3.10. Take-off Procedure

[Obviously the Take-off procedure must be tailored specifically to the aircraft type, operating environment, and company policy. In developing a take-off procedure the following should be considered.
- The flight deck should be as quiet a place as possible during take-off. The value of any calls made by the crew must be weighed against the possibility that the call may cause some critical hazard to be missed. Generally, if a call is not required to check a significant item or initiate an action, then it should not be made. For example, a call of "Take-off power set" or "Auto-feather Armed" is not useful if it is standard procedure that the PNF will not call V1, but will initiate an abort of the take-off if those items are not achieved by a specified point.
- Although it is usually desirable to standardize procedures among dissimilar aircraft in the company fleet, great care must be exercised in doing so. It may be appropriate for the PF to keep a hand lightly rested on the power/thrust levers during take-off of one type of aircraft. However, it may be completely inappropriate to do so on another type of aircraft that requires both hands on the control yoke due to high control forces. Similarly, it is probably a very good idea to use a speed call prior to V1 to cross check the pilot and co-pilot airspeed indicators on one type of aircraft, but useless on another where an onboard computer does a better job of the comparison.
- The use of back-up visual commands may be useful to avoid missing a key action. A visual command may be required during periods of excessive engine noise or radio traffic. Similarly, doing an action at a specific point in the take-off without having to be told reduces the likelihood that the action will not be done because the person did not hear the command due to radio transmissions. For example, during heavy radio traffic, the PF could use a visual signal to direct the PNF to raise the landing gear. The PNF would then select the flaps up and then proceed, as a standard procedure, to select IAS as the Flight Director vertical mode.
]

  1. General - The following table describes the procedure to be used to carry out a normal take-off. It commences at the completion of the "Before Take-off Check" and ends immediately before the "After Take-off Check." Many of the actions described are to be carried out without specific direction. Flight Deck conversation (including calls) other than as indicated in the following table should be avoided during the take-off procedure. Guidance on aborting a take-off is provided in the chapter that deals with Abnormal and Emergency Procedures. Diagrams pertaining to take-off procedures are found in chapter 10.

    [The example used is for a fictitious aircraft. In the example V1 and Vr are equal and the aircraft has a Data Computer that gives all manner of annoying warnings if the airspeed indicators do not match. Also in the example, the PNF is authorized to initiate the abort of a take-off. See the Emergency & Abnormal chapter for more discussion on aborted take-offs. The aircraft in the example was designed and certified for a take-off procedure where the gear is retracted when the aircraft is in positive climb, but engine power and flaps remain at the take-off settings until at least 400 feet. If your aircraft was not specifically designed for this type of procedure, it may be advantageous to adopt a variation of it. However, great care must be taken to not develop a procedure that could result in the overspeed of a component. In particular the pitch attitude near the ground (below 400 ft AGL) should not exceed the approximate pitch that would maintain the applicable speed subsequent to an engine failure. Exceeding such a pitch attitude could result in loss of control in the event of an engine failure. We recommend against specifying a pitch attitude in excess of the approximate engine out attitude in an attempt to gain altitude more quickly or keep speed low. In short, you must insert procedures that apply to your type of aircraft.]

  2. Turns after Take-off [Insert guidance about the maximum bank angles allowed immediately after take-off. Such guidance is particular to your type of aircraft and operation. The following is an example only.] - After take-off no turns are permitted prior to at least 400 feet above the departure end unless: required by ATC; for noise abatement; to prevent collision; part of a departure procedure that is required to clear obstacles. If a turn is appropriate after take-off the following limitations shall apply:
    1. Turns are not permitted below 50 feet above the runway surface, before wheel retraction [delete if wheel retraction is not applicable], or a speed of V2, whichever occurs last.
    2. Between the conditions described in the paragraph immediately above and 400 feet above the departure end of the runway a maximum bank angle of 15o is permitted, but flaps shall not be retracted during bank.
    3. Higher than 400 feet above the departure end of the runway, a maximum bank angle of 30o or a rate one turn (whichever requires the lesser bank angle) is permitted provided that the minimum speed is 1.3 Vs. If the speed is less than 1.3 Vs but not less than Vclimb/V2, the maximum bank angle is 15o.
  3. Reduction from Take-off Power - Power shall not be reduced from the Take-off setting until the aircraft climbs to a safe altitude or 400 feet above the departure end of the runway whichever is higher. However, power shall be reduced no later than the time limit that applies to the power setting used. Flaps should be retracted before power is reduced.
  4. Flap Retraction - Flaps should not be retracted from the Take-off setting until the aircraft climbs to a safe altitude or 400 feet above the departure end of the runway, whichever is higher. However, flaps should be retracted prior to engine power reduction.
  5. Division of Duties - During take-off, the normal division of duties is as follows. Note that the order that the duties are presented does not imply any rank or importance.
    1. Pilot Flying - The main duty of the PF is simply to fly the aircraft within the applicable parameters. Any other duties stem from the main duty and include commanding the PNF to make any selections to aircraft systems to support flying the aircraft within the applicable parameters.
    2. Pilot Not Flying - The PNF duties consist of:
      1. observing and, if applicable, calling critical performances as the aircraft achieves them;
      2. confirming appropriate operation of aircraft systems;
      3. making any selections to aircraft systems that are commanded by the PF;
      4. setting of engine controls.
  6. Operation of Controls - During the entire take-off procedure the PF will manipulate the flight controls and, except for the initial power application, the PNF will manipulate the engine controls. During the take-off roll the PF will steer the aircraft using the rudder pedals to control the power nose wheel steering. Except in the event of a malfunction, neither brakes nor the tiller should be used unless adequate control is not available. For a crosswind take-off, into wind application of roll control is recommended. However, roll input should be kept to a maximum of 15o of yoke deflection. Beyond 15o excessive deployment of spoilers occurs.
  7. Visual Signals during Take-off - The following visual signals may be used during take-off to reinforce verbal calls and to reduce the possibility of a command being missed due to noise or radio traffic:
    1. Landing Gear Retraction - The visual signal to initiate landing gear retraction is an upward motion of a closed fist with the thumb extended vertically.
    2. Flap Retraction - The visual signal to initiate flap retraction is an upward motion of a hand with the palm open and facing upward.
    3. Reduction to Climb Power - The visual signal to initiate reduction to climb power is the rearward motion of a closed fist that is held horizontally.

[Your type of aircraft and/or operation may have several take-off procedures that are substantially different. If so, it may be appropriate to use individual tables for each different take-off procedure.]

Table 3-2 Normal Take-off - Procedure and Crew Coordination
PF  PNF
For a pilot seat flown take-off move left hand from the steering tiller to the control yoke:
  • Announce "My wheel"
For a pilot seat flown take-off release the control yoke:
  • Reply "Your wheel"
For a co-pilot seat flown take-off retain right hand on the control yoke:
  • Announce "I have control" 
For a co-pilot seat flown take-off release the control yoke:
  • Reply "You have control"
Advance the power levers toward the take-off power setting. If the take-off warning horn sounds, abort the take-off.  At 50% torque confirm Auto Feather ARM illuminated and roll spoilers are showing retracted on PFCS indicator. If above have occurred tap PF's hand from below and set Take-off Power. If above has not occurred call "Abort."
When the PNF taps the PF's hand from below, the PF should release the power levers but keep a hand resting lightly on top of them in case it is necessary to abort the take-off.  Set and maintain Take-off Power. To the extent possible monitor the engine instruments and caution indications.
At the V1 call confirm the appropriate speed on the PF's airspeed indicator. If speed is appropriate place both hands on the control yoke to indicate understanding that V1 has been achieved. Rotate the aircraft at a rate of about 2o per second until the pitch attitude approximately matches the Flight Director command cue. Achieve a speed of V2 to (if all engines are operating normally) V2 + 10 KIAS.  Approaching V1 make a final check of caution and engine indications. If all indications remain satisfactory, at the V1/Vr speed;
  • - Call "V1".
  After lift-off confirm that the aircraft is climbing as indicated by the altimeter, the VSI and, if possible, visually. If the aircraft is in fact climbing:
  • Call "Positive Rate."
At the "Positive Rate" call, confirm a climb on the VSI and visually (if possible). If climbing:
  • Call "Gear Up" and give the visual signal to retract the landing gear.
Select the landing gear up. Monitor gear retraction. If gear retraction is normal say nothing. If there is a malfunction call "Unsafe Gear".
If the PNF advises that a landing gear malfunction has occurred do not exceed ___ KIAS. Retract flaps on schedule, climb to at least 1000 ft AGL and refer to the appropriate abnormal procedure check.  
Climb at a speed of at least V2 + 10 KIAS (if all engines are operating normally). At a safe altitude that is at least 400 ft above the departure runway accelerate to Vfri then:
  • Call "Flaps Up", and give the visual signal to retract the flaps.
Confirm that the aircraft speed is at least Vfri then select the flaps up, select IAS as the vertical mode of the Flight Director:
  • Call "IAS Selected".
Adjust the IAS using TCS or call for the PNF to set a particular speed using the thumb wheel. Do not exceed ____ KIAS until the Gear Up, Flaps Up call. When flaps have fully retracted re-confirm that the gear is up:
  • Call "Gear Up, Flaps Up".
When the PNF calls "Gear Up, Flaps Up", if Take-off Power is no longer required:
  • Call "Set Climb Power" and give the visual signal to reduce to climb power.

(If other than standard power is required at this point call for the specific power required, ie. "Set Max Continuous Power.")

Select the bleeds to ON and MAX. Then reduce to climb power or as directed and select the synchrophase on.
Climb to at least 2000 ft above the aerodrome elevation or to the cruise altitude (whichever is lower); or circuit/cleared altitude (during training):
  • Call "After Take-off Check", or the "Downwind Check" if applicable.
Carry out either the "After Take-off Check" as detailed in the next section or the "Downwind Check" as detailed in Normal Flight Procedures - Arrival chapter.

 
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