1.9. Checks, Checklists, and Drills

  1. General — Checks, Checklists, and Drills have been developed for the operation of the [insert aircraft type] aircraft to ensure that the required actions are not inadvertently omitted or completed in an inappropriate sequence. In this manual a check is a series of actions; a checklist is the physical written document that is associated with the check. A drill is a check for an abnormal or emergency situation that requires immediate action and is therefore, carried out from memory without reference to the checklist. Copies of the abbreviated checklists are found in annexes following the applicable chapter. The checklists are expanded upon in the body of the chapters. If a check forms part of a procedure where crew coordination is required, the items comprising the check will be included in the table describing the procedure. The individual check items will be the on the first line of each of the cells that describe a portion of the procedure. The expanded procedure is divided into columns of PF and PNF actions. Therefore, the references in the checklist to PF and PNF are not shown in the expanded procedures. The expanded checklists provide additional detail (if applicable) for each checklist item. The abbreviated form of the checklists are found on [insert whether abbreviated checklists are on cards, a quick reference handbook, or both, or whatever is used for this type of aircraft] that shall be carried onboard the aircraft.
  2. Completion of Checks and Drills — All checks and drills once initiated shall be carried out in the sequence that they are listed until complete. No items may be deleted nor the order be altered. If it is necessary to interrupt a check or drill, the person saying the Challenge or the Action shall indicate the item that the check is being held at by stating "Holding at (item)." Should the crew lose track of the progress of the check then the check must be re-started from the beginning or commenced from the last item known to be completed. Check and drills are not to be completed from memory unless indicated. Generally, the only memory procedures are for emergency drills that require immediate action; and checks that are typically done in a high workload environment where a memory procedure would be advantageous.
  3. Checklist Verbal Procedures — When saying a check item or response, the specific wording in the checklist shall be used. Whenever a specific quantity is involved, that quantity shall be stated in the response, eg. "Flaps 15 set." When more than one crew member is required to respond, the standard sequence shall be: Pilot, Co-pilot, FE, cabin crew. An example for a challenge as to whether harnesses are secure would be responded to as follows: "Pilot secure", "Co-pilot secure", "FE secure", "Cabin secure."
  4. Situational Awareness — Checks and drills are specified as either verbal or non-verbal. Verbal checks are so designated to further the situational awareness of and to provide a measure of monitoring by other crew members. Situations may arise where it is more desirable to silently carry out a specific check or drill that is normally done verbally. In such a situation the Captain or PF may direct that a specific check or drill be carried out silently. The applicable crew member will then verbally state only when the check is complete.
  5. Crew Members Assigned to Complete Checks — The actions required to be carried out during a check are normally assigned to a specific crew member (indicated in the checklist by (PF), (Co-pilot), (FE) and so on). However, situations may arise where it is inadvisable for the assigned crew member to carry out the action. In such cases the Captain may assign another crew member to complete the task. When a check or portion of a check is assigned to a crew member other than as indicated in the checklist, all flight crew members are to be clearly apprised of the assignment.
  6. Layout of Checklists — Checklists are laid out using the following conventions:

    [The following are the conventions that are used for checklists in these generic SOPs. The conventions that your organization uses may differ. However, they should be described here.]

    1. The title block is printed at the left margin with the title in bold, underlined, uppercase text. Any symbols (such as bullets) are to the left of the title by two spaces. Any direction about who is to read the check may be printed in bold face type and enclosed in brackets two spaces to the right of the main title. An example follows:
      • BEFORE LANDING CHECK (Challenge and Response)
    2. To the extent practical, the actual text of labels that are found on switches or controls are used in the checklists. If a label is available for the setting or position that a switch or control is to be moved to, the actual text of the setting or position is used in the checklist. When the actual text of a label is used in a checklist it is printed in uppercase type. When other than the actual text of a label is used, the item is printed in standard title format, ie. first character uppercase and remaining characters lower case. Any symbols (such as bullets, 24 hour check indicators) are to the left of the item by two spaces.
    3. The subject or target of the desired action is shown at the left side of the checklist in normal type (not bold).
    4. The action to be taken is shown on the right side of the checklist in bold face type.
    5. The items on the left and the items on the right side are joined by dot leaders.
    6. When a specific person must carry out an action or, if an action can only be carried out from a specific seat, the requirement is indicated by the person/position shown in normal face type enclosed in brackets at the centre of the line, ie. (Co-pilot) or (PNF).
  7. Types of Checks and Drills — The checks and drills for the [aircraft type] are divided into two primary categories: Abnormal/Emergency Procedures, and Normal Procedures.
    1. The Abnormal and Emergency checks and drills are found in the second part of the checklist document and can be differentiated from the normal checks by [insert the method used to differentiate Abnormal Checks and Drills, ie., different colour of paper or red tabbed pages]. The Abnormal and Emergency checks and drills are expanded upon and discussed in the chapter dedicated to those procedures.
    2. The checks for Normal Procedures can further be divided as follows:
      1. Non-verbal checks — These checks are completed silently with or without reference to the printed checklist. The following are the Non-verbal Checks for the [insert aircraft type] aircraft. All checks are to be completed verbally.

        [Typically, the external before flight check, the flight deck geographic check, and the internal before flight check, would be non-verbal checks.] [Insert the names of the non-verbal checks for your type of aircraft.]

        1. Pre-external Check;
        2. External Check;
        3. Internal Check;
        4. Flight Deck Geographic Check (Pilot);
        5. Flight Deck Geographic Check (Co-pilot);
        6. Flight Deck Geographic Check (FE).
      2. Verbal Challenge and Response Checks — These checks require participation by two or more crew members. [Insert the checks for your type of aircraft that are challenge and response] are challenge and response checks. Challenge and Response checks are indicated by the words "(Challenge and Response) in the title block of the check. The challenge portion of these checks is not done from memory unless specifically indicated by a large bullet "·" in the title block for the check or by a medium bullet "l" next to an item. Checks that are done from memory are done in the same manner as non-memory checks except that the challenge is issued from memory. Challenge and Response checks are typically completed in the following manner:
        1. The check is called for by the PF (ie. "Before Start Check").
        2. The PNF [or FE] acknowledges by repeating the name of the check (ie. "Before Start Check").

          [Some aircraft operate with three pilots, or two pilots and a FE. For such aircraft it is required to describe the method used to determine who is to say the challenge portion of which check. This may be done by a statement in the SOPs or by an indication in the title block of the checklist itself.]

        3. The PNF [or FE] says the challenge item on the left side of the line on the checklist.
        4. The responder carries out the required action, then says the appropriate response which is found on the right side of the line. The responder is assumed to be the PF unless otherwise indicated on the checklist line. Due to the construction of the aircraft or due to company policy, it may be necessary that an item be completed by a person other than the PF. In such a case that person would complete the item and say the appropriate response.
        5. At the completion of all items of the check the PNF [or FE] will say the name of the checklist and that it is complete (ie. "Before Start Check complete").
      3. Verbal Action and Confirmation Checks — These checks do not require the challenge of other crew members. The checks are carried out by one person either from memory or by reference to the checklist. Verbal Action and Confirmation Checks are indicated by the lack of the words "(Challenge and Response)" in the title block. The title of the person that is to carry them out is shown in the title block as either (PNF) or (FE). Checks that are to be carried out from memory are indicated with a large bullet "l" in the title block for the check. Verbal Action and Confirmation Checks are typically completed in the following manner:
        1. The check is called for by the PF.
        2. The PNF [or FE] says the action on the left side of the checklist line.
        3. The PNF [or FE] carries out the required action then says the applicable confirmation on the right side of the checklist line.
        4. At the completion of all items of the check the PNF [or FE] will say the name of the check and that it is complete.

 
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