787 training program and has documented the pilot qualification requirements within this report. The TCCA assigned pilot type ratings for the B-787 are provided in Section 4 of this report.
10.4.2 ORI No. 2; Operational Acceptability
Boeing has submitted a compliance checklist with specific requirements of CARs 605 and 705. TCCA has not completed an inspection of a production representative aeroplane. (Section 10.3)
10.4.3 ORI No. 3; Forward Observer Seat and Associated Systems
TCCA has accepted the findings of the FAA FSB which state from the applicable report:
“On B-787 variants with two observer seats installed, one or both seats may satisfy the requirements of FAR 121.581. Either seat may be used by FAA inspectors at their discretion.”
TCCA also evaluated the observer’s seats during the partial operational suitability evaluation conducted in August 2010. TCCA has determined that the left side observer seat and associated systems is considered to be suitable for compliance with CAR 705.27(2).
10.4.4 ORI No. 4; Master Minimum Equipment List (MMEL)
Boeing has developed an MMEL for the B-787. The TCCA National Aircraft Certification branch is responsible for developing and approving any TC Supplement to the FAA approved MMEL as per the criteria of TP 9155.
10.4.5 ORI No. 5; Training and Checking Simulator
The TCCA OEB completed the evaluation of the B-787 in the B-787 suite of training devices and simulators. The devices at the time of the initial evaluation were not yet qualified but in a Ready For Use (RFU) status. TCCA has the means to accept the FAA qualification of the applicable training devices under a TCCA/FAA bilateral agreement.
10.4.6 ORI No. 6; Operational Evaluation
TCCA has completed T2 and “T3” tests on B-787 test aeroplanes as part of the evaluation of the Boeing training program. TCCA conducted a limited operational suitability evaluation.
10.4.7 ORI No. 7; Aircraft Configuration for Operational Evaluation
The B-787 FFS at the time of writing of this report is at Interim Level C. TCCA has not yet completed an inspection of a production representative B-787.
10.5 Emergency Evacuation
TCCA emergency evacuation requirements reside with the TCCA aircraft certification requirements. Further findings of operational suitability will be documented in this OEB report when an operational evaluation of passenger evacuation requirements is completed.
11 OEB SPECIFICATIONS FOR DEVICES AND SIMULATORS
11.1 Standard Devices and Simulators
Device and Simulator characteristics pertinent to B-777 and B-787 variants are as designated in FAA AC 120-53A, except as described below.
11.2 Special Requirements
When different EICAS engine display formats are used, due to operation with different engine types (GE and RR), flightcrews should also be exposed to the alternate EICAS presentations by a suitable means to assure proper display interpretation and use by the flight deck crew (Section 7.2.10)
11.3 Devices Used for Recurrent Proficiency Checks
Recurrent checking may be accomplished with a full PPC in either B-777 or B-787 simulators on an alternating basis for pilots qualified on both types and operating under an approved MFF program, as per the specifications of section 7 of this OEB report. The recurrent proficiency checks should be accomplished in relevant B-787 or B-777 simulators or combinations of simulators as suited to the particular air operator's fleet, fleet mix, types of operations, and approved training program.
For example, if crews predominantly or exclusively operate Extended Range (ER) oceanic flights in a B-787, checks (and LOFT scenarios if used) should address the thrust to weight characteristics, non-normal planning and decision making, and include a discussion of systems configurations typical of those operations.
Additional demonstrations of proficiency in ER related areas should be required if recurrent training is conducted at the typical weights and scenarios for non- ER operations. The POI, the Program Manager Large Aircraft Standards, the OEB and/or the TCCA National Simulator Evaluation Program (NSEP) should be consulted when an air operator proposes use of a simulator that do not represent the predominant operations flown (eg. ER) or do not match the variants flown.
12 APPLICATION OF OEB REPORT
All relevant parts of this report are applicable to air operators on the effective date of this report.
13 ALTERNATE MEANS OF COMPLIANCE
The OEB Chairman, the Program Manager of Flight Technical and/or the Program Manager Large Aircraft Standards should be consulted by the POI when alternate means of compliance, other than those specified in this report, are proposed. An air operator will be required to submit a proposed alternate means that provides an equivalent level of safety to the provisions of the CARs and this OEB report. Analysis, demonstrations, proof of concept testing, differences documentation, and/or other substantiation may be required.
In the event that alternate compliance is sought, training program credits, simulator approvals, and device approvals may be significantly limited and reporting requirements may be increased to ensure an equivalent level of training, checking, and currency is maintained. TCCA will generally not consider relief through alternate compliance means unless sufficient lead-time has been planned by an air operator to allow for any necessary testing and evaluation.
- 787 Flight Crew Training Manual (FCTM); Document Number FCT 787 (TM), October 31, 2007, Revision Number: 1, Revision Date: October 31, 2008 or later revision;
- 787 Quick Reference Handbook (QRH); D615Z003-TBC; February 15, 2010 or later revision;
- 787-8 and 777-300ER FCOM Differences Handout; Document Number: 787-D2-TBC; Revision Number: 0, Revision Date: November 15, 2011 (Course E)
- Boeing 787-8 Flight Crew Operations Manual (FCOM); Document Number D615Z003-TBC, October 31, 2007, Revision Number: 4, Revision Date: February 15, 2010 or later revision;
- Boeing 787-3/-8/-9; Pilot Qualification Plan; Doc. No. D630Z001-01; REV G; January 7, 2012 or later revision;
- Differences Training 777 to 787; Document Number: 787-D1-TBC; Revision Number: 1; Revision Date: July 1, 2010 (Course B);
- Differences Training787-8 to 777-300ER; Document Number 777-D2; Revision Number 1; Revision Date January 23, 2012 (Course E);
- EASA Operational Evaluation Board Report, Boeing 787-8, First issue dated 28 November 2011, or later issue;
- FAA Advisory Circular AC120-53A, Guidance for Conduction and Use of Flight Standardization Board Evaluations, dated October 15, 2008;
- FAA Flight Standardization Board Report, Revision 1, Boeing 787-8, dated 3/23/2012 (March 23/12) or later revision.
- JOEB OPS/FCL Common Procedures For Conducting Operational Evaluation Boards, dated June 10, 2004;
- Transport Canada Advisory Circular 700-020 Electronic Flight Bags, Effective date 2011-08-03;
- Transport Canada Commercial and Business Aviation Advisory Circular, CBAAC 0226, “Southern Domestic Reduced Separation Minimum and Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum Approval Process”, dated March 3, 2009;
- Transport Canada Commercial and Business Aviation Advisory Circular, CBAAC 0247 - Training and Checking Practices for Stall Recovery, dated August 24, 2005;
- Transport Canada Policy Letters PL 136 ,Operational Evaluations, dated January 29, 2001;
- Transport Canada Policy Letter, PL 173. Flight Crew Member Qualification Credits for Transition Programs and Mixed Fleet Flying Programs, dated July 25, 2007;
- Transport Canada Publication (TP) 1490, Manual of All Weather Operations (Categories II and III) Fourth Edition, 06/2011, or later edition of this manual;
- Transport Canada Publication (TP) 6327, Safety Criteria for Approval of Extended Range Twin-Engine Operations (ETOPS) dated June 2007;
- Transport Canada Publication (TP) 9155, Master Minimum Equipment List / Minimum Equipment List Policy and Procedures Manual date January 26;
- Transition Training Manual Document Number: 787-T1; Revision Number: Rev New; Revision Date: May 24, 2010 (Course A and B).
- Date modified: