5.14. Instrument Approach Procedures Intermediate/Final

[The information in this section applies to aircraft which are routinely flown from either the pilot or co-pilot seat with the pilot that flies the approach as the same one who carries out the landing. If your operation uses a different procedure (ie. co-pilot flown/pilot monitored approach with the pilot landing the aircraft) then some modification to this section will be required.]

  1. General - This section on Instrument Approach Procedures Intermediate/Final, applies to the portion from the turn onto the Final Approach Track or the turn on to the last track to the FAF, until one of the following:
    1. the aircraft commences manoeuvring visually for a straight-in landing;
    2. the aircraft commences circling; or
    3. the aircraft commences a missed approach.
  2. Common Procedures - Flight Guidance and Altitude Alert The use of the Flight Director and Autopilot are recommended to reduce workload during approaches in busy terminal areas and during poor weather. The Altitude Alert is to be used to the extent practical to reduce the possibility of occupying an inappropriate altitude during the approach. When no longer required to steer the aircraft, the heading reminders/bugs should be set to the first heading to be used in the event of a missed approach. When no longer used during the approach, the Altitude Alert should be set to the first altitude that the aircraft is to be levelled at in the event of a missed approach.
  3. Standard Calls - General - During the Intermediate/Final Approach phase some additional calls are required to those described in the "General" chapter. These additional calls are described in this subsection and the next one that deals with altitude.
    1. To reduce the likelihood of overshooting a desired track during the Intermediate/Final Approach phase, the PNF should warn the PF when approaching a track that will be followed using primarily the track bar display. On initial movement of the track bar away from full deflection with the warning flags out of view, the PNF should call "Track Bar is alive." The PF should confirm the movement and say "Check."
    2. When approaching a track which will be followed using primarily a bearing display, the PNF should warn the PF when the display indicates that the aircraft is 10o away from the desired track. For example the PNF would call "10 degrees to 140", where 140o is the desired track. The PF would confirm the bearing and call "Check."
    3. To reduce the likelihood of overshooting a desired vertical path during the Intermediate/Final Approach phase, the PNF should warn the PF when approaching a VNAV computed descent path. On initial movement of the vertical path indicator away from full deflection with the warning flags out of view, the PNF should call "VNAV is alive." The PF should confirm the movement and say "Check."
    4. When approaching an ILS or MLS Glide Path, on initial movement of the Glide Slope indicator away from full deflection with the warning flags out of view, the PNF should call "Glide Slope is alive." The PF should confirm the movement and say "Check."
  4. Standard Calls - Altitude, Required Visual Reference, DH, MDA, Go Around - For the most part, the directions for altitude related calls that are described in the "General " chapter apply. However, some additional calls are needed during the Intermediate/Final Approach phase. The intention of these calls is to reduce the possibility of missing a critical altitude during descent in the final approach. Except where noted, the following guidance applies to all final approaches. Additional guidance that is specific to Category II and III ILS operations is provided in the subsection dedicated to those procedures. Note that all altitudes in this subsection are barometric. Radio Altitudes are only discussed in the subsection on Category II and III operations. It should also be noted that the additional altitude calls described in this subsection do pose a hazard in that some important communication may be missed as a result of them. However, the calls are to be made, as the hazard of missing an altitude during final approach is considered more important. The calls pertaining to Required Visual Reference Go Around are found at the subsections that discuss calls at MDA and DH, as well as individual subsections dedicated to them.
  5. Glide Path - For a Precision Approach, upon crossing the FAF, the PNF shall check the barometric altimeter against the published Altitude of the Nominal Glide Path at the FAF. If the altitude is reasonably close the PNF should call "Glide Path xxxx feet checks" (where "xxxx" is the published Glide Path altitude). It should be noted that several factors may cause the indicated and published height of the Glide Path at the FAF to differ by several hundred feet.
  6. 100 feet Above Specified Altitudes - When approaching any of the following altitudes inside the FAF, the PNF shall advise the PF as the aircraft reaches 100 feet above the altitude.
    1. Minimum Altitude at a Step-down Fix;
    2. Minimum Altitude at a Facility;
    3. Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) for a Non-Precision Approach;
    4. Decision Height (DH) for a precision approach.
    5. Upon descending to within 100 feet of the above-listed altitudes the PNF should call "100 Above." The PF should respond by saying "Check." Note that should the aircraft travel beyond a Step-down Fix or facility before descending to within 100 feet of the altitude associated with it, no call should be made.
  7. Minimum Altitude at a Step-down Fix or Facility - Where there is a published minimum altitude for crossing a step-down fix and/or facility that is inside the FAF the PNF shall advise the PF when the aircraft reaches it. The standard call by the PNF is the same in both instances "Step-down Altitude." The PF shall respond "Levelling" and shall ensure that the aircraft remains in level flight until further descent is appropriate. As with the 100 feet above calls, if the aircraft flies beyond the Step-down fix or facility before reaching the altitude associated with it, no call should be made.
  8. Required Visual Reference - General - Once the PNF assesses that Required Visual Reference is available, the PF should be advised using the standard call "Visual at xx o'clock." The PF should then respond as follows:
    1. "Check, continuing" If intending to continue flying the instrument approach procedure as published, the PF should respond "Check, continuing." The flight crew should carry out all remaining actions for the approach. These would include the PNF again making a visual call at the DH or at the MDA and appropriate distance.
    2. "Landing" Once the PNF advises that Required Visual Reference is available the PF should confirm that the aircraft is in a position to continue for landing. If the PF decides to continue for landing, the PNF should be advised of the intention by the standard call "Landing." The PNF should respond by saying "Check."
    3. "Go Around" If landing is inadvisable (due to an obstructed runway, inappropriate aircraft position, or other reason), the PF should call "Go Around."
  9. Decision Height - Upon arriving at the Decision Height of a Category I Precision Approach, the following calls shall be made depending on the circumstance:
    1. If the required visual reference is available the PNF should call "Minima, visual xx o'clock." The PF should respond with either "Landing" or "Go Around", depending on the situation (see the paragraph on Required Visual Reference in this section). The crew should then carry out the procedures described in the Landing or Missed Approach areas of this chapter.
    2. If the required visual reference is not available the PNF should call "Minima, No Contact." The PF should respond with "Go Around". The crew should then carry out the procedures described in the Missed Approach area of this chapter.

      Note that for Instrument Approach Procedures using a glide path but which terminate in a circling manoeuvre, the Standard Calls and Responses for Minimum Descent Altitude and Circling are to be used. An exception is that if required visual reference is not available when the aircraft descends on the glide path to the MDA, the MDA may be maintained to the Missed Approach Point.

  10. Minimum Descent Altitude - Upon arriving at the Minimum Descent Altitude of a Non-Precision Approach the following calls shall be made depending on the circumstance:
    1. If the required visual reference is available the PNF should call "Minima, visual xx o'clock." The PF should respond with "Landing", "Commencing Circling", "Go Around", or "Check, continuing", depending on the situation (see the paragraph on Required Visual Reference in this section). The crew should then carry out the procedures described in the Landing or Missed Approach areas of this chapter. If the PF calls "Check, continuing", the PNF should then again call "Visual xx o'clock, at approximately the published visibility from the missed approach point. The PF should then respond with either "Landing" or "Go Around."
    2. If the required visual reference is not available the PNF should call "Minima, No Contact." The PF should respond with "Check, continuing" and continue flying the approach as published. Should required visual reference become available prior to the missed approach point, the PNF should call visual xx o'clock." The PF should respond with "Landing", "Commencing Circling", or "Go Around", depending on the situation (see the paragraph on Required Visual Reference in this section). The crew should then carry out the procedures described in the Landing or Missed Approach areas of this chapter.
  11. Non-Precision Approach - Missed Approach Point/Missed Approach Waypoint - Upon arrival at the Missed Approach Point or the Missed Approach Waypoint the following calls shall be made depending on the circumstance:
    1. If the required visual reference is available the PNF should call "Missed Approach Point, visual xx o'clock." The PF should respond with either "Landing" or "Go Around", depending on the situation (see the paragraph on Required Visual Reference in this section). The crew should then carry out the procedures described in the Landing or Missed Approach areas of this chapter.
    2. If the required visual reference is not available the PNF should call "Missed Approach Point, No Contact." The PF should respond with "Go Around". The crew should then carry out the procedures described in the Missed Approach area of this chapter.
  12. Standard Calls - Deviations - For the most part, the directions for calls related deviations that are described in the "General " chapter apply. However, some additional calls are needed during the Intermediate/Final Approach phase.

    [The paragraphs pertaining to glide slope, localizer and track, deviations are predicated on displays that have two index marks between centre and full deflection on each side of centre (five index marks). If your aircraft is equipped with another type of display, amend the following accordingly. Also, if your aircraft is equipped with an automatic warning system that alerts when a deviation occurs, make the deviation calls congruent with the automatic alerts.]

  13. Glide Path, Front Course Localizer - The provisions of this paragraph apply after the front course localizer and/or glide path capture has occurred. If the glide path or localizer display indicates that the aircraft has deviated from centre by one dot (the first index mark from centre) the PNF should advise the PF using the standard call "Glide Path" or "Localizer" as appropriate. The PF should respond "Check", and correct the aircraft toward the glide path or localizer if in manual flight, or continue monitoring the autopilot if in autoflight. If the glide path or localizer display indicates that the aircraft has deviated from centre by full deflection the PNF shall advise the PF using the standard call "Glide Path Full Deflection" or "Localizer Full Deflection" as appropriate. The PF shall respond "Go Around". The crew should then carry out the procedures described in the Missed Approach area of this chapter.
  14. Back Course Localizer - The provisions of this paragraph apply after back course localizer capture has occurred up to approximately one mile from the localizer antenna. In the area of about one mile to the antenna, the localizer may be sufficiently erratic that the crew will have to determine if any action is necessary for localizer deviations. Prior to one mile from the antenna, if the back course localizer display indicates that the aircraft has deviated from centre by one dot (the first index mark from centre) the PNF should advise the PF using the standard call "Localizer." The PF should respond "Check" and correct the aircraft toward the back course localizer if in tracking manually or continue monitoring the autopilot if in autoflight. If the back course localizer display indicates that the aircraft has deviated from centre by full deflection the PNF shall advise the PF using the standard call "Localizer Full Deflection." The PF shall respond "Check" or "Go Around" depending on the circumstances. If the PF calls "Go Around", the crew should then carry out the procedures described in the Missed Approach area of this chapter.
  15. Track Deviations - The provisions of this paragraph apply during an instrument final approach after a track has been captured. If a specific NAVAID is providing approach track guidance (NDB, VOR, VORTAC), these provisions do not apply when the aircraft is within approximately one mile of the NAVAID. Within one mile of the NAVAID the crew should determine actions required for deviations. If the track indicator is the primary display and it shows that the aircraft has deviated from centre by one dot (the first index mark from centre) the PNF should advise the PF using the standard call "Track." The PF should respond "Check" and correct the aircraft toward the track centreline if tracking manually or continue monitoring the autopilot if in autoflight. If the track indicator shows that the aircraft has deviated from centre by full deflection, the PNF shall advise the PF using the standard call "Track Full Deflection." The PF shall respond "Check" or "Go Around" depending on the circumstances. If the bearing indicator is the primary display and it shows that the aircraft has deviated from the desired track by 10o the PNF should advise the PF using the standard call "Track." The PF should respond "Check" and correct the aircraft toward the track centreline. If the bearing indicator shows that the aircraft has deviated from the desired track by 20o the PNF should advise the PF using the standard call "Track, 20 degrees." The PF shall respond "Check" or "Go Around" depending on the circumstances. If the PF calls "Go Around" the crew should then carry out the procedures described in the Missed Approach area of this chapter.

    [The term "Stabilized Approach" will mean different things for different aircraft.]

  16. Stabilized Approach - Final approach can be a very high workload period of flight. It is also potentially one of the most hazardous phases of flight. A Stabilized Approach is intended to decrease workload, minimize crew distraction, and reduce the hazards associated with configuration changes at a critical phase of flight; generally it improves the likelihood of a successful approach. The Stabilized Approach configuration should be achieved no later than crossing the FAF/FAWP, or if there is no FAF immediately upon interception of the final approach track. Unless a stabilized approach is achieved crossing the FAF/FAWP or if there is no FAF while descending on the Final Approach Track, consideration should be given to executing a missed approach. Similarly, if one or more components of a previously stabilized approach is exceeded, consideration should be given to commencing a missed approach. A Stabilized Approach configuration is defined as follows (see "Standard Calls Deviations" in this chapter and "Standard Calls General" in the General chapter).
    1. Established on the localizer/inbound track with no deviations (+/- one dot, +/- 10o of desired track).
    2. Established on the glide path (if applicable) with no deviations (+/- one dot) or no more than 300 feet above the FAF/FAWP Minimum Altitude.
    3. No Abnormal Airspeed (within -5 KIAS and +15 KIAS of Vapp).
    4. No Abnormal Rate of Descent (maximum descent rate of 1,000 FPM unless higher rate has been briefed). Note that for some approaches with very steep descent gradients on final approach, a rate of more than 1,000 FPM down may be required. If so, the requirement shall be briefed to all crew members.

    [Insert the aircraft configuration(s) that apply your operation. Specify either as a requirement, a recommended profile, or an approximate configuration. In developing procedures for Intermediate/Final Approaches, consider the following items:
    - Aircraft speed;
    - Engine and/or propeller settings;
    - Landing Gear position;
    - Flap setting;
    - Icing considerations;
    - Speed brake or spoiler setting;
    - Timing procedures (if applicable), including which crew member(s) are to carry out timing;
    - NAVAID display;
    - Autopilot usage;
    - Flight Director usage
    .]

  17. NDB Approach with FAF [See configuration recommendations above.]
  18. NDB Approach without FAF [See configuration recommendations above.]
  19. VOR or VOR/DME Approach with FAF [See configuration recommendations above.]
  20. VOR or VOR/DME Approach without FAF [See configuration recommendations above.]
  21. RNAV Approach [If RNAV approaches (other than stand alone GPS) are done in your operation, insert the relevant procedures and crew coordination in this subsection. See configuration recommendations above.]
  22. GPS Non-precision Approach [See configuration recommendations above.]
  23. ASR Approach [If ASR approaches are done frequently in your operation, insert the relevant procedures and crew coordination in this subsection. See configuration recommendations above.]
  24. ILS Category I Approach [See configuration recommendations above.]
  25. ILS Category II and III Approach [If your operation is approved for ILS Category II or III Approaches, insert the relevant procedures and crew coordination in this subsection. See configuration recommendations above.]
  26. MLS Approach [If your operation is approved for MLS Approaches, insert the relevant procedures and crew coordination in this subsection. See configuration recommendations above.]
  27. PAR Approach [If PAR approaches are done frequently in your operation, insert the relevant procedures and crew coordination in this subsection. See configuration recommendations above.]

 
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