5.12. Approach Procedures - General
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The discussion on approach procedures is divided into areas which discussed within the next few sections. For the SOPs, "Approach" is essentially from the latter part of the descent from en route flight to, but not including, the final manoeuvring for and the actual landing. The discussions on landings are in separate sections. The sections of discussion for Approaches are:
- Instrument Approach Procedures Initial/Intermediate;
- Instrument Approach Procedures Intermediate/Final;
- Circling Procedures;
- Contact/Visual Approaches and VFR Circuits; and
[The intent is to provide crews with sets of tools that can be picked from to meet changing requirements through the arrival process.]
Common Procedures - The following procedures are common to most approaches:
In most cases navigation equipment should remain set for en route navigation until the following. Then navigation equipment should be set for the approach procedure to be flown.
- Navigation equipment should be selected from the en route requirement to the approach requirement upon first receipt of an ATC vector for arrival.
- Upon beginning a STAR or Profile Descent, select the navigation equipment as required for the procedure. Set other equipment for the approach to be flown.
- Upon receiving clearance for an instrument approach, set navigation equipment for the instrument approach to be flown.
- When operating in controlled airspace do not arm Flight Guidance equipment until actually receiving clearance for the procedure. However, it is recommended that the expected procedure be pre-selected in standby status awaiting clearance from ATC.
- altitudes, it is recommended that the next published altitude be pre-selected in stand-by status awaiting acquisition.
- To the extent practical the next communication frequency that is expected to be used should be in standby.
- In most cases navigation equipment should remain set for en route navigation until the following. Then navigation equipment should be set for the approach procedure to be flown.
(ref. CARs) Ensure aircraft speed does not exceed 250 KIAS below 10000 ASL, nor 200 KIAS below 3000 AGL within 10 NM of a controlled airport.
- Instrument Approach Procedures in VMC Often, all or part of an Instrument Approach Procedure is flown in VMC. Unless specified by the PF that the instrument approach is to be discontinued or unless the PF calls "Landing", all of the actions and calls associated with the instrument approach are to be carried out. After the initial call by the PNF of "Visual", the PNF will again call visual at the applicable point during the approach, ie. at DH for a precision approach or at MDA and the appropriate distance for a non-precision approach. During instrument approaches in VMC the PNF must be especially vigilant in searching visually for other traffic.
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