Cessna Aircraft Company - Cessna Citation CJ3 C525B
Operational Evaluation Board (OEB) Report – Cessna Aircraft Company - Cessna Citation CJ3 C525B
November 1, 2006
Table of contents
- OE Board composition
- Type rating determination
- Master Common Requirement (MCR)
- Master differences Requirements (MDR)
- Acceptable Operator differences Requirements (ODR's) tables
- Specification for training
- Specification for checking
- Specification for currency
- Aircraft regulatory compliance checklist
- Specification for devices and simulators
- Appendix 1 - MDR table
- Appendix 2 - Acceptable ODR tables
- Appendix 3 - Training programs special emphasis training
- Appendix 4 - Operating rules appliance checklist
Application of Operational Evaluation Report.
The guidelines and recommendations contained in this report apply to: Civil Aviation Inspectors, Principal Operations Inspectors (POI) and Company Check Pilots employed by Canadian commercial operators
This operational evaluation is based on contract ground and flight training provided by Flight Safety International, Cessna Flight Training Center, Wichita, Kansas. Flight training was conducted in the Cessna CJ3 simulator (TC ID #270)
This evaluation has been made in compliance with the TCCA JOEB/FLC common procedures terms of references.
This operational evaluation applies only to the Cessna Citation CJ3 Model 525B, and does not provide any differences for pilot qualification to any other variants of the Cessna Model 525.
The report that follows covers the Flight Operations conducted under subpart 704 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations.
Simulator and Minimum Equipment List (MEL) evaluation is not included in this report.
Operational Evaluation Report, Operations
- Defines the Type Rating assigned to the Cessna 525B (CJ3 model) aircraft.
- Makes recommendations for initial training.
- Makes recommendation for checking.
- Makes recommendation for currency.
- Determines findings on the operational acceptability.
- One pilot conducted this TCCA operational evaluation.
- Jason Ruck - Inspector, Fixed Wing Operations, Commercial Aviation TCCA - RACX.
- The inspector is type rated on various multi-engine turbojet aircraft. The inspector performed and evaluated the areas of operation required by the airline transport pilot and / or type rating practical test standards required by Canadian Aviation Regulation (CAR) subpart 704.
- The contracted training was conducted at Flight Safety's Cessna training center in Wichita Kansas.
- Aircraft training was conducted in CJ3 C-FXTC in Calgary, AB.
- The model "Citation CJ3 aircraft is a medium range turbojet aircraft certified under FAR 23 Commuter (Type Certificate A-190). It is powered by two Williams FJ44-3A turbofan engines each rated at 2820 pounds of static thrust at sea level up to 22 degrees Celsius controlled by a single dual channel Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC) per engine. The aircraft is certified for sustained flight from sea level to 45,000 feet.
The guidelines set out in this report apply to:
- Flight training.
- Technical ground instructors.
- Contract training agencies.
- Civil Aviation Inspectors.
- Approved Check Pilots.
- Pilots receiving training.
- With reference to Canadian Aviation Regulation 401.06 a new pilot's type rating is assigned to the Cessna CJ3 and the designated licence endorsement is: C25B.
- The aircraft currently considered a high performance aircraft requiring an individual type rating that can be issued after a qualifying flight in accordance with 421.40(3)(c). The Canadian Type Certificate Data Sheet (A-190) for the C525B specifies One Pilot or One Pilot and One Copilot. It is recommended that this aircraft be considered two-crew required for the purposes of the type rating requirements for Part VII operations. The issuance of a type rating would require a completion of a Pilot Proficiency Check for Commercial Operations in accordance with 421.40(3)(a)(iii)(A).
5.2 Type Rating Course
- The Initial type training course should follow the typical format for this category and class of aircraft providing the average pilot with the knowledge, skill and proficiency to satisfy the type rating requirements of CAR Std 421.40(2)(a), and PPC requirements of CASS 724.108(1).
The course can be expected to be of 18 training days consisting of approximately:
- 46.5 hours of Ground School covering :
- All aircraft systems, descriptions, integrations, normal and abnormal operation.
- Aircraft Procedures, Flight Management System and Automatic Flight control system.
- Performance, Weight and Balance & Flight Planning
- 4 hours per pilot in "SIT" sessions
- 14 Hours per pilot in FFS training
- Followed by a type-rating/PPC, as required, per 5.1- Pilot Type Rating Requirements contained in this report
- The OET has identified several aircraft systems and/or procedures that must receive special emphasis in a CitationJet 3 training program per Appendix 3 of this report.
5.2.1 Ground Training:
Ground school instruction general
- Conducted at the Wichita training facility commenced September 6th, 2006 and concluded September 12th, 2006 followed by one half day "SIT" session, and included one half day systems review and two half day qualification examinations. The "SIT" session are designed to familiarize pilots with the Collins ProLine 21/FMS-3000 avionics interface and reinforce classroom learning to the practical operation of the aircraft.
- During the ground school and simulator flight-training period, minor deficiencies in the course material were as a result of recent changes to the AFM. Changes were discussed with the instructors at Flight Safety. Changes are to be incorporated into the next Flight Safety course material amendment.
- Flight Management System (FMS) – The CJ3 employs a sophisticated Collins FMS-3000 FMS. Ground training provided did not currently meet all requirements 724.115(22)(c)(i) for Area Navigation Systems (general theory subjects) and will require Operator specific training to ensure all elements are satisfied.
- From the factory, the FMS-3000 installed as specified by Cessna on the CJ3 type does not possess a Temperature Compensation feature.
- A Garmin 500 series GPS can be installed as an option, but no training on this unit was provided. A limitation stated in the approved AFM indicates that it not be used as a primary source of navigation while the FMS-3000 system is operable.
- Ground Training on aircraft performance and Weight and Balance procedures provided candidates with detailed instruction relating to Net Takeoff Flight Path and performance requirements. Emphasized again in the Flight Training portion.
- Terrain Avoidance Warning System (TAWS), Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS)
- High altitude training. (The CJ3 has a service ceiling of 45,000 feet)
- Windshear training.
5.2.2 Systems Integration Training (SIT):
Emphasis must be given on;
- Philosophy of FMS programming and verification of waypoint selection, review of flight planning, and division of duties. In particular, emphasis on the programming of the FMS to ensure it does not detract from situational awareness and flying duties.
- Computer based demonstration software was available in the self study facility in addition to the demonstration provided during the Avionics portion of the Groundschool. The software, while it provided some basic functionality, does not provide full functionality and was of limited benefit to the students. A four hour “SIT” session was provided in the simulator (TC ID 270) as a simulation device for the ProLine 21 avionics package has not yet been completed. The approved level “D” simulator was able to provide full functionality of the avionics suite. Candidates should be proficient with all primary, optional, and reversionary options.
- Ground training, as provided, does not currently meet all requirements 724.115(22) Area Navigation Systems
5.2.3 Flight Training (Full Flight Simulator - Level C and D):
- Secondary Flight Control failures (Flaps, Trim and Speedbrakes).
- Engine malfunctions and FADEC faults.
- Primary Flight Display (PFD), Multifunction Display (MFD), and EICAS reversionary modes including “EMER” operation with standby instrumentation only.
- Limitations related to the use of the autopilot and Navigation Modes.
- Delayed engine response to full power applications during low energy awareness training and at high altitudes. Aircraft incorporates a high idle “stop” automatically activated once the aircraft lifts off (through a “weight on wheels” switch).
- Traffic Collision and Avoidance System (TCAS) and Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System (EGPWS) awareness along with Low Energy Awareness
- Dual generator failure and other systems/electrical malfunctions.
- High altitude (above 41,000 ft.) handling characteristics with the autopilot and yaw damper inoperative.
- High Altitude Emergency descent procedures.
- Crew communications while wearing the oxygen mask using pressure breathing.
- Use of ground flap system and the related malfunctions as the aircraft does not possess Thrust Reverse or Attenuators
- In the event of a flight path deviation due to input error or system malfunction, the flight crew must be able to comfortably transition from automatic to manual mode and back in an orderly fashion.
- FSI has not yet developed an FCOM for this type. Recommended maneuvers and profiles were in a note format and were incomplete and left to the flight training instructors to provide during simulator. According to FSI, this is currently under development and is forthcoming.
- This section reserved for future variants of the C525B as required.
- Previous variants of the CJ series (C525/C525A type including CJ1/CJ1+ and CJ2/CJ2+) contained in the A-190 type certificate were not in the scope of this evaluation.
- This section reserved for future variants of the C525B.
- Steep turns, training, and evaluation at 200 KIAS.
- Stall sequences require considerable control force pressures due to the high mount position of the engines as thrust is applied with consideration given to avoiding a secondary stall. During the landing configuration stall with landing gear down and full flaps, candidates should be aware of the nose-down pitch change as thrust rapidly increases due to the relatively short coupling effect of the airframe combined with the reduced effectiveness of the elevator at a slower airspeed.
- Engine shutdown, securing, and restart require coordination between the two pilots. Consideration for development in a company SOPs. Windmilling starts have a very narrow airspeed envelope resulting in most airstarts being starter assisted. The starter switches are located on the far left of the instrument panel accessible to the left seat position only.
- No flap approaches are required in training. No flap approaches should be limited to non-circling approaches only.
- Full Flap Non-precision Approaches. It should be noted that it is the normal practice to execute non-precision instrument approaches (MDA step-down type) and the circling maneuver with flaps extended to the “Takeoff and Approach- 15 degree” position. Flaps are selected to the “Land” position once visual or landing assured.
- Precision approaches and Non-precision FMS using VNAV path (SCDA type) are conducted in the landing configuration and should be initiated preferably intercepting the Glideslope/Glidepath and fully established no later than the final approach fix. The exception is single engine approaches that are to be flown with flaps in the “ Takeoff and Approach” position, with “Landing” flap selected once landing is assured, if required for field length considerations.
- Landing minima could be as low as category "B". Circling approaches are category "C" as a minimum.
- It is the operator's responsibility to ensure that the training pilots (both ground and flight) meet the requirement of CASS 724.115(4). The contract training organization (FSI or others as applicable) must use the operators approved training program as the manufacturers approved course provided by FSI may not meet the requirements of CASS 724.115(10.2) Level “D” in particular.
- The applicant must meet the training requirements of CAR 704.115.
- The Pilot in Command and/or Second in Command must hold as a minimum a Commercial Pilot Licence and comply with CASS 421.40(3), or an Airline Transport Pilot Licence if recommendation of Appendix 4 of this report is adopted.
- Minimum crew requirements for Commercial operations are in accordance with CAR 704.106 would allow single pilot operations with carriage of passengers in VFR flight only. Recommendation in Appendix 4 of this report would identify this aircraft as two crew required.
Recommendation only: For the purposes of the definition of “similar type” as it relates to a Level C training program per 724.115(10.1)(a)(i) currently specifies Transport Category to Transport Category aircraft. It is the opinion of the OET that credit should be extended to allow other Citation 500 series (example: C550 is Transport Category) to be considered as a similar type to the C525B (C525B only of the A190 Type Certificate is a Commuter Category aircraft, remainder (C525 and C525A) are normal category). Options could include:
- Removing Transport Category Turbojet to allow any turbojet to turbojet
- Including Normal category to Normal category and Commuter category to Commuter category turbojet
- Allowing Commuter Category turbojet in the current standards wording.
- Make specific reference in the standards wording to include Citation 500 series aircraft.
- This report does not address the operation of this aircraft under CAR 604/CBAA POC.
- Checking conducted shall be in accordance with CASS 724.108 schedule 1, as required.
- All currency requirements for the CJ3 type must be in accordance with an approved Company Operations Manual and comply with CAR 401.05 and CASS 724.108.
- Currently, there is no compliance checklist developed for the C525B. Air operators are cautioned when ordering interior configurations that may not conform to the Canadian Aviation Regulations. Operator should consult their POI and PMI when considering interior configuration.
- Requests for device approval should be made to the POI. CASS 724.115(8)(b) requires training and checking in a level A, B, C, or D simulators.
- Currently, there is one approved level "D" (TC ID #270) simulator located at Wichita Kansas, which may be used to satisfy these requirements in the CJ3.
- Contact the National Simulator Program Manager for details as to the current status of any additional CJ3 simulators.
- The CJ3 simulator (TC ID #270), in the opinion of the OET, was an accurate representation of the CJ3 type and provided suitable malfunctions likely to occur with the aircraft. After having flown the aircraft, the simulator handled sufficiently similar to the actual aircraft.
- There is no forward observer's seat on the flight deck or forward passenger seat that complies with CASS 720.16(2)(a).
- Chart database (updateable Jeppesen) that can be displayed on the MFD, while it can display all charts for airports contained in the database subscription, does not meet requirements for an electronic flight bag as the charts may not be displayed during all phases of flight. In particular, when the battery is placed in the “EMER” position, the MFD display is not powered. This would require that valid charts in another approved format be available during IFR flight. CBAAC 0231 dated 2004.07.20 provides guidance to operators on the use of Electronic Flight Bags.
- The operation evaluation covered the majority of the AFM normal, abnormal, and emergency procedures.
- Crew mask (EROS) requires specific stowing procedure to ensure quick donning.
- An ILS approach using only the Integrated Standby Instruments. The instruments provide all attitude, airspeed and navigation information necessary for an ILS approach.
- Performance lessons did not fully address Canadian Aviation Regulation requirements for 704 operations regarding fuel and alternate requirements, including factored landing distances (60% destination and alternate turbojet CAR 704.49(2)(a)(i)).
- Vertical Navigation and VNAV-DA approaches (when certified) – will require special emphasis, as there is potential for mode confusion.
- Ground Training for FMS integrated Receiver as provided does not meet all requirements of CASS 724.115(22). Particularly the General training requirements.
- Basic programming philosophy is not prevalent in this course. Crew duties should be strictly adhered to while programming the FMS.
- GPS standard verification procedures are not included in the training philosophy and need to be emphasized in Standard Operating Procedures development and exercised
- Classroom FMS training is not complete nor does it replicate the existing software in the simulator.
- Temperature Compensation for the FMS-3000 was not included, nor being considered by Cessna for this type. Restrictions need to be communicated through Standard Operating Procedures and considered when approving the operator for GPS approaches- VNAV approaches to DA or MDA. Manual corrections to altitudes would be required for the applicable altitudes for a typical LNAV only step-down type approach during cold weather (0 degrees and below). SCDA type approaches may not be assured required obstacle clearance at temperatures below ISA.
- It is not the intention of this report to find commonality with other existing types.
- Recommendation: This aircraft is currently considered a high-performance aircraft requiring an individual type rating. While it has been considered a single pilot aircraft in the Aircraft Type Designator List of Division 6 Appendix A in Part IV- Personnel Licensing and Training Standards, the operating rules of 704.106 preclude carriage of passengers in IFR flight. There is currently little practicality in operating this aircraft single pilot in commercial operations. (For information only, restrictions are also in place under CASS 723.86(3) that do not allow single pilot operations above FL250 for CAR 703 aircraft). For consistency and related safety implications, consideration should be given (as has been previously done in aircraft like the EMB-110 Banderante) to require two pilots for Part VII commercial operations (or IFR/VFR Night per the E110 type) and reflect this in the Aircraft Type Designator List.
- Date modified: