4.2 Qualification Curriculum

AQP requires a Qualification Curriculum for each duty position in each type, model, and series aircraft (or variant).  To this end, the air operator shall develop Operator Difference Requirement (ODR) Tables for each applicable aircraft in its fleet.  Each Qualification Curriculum will include training, validation, evaluation and pilot licensing action, as applicable.  The training activities include ground and flight training, operational experience, and may include special qualification. 

If the training is to result in licensing action for issuance of an Instrument and/or Type Rating, curriculum segments must explicitly identify the training and evaluation strategy to be used in place of the prescribed practical test requirements outlined in Part IV and VII of the CARs.  The applicant must demonstrate, to the satisfaction of Transport Canada, that the proposed AQP training and evaluation strategy will ensure individual competency that equals or exceeds CARs requirements.  The applicant must also demonstrate that each person qualified through an AQP has demonstrated satisfactory proficiency in the integration of technical and CRM skills.   

4.2.1 Ground Qualification Training Activities 

To be qualified for a particular duty position, a person will receive job-specific ground training. This training typically includes general operational subjects, technical systems, system and procedures integration as well as emergency-type training.  Ground Qualification is confirmed by a Systems Knowledge Validation (SKV). This may take the form of a traditional written examination.  It may also incorporate other means of systems knowledge validation (e.g., computer-based), as authorized by Transport Canada.

4.2.2 Simulation/Flight Qualification Training Activities 

Each AQP includes curriculum segments for training, validation, or evaluations as appropriate in FTD and simulators. The use of FTDs or higher-level training devices in training is encouraged. Manoeuvres Validation, LOFT and the LOE must be accomplished in a full flight simulator that has been approved for this purpose. However, upon satisfactory small group try-out demonstrations, LOFT may be conducted in an FTD with authorization from Transport Canada. Training and evaluation in an aircraft is discouraged, but may be authorized by Transport Canada on a case-by-case basis.

4.2.3 Initial Operating Experience (IOE)

IOE replaces traditional Line Indoctrination. IOE curriculum segments are integral to the Qualification Curriculum. IOE provides hands-on training and actual experience in performing the duties of a newly assigned flight crew. An Initial Operating Experience Training Captain (IOETC) conducts IOE during actual line flying operations. Validation is accomplished when the individual is trained to proficiency and recommended for an Online Evaluation (OE).

4.2.4 Special Qualification Training 

Curriculum segments may include special purpose training. These are portions of ground or flight training that has a specific application to flight crewmembers who are in international operations or for the introduction of new flight operations. Examples include:  international operations, Extended Twin Engine Operations (ETOPS) and special airport operations. Special qualification training may initially be a separate curriculum segment that is later integrated into ground or flight training segments.

4.2.5 Special Purpose Operations Training (SPOT) 

This is a portion of a Line Operational Simulation (LOS) training scenario consisting of flight tasks selected from any phase or phases of flight to provide practice in the integration of technical and CRM skills appropriate to the selected flight tasks. SPOT is conducted using a complete cockpit flight crew to the maximum extent feasible and is accomplished in a full flight simulator. However, in some cases, SPOT may be conducted in an FTD with authorization from Transport Canada.  

4.2.6 Validation/Evaluation/Remediation 

In AQP, a “validation” is a determination that the training produces the required results as identified in the Qualification Standards and that the individual has met the performance objectives of the training module. An “evaluation” is an appraisal of an individual to ascertain whether the standards required for a specified level of proficiency has been successfully demonstrated. Interrupting the evaluation session for training is not permitted. Both the validation and evaluation are assessments that the proficiency objectives of the training module have been met and the individual can proceed to the next level of training or line operations. Figure 4-2 contains a table that summarizes the relationship between the various training activities and their associated validation/evaluation gates. Figure 4-3 provides a more detailed look at the validation/evaluation gates and the associated remediation.

Note:  These validations and evaluations, including the associated remediation strategies, are fully described in the AQP Evaluator Manual.

Fig 4-2:  AQP Training, Validation, & Evaluation

Activity Device Purpose Can it be Interrupted? Training/ Validation or Evaluation Sequencing of Events
Ground Training Classroom or
Computer Based Instruction, and
Training Devices
Systems Training Yes Training
&
Validation
Syllabus
Manoeuvres
and
Procedures Training
FTD & Simulator Aircraft Manoeuvres and Operational Procedures Yes Training
&
Validation
Isolated Manoeuvres and Procedures.  Logical, Specific Sequencing of Events
Special Purpose Operational Training (SPOT) FTD & Simulator Focuses on CRM Skills, Differences Tng., Wind shear Tng., Special Qualification Yes Training Isolated Manoeuvres and Procedures.  Logical, Specific Sequencing of Events
Line Oriented Flight
Training (LOFT)
FTD &
Simulator
Crew Oriented Training (CRM) in Preparation for LOE No

Except To Begin Different Scenarios

Training Logical Sequencing
of Events Within
Varying Length Scenarios
Line Operational
Evaluation (LOE)
FTD &
Simulator
Evaluate the training and qualifications of the crewmembers  May be Segmented to Condense Distances as in International Scenarios Evaluation Specific Flight Scenario from Take-off to Landing
Operating Experience Aircraft Consolidation of knowledge & skills in a operational environment Yes Experience Routine Flight Operations
Qualification
Online Evaluation (OE)
Aircraft To verify a crewmember’s ability to satisfactorily perform duties & responsibilities No Evaluation Routine Flight Operations
Continuing Qualification Online Evaluation (OE) Aircraft To evaluate crew proficiency and their knowledge, skills, and ability to operate effectively as part of a crew. No Evaluation Routine Flight Operations

Fig 4-3: AQP Validation/Evaluation Table

Gate Qualification Curriculum Continuing Qualification Curriculum Evaluation
Media
System
Knowledge
Validation
(SKV)
80% or Greater
corrected to 100%,

< 80% retest

80% or Greater
corrected to 100%,

< 80% retest

Written, Oral, or Electronic Testing System (ETS)
Procedures
Validation
(PV)
Train to
Proficiency
  As Authorized
Manœuvres
Validation
(MV)
2 Repeats of One Manoeuvre,
or
1 Repeat Of Any 2 Manoeuvres*
Repeats Allowed
Within Training
Period
Approved Simulation Device
Line Operational Evaluation
(LOE)
Grading By Event Set

 8 or more Event Sets Repeat - 2 Event Sets**

Grading By Event Set

8 or more Event Sets
Repeat - 2 Event Sets **
Approved Simulation Device
Online
Evaluation
(OE)
Any Unsatisfactory Task must be Repeated.

 If Required, Remedial Training, Additional Initial Operating Experience, and Another Operational Evaluation as Recommended by the evaluator

Any Unsatisfactory Task must be Repeated.

 If Required, Remedial Training, Additional Initial Operating Experience, and Another Operational Evaluation as Recommended by the evaluator

Aircraft
(Actual Line Operations)

* For any repeat in a Qualification Manoeuvres Validation (MV), Qualification LOE or Continuing Qualification LOE, no training, practice, or coaching is permitted. 

** Failure to meet the required level of proficiency during an LOE or OE will result in retraining, re-evaluation, and will require special tracking.

** Regardless of number of events sets, unsafe individual or crew performance that would result in significant damage, hull loss or loss of life (e.g., crash) during an LOE constitutes a failure of the LOE.

  1. Systems Knowledge Validation (SKV) 
     
    This is an assessment of an individual’s technical systems knowledge. The intent of the Systems Knowledge Validation session is to ensure an individual’s systems knowledge is at an appropriate level before progressing into the next training phase. Systems Knowledge Validation may be accomplished by a written, electronic or oral exam. An overall score of 80 percent or better, corrected to 100 percent, would be an acceptable validation. An overall score of less than 80 percent will require retraining and another complete test. A failure of an individual test module or sub-section, with an 80 percent or better overall score, only requires retraining and retesting of the specific module. Consideration should be given to establishing a maximum number of modules or sub‑sections that if failed constitute an overall failure of the validation.  
     
  2. Procedures Validation  (PV)
     
    This is an assessment of an individual’s systems integration knowledge and skill. This validation addresses the individual’s ability to assimilate system and procedural knowledge into the appropriate execution of procedures. This validation session should take place in an FTD or a simulator. The intent of the PV session is to ensure an individual’s systems and procedural knowledge and skills are at an appropriate level before progressing into the flight simulator training phase. There is no established requirement that the systems and PV be accomplished sequentially. It is the prerogative of each air operator to develop an evaluation system that works for them. For example, the systems validation could take place in two parts. The first part may be a written exam administered at the conclusion of ground school. The second stage could be an oral examination conducted at the conclusion of procedures training, before the Manoeuvres Validation (MV) or before the LOE. Validation is accomplished when it is verified that the individual is trained to proficiency. 
     
  3. Manœuvres Validation  (MV)
     
    This validation addresses the individual’s proficiency in the execution of manoeuvres. It must take place in a full flight simulator.   In order to differentiate between the Manoeuvres Validation (MV) conducted in a Qualification Curriculum and a Continuing Qualification Curriculum, the following terms have been established:

    1. Manoeuvres Proficiency Validation (MPV) for the Qualification Curriculum 
       
    2. Manoeuvres Training and Validation (MTV) for the Continuing Qualification Curriculum. 
       
    The essential difference between the MPV for Qualification Curricula and the MTV for Continuing Qualification Curricula is the manner in which repeats of unsuccessful exercises are addressed.

    For a MPV (Qualification Curriculum), flight crewmembers are expected to have reached a satisfactory level of proficiency in the manoeuvres prior to the validation event. An MPV should not allow more than two repeats of any one manoeuvre or one repeat of any two manoeuvres. A debriefing of why the manoeuvre(s) was unsatisfactory is allowed, but the repeats must occur with no training, practice, or coaching. If the flight crewmember fails to demonstrate proficiency in the time constraints of the simulator session, an additional training session is required. After additional training, the individual need only repeat the manoeuvres that were unsatisfactory.  
     
  4. Line Operational Evaluation (LOE)  
     
    This evaluation addresses the individual’s ability to demonstrate technical and CRM skills appropriate to fulfilling job requirements in a full mission scenario environment. The intent of a LOE is to evaluate and verify that an individual’s job knowledge, technical skills, and CRM skills are commensurate with AQP Qualification Standards and that the individual is qualified to begin the Initial Operating Experience portion of the Qualification Curriculum. LOE is considered a jeopardy event and a failure is reported to Transport Canada.

    LOEs are graded at the event set level. A LOE consists of a minimum of 8 events sets. During the LOE, two events sets can be repeated. No single event set can be repeated more than once. A debriefing of why the event set(s) is unsatisfactory is allowed, but the repeat must occur with no training, practice, or coaching. If any repeated event is unsatisfactory, remedial training and another complete LOE evaluation is required.

    NOTE:  Regardless of number of events sets, unsafe individual or crew performance that would result in significant damage, hull loss or loss of life (e.g., crash) during an LOE constitutes a failure of the LOE. 
     
  5. Online Evaluation (OE)
     
    OE replaces the traditional Line Check. Flight crewmembers receiving this evaluation are assessed for their proficiency in the duty position. Successful completion of the OE verifies that the individual is adequately trained and is capable of performing their duties and responsibilities. If any task is unsatisfactory, the individual must receive remedial training on that task, additional operating experience if necessary, and possibly another OE. If a pilot receives an unsatisfactory overall performance rating on an OE, the pilot cannot progress to line operations until the accepted means of remediation (additional training as required) has been successfully completed. 

4.2.7 Planned Hours 

All curricula will include planned hours for ground training, flight training, evaluation, and operating experience. Planned hours represent the estimated amount of time, as specified in a curriculum outline, that it takes an average candidate to complete a segment of instruction. This will include all instruction, demonstration, practice and evaluation, as appropriate, to reach proficiency. Planned hours enable Transport Canada and the air operator to schedule their personnel resources more efficiently and provide a baseline for curriculum adjustments. Planned hours are not used by Transport Canada as a basis for program authorization, review, or compliance assessment. Planned hours can be shown on the course footprint that is part of the curriculum outline. Figure 4-4 provides an example of a course footprint with planned hours.

Figure 4-4:  Example of AQP Qualification Curriculum Footprint, Transport Category Airplane operated under Subpart 705 of the CARs

Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5    
Welcome       :30
Intro              :30
CBT            5:00

TT               6:00
CBT            5:00
Review        1.00


TT               6.00
CBT            5:00
Review        1.00


TT               6.00
CBT            5:00
Performance   1.00


TT               6.00
Evacuation   3:00
Ditching      3:00


TT               6:00
Day Off Day Off
Day 6 Day 7 Day 8 Day 9 Day 10    
CBT            5:00
Setup Lect.  1.00



TT               6.00
CBT            3:00
FTD Brief    1.00
FTD  # 1      2.00


TT               6.00
CBT            5:00
Review        1.00



TT               6.00
CBT            3:00
FTD Brief    1.00
FTD # 2       2.00


TT               6.00
SYSTM VAL
Testing        1:00
Flt Ops Brf.  4:00
Debrief          :30

TT               6:30
Day Off Day Off
Day 11 Day 12 Day 13 Day 14 Day 15    
Sys Rev       1:00
FTD Brief    1.00
FTD # 4       4.00


TT               6.00
FTD Brief    1:30
FTD # 5       4.00
Debrief        1:00


TT               6.30

FTD Brief    1:30
FTD # 6       4.00
Debrief        1:00


TT              6.30

FTD Brief    1:30
FTD # 7       4.00
Debrief        1:00


TT             6.30
Proc Val
FTD Brief    1:30
FTD # 8       4.00
Debrief        1:00

TT               6.30
Day Off Day Off
Day 16 Day 17 Day 18 Day 19 Day 20    
Sim Brief    1:30
Sim # 1       4.00
Debrief        1:00


TT               6.30
Sim Brief    1:30
Sim # 2       4.00
Debrief        1:00


TT               6.30
Sim Brief    1:30
Sim # 3       4.00
Debrief        1:00


TT               6.30
Sim Brief    1:30
Sim # 4       4.00
Debrief        1:00


TT               6.30
MAN VAL
Sim Brief    1:30
Sim # 5       4.00
Debrief        1:00

TT               6.30
Day Off Day Off
Day 21 Day 22 Day 23 Day 24 Day 25    
LOFT Brief     1:30
LOFT # 1/SPOT 4.00
Debrief        1:00


TT               6.30
LOFT Brief     1:30
LOFT # 2/ SPOT 4.00
Debrief        1:00


TT               6.30
LOFT Brief     1:30
LOFT # 3/ SPOT 4.00
Debrief        1:00


TT               6.30
LOFT Brief     1:30
LOFT # 4/ SPOT 4.00
Debrief        1:00


TT               6.30
LOE
Brief            1:30
LOE            4:00
Debrief        1:00

TT               6:30
Day Off Day Off
Day 26 Day 27 Day 28 Day 29 Day 30    
IOE IOE IOE IOE IOE    
Day 31

IOE
Day 32

OE

SYST VAL - Systems Validation
PROC VAL - PV
MAN VAL  - Manoeuvres Validation
LOE - LOE
SPOT - Special Purpose Operations Training

CBT – Computer-based training
FTD - FTD
Sim - FFS
LOFT - LOFT
IOE - Initial operations experience
OE –Online Evaluation



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