1.6. Definitions

  1. The following are selected definitions. Although other meanings may apply to some words or terms, the definition indicated applies in this manual. Where the definition is derived from another document (such as the Aircraft Flight Manual), the reference for that definition is shown by the title of the publication preceded by the abbreviation "ref." Where a commonly used abbreviation or acronym applies, it will be shown with the definition.
  2. There are a number of items that have more than one term, title, or name applied to them. In such cases the terms that are found in official or semi-official documents are used in these SOPs. Nevertheless, some items have different terms in the CARs/CAP/AIP and the AFM. In such cases both terms will be used in the SOP. However, most verbal commands and calls will use the term from the AFM.

[The terms and definitions shown here are examples only. The terms that are used by your organization should be inserted here. In particular the definitions that are used in this section are to be consistent with your Aircraft Flight Manual. Most of the items shown will apply to your operation.]

Abnormal Bank — For the purpose of these SOPs, Abnormal Bank is a bank angle of more than 30o that has not been briefed to occur.

Abnormal Rate of Descent  — For the purpose of these SOPs the following are Abnormal Rate of Descent situations:

  1. 1. During an instrument final approach, an unplanned and/or not briefed descent rate of more than 1000 FPM.
  2. 2. During unpressurized flight with passengers on board, other than on an instrument final approach, a descent rate of more than 500 FPM.

Abnormal Speed  — For the purpose of these SOPs the following are Abnormal Speed situations:

  1. 1. Within 5 KIAS [or MPH if applicable] below the maximum allowable airspeed (Vmo, Vne).
  2. 2. More than 5 KIAS below or more than 10 KIAS above the briefed or target airspeed on an instrument approach (Vapp), or for any situation where a specific airspeed is required such as an engine out procedure.

Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) (ref. CARs)  — Is the manual furnished by [operator's company name] that meets the requirements specified in the CARs for the operation of the [aircraft manufacturer] [aircraft type]. For these SOPs the AFM is the [name and stock/manual number of Flight Manual, Pilot's Operating Handbook, or other document].

[The following definition may need to be modified for your type of aircraft, operating environment, or company policy.]

Altitude Deviation  — For the purpose of these SOPs an Altitude Deviation occurs when the aircraft is at or beyond the limits described in the following situations:

  1. 20 ft below or 60 ft above an MDA;
  2. 40 ft below or 100 ft above: any other minimum altitude on an instrument approach once that altitude has been achieved; or a published maximum and/or minimum altitude other than a MDA (such as an altitude specified on some foreign procedures with a bar above and below an altitude);
  3. 3. 200 ft above or below an en route altitude once that altitude has been achieved.
    This definition should not be considered as condoning deviations from altitudes. It is merely a tool to be used to trigger a coordinated crew action to correct an undesirable situation.

Approach  — In these SOPs, "Approach" means the arrival at an Approaches, Circuits, Circling from an Instrument Approaches, and Landings

Area Navigation (RNAV) (ref. TP2076E Instrument Procedures Manual)  — A method of navigation that permits aircraft operation on any desired course within the limits of station-referenced navigation signals or within the limits of a self contained system capability, or a combination of these. Navigation systems that provide RNAV capability include (but are not restricted to) VOR/DME (RHO/THETA), DME/DME (RHO/RHO), LORAN C, GPS, OMEGA, INS/IRS, FMS.

ATC Heading  — A heading issued by ATC that the aircraft is to turn to and maintain. May be part of a vector and may include a speed and/or an altitude.

ATC Speed  — A speed issued by ATC that the aircraft is to maintain. May be part of a vector and may include a heading and/or an altitude.

Captain (Capt.)  — The person assigned as "in-command" of an aircraft during flight.

Crew Member (ref. CARs)  — A person assigned to duty in an aircraft during flight time.

Co-Captain  — A person carrying out the duties of captain under supervision of the "pilot-in-command."

Co-pilot  — The flight crew member occupying the [right (aeroplanes) or left (rotorcraft)] pilot seat regardless of who is the Captain or who is in control of the aircraft [or insert the company or AFM definition].

First Officer (FO)  — The person assigned as the "second-in-command."

Flight Crew Member (ref. CARs)  — A crew member assigned to act as a pilot or flight engineer of an aircraft during flight time.

Flight Engineer (FE)  — The flight crew member occupying the Flight Engineer seat.
The person assigned as the Flight Engineer during flight.

Full Power  — The maximum power available as limited by the engine controls themselves when they are set to their absolute maximum limit of travel. This definition should not be considered as condoning the setting of engine power that is not approved in the AFM. It is a tool to facilitate crew coordination for setting of all available power as a final resort to prevent an accident.

Glide Path (ref. Instrument Procedures Manual)  — A descent profile which is electronically determined for vertical guidance during a final approach. The term Glide Path is used in a number of official and semi-official documents, such as: CARs, CAP, Instrument Procedures Manual. In this manual it is used interchangeably with the term "Glide Slope."

Glide Slope  — Has the same meaning as "Glide Path." The term "Glide Slope" is primarily found in technical manuals such as the AFM.

Heading Deviation  — For the purpose of the SOPs a Heading Deviation is an apparent deviation from the assigned or briefed heading of more than 5o.

May  — Indicates permission.

Maximum Continuous Power (ref. AFM)  — The maximum power that may be used without time restriction.

Maximum Power [or if applicable "Maximum Take-off Power", use the AFM definition for the aircraft type] (ref. AFM)  — The maximum power that may be used during a take-off in the event of a failure of a power plant, or if required in other circumstances. The power setting is time limited to [insert the AFM time limit (normally 5 minutes)].

Must  — Primarily mandatory; may be used in a permissive sense.

Non-Precision Approach (ref. CARs)  — An instrument approach by an aircraft using azimuth information (only).

Pilot — 

  1. 1. The flight crew member occupying the [left (aeroplanes) or right (rotorcraft)] pilot seat regardless of who is the Captain or who is in control of the aircraft [or insert the company or AFM definition].
  2. 2. A flight crew member authorized to operate the flight controls of an aircraft.

Pilot Flying (PF)  — The pilot or copilot that is (see "Aircraft Control"):

  1. 1. taxiing the aircraft or,
  2. 2. during flight, operating the flight controls directly or through the [autopilot, autoflight system, or flight management system; insert the term(s) that your operation or AFM uses].

Pilot Not Flying (PNF)  — The pilot or copilot that is not taxiing the aircraft or operating the flight controls see pilot flying).

Practicable  — Physically possible.

Practical  — Available or useful.

Precision Approach (ref. CARs)  — An instrument approach by an aircraft using azimuth and glide path information.

Ranking Crew Member  — The Ranking Crew Member for any situation is the highest ranking of the following who is present and not incapacitated (listed in order of decreasing rank): Capt., FO, FA in charge, FE, FA (other than in charge), Other crew member. [Amend this definition to suit your operation.]

Required Visual Reference (ref. CARs)  — Required visual reference, in respect of an aircraft on approach to a runway, means that section of the approach area of the runway or those visual aids that, when viewed by the pilot of the aircraft, enable the pilot to make an assessment of the aircraft position and rate of change of position, in order to continue the approach and complete a landing.

Second Officer (SO)  — The person assigned as "third-in-command."

Shall  — Indicates an imperative. Compliance is mandatory (similar to "will"). Note that the use of the imperative "shall" requires caution. Its usage is only effective if the object applies in all cases. For example, issuing a directive using the imperative "shall" that applies in normal but not in abnormal situations would be inappropriate. In most cases, use of the term "should" is more appropriate.

Should  — Indicates an obligation. Compliance is expected but not mandatory.

Take-off Power (ref. AFM)  — The power setting to be used for a normal take-off or go-around. The standard call is "Set Take-off Power."

Will  — Indicates that compliance is mandatory (similar to "shall").

 
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