5.1 Instructor/Evaluator Curricula

5.1.1 General

Instructors and evaluators are the backbone of the AQP. Without adequately trained and qualified instructors and evaluators, AQP will not be successful. The applicant must devote the appropriate time and resources to the qualification and continuing qualification of these key personnel.

5.1.2 Instructor/Evaluator Curricula

Each AQP must contain instructor and evaluator Qualification and Continuing Qualification Curricula. These requirements include a separate JTA, Qualification Standards, curricula, and curriculum outlines focusing on the instructor/evaluator duty positions.

Note:  The Qualification Standards document for instructor/evaluators does not need to include conditions or a criticality/currency analysis.

An AQP is an alternate method of training, evaluating, qualifying, and certifying, to ensure the competency of pilots, flight crewmembers, instructors, and evaluators subject to the training and evaluation requirements under the applicable Subpart of Part VII of the CARs.

AQP provides for authorization of an alternate method for qualifying, training, certifying and ensuring the competency of instructors and evaluators required to be trained or qualified under Part VII of the CARs. AQP has entailed a detailed re-examination of the existing policies and procedures as they apply to the eligibility, nomination and surveillance requirements for instructors and evaluators. The specific qualification and currency requirements of AQP evaluators are located in the AQP Evaluator Manual.

Historically, ACPs checked pilots using a manoeuvre-based evaluation scenario based on the ACP Manual and the PPC schedules located in Part VII of the CASS. AQP relies on a progressive validation process. In addition to a manoeuvre-based evaluation, AQP also features a LOE. The Qualification Standards used for pilot checking and licensing under AQP will reflect the complete set of standards under which the pilots will operate throughout their operational line flying. Due to the unique characteristics and detailed scripting of LOEs, all personnel authorized to conduct licensing action, are required to complete AQP evaluator training. This training can consist of the Qualification Curriculum either for new personnel or for a differences module for instructors and ACPs that are already qualified under the air operator’s traditional program.

5.1.3 Definitions

Evaluator:  An “evaluator” is a person delegated by the Minister who has satisfactorily completed training and evaluation that qualifies that person to evaluate the performance of flight crewmembers, instructors, and other evaluators, as appropriate. In an effort to remain aligned with traditional ACP policy and procedure, the AQP term “Evaluator” is considered synonymous with “Check Pilot” or “ACP” in a traditional program.

5.1.4 Qualification Training

The training requirements for each curriculum are derived by a thorough and accurate task analysis. In order to provide an example of what might be included in each curriculum, Transport Canada reviewed several task analyses and extracted some subject areas of interest which are listed below:

  1. Instructor Qualification Curriculum

    1. General overview of:
       
      1. The learning process.
         
      2. Elements of effective teaching. 
         
      3. Student evaluation, quizzing, and testing. 
         
      4. Overview of AQP program development, implementation, and operation policy. 
         
      5. Lesson preparation and application. 
         
      6. Classroom instructing techniques. 
         
      7. Techniques for instructing in the cockpit environment. 
         
      8. Standardization and Rater/Referent Reliability. 
         
      9. CRM and human factors training. 
         
      10. How to conduct training modules for students with varying backgrounds and varying levels of experience and ability. 
         
      11. Instructor responsibilities. 
         
    2. Specific training in:

      1. Effective use of and qualification in specific FTDs, flight simulators and aircraft used in the AQP.
         
      2. Limitations on use of training equipment. 
         
      3. Evaluation of performance against objective standards. 
         
      4. Effective pre-flight and post-flight instruction. 
         
      5. Effective analysis and correction of common errors. 
         
      6. Teaching/facilitation of CRM skills. 
         
      7. Performance and analysis of standard flight events and procedures. 
         
      8. Safety considerations in the training environment. 
         
      9. Data gathering procedures. 
         
      10. Standardization and Rater/Referent Reliability 
         
  2. Differences Between Traditional and AQP for Existing Instructors

    1. Overview of AQP program development, implementation, and operation policy. 
       
    2. CRM and human factors training. 
       
    3. Standardization and Rater/Referent Reliability. 
       
    4. Data gathering procedures. 
       
    5. Effective use of and qualification in specific FTDs, flight simulators and aircraft used in the AQP. 
       
    6. Limitations on use of training equipment used in the AQP. 
       
    7. Evaluation of performance against objective standards. 
       
  3. Evaluator Qualification Curriculum

    1. General overview of:

      1. Evaluation policies and techniques. 
         
      2. The role of the evaluator. 
         
      3. Administrative procedures. 
         
      4. General safety considerations. 
         
      5. Evaluating human factors and CRM skills. 
         
      6. Standardization and Rater/Referent Reliability. 
         
    2. Specific training in:

      1. For each crewmember position requiring a particular evaluation the method of conducting:

        1. Manoeuvres Validation 
           
        2. First‑Look Manoeuvres 
           
        3. Online Evaluations 
           
        4. In-flight proficiency evaluations if required 
           
        5. LOE in flight simulators and/or FTDs 
           
        6. Special purpose evaluations (e.g., long range navigation) 
           
      2. The standards for the evaluations in a). 
         
      3. The methods and standards associated with licensing requirements for the issuance of an Instrument and Type Rating. 
         
      4. How to conduct evaluations while simultaneously serving as PIC, SIC, or safety pilot. 
         
      5. Safety considerations for the various types of evaluations. 
         
      6. Safety considerations particular to the make, model, and series aircraft (or variant). 
         
      7. How to evaluate instructors and evaluators. 
         
      8. Company/Transport Canada policies with regard to the conduct of evaluations. 
         
      9. Administrative requirements particular to evaluations. 
         
      10. Evaluating CRM skills. 
         
      11. Briefing and debriefing techniques. 
         
      12. Data gathering procedures. 
         
  4. Differences between Traditional and AQP for Existing Evaluators

    1. Overview of AQP program development, implementation, and operation policy. 
       
    2. CRM and human factors training/evaluating. 
       
    3. Standardization and Rater reliability. 
       
    4. Data gathering procedures. 
       
    5. Effective use of and qualification in specific FTDs, flight simulators and aircraft used in the AQP. 
       
    6. Limitations on use of training equipment. 
       
    7. Evaluation of performance against objective standards. 
       
    8. Briefing and debriefing techniques. 
       
    9. How to evaluate instructors and evaluators. 
       
    10. Company/Transport Canada policies with regard to the conduct of evaluations. 
       
    11. Administrative requirements particular to evaluations.

5.1.5 Qualification – Evaluation and Observation

Every instructor/evaluator must receive a validation/evaluation at the end of each curriculum. These methodologies must be described in the test and evaluation strategy within the Instructor/Evaluator Qualification Standards. 

5.1.6 Continuing Qualification – Training, Evaluation and Observation

Instructors/evaluators should be given an opportunity to operate in all positions in which they are authorized to perform duties. Flight instructors/evaluators should demonstrate the ability to brief and debrief, fly and instruct in both pilot seats and operate the simulator, if appropriate. If possible, instructors/evaluators should focus on the training, validations and evaluations that are under development for the next evaluation period. This will allow the instructors/evaluators to become familiar with all aspects of the sessions they will be expected to teach/evaluate during the following year. This will help ensure the development of a polished Continuing Qualification program and give the instructors/evaluators an opportunity to maintain their own proficiency using scenarios that they have not seen. Each training period should be conducted by one of a small core of the most experienced instructors/evaluators.

Each Instructor/Evaluator’s Continuing Qualification curriculum segment should include the requirements listed below. The requirements of paragraphs c. and d. below should be defined in the Test and Evaluation Strategy in the Instructor/Evaluator Qualification Standards: 

  1. Basic crew position Continuing Qualification. 
     
  2. Ground and flight training to enhance, upgrade, and maintain each instructor/evaluator’s knowledge, skills, and abilities. 
     
  3. A schedule for recency of instructor/evaluator’s experience. The program must define the minimum requirements each category of instructor/evaluator, as defined in the Evaluator Manual, will have to meet in order to stay current in their position. Instructors must maintain a high level of competency, so the minimum standard must be sufficient to maintain their proficiency. Evaluators will perform an adequate number of each of the validation events that they are qualified to administer, as specified in the AQP Evaluator Manual. 
     
  4. A schedule for critical examination of each instructor/evaluator’s abilities and adherence to prescribed standards.

5.1.7 Instructor and Evaluator CRM Training and Evaluation

All instructors and evaluators will receive instruction and evaluation in CRM objectives and training methods.

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