Advisory Circulars

Commercial & Business Aviation

COMMERCIAL AND BUSINESS
AVIATION ADVISORY CIRCULAR


No. 0141

1998.05.13

Notice to Pilots and Air Operators - Low-Energy Hazards/ Balked Landing/Go-Around

INTRODUCTION

The purpose of this Commercial and Business Aviation Advisory Circular (CBAAC) is to notify pilots and air operators of the potential hazards associated with a balked landing or go-around.

BACKGROUND

During the aircraft certification process, handling procedures and performance are assessed across a wide range of operating weights, configurations, and flight profiles. The Aircraft Flight Manual defines the boundaries within which the aircraft may be operated safely.

It is a common belief among pilots and many air operators that aircraft are certified to successfully complete a balked landing or go-around from any point during the approach or landing phase. This is not the case.

In brief, an aircraft is not certified to successfully complete a go-around without ground contact once it has entered the low-energy landing regime. For the purposes of this CBAAC, the low-energy landing regime is defined as:

  1. aircraft flaps and landing gear are in the landing configuration;
  2. aircraft is in descent;
  3. thrust has stabilized in the idle range;
  4. airspeed is decreasing; and
  5. aircraft height is 50 feet* or less above the runway elevation.

* Note: 50 feet is a representative value. A given aircraft may enter the low-energy landing regime above or below 50 feet in accordance with approved landing procedures for that type.

POLICY

The decision to place an aircraft into the low-energy landing regime is a decision to land. If there is any doubt regarding the probability of a safe landing, a go-around or balked landing must be initiated prior to entry into this regime.

An attempt to commence a go-around or balked landing while in the low-energy landing regime is a high-risk, undemonstrated maneuver.

In the extreme case where such action is required, pilots should be aware that ground contact is likely and any attempt to commence a climb before the engines have achieved go-around thrust may result in a stall. Turbo-fan engines may require as long as eight seconds to accelerate from idle to go-around thrust.

Air operators should immediately ensure that their pilots are aware of the hazards associated with low-energy go-arounds or balked landings and verify that their training programs address this area of operation.

IMPLEMENTATION PROVISIONS

This Advisory Circular is in effect until further notice.

CONCLUSION

This Advisory Circular is intended to advise air operators and pilots concerning the hazards associated with low-energy balked landings or go-arounds. Affected operators should review their operations to ensure that pilots and training personnel are adequately aware of the hazards inherent in and procedures for dealing with low-energy operations.

M.R. Preuss
Director
Commercial & Business Aviation

Commercial & Business Aviation Advisory Circulars (CBAAC) are intended to provide information and guidance regarding operational matters. A CBAAC may describe an acceptable, but not the only, means of demonstrating compliance with existing regulations. CBAACs in and of themselves do not change, create any additional, authorize changes in, or permit deviations from regulatory requirements.

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