3.5. Taxi Check and Procedures
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[The following example caters to an aircraft that can only be taxied from the pilot's (left) seat. If your aircraft can be taxied from either the pilot's or co-pilot's seat, amend the following appropriately.]
[The following example caters to an aircraft that does not have good visibility to the opposite side of the pilot taxiing the aircraft and therefore requires that both pilot seats must be occupied. If your aircraft can be taxied safely with only one of the pilot seats occupied amend this section accordingly.]
General - The aircraft is normally taxied from the left seat only, using powered nose wheel steering. During taxi, at least one VHF radio shall be on, tuned to an appropriate frequency that would permit exchange of traffic information, and monitored by the pilots. Both pilot seats should be occupied whenever the aircraft is taxied. The PNF shall advise the PF whenever there is a hazard of collision. Should it be necessary to have the co-pilot seat occupied by a person other than a pilot qualified on type, that person shall be fully briefed on duties and procedures. If necessary a marshaller is to assist in taxiing in the vicinity of obstructions.
Due to inadequate visibility on the opposite side of each of the pilot seats, this aircraft should not be taxied unless both pilot seats are occupied and the personnel are in direct communication with each other.
Wheel Brake Checks - As soon as possible after beginning to taxi, the aircraft wheel brakes should be checked for proper operation. [If appropriate for your aircraft insert the procedure for the PNF checking brakes. As many aircraft have brake pedals that are mechanically linked, there may not be a requirement for the PNF to check brakes. If there are limitations or hazards that apply to both pilots using brakes at the same time insert the relevant information here.]
[The speed at which the aircraft should be taxied, other than in congested areas, is very much particular to the type of aircraft. Aircraft without ground steering and reverse thrust that are equipped with drum brakes may have to be taxied fast enough to make aerodynamic controls effective otherwise the required use of brakes may cause sufficient heating and fading that a loss of braking may result at a critical time. Other aircraft with high-loading high-pressure tires, possibly should taxi slowly to prevent tire heating and reduced tire life. In deciding on the taxi procedure, caution should be taken to ensure that procedures desirable for one aircraft type not be inappropriately applied to another type.]
Taxi Speed - Taxi speed shall be appropriate to the conditions. When taxiing in congested areas the aircraft shall be taxied at no more than walking speed. For taxiing in open areas taxi speed may be increased, but shall not be such that harsh braking or turning at high speed is required. For taxiing on surfaces contaminated by slush, snow, or standing water, speed shall be adjusted (increased or decreased) to minimize impingement of spray/snow on the aircraft. For taxiing on gravel, loose surfaces, or unprepared surfaces, speed shall be adjusted (increased or decreased) to minimize FOD to engine intakes and propellers. For turns of more than a few degrees, the aircraft shall not be taxied at more than walking speed. Reduced speed in turns is required (particularly in cold weather) to reduce lateral strain of the aircraft and minimize the possibility of a tire losing air through the bead/wheel contact area [or if applicable, hazard of tube stem failure].
[Insert the taxi procedure/technique that is applicable to your type of aircraft. The following is a very general guide. It caters to an aircraft that has powered nose wheel steering.]
- Taxi Procedure - Taxi procedure and speed are to be managed to operate the aircraft safely and smoothly. Only the minimum thrust/power above idle that is required should be used to accelerate to taxi speed from a stop. All turns, accelerations, and decelerations shall be carried out smoothly. Applications of thrust (forward and reverse) and braking shall be done smoothly. Applications of power shall be done so as to minimize the FOD hazard. At taxi speeds the aircraft is to be steered using the tiller and/or rudder pedals to control the powered nose wheel steering. Brakes should not be used for steering. Acceleration and deceleration during taxiing should be planned so as to minimize wear on brakes. When applying brakes to stop the aircraft, brake pressure should gradually be reduced as the aircraft slows to prevent it from lurching to a stop.
Nose Wheel Steering Inoperative - In the event that nose wheel steering is unserviceable the AFM Supplement for Nose Wheel Steering Inoperative shall apply.
[Insert applicable information in the following sub-section only if your aircraft is permitted to taxi without all engines operating.]
Taxiing Without All Engines Operating - The [aircraft type] aircraft is not normally taxied with the intention of flight unless all engines are operating. However, it may be appropriate to reposition the aircraft without starting all engines. The procedure is more likely to apply for taxiing after landing. Therefore, the details are found in the Normal Flight Procedures Arrival chapter
[Insert applicable information in the following sub-section only if your aircraft is permitted to taxi in reverse.]
Reverse Taxiing - Taxiing in reverse should be kept to a minimum. Taxiing in reverse with asymmetric power is prohibited. Brakes shall not be used during reverse taxi. Rather the aircraft shall be stopped or accelerated into forward taxi using forward thrust only.
Application of brakes during reverse taxiing may cause the aircraft to tip onto its tail, resulting in substantial damage.
In deciding to taxi in reverse, the following negative aspects should be considered:
- i) poor visibility behind the aircraft;
- ii) increased FOD hazard to engines/propellers;
- iii) high engine temperatures and reduced engine cooling.
- Taxiing Safety - The safety of the aircraft during taxi shall not be jeopardized by other duties. Aircraft checks may be done during taxi only when it is safe to do so. If necessary, the "Taxi Check, Before Take-off Check, and After Landing Check" should be delayed until it is safe to carry them out. Checks shall not be done while taxiing in a congested area. Particular care must be taken when completing checks while taxiing on any runway or helicopter landing area regardless of whether it is active or not. Prior to taxiing on to or in close proximity to any runway or helicopter landing area, each pilot shall visually confirm and advise the other pilot that no hazard will be created by arriving or departing aircraft. To the extent that other duties permit, the PNF shall maintain a lookout and advise the PF of any hazard at any time that the aircraft is taxied. The PNF may complete duties that relate to aircraft, load, company, or like documents only when safety is not jeopardized. In particular, the PNF shall not deal with documents while the aircraft is taxiing on or near any runway or helicopter landing area, nor in a congested area. Radio communication is not permitted on other than the relevant aeronautical frequency whenever the aircraft is taxiing on or near any runway or helicopter landing area or in a congested area.
- Taxi Check - Once clear of any congested areas the PF may request that the taxi check be carried out. The expanded taxi check follows.
TAXI CHECK (Challenge and Response)
Brakes (PF) - Checked
- The brakes should be checked as soon as practical after the aircraft begins to taxi. This challenge is a confirmation that the brakes have been checked.
Flight Instruments (PF/PNF) - Checked
- The Flight Instruments shall be checked for appropriate operation during turns of at least [insert the number of degrees to be turned based on the AFM or company policy] degrees.
[The instrument checks described in the instrument procedures manual are a good starting point for specifying the company policy on instrument checks. However, the profusion of avionics in aircraft today may make the traditional "needle left, ball right" checks inadequate or even inappropriate. Also depending on your company's operating environment and particular avionics suite installed on the aircraft it may or may not be appropriate to verbalize each item of the instrument check procedure. Therefore, you should specify the relevant procedure for your type of aircraft and operation.]
- Altimeters (All) - XXXX inches Set
APU (PNF) - Shutdown
- Carry out the APU Shutdown Check.
- Take-off Briefing (PF) - Complete
- Taxi Check (PNF) - Complete
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