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Division III - Flight Operations
R744.12 Operations Personnel
All operations personnel shall be trained and competent in their duties.
"Operations personnel" is defined as those personnel whose duties and responsibilities involve maintenance, loading, unloading, dispatching, servicing, weight and balance, passenger escort, flight crew, cabin crew, schedulers, deicing crews, ramp people and anyone whose position involves them with the aircraft operation.
R744.13 Operational Information
Dissemination of information may be done in any way that allows crews to receive it in a timely manner. If it is necessary to the safe conduct of the flight it must be received prior to flight time. The dissemination method is at the discretion of the operator, but must be outlined in the operations manual.
Acknowledgement of this information can be accomplished in writing, verbally to a responsible company person who records the acknowledgement or through other approved procedures outlined in the operations manual. This could mean a pilot signature on an operational flight plan if SOPs require the pilot to check certain sources of information prior to flight.
R744.14(2) Scheduled Air Service Requirements
Transport Canada must assess an aerodrome as safe for the aircraft type that is being operated under an Operations Specification before its use in scheduled service.
For the purposes of this section a military aerodrome is considered to be a certified airport.
A scheduled service will be permitted to operate into an aerodrome provided:
- navigation aids, approach aids, runway length, runway surface, facilities, and obstacle clearance criteria permit safe operation of the aircraft type under consideration. This will be determined by Transport Canada Regulatory and Air Navigation Services Inspectors;
- an obstacle clearance assessment ensures compliance with 704.44 through 704.51 (performance requirements); and
- the aerodrome has been approved for scheduled service. This approval will be in the form of an Operations Specification.
RS744.15 Type C Flight Following
The Standard for a Type C Operational Control System calls for an individual to be "on duty" and able to provide, among other things, uninterpreted meterological information to the pilot-in-command.
Certain operations such as charters involving multiple stops over several days necessitate some flexibility in the interpretation of "on duty". For example, where a flight is operating self-dispatch, the flight follower need not be physically resent on company premises to be considered "on duty". Depending on the company make-up, flight following may be provided for a self-dispatch operation in a number of ways, for example:
- Contracted to a third party (e.g. ARINC) with company contacts in the event of an emergency;
- Reduced or remote Flight Following using company personnel, such as permitting a Flight Follower to note flight details only, referring the crew to Flight Service Stations for weather and NOTAM information.
When operating with reduced Flight Following, the Flight Follower remains the first point of contact for the crew passing information to the company. Under these conditions it is imperative that the Follower be reachable with a single step. Pagers or voice mail would not be acceptable under these conditions for two reasons:
- In event of an emergency there may be no way for the Flight Follower to re-establish contact with the crew or initial caller; and
- Pagers and voice mail do not provide positive confirmation that the message has been passed.
R744.16 Flight Authorization
Flights will only depart after proper authorization is obtained in accordance with the procedures laid out in the Operations Manual.
In the case of cargo air operators, and generally at locations where a lack of communications facilities prevents co-authority dispatch, authorization may come from the Operations Manager, Chief Pilot or the pilot-in-command, where stipulated in the Operations Manual. Typical pilot-in-command designation criteria which might be approved in the Operations Manual are as follows:
- the Operations Manager has delegated authorization authority to the pilot in command in writing, including the conditions and limits of the authority;
- all aspects of the flight are conducted in accordance with the air operator's AOC and;
- the Operations Manager, Chief Pilot or his delegate are unavailable to authorize the flight
R744.17(2) Operational Flight Plan - Location
The pertinent details of each flight must always in the possession of, and available to, a responsible, ground-based authority.
A copy of the operational flight plan remains with a responsible ground-based authority. An electronic or hard copy may be left at a departure station or stored in a central location. This copy needs to be immediately available for reference should it be required by anyone involved in flight watch, operational control or accident alarm procedures in connection with the flight.
R744.17(3) Retention of Operational Flight Plans
Transport Canada requires adequate information to be able to recreate the operation flight data for the purpose of audit, inspection, investigation and flight safety.
The air operator is required to retain copies of the flight plans and the actual flight results. The period of retention will be designated in the Operations Manual.
The details of the actual flight should include:
- the route flown;
- fuel on board, for departure, landing; and
- times - out, off, on, and termination.
This data may be stored electronically if the following criteria are met:
- the air operator shows that they have a system for safe storage of electronic data;
- a hard copy is retained for documents that require verification unless the air operator has a system of electronic document verification;
- the air operator has a documented plan detailing procedures for the recovery of all stored data; and
- stored data can be presented to Transport Canada in an acceptable hard copy format within 72 hours of a request.
S744.17(17) Helicopters / S744.17(30) Aeroplanes
Flight Planning - Persons on Board
The pilot in command and flight dispatcher, a responsible person at the departure station or other responsible ground based party have in their possession a record of the number of persons on board the aircraft, and that it be readily available for transmission to an appropriate agency in the event of an accident, incident or as otherwise required.
The pilot in command should be aware of the number of crew members on board and their respective positions. The flight crew must possess actual load data prior to departure, a part of which is the actual number of persons on board. Where the "persons on board" count does not include crew members then flight dispatch or other responsible ground based authority must be aware of the number of crew (as well as passengers) on board.
The checklists referred to in the regulation can include placarded or memory items and use any method which complies with the approved aircraft flight manual or operations manual.
R744.20 Flight Planning - Fuel Contingencies
Among contingencies, air operators of a pressurized aeroplane must consider a loss of pressurization at any point along the route. The aeroplane must be able to reach the origin, destination, or an enroute alternate after the completion of an emergency descent to 13,000 feet, cruise at 13,000 feet for 30 minutes and at 10,000 feet thereafter.
If the single engine service ceiling is less than either 13,000 or 10,000 feet then it becomes the altitude for diversion fuel planning. Upon completion of the low-altitude cruise, the aeroplane must have fuel sufficient to complete an approach and missed approach plus holding reserve.
In the event that an operator wishes to use a higher altitude for diversion and can demonstrate that aeroplane performance and passenger safety considerations can be met, the air operator may be granted an exemption permitting the use of a higher altitude for diversion.
RS744.26(1) Take-Off Minima - Weather below Landing Limits- Aeroplanes
By specifying a take off alternate an aeroplane can depart when the weather conditions are above take off minima but below landing minima for the runway in use. Depending on the number of passengers being carried the air operator has two options:
- when carrying 9 or fewer passengers (infants are not counted) then the take off alternate must be within 60 minutes or 120 minutes (depending on the number of engines) at normal cruising speed.
- when carrying 10 or more passengers (infants are not counted) then the take off alternate must be within 60 minutes or 120 minutes (depending on the number of engines) at one engine inoperative cruise speed.
RS744.26 Take off Minima - Weather below Landing Limits - Helicopters
By specifying a take off alternate, a helicopter can depart when the weather conditions are above takeoff minima but below landing minima for the runway in use.
A takeoff alternate which is within 60 minutes flying time at normal cruise must be specified in the IFR flight plan.
RS744.26(2)(a) Take-Off - Weather Below Published Take-Off Minima - Aeroplanes With Certified Engine-Out Performance
Certified engine out take off data is where the manufacturer has gone through the process of having a regulatory body (TCA, FAA, JAA etc) certify as correct the information that they have produced for engine out performance. This ensures that the loss of one engine the aeroplane will be able to meet specific climb criteria. It is up to the air operator to ensure that the aeroplane will meet the unique climb criteria for the particular runway in use or aerodrome.
An air operator may be able to achieve the same results by having the manufacturer provide their performance data to TCA. This data must be actual data and not extrapolated. Should this data meet the requirements then the air operator could achieve the same operational limits as those aircraft with certified performance data.
Further information concerning performance requirements may be found in TP12772 - Aeroplane Performance.
RS744.26(2)(b) Take-Off - Weather Below Published Take-Off Minima - Aeroplanes Without Certified Engine-Out Performance
Aeroplanes that are not certified for continued takeoff and climb in the event of an engine failure present unique problems when operating in reduced visibilities. In the event of an engine failure up to, and sometimes beyond lift-off, these aircraft are generally unable to successfully recover from a power loss in any manner other than landing immediately straight ahead. While this carries a good deal of risk at the best of times, when visibilities drop as low as 1200 RVR a reland following an engine failure will nearly guarantee aircraft damage.
In many cases a manufacturer will provide "unapproved" or advisory data that describes engine-out takeoff performance. In these cases, it is often possible to find a combination of aircraft weight and ambient conditions that permit a sustained climb after takeoff with an engine out. This information is not subject to the same factors as approved data, but may be used to permit these aircraft to operate in reduced visibilities. The performance requirements are set out in the Standard.
The combination of relatively low aircraft performance and reduced visibility leads to an increased probability of a rejected take-off (RTO) at or near lift-off speed in poor conditions. It is a common fact that high-speed RTO's rank near the top in the list of accident causes. In order to ensure an adequate level of safety in this environment specific training in high-speed RTO's is essential. Clearly, conducting this training in an actual aeroplane would create the very accident scenario itself. The only suitable training platform , then is a simulator. For this reason, simulator training is a requirement for 1200 RVR operations using aeroplanes without certified engine-out takeoff and climb performance.
Further information concerning performance requirements may be found in TP12772 - Aeroplane Performance.
R744.32 Weight and Balance Control Program - Aeroplane
Implementation of Weight and Balance System
Weight and balance can be manually or automatically derived. In either case it shall meet section 724.32 of the standard.
- the weight and balance system shall be specified in the COM in accordance with subsection 704.32(3) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs). It may be published under separate cover, in which case it must be referred to and be considered as part of the COM.
- training is to be in accordance with subsection 724.32(9) of the Commercial Air Service Standards (CASS).
- when an air operator elects to implement an automatic weight and balance system, it should be carried out over a period as stated in the COM in a representative part of the operation. The previous method of weight and balance should be run as a shadow operation until the air operator is satisfied that the new system is safe and meets section 704.32 of the CARs.
"air operator standard weight" means approved standard weights determined by the air operator through an approved survey and statistical computation in accordance with this guidance. They are applicable only to that air operator and may be used in lieu of published standard weights in circumstances consistent with those under which the survey was conducted;
"basic empty weight" (see definition in section 101.01 of the CARs);
"operational empty weight" (see definition in subsection 724.32(2) of the CASS);
"published standard weight" means the weights published by Transport Canada as the weight of passengers, including carry-on baggage, for use by air operators in weight and balance calculations, without the actual weighing.
3. Duties and Responsibilities
- the air operator is responsible for the weight and balance system;
- a management plan will identify the following:
- the flight operations management position having overall responsibility for the system;
- each subordinate position with associated duties and responsibilities;
- the chain of command;
- the management position(s) responsible for ensuring that:
- all necessary elements of the system have been developed, properly integrated, and co-ordinated;
- all personnel who have duties, responsibilities, and functions to perform receive adequate training;
- sufficient competent personnel and adequate facilities and equipment to effect the system are available at each airport of planned operations; and
- adequate management supervision of the system is maintained.
- responsibility during operations:
- the air operator shall establish a chain of responsibility for the loading and establishment of the weight and balance of the aeroplane for every flight;
- individuals, being either air operator personnel or other personnel authorized by the air operator to act on his behalf, must be accountable and identifiable, whether by signature or computer input identification, for load data or services provided in accordance with their duties and responsibilities as detailed in system.
4. Operational Requirements
The weight and balance system shall identify the following:
- how, before each flight, the air operator will establish the accuracy of items listed in subsections 724.32(1) to (7) of the CASS;
- preparation and disposition of all required documentation, whether completed by the air operator or other qualified personnel authorized by the air operator to act on his behalf;
- the procedure to establish the maximum allowable weight for the flight which must not exceed the maximum allowable take-off weight specified in the Aircraft Flight Manual;
- Storage of weight and balance documentation (same procedure as operational flight plan in 704.18 of the CARs):
- Transport Canada shall be able to recreate the weight and balance data for the purpose of audit, inspection, investigation and flight safety;
- the air operator is required to retain a copy of the weight and balance;
- period of retention of weight and balance:
- an air operator shall retain a copy of the weight and balance forms, including amendments to the forms, for a period of not less than six months. The period of retention of weight and balance will be designated in the COM;
- electronic storage of operational flight plan must meet the following criteria:
- the operator must show that he has a system for safe storage of electronic data;
- a hard copy must be retained for documents that require verification by signature, except where the operator has an approved system of electronic signature verification and document authenticity;
- the operator shall have a documented plan detailing procedures for the recovery of all stored data. The company plan shall provide a list of the stored information pertinent to a flight and examples of the form and content of the data that can be recovered; and
- retrieval of stored data must be presented in a format that is acceptable to Transport Canada, within 48 hours from the time of a request;
- computerized systems:
- where load data are generated by a computerized weight and balance system, the operator must verify the integrity of the output data by a check to be performed at intervals not exceeding 6 months; and
- there must be a means in place to identify the person inputting the data for the preparation of every load manifest and the identity must be retained as in 4(d)(iv)(B) above.
- on-board weight and balance systems - an air operator must obtain approval to use an onboard weight and balance computer system as a primary source for dispatch;
5. Passenger and Baggage Weights
- a procedure specifying when to select actual or standards weights must be included in the COM. The methods used to compute the weight of passengers, carry-on baggage and checked baggage are as follows:
- actual weight of each person and the actual weight of baggage;
- standard weights:
- published standard weight; or
- air operator standard weights;
- actual weights:
In determining the actual weight by weighing, an air operator must ensure that all passenger's personal belongings and carry-on baggage are included. Infants shall be weighed together with the accompanying adult. Such weighing must be conducted at a location immediately prior to boarding;
- standard weights:
- weight of passengers as per published standard weights or air operator standard weights include carry-on baggage weight for each passenger carried, and the weight of any infant below 2 years of age carried by an adult occupying one passenger seat. Infants occupying separate passenger seats must be considered as children for the purpose of this paragraph;
- on any flight identified as carrying a significant number of passengers whose weights, including carry-on baggage, are expected to exceed the standard passenger weight, the air operator must determine the actual weight of such passengers by weighing or by adding an adequate weight increment;
- checked baggage: Use actual weight of baggage.
PUBLISHED STANDARD WEIGHTS
(Note: These average weights are derived from a Statistics Canada Survey, Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2.1, 2003)
|200 lbs or 90.7 kg||MALES 12 yrs up||206 lbs or 93.4 kg|
|165 lbs or 74.8 kg||FEMALES 12 yrs up||171 lbs or 77.5 kg|
|75 lbs or 34 kg||Children 2-11yrs||75 lbs or 34kg|
|30 lbs or 13.6 kg||*Infants 0 to less than 2yrs||30 lbs or 13.6 kg|
* Add where infants exceed 10% of Adults
Note 1: On any flight identified as carrying a number of passengers whose weights, including carry-on baggage, will exceed the company approved standard weights, or the average weights, the actual weight of such passengers are to be used
Note 2: Where no carry-on baggage is permitted or involved, the average weights for males and females may be reduced by 13 lbs or 5.9 kg.
6. Establishment of Air Operator Standard Weights (Survey)
- air operators have the option to submit air operator standard passenger weights for approval and subsequently be authorized to use standard weights different from the published standard weights. The air operator standard weights must be derived via an approved weighing survey and the statistical analysis method detailed in this guidance. After verification and approval by the Minister, the revised standard weights, applicable only to that air operator, may be used in circumstances consistent with those under which the survey was conducted. Where air operator standard weights exceed those published by the Minister, then such higher values must be used;
- air operator standard weights must be reviewed at intervals not exceeding five years; and
- detailed weight survey plan:
- the air operator should submit a detailed weight survey plan prior to conducting a weight survey; and
- the survey must be fully representative of the operation, i.e. the network or route, time of year, in/outbound, etc., for which the standard weights are intended to be used. The detailed plan must be specific in terms of weighing locations, dates, flight numbers and number of passengers/bags to be weighed in the survey. The actual survey must then be conducted in accordance with the plan and any deviations explained and the potential impact of the deviations on the survey results addressed.
- passenger weight survey:
- weight sampling method:
- the average weight of passengers and their carry-on baggage must be determined by random sample weighing; and
- the selection of random samples must, by nature and extent, be representative of the passenger volume, considering the type of operation, the frequency of flights on the routes, in/outbound flights, applicable season and seat capacity of the aeroplane.
- sample size - the survey plan must cover the weighing of at least the greatest of:
- a number of passengers calculated from a sample survey of two weeks, using normal statistical procedures and based on a relative confidence range (accuracy) of 1% for all adult and 2% for separate male and female average weights (see paragraph 6(c)(iii)(E) below); or
- a total number of 50 x (the passenger seating capacity of an aeroplane representative for the operation).
- collecting data for passenger weights:
- adults and children - adults are defined as persons 12 years of age and above. They are further classified as male or female. No differentiation according to sex shall be made for children who are defined as persons from two years of age up to and including 11 years of age. Passenger weights include the weight of their belongings which are carried onto the aeroplane;
- infants are defined as persons less than two years of age. When taking random samples of passenger's weights, infants shall be weighed together with the accompanying adult;
- weighing location:
- the location for the weighing of passengers shall be selected as close as possible to the aeroplane, at a point where a change in the passenger weight by disposing of or by acquiring more personal belongings is unlikely to occur before the passengers board the aeroplane;
- weighing scales:
- the scales to be used for passenger weighing shall have a capacity of at least 150 kilograms or 300 pounds;
- the weight shall be displayed at minimum intervals of 500 grams or 1.0 pound; and
- the scales must be accurate to within 0.5%, or 200 grams or 0.5 pounds, whichever is the greater;
- recording of data:
- for each flight the weight of the passengers, the corresponding passenger category (i.e. male/female/children), the date and the flight number must be recorded.
- weight sampling method:
7. Training Program
Training on the weight and balance control system must be provided in accordance with subsection 724.32(9) of the CASS and be part of the air operator training program.
RS744.32(3) Weight and Balance Document Retention
Transport Canada will be able to recreate the operational flight data for the purpose of audit, inspection, investigation and flight safety.
The air operator is required to retain copies of the weight and balance documentation if not incorporated in the operational flight plan. The period of retention will be designated in the Operations Manual but shall be for a period at least equal to the retention time for the operational flight plan.
This data may be stored electronically if the following criteria are met:
- the air operator must show that they have a system for safe storage of electronic data;
- a hard copy must be retained for documents that require verification unless the air operator has a system of electronic verification and document verification;
- the air operator should have a documented plan detailing procedures for the recovery of all stored data; and
- stored date must be presented to Transport Canada in an acceptable hard copy format within 72 hours from the time of a request.
R744.33(e) Visual and Aural Control of Passengers
Passengers can be controlled in a number of ways without direct intervention on the part of the flight crew. This can be accomplished by:
- briefing the passengers before hand and monitoring their progress;
- placing a competent individual in charge of the passengers and then through visual or aural means direct their progress; or
- any other procedure that the air operator wants to utilize so long as it is documented in the company operations manual.
S744.33(2)(a) Fuelling With Passengers On Board
Two way communication shall be maintained between the ground crew supervising refuelling and the qualified personnel on board the aircraft.
In this context qualified personnel on board means pilots, flight attendants or any other personnel who have received training. Communication may be maintained in any way that allows the fuelling personnel and the qualified person on board the aircraft to communicate with each other at any time during the fuelling process. This could also be through an intermediary such as a maintenance person assigned to operate fuelling controls.
Communications methods will vary dependent upon aircraft type. This can entail direct verbal communications, hand signals or any other means that meets the with the requirement.
S744.33(2)(d)(xi) Photography When Fuelling is Taking Place
Open flash photography shall not be used in close proximity when refuelling is taking place.
All operations personnel must be aware of the potential danger of sparks when refuelling is taking place. Where a person wishes to use photographic equipment that poses no danger of a spark the air operator may choose to authorize its use.
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